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Alternative Farming Systems Information Center of the National Agricultural Library
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

ISSN: 1052-536X

Vegetables and Fruits:

A Guide to Heirloom Varieties and Community-Based Stewardship. Volume 3. Historical Supplement

Special Reference Briefs Series no. SRB 98-07

September 1998
Electronic version slightly revised, March 1999

Compiled By:
Suzanne P. DeMuth
Alternative Farming Systems Information Center, Information Centers Branch
National Agricultural Library, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture
Beltsville, Maryland 20705-2351

A Note About the Electronic Files for Each Volume

The publication Vegetables and Fruits: A Guide to Heirloom Varieties and Community-Based Stewardship was published in three printed volumes. The following sections were repeated in each volume: 1) Table of Contents for 3 volumes, 2) Introduction (including Notes and References) to 3 volumes, 3) Acknowledgements, 4) Alternative Farming Systems Information Center overview, and 5) document access instructions. To reduce duplication in the electronic versions, these sections have been extracted and placed in one document, A Guide to Heirloom Varieties and Community-Based Stewardship, archived separately with these three volumes.

The remainder of each volume is contained in a separate file which includes its respective citations, indices, and table of contents.
Volume 1. Annotated Bibliography
Volume 2. Resource Organizations
Volume 3. Historical Supplement [below].

All files are available in this archive at:

In the original online edition, there were many cross-reference links to related entries, either within the same document, or to another document in this heirloom series. When you activate a link to another document, use your browser's "back" button to return to the document from which the link was selected.

Additional related entries can be located through use of the indices that accompany each document. Separate indices to publication titles, organization names, and persons (as authors or contacts) are found at the end of Volume 1, Volume 2, and Volume 3. (Note that there is no comprehensive index that covers all three documents. Therefore, to find all substantive references to particular publications or organizations, you will need to follow the links from each document's indices.)

Contents of Volumes 1, 2, and 3


The author is grateful to AFSIC staff, especially Mary Gold and Jane Gates, for their review of this document, helpful suggestions offered, and continuous encouragement thoughout its development. Sincere thanks are extended also to the individuals from stewardship organizations, seed companies, and nurseries who provided an array of useful and interesting materials and other information on their respective missions, activities, products, and services.

National Agricultural Library Cataloging Record:

DeMuth, Suzanne
Vegetables and fruit : a guide to heirloom varieties and community-based stewardship.
(Special reference briefs ; 98-05 -- 98-07)
1. Fruit--Heirloom varieties. 2. Vegetables--Heirloom varieties. 3. Fruit--Germplasm resources. 4. Vegetables--Germplasm resources. 5. Agrobiodiversity conservation. I. vol.1. Annotated bibliography. II. vol.2. Resource organizations. III. vol.3. Historical supplement. IV. Title.
aS21.D27S64 no. 98-05 -- 98-07

Volume 3. Historical Supplement

Contents of Volume 3

See for the following information about this 3-volume series: 1) Table of Contents for 3 volumes, 2) Introduction (including Notes and References) to 3 volumes, 3) Acknowledgements, 4) Alternative Farming Systems Information Center overview, and 5) document access instructions.

Part I. Vegetables, Fruits, and Historical Gardening (Bibliographies)

1. Vegetables and Fruits
2. Native American Agriculture and New World Crops

Part II. Historical Varieties (Books, Articles, Agricultural Reports)

1. Vegetables and Fruits

    A. General Subjects
    B. Vegetables
    C. Fruits
    D. Apples

2. Native American Agriculture and New World Crops

    A. General Subjects
    B. Corn (Maize)
    C. Tomatoes
    D. Capsicum Peppers
    E. Phaseolus Beans
    F. Squashes and Pumpkins (Cucurbita species)
    G. Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum)

Part III. Histories of Vegetables and Fruits (Books and Articles)

1. Vegetables and Fruits

    A. General Subjects
    B. Vegetables
    C. Fruits
    D. Apples

2. Native American Agriculture and New World Crops

    A. General Subjects
    B. Corn (Maize)
    C. Tomatoes
    D. Capsicum Peppers
    E. Phaseolus Beans
    F. Squashes and Pumpkins (Cucurbita species)
    G. Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum)


Go to: Top of Volume 3 | Contents of Volume 3 | Introduction | Notes and References
Part I. Vegetables and Fruits and Historical Gardening (Bibliographies)
Part II. Historical Varieties (Books, Articles, Agricultural Reports)
Part III. Histories of Vegetables and Fruits (Books and Articles)
Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160
Appendices (Volume 3): 1) Current Books 2) AFSIC, 3) Publication Titles Index, 4) Periodical Articles Index, 4) Persons / Organizations Index

Part I. Vegetables, Fruits, and Historical Gardening (Bibliographies)

1. Vegetables and Fruits

1. Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. "Gardens Bibliography." Web site

Part of Colonial Williamsburg's Web pages, this bibliography cites several dozen books on garden history, historical garden plants and landscapes, and recreating period gardens. The listing was derived from p. 162-163 of the 1996 book, The Gardens of Colonial Williamsburg, by M. Kent Brinkley and Gordon W. Chappell (Williamsburg, VA: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 168 p., NAL SB466.U65W52 1996).

2. Fusonie, Alan M. Heritage of American Agriculture: A Bibliography of Pre-1860 Imprints. Beltsville, MD: National Agricultural Library, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1975. Library List/National Agricultural Library no. 98. 71 p. NAL1.916 L612 no.98, ARB Z5075.U5

A selective compilation of historical references on pre-Civil War U.S. agriculture and related subjects. Citations grouped as monographs, serial publications from agricultural societies, and agricultural periodicals are subarranged by author within each category. Documents contained in the Library's collection have NAL call numbers (those designated "R" are available through the Library's Special Collections). Includes references on kitchen gardening, general aspects of vegetables and fruits, and specific food crops.

3. Herendeen, Donna and Wallace C. Olsen. "Primary United States Historical Literature of Crop Science, 1850-1949." In: The Literature of Crop Science. Wallace C. Olsen, ed. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Ch. 11, p. 383-499. NAL SB45.65.L58

This book chapter catalogs historical core literature of the crop sciences, its aim to identify publications worthy of long-term preservation. The first section surveys briefly early American literature on crop introduction and improvement, citing important developments in various subject areas. Following is a listing of 1071 historical crop science monographs, which were derived from several dozen source documents and the Dictionary Catalog of the National Agricultural Library, 1862-1965. Included are U.S. and Canadian publications on general aspects of 19th-C. and 20th-C. fruit and vegetable production, specific crops, plant improvement, seed production, and plant commerce. Following is a listing of popular and trade periodicals on specialized subjects, which were published in the U.S. and Canada (835 total), then a list of scholarly and professional journals and experiment station publications (83 total), including British and German as well as U.S. and Canadian titles. Other portions of the book identify modern publications that may interest readers. Ch. 8, for example, consists of a core listing of post-1950 monographs and journals in the crop sciences, including important works on specific crops, genetic resources, plant biotechnology, and seed science. Ch. 10 is an annotated listing of recent reference works in the plant sciences, including titles on fruit and vegetable culture, germplasm resources, and seed biology and production. The volume is part of an award-winning seven-volume bibliography, "Literature of the Agricultural Sciences," the series edited by Wallace C. Olsen. Currently in print.

4. Hurt, R. Douglas and Mary Ellen Hurt. The History of Science and Technology: An International Annotated Bibliography. New York: Garland Publishing, 1994. Bibliographies on the History of Science and Technology vol. 20; Garland Reference Library of the Humanities vol. 1371. 485 p. NAL Z5071.H87 1994

Provides an introduction to the historical literature of agricultural science and technology, drawing from the social science, historical, and scientific literatures. Emphasizes agricultural science and technology relating to grain, livestock, and forage and fiber production, without direct focus on horticulture and specific fruit and vegetable subjects. Following a brief introductory section, 1380 descriptive citations are arranged topically; included are indexing and abstracting services, catalogs and bibliographies, and reference works, followed by several dozen subject categories. Three chapters are most relevant to the scope of this bibliography; these are Ch. X, "Plant science" (p. 157-240), covering general aspects, genetics and breeding, plant introduction, pathology, and corn (along with other agronomic crops); Ch. XV, "Biotechnology" (p. 367-376); and Ch. XVI, "Green Revolution" (p. 367-391). Includes subject and author indexes. Currently in print.

5. Liao, T.R. The History of American Agriculture. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, Science and Technology Division, Science Reference Section, 1981. LC Science Tracer Bullet (TB) 81-15. 13 p. NAL Z5075.U6L52 1981

A selective bibliography of publications from the holdings of the Library of Congress (LC), intended to put the reader "on target." Citations include introductory publications; basic and specialized texts; correspondence and biographical materials; dictionaries, encyclopedias, and handbooks; bibliographies; government publications; state-of-the-art reviews and conference proceedings; periodicals; and representative journal articles. Provides a listing of relevant LC subject headings. A portion of the documents cited may prove useful to those interested in the histories of garden vegetables and fruits.

6. Liao, T.R. Plant Exploration and Introduction. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, Science and Technology Division, Science Reference Section, 1983. LC Science Tracer Bullet (TB) 83-5. 10 p. NAL Z5354.E2L52 1983

Like the publication just above, this one cites selected documents from the Library of Congress's (LC) collection, chosen to put the reader "on target." Citations with LC call numbers are grouped under the following topics: basic texts; additional titles; correspondence, reminiscences and biographical material; handbooks, encyclopedias and dictionaries; bibliographies; government publications; state-of-the-art reviews and conference proceedings; indexing and abstracting services (to locate periodical articles); journals; and representative journal articles. Provides broad coverage, including literature relating to historical plant geography and food plants introduced to the U.S.

7. Naftalin, Mortimer Lewis. Historical Books and Manuscripts Concerning Horticulture and Forestry in the Collection of the National Agricultural Library. Washington, DC: National Agricultural Library, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1968. Library List/National Agricultural Library no. 90. 106 p. NAL 1.916 L612 no.90

This compilation identifies rare and valuable older publications on horticulture and forestry owned by NAL; most are American works published prior to 1830, or European works published prior to 1800. Call numbers identify titles in NAL's collection (most of them designated "R" and accessed through Special Collections), and also works owned by the Library of Congress. Includes foreign language publications as well as English works; some citations include brief bibliographic notes. Most of the content (p. 1-97) pertains to horticultural subjects, rather than forestry.

8. Rogers, Earl M. A List of References for the History of Fruits and Vegetables in the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, 1963. 40 p. NAL aZ5996.F8R6

Consists of 459 citations on the history of cultivation of fruits and vegetables in the U.S., including production, improvement, and marketing aspects. Source materials dating from the late 19th C. to the 1950s include agricultural station reports, professional and trade journals, and magazine articles. Citations are grouped by fruit type, and vegetable type, then under the following topics: marketing, literature, horticultural societies, regional production (grouped by U.S. state), and biographies of horticultural leaders. The section on fruits and vegetables includes general references, plus citations for specific fruits (apples, pears, stone fruits, grapes, citrus fruits, several tropical fruits, and others), nuts, and vegetables (potatoes, cucurbits, legumes, and others). Contains numerous references not examined for this publication. This publication was the first in a 24-part series of bibliographies on various aspects of American agriculture, which expanded upon Everett E. Edward's comprehensive work, A Bibliography of the History of Agriculture in the United States (U.S. Government Printing Office, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Miscellaneous Publication no. 844, 307 p., NAL 1 Ag84M no. 84 1967), first published in 1930. Additional titles are listed in the foreword of M.W. Rossiter's 1980 publication, cited in entry 9, just below.

9. Rossiter, Margaret W. A List of References for the History of Agricultural Science in America. Davis, CA: University of California, Agricultural History Center, 1980. 62 p. NAL Z5074.R47R6

This bibliography expands upon Carrol W. Pursell's and Earl M. Rogers' 1966 publication, A Preliminary List of References for the History of Agricultural Science and Technology in the United States (Davis: University of California Agricultural History Center, 46 p., NAL Z5071.P87). Citations (primarily books and periodical articles) are grouped first as general works that provide an introduction to the subject areas, and include biographies, reference publications and bibliographies; this section lists a number of works on the history and geography of food plants and plant improvement. Following this section are citations grouped by 21 specific subject areas, including a section, "Plant sciences" (p. 8-21), with citations on corn, fruits and berries, plant introductions, the Green Revolution, and other subjects. With author index.

10. Schlebecker, John T. Bibliography of Books and Pamphlets on the History of Agriculture in the United States, 1607-1967. Santa Barbara: CA:American Bibliographic Center-Clio Press, 1969. 183 p. NAL Z5071.U5S3

This bibliography covering 450 years of U.S. agricultural history is limited to narratives of the past that are published separately as books or pamphlets, including biographies, autobiographies, and historical bibliographies. Following explanation of the publication's content and scope are 2042 citations, arranged alphabetically by principal author; some are briefly annotated. Includes detailed index that combines subjects, authors, and publication titles. Lists numerous histories of fruits and vegetables and their husbandry, plant improvement, and related topics. Compiled by Smithsonian Institution curator.

11. Von Baeyer, Edwinna. A Selected Bibliography for Garden History in Canada. Rev. ed. Ottawa, Ontario: Parks Canada, Canadian Heritage, 1994. 71 p. NAL Z5996.5.C2V66 1994

Citations are grouped into 1 of 24 categories comprising format divisions (including reference, pictorial works, and periodicals); general works; and specific subject areas. The latter subject headings include botanists and botanical exploration, naturalists and natural history, flora, general horticulture, landscaping, travel and immigrant literature, historic gardens, fruits and vegetables, and several others. Source materials include periodical articles, books, dissertations, bibliographies, and other types of publications. The fruits and vegetables section lists many 19th-C. and early 20th-C. works on vegetable gardening and fruit culture and on specific plants and varieties, which were not examined for this publication. Brief descriptions of agricultural and horticultural/gardening periodicals include years of publication and subject coverage. Volume out of print.

12. Walther, R.G. A Bibliography of Books, Pamphlets, and Films Listed in the Living Historical Farms Bulletin, from December 1970 Through January 1986. Washington, DC: Association for Living Historical Farms and Museums, 1986. 315 p. NAL Z5071.A3E9 1986

A compilation of publications and other resource materials mentioned in "Recent publications" and other sections of the first 86 issues of ALHFAM's Living Historical Farms Bulletin (NAL S549.U5L5). Citations numbering more than 3700 include books, pamphlets, bibliographies and other guides to resources, periodical articles, and films; these are arranged alphabetically by author and a few are briefly annotated. Subject coverage is very broad, encompassing the many dimensions of agriculture and rural life, including historical aspects of technologies and social life, and also modern museumology. A portion of the citations deal with food crops and their histories, historical gardening, and existing living history farm programs. Includes a combined index to titles, authors, and subjects. Updated substantially from Sharon Y. Eubank's compilation, A Bibliography of Books, Pamphlets, and Films Listed in the Living Historical Farms Bulletin, from December 1970 Through May 1976. For availability, contact ALHFAM, cited in Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 61.

13. Warner, Marjorie, Martha A. Sherman, and Esther M. Colvin. A Bibliography of Plant Genetics. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1934. Miscellaneous Publication/United States Dept. of Agriculture no. 164. 552 p. NAL 1 Ag84M no.164

Contains over 10,000 citations from the scientific literature on plant genetics and breeding, citing in large part publications from the catalog of the U.S. Bureau of Plant Industry. Covers the English and foreign-language literature through 1930. Citations are arranged alphabetically by author; access is provided with aid of author and (detailed) subject indexes. Contains numerous references to monographs, conference proceedings, experiment station reports, and periodical articles, on plant characters, varieties, and breeding of specific vegetables, fruits, and other food crops.

2. Native American Agriculture and New World Crops

14. Bercaw, Louise O., Annie M. Hannay, and Nellie G. Larson. Corn in the Development of the Civilization of the Americas: A Selected and Annotated Bibliography. New York: Burt Franklin, 1971. American Classics in History and Social Science no. 201; Burt Franklin: Research & Source Works Series no. 792. 195 p. NAL SB191.B4

Originally published in 1940, this bibliography contains references to books and book chapters, pamphlets, and periodical articles on the role played by corn in the development of American agriculture and civilization, including works on history, travel, botany, and geography. Topics include the use of corn in Native American agriculture, but exclude corn myths and ceremonials. Citations dating from the 16th C. to the 1930s are arranged alphabetically by author and contain detailed descriptions and excerpts. Call numbers to publications contained in the collections of the National Agricultural Library and the Library of Congress are noted. Contains numerous citations on corn culture and early-American varieties, which are not duplicated in this resource guide. With detailed subject index.

15. Galinat, Walton C., ed. The Singleton Sweet Corn Bibliography. Research Bulletin/Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station no. 725. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station, 1989. 81 p. NAL 100 M38H (1) no.725

Contains 1928 citations on sweet corn, from research and trade journals, bulletins, and reports; corn production, agronomics, economics, genetics, physiology, pest management, and food science topics are covered. The compilation is dedicated to the well-known corn geneticist, Willard Ralph Singleton. Most references date to the 20th C. (covering primarily the 1950s to 1980s), with a number dating from the early 1900s to 1930s, the era predating commercial replacement of open-pollinated corns by higher-yielding hybrids. Includes citations on corn history, regional production, and older open-pollinated corn varieties. Brief citations (i.e., without annotations) are arranged alphabetically by author. Appended with keyword subject index and list of publications that served as source materials.

16. George Washington University, Biological Sciences Communication Project. Bibliography of Corn. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1971. 3 vol. NAL Z5074.C6G4

Prepared under the sponsorship of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (known also as CIMMYT), this bibliography covers the international research literature on corn. Contained within are citations primarily from the period 1959-1968 (plus many references from 1957-58 and 1969), in English and 46 other languages. Foreign language titles are supplemented with English translations. Citations on general topics (subdivided by format and geographical source) are followed by citations grouped under the following headings: Corn plant (comprising botany, anatomy, taxonomy, genetics, breeding and seeds, hybrids, varieties and types, and ecology); Corn growing (agronomy, soils, pests and diseases, and related topics), and Corn product--grain (analysis, processing, nutrition, economic and social aspects, etc.). Vols. I and II contain a total of 20,462 citations. Vol. III consists of author, subject, and geographical indexes. The subject index points to a number of citations on topics relevant to the scope of this resource guide, such as the history of corn and corn varieties. Currently in print.

17. Harvey, Cecil L. Agriculture of the American Indian: A Select Bibliography. Beltsville, MD: USDA, SEA, Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service, 1979. Bibliographies and Literature of Agriculture no. 3. 64 p. NALaZ5076.A1U54 no.3, ARB aZ1209.2.N67.H37 1979

This bibliography updates a 1941 publication, Bibliography on the Agriculture of the American Indians, by Everett E. Edwards and Wayne B. Rasmussen (Miscellaneous Publication/U.S. Dept. of Agriculture no. 447, NAL 1 Ag84M no.447). Literature citations (primarily periodical articles and books) consist of the following: comprehensive historical, anthropological, and bibliographical references; citations grouped by region (MesoAmerica, Canada, United States and its regions, and South America); citations grouped by agricultural product (Native American crops, general; corn; wild rice; cotton; cucurbits; tobacco; beans; livestock, general; and wild turkeys); and citations on other subjects, including agriculture on Indian reservations in U.S. and Canada, uncultivated plants, and irrigation. Most publications date from the 1940s to 1970s; some are briefly annotated. Several sections cite documents dealing with crop varieties (e.g., corn, cucurbits), as well as general aspects of North American native agriculture.

18. Lippert, Laverne Francis and Richard S. Scharffenberg. Garden Pepper (Capsicum Sp.). West Covina, CA: Bibliographic Associates, 1964. Vegetable Crop Bibliographies vol 1. 258 p. NAL Z5074.P39L5 1964

A comprehensive guide to the published literature of the domesticated pepper. Citations for English and foreign language publications were derived from 16 principle reference sources, covering the historical period up to 1963. Publications emphasize the research and technical literature, including agricultural station reports on Capsicum species and varieties, and to lesser extent include gardening and more general publications. Citations are arranged by primary subject emphasis into 30 major subject divisions covering pepper history, botany and horticulture, pharmacology and medicine, nutrition, cookery, economics, and related topics. Sections most relevant to the subject scope of this resource guide are: "Historical botany--Post-Linnaean" (with numerous 19th-C. citations), p. 5-14; "Taxonomy and economic botany," p. 10-14; "Inheritance and breeding," p. 33-39; "Variety development and testing," p. 43-56; "Seed production and certification," p. 57-58; and "Cookery," p. 201-202. Includes author index and (detailed) subject index.

19. Lynas, Lothian. Medicinal and Food Plants of the North American Indian: A Bibliography. New York: New York Botanical Garden Library, 1972. 21 p. NAL Z1209.L8

Cites more than 300 periodical articles, bibliographies, conference proceedings, museum and agricultural bulletins, and books on Native American ethnobotany, from the Library of the New York Botanical Garden and also several other important U.S. collections. The compilation consists primarily of 20th-C. documents, with fewer from the previous century. A portion deal with cultivation and food uses for agricultural plants, or the environmental relations of native peoples. Revised from the author's 1971 publication.

Go to: Contents of Volume 3 | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160 | Appendices (Volume 3)

20. McCue, George Allen. "The history of the use of the tomato: An annotated bibliography." Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 39: 289-348 (Nov. 1952). NAL 451 M69

Focuses on the historical (primarily food) uses of the tomato in areas outside of Central and South America, its region of origin, and secondarily, on related topics such as botanical origins and crop development. Citations are grouped first by geographic region (Italy, Central Europe, Great Britain, Spain and Portugal, Eastern Mediterranean, Africa, Northern Europe, West Indies, Asia, U.S., and South Pacific), then by date, and range from the mid 16th C. to the early 1950s. Includes several dozen citations for publications emanating from the U.S. (or its former colonies) that cover the period 1710 to 1919; these include gardening books, horticultural journals, and agricultural station bulletins. Citations contain notes highlighting pertinent chapters or pages, and sometimes lengthy discussion of details. (The annotations suggest that, except for a few of the more modern publications, the sourceworks contain little information on tomato varieties.)

21. Nauta, Laura R., with Shirley King Evans. Native Americans: A Resource Guide. Beltsville, MD: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, EEO Special Emphasis Programs, National Agricultural Library, 1992. Bibliographies and Literature of Agriculture no. 121. 56 p. NAL aZ5076.A1U54 no.121

A bibliography of selected materials on Native American subjects, and also directory of resource organizations. Consists of citations from the historical and current literature (1862-1986), which were derived from NAL's card catalogs and electronic database, AGRICOLA. Citations for books, journal and magazine articles, agricultural reports, bibliographies, and other publications are grouped into the following subject areas: agricultural techniques and ethnobotany, culture and socioeconomics, food and nutrition, and government relations and history. The guide contains also a U.S. directory of organizations representing the interests of Native Americans, community colleges governed by tribes, colleges and universities offering specialized study programs, and museums and libraries serving as general information sources.

Go to: Top of Volume 3 | Contents of Volume 3 | Introduction | Notes and References
Part I. Vegetables and Fruits and Historical Gardening (Bibliographies)
Part II. Historical Varieties (Books, Articles, Agricultural Reports)
Part III. Histories of Vegetables and Fruits (Books and Articles)
Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160
Appendices (Volume 3): 1) Current Books 2) AFSIC, 3) Publication Titles Index, 4) Periodical Articles Index, 4) Persons / Organizations Index

Part II. Historical Varieties (Books, Articles, Agricultural Reports)

1. Vegetables and Fruits

A. General Subjects

22. Bailey, L.H., ed. The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture. 2nd ed. New York: Macmillan, 1925. 3 vol. NAL 90.01 B15S, ARB SB45.B17 1925

Its full title, The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture; a Discussion, for the Amateur, and the Professional and Commercial Grower, of the Kinds, Characteristics and Methods of Cultivation of the Species of Plants Grown in the Regions of the United States and Canada for Ornament, for Fancy, for Fruit and for Vegetables; with Keys to the Natural Families and Genera, Descriptions of the Horticultural Capabilities of the States and Provinces and Dependent Islands, and Sketches of Eminent Horticulturists. This set of encyclopedias and its previous editions offer a valuable window into early 20th-C. horticulture, with abundant historical information on garden vegetables, fruits, and ornamentals. Subject matter prepared by specialists is arranged in standard alphabetical format, the plant entries listed by common name. Typically, plant descriptions cover garden cultivation history, growing aspects, and regional production, with a varying level of information on noted varieties. (Bailey states in the preface that varietal information is provided "more as a matter of record than recommendation" since the variety lists change so rapidly.) The volumes contain also entries for plant genus names, which cover various general aspects of plant groups, and also cite important literature on respective plant genera or species. Numerous other subject entries cite important horticultural literature, and under the heading "horticulture, literature of," there is a comprehensive listing of U.S. publications. Each volume contains indexes to botanical names and general subjects. The set contains, within the text, some 4000 black-and-white engravings of plants and other horticultural subjects, plus additional color plates within each volume. First issued in 1900-1902 as Cyclopedia of American Horticulture (ARB SB45.B15); the 1925 volume is reprinted from the 2nd edition, issued in 1922.
Related work: Professor Bailey served also as editor for the related series, Cyclopedia of American Agriculture: A Popular Survey of Agricultural Conditions, Practices, and Ideals in the United States and Canada (4th ed., Macmillan, 1912, 4 vol., NAL S441.B3 1912; the first 1907-1909 edition has NAL call no. 301 B15C). In Vol. II (entitled "Crops"), Part III deals with agronomic crops grown in North America; this section considers feed and forage crops; fiber, oil, and medicinal crops; field legumes; small grains; maize (or Indian corn); other crops grown under field conditions; and forest products. The format for plant and other entries is similar to that of Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture. The section on maize (p. 398-427), for instance, includes descriptions and photos of varieties, ending with a lengthy bibliography of 19th-C. and early 20th-C. publications.

23. Betts, Edwin Morris. Thomas Jefferson's Garden Book, 1766-1824: with Relevant Extracts from His Other Writings. Philadelphia, PA: American Philosophical Society, 1944. Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society vol. 22. 704 p. ARB SB466.U7.B5

An outstanding chronicle and commentary based on Thomas Jefferson's own Garden Book, along with relevant excerpts from the Farm Book and other writings, and supplemented with historian Betts' extensive notes. Begun as a garden log at Monticello, the Garden Book reveals the Virginian's keen observations on natural history, his lifelong interest in the plants and events in the garden and orchard, and his thoughts on farming and rural life in general. The body of the text is arranged chronologically, covering the period 1766 to 1824. For each year there are supplemental notes that briefly describe Jefferson's activities, plus additional explanatory material. The garden log and correspondence excerpts contain frequent mention of particular vegetable and fruit varieties grown. Betts has expanded on the sometimes meager notes in the original documents by offering botanical names, specific seed and plant sources, and varietal descriptions from influential horticultural literature of the period. He cites, for instance, Bernard M'Mahon's 1806 publication, American Gardener's Calendar (11th ed., New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1857; reprinted in 1976, ARB SB93.M16), and also later works that include Fearing Burr's Vegetable Garden and A.J. Downing's Fruits and Fruit Trees of America (cited in entries 31 and 40, respectively, in this volume). Supplemental material relevant to the garden (on meteorology and Monticello's water supply, for example) is offered in several appendices; included also is a listing of publications on agriculture, gardening, and botany, which were part of Jefferson's library. With bibliography and detailed subject index. Volume out of print.
Related work: Robert C. Baron's 1987 publication, The Garden and Farm Books of Thomas Jefferson (Golden, CO: Fulcrum, 528 p., NAL SB451.34.V8J4) includes, likewise, printed copies of Jefferson's original Garden Book and Farm Book, plus other writings, with biographical and other essays on Jefferson and Monticello. While also currently in print, this publication lacks the additional background information on plant varieties contained in Betts' older work. It does list a portion of the vegetable and other varieties grown in the mid 1980s at Monticello, plus a useful bibliography of books and articles.

24. Sturtevant, E. Lewis; U.P. Hedrick, ed. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. New York: Dover Publications, 1972. 696 p. NAL QK98.5.A1S78 1972

An important horticultural reference work compiled from extensive research and voluminous notes by E. Lewis Sturtevant, described by editor Ulysses P. Hedrick as "one of the giants of his time in the science of agriculture." First published in 1919, Sturtevant's text assembled existing knowledge gleaned from floras, herbals, travel books, and agricultural reports, on edible plants, both cultivated and wild, from around the world. Entries for nearly 3000 plant species, alphabetical by species name, vary from a few lines, to several pages for the more widely grown and ancient crops. Plant descriptions include synonyms, ancestry and distribution of use, plant parts eaten and particular uses, cultivation status and varieties, and commercial position. Although certain aspects such as taxonomy are dated, and there is minimal information on early 20th-C. varieties, the text contains a wealth of historical information on particular crops (the author noting, for instance, those publications that do not cite a particular plant). Supplemented with author's biography, plus bibliography citing 560 ancient and more modern texts (English language and foreign), and indexes to Latin and common names. The Dover edition is an unabridged reprint from the original work, which was titled Sturtevant's Notes on Edible Plants (Report of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station for 1919, Albany: J.B. Lyons, NAL 452.8 St9 Fo).

25. Webber, Herbert J. and Ernst A. Bessey. "Progress of plant breeding in the United States." In: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Yearbook 1899. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1900. p. 468-490. NAL 1 Ag84y

Presents a turn-of-the-century assessment of the improvement of fruits, cereals, vegetables, and flowers in the U.S. Discusses the early use among American settlers of plants brought from Old World settings and adoption of native plants (such as corn). Methods used in the 18th C. and 19th C. to adapt introduced and native varieties to American conditions, and accomplishments of early breeders, are reviewed. Also highlights improvements made from "careful breeding" of particular crops; among the fruits, these include grapes, pears, apples, plums, raspberries, blackberries, strawberries, gooseberries; and among the vegetables, tomatoes, potatoes, squash, corn, wheat, and oats are discussed. Considered more briefly are improvements in flowers and ornamentals, native nuts, and cotton. With notes on the origins of some important cultivars of fruits and vegetables. With black-and-white photos.

26. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Yearbook 1936. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1936. 1189 p. NAL 1 Ag84y

The 1936 and 1937 USDA Yearbooks (the latter volume cited in entry 27 below) are worth examining by those interested in the developmental histories of U.S. crops. These two volumes prepared just prior to the period of ascendency of hybrid corn varieties resulted from efforts by USDA scientists to survey current knowledge in practical breeding and genetics of the crop plants and livestock important to U.S agriculture. Unlike previous Yearbooks that summarized miscellaneous new developments, each of these is devoted to a single topic: "the creative development of new forms of life through plant and animal breeding." In the 1936 volume, the section "Better plants and animals" starts on p. 119, following the Secretary of Agriculture's 1935 report. Coverage is devoted to the major cereals and other agronomic crops (wheat, barley, oats, rice, corn, sorghum, sugarcane, sugar beet, flax, and tobacco), with several chapters on important livestock classes. The book includes a summary chapter presenting an overview of each plant or animal featured (covering p. 130-144 for the crop section); plus glossary of genetic terms, and overview of general aspects of heredity and breeding. Each chapter contains a bibliography, the volume appended with detailed subject indexes.

27. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Yearbook 1937. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1937. 1497 p. NAL 1 Ag84y

Complementing the 1936 Yearbook (cited in entry 26 above), the 1937 Yearbook, or "Better Plants and Animals--II," contains papers on breeding and improvement of the following horticultural and field crops: vegetables (tomatoes, peppers, and eggplants; cucurbits; onions; peas and beans; leafy cruciferous vegetables; root vegetables; salad crops); sweet corn; popcorn; potatoes; temperate small and tree fruit crops (strawberries, blackberries and raspberries, currants and gooseberries, blueberries, apples, pears, grapes, stone fruits); subtropical fruits; nut trees; flowers; plus several major and minor grain and oil crops. Typically, for each review there is a summary of the origins, culture, and uses of particular crops, current and historically important commercial varieties, issues and methods in varietal improvement, and genetics and cytology. For instance, Victor R. Boswell's contribution, "Improvement and genetics of tomatoes, peppers, and eggplant," focuses largely on the first two plants (the eggplant being a minor crop at the time); the tomato section (p. 176-187) includes brief histories of many named types from private introductions and public programs, for the period 1850-1936. The pepper section (p. 187-192) reviews the Capsicum pepper varieties known and improvements made since 1901. Following the sections on vegetable improvements is an appendix (p. 340-378) with tabular data citing the characteristics of important vegetable varieties and stocks used by public breeders (including parents, methods, and dates), plus a list of breeding programs by U.S. state and by specific crops, and summary of foreign vegetable improvement activities. The crop section includes a chapter on general aspects of vegetable crop breeding, including the role of public and private agencies and new influences on breeding. The remainder of the publication consists of six chapters on livestock classes that were not covered in the 1936 Yearbook (see entry 26 above), and three chapters reviewing the fundamentals of heredity and genetics. Chapters are each supplemented with bibliographies, the volume with detailed subject indexes.

1B. Vegetables

28. American Seed Trade Association, Garden Seed Division. ASTA-ASHS Vegetable Variety Names. [Washington, DC: 1968] 1 vol. (var. pagings).NAL SB320.A6

Described as "a complete list of variety names" for vegetables previously introduced commercially in the U.S. and Canada. This compilation (called Part 1) covers asparagus, muskmelon, potato, rhubarb, southern pea, lettuce, and spinach. Arranged in tabular format, variety names are accompanied by synonyms, release date, and name of developer. The lettuce list, for instance, names over 300 cultivars of domestic or European origin that were released (or known from) the period 1859-1967; a few are known by up to 20 nonstandard names. Known also as Vegetable Variety Names, the work was sponsored jointly by the Garden Seed Research Committee of ASTA and the Committee of Vegetable Breeding and Varieties of the American Society for Horticultural Science. An expanded listing covering additional vegetables has been published on a regular basis, starting in 1956, as "New Vegetable Varieties List" in issues of Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural Science (NAL 81 SO12), and HortScience (NAL SB1.H6), both publications from ASHS. (For a related publication from ASHS, see entry 35.)

29. Boswell, Victor R. "Disease-resistant and hardy varieties of vegetables." National Horticultural Magazine 23(2): 203-208 (April 1944). NAL 80 N216

The first article in a five-part series dealing with the "origins and usefulness of [the] more important" improved forms of some garden vegetables. General accomplishments, then notable bean varieties, are cited. Continuing in vol. 23, issue no. 3 (p. 138-143, July 1944) deals with cabbage, celery, and sweet corn; and no. 4 (p. 203-208, Oct. 1944) with cucurbits (cucumbers, muskmelons, squash, pumpkins, and watermelons). The series continues in vol. 24 (p. 268-273, Oct. 1945) with tomatoes and eggplant; and in vol. 25 (p. 158-164, April 1946) with lettuce, peas, root crops (beets, carrots, radishes, etc.), and spinach. The articles contain useful discussion of "hardiness" and "resistant" qualtities, and factors contributing to the sometimes poor performance of some "excellent old varieties."

30. Boswell, Victor R. "Modern varieties of vegetables." National Horticultural Magazine 33(2): 96-112 (April 1954). NAL 80 N216

As follow-up to the author's series of articles written the previous decade (see entry 29 above), here the author describes some new varieties introduced during the previous 8-10 year period. Following a short introduction to trends in varietal development, author Boswell reviews "some recommended varieties, new and old"--garden beans, several root crops, brassicas, sweet corn, several salad greens, onions, several cucurbits, melons, tomatoes, eggplants, and potatoes are considered. With a table naming recommended varieties of open-pollinated sweet corns for different regions of the U.S.

31. Burr, Fearing, Jr., new preface by Kent Whealy, new introduction by Robert F. Becker. The Field and Garden Vegetables of America: Containing Full Descriptions of Nearly Eleven Hundred Species and Varieties, with Directions for Propagation, Culture, and Use. 3rd ed. Chillicothe, IL: American Botanist, 1988. 667 p. NAL SB1.A5 no.1

From an influential 19th-C. New England horticulturist and seedsman, whose purpose was to create a guide to selecting vegetable varieties rather than a treatise on cultural techniques. This emphasis has set it apart from other publications of the time and made it invaluable to today's gardeners and historians, since many varieties described are still available, and the author worked to straighten out existing confusion concerning varietal names and synonyms. The text offers general descriptions (covering propagation, harvest, and uses) of common and uncommon vegetables, as well as culinary and medicinal herbs, tobacco, and mushrooms, with general advice on raising and saving seed. Varietal descriptions include synonyms, origins, and garden characteristics (such as appearance, productivity, hardiness, and comparison with similar types). Inferior varieties are noted also. Robert Becker's introduction in the 1988 reprint provides historical perspective on "the horticultural climate" of Burr's day, including important garden writers and books. While Field and Garden Vegetables of America remains an important source of information on 19th-C. cultivars, some of its deficiencies in scope and detail are noted by William Weaver in his recent book, Heirloom Vegetable Gardening (cited in Volume 1, Annotated Bibliography, entry 11). The volume includes an index to plant names, plus 98 high-quality woodcuts by Isaac Sprague, who Burr considered "the first of living artists." First published in 1863 (Boston: Crosby and Nichols, NAL 91 B94F). This reissue was reprinted from the 1865 2nd edition (Boston: J.E. Tilton and Co., NAL 91 B94F). Reprinted edition reissued, currently in print; available SS.

32. Hedrick, U.P., et al. The Vegetables of New York. Albany, NY: J.B. Lyon Company, 1928 [-1935]. [NAL call nos., see description below]

A four-part series of publications from the New York State Agricultural Experment Station, for the years 1928, 1931, 1934, and 1935. Their production was overseen by noted horticulturist Ulysses P. Hedrick, the intent "to make more or less a complete record" of the development of vegetables grown in New York State and the U.S. as a whole. Similar in format and purpose to the seven-volume set on tree and small fruits, which was published during the period 1905-1925 (see the works by U.P. Hedrick et al., cited in entry 43 this volume, and by S.A. Beach et al., cited in entry 47), although these lacked the cultural information found in the fruit publications. Four volumes were planned, although only one was completed, the subsequent works suspended by the onset of the Great Depression. Vol. 1 consists of the peas (Part I), beans (II), sweet corns (III), and cucurbits (IV). As horticultural treatises, their chief value lies in the detailed varietal descriptions and well-documented developmental histories, as well as botanical summations of existing knowledge concerning particular vegetables or groups and their relationships. The general descriptions provide a wealth of information on early American histories, including important publications, prominent breeders and influences, and more. Descriptions were derived largely from plantings over several years at Geneva's experiment station, with serious efforts made to obtain seed true-to-name from original suppliers or other reliable sources. The hundreds of varieties selected for inclusion were those most valued for commercial or home garden use, with some of historical or potential value. Although the works are dense with information, they make good reading and contain exceptional full-color illustrations of respective plants, fruits, or seeds. Content summaries of Parts II, III, and IV are found elsewhere in this publication (see entries 91, 70, and 103, respectively). Part I: The Peas, by U.P. Hedrick et al. (1928, 132 p., NAL SB321.N4 v.1, pt.1), with parallel content and format, is not cited separately. Sometimes called Peas of New York, this work contains an outline of the planned volumes and general preface.

33. Henderson, Peter; George DeVault, ed., historical introduction by Robert F. Becker. Gardening for Profit: A Guide to Successful Cultivation of the Market and Family Garden. Chillicothe, IL: American Botanist, Booksellers, 1991. American Horticultural Series no. 3. 243,[110],48 p. NAL SB1.A5 no.3

Combining several works in one volume, this reprint publication takes its title from Peter Henderson's classic 1867 guidebook on market and home gardening. Also contained within are excerpts from Henderson's 1884 collection of essays, Garden and Farm Topics, with historical introduction, plus biographical memoir of Henderson's business and personal life, the latter written in 1890 by son Alfred Henderson. Peter Henderson was a New Jersey market gardener, seedsman, and florist--"a giant among 19th-C. American horticulturists," according to Robert Becker's introduction--who was renowned in his day through his writings and seed sales. The first American publication designed exclusively to serve the market grower, Gardening for Profit deals mainly with techniques and tools of 19th-C. vegetable growing, and the relative merits of specific garden plant varieties, with lesser focus on economic aspects. Among the production topics covered are various cultivating tools, soil preparation and management, extending the season with cold frames and hot beds, plant propagation, and vegetable storage and shipping. Of particular interest to heirloom gardeners are the horticultural descriptions of several dozens of garden vegetables and herbs (Ch. 17, p. 101-223). For each plant there are notes on characteristics and merits of several prominent cultivars, although the descriptions are less detailed compared to Fearing Burr's Field and Garden Vegetables of America (see entry 31, this volume), available during the same period. The Introduction surveys Henderson's accomplishments, and the development of market gardening from Colonial days to the early 20th C. (bibliography included). Gardening for Profit was first published in 1867 (New York: Orange Judd Co.) and revised in 1874 and 1886. Book II, consisting of selections from Garden and Farm Topics (1st ed., New York: Peter Henderson & Co., 1884, NAL SB317.9.H4 R), contains 11 essays on raising particular crops for market, and proven methods (including "use of the feet in sowing and planting"). These two volumes, like some other writings by Henderson and his contemporaries, have been resurrected by today's organic, small-scale growers for their useful production and marketing advice. With black-and-white line drawings. Currently in print; available RO,SE,SS.

34. Johnson, Charles. The Seedsman's Assistant: Compendium of the Growing Sources of Seeds, Vegetables and Flowers... Marietta, PA:[Charles Johnson], 1904. 94 p. NAL 61 J62

Intended for seed dealers and others interested in priceworthy seeds, this palm-sized guide identifies "the most reliable" U.S. and Western European vegetable seed growers of the period, and the vegetables they were best known for. The first section lists (alphabetically) 130+ growers, with city and state (or country)address. Following are brief entries for garden vegetables (from artichoke to turnip), along with names of prominent varieties, and also prominent seed growers associated with each, with advice on salient plant features for purchase. For most, the author notes where the best seed is found. (He recommends, for instance, carrot and beet seed from European firms, onion seed from California, and corn seed from Connecticut.) Included also are recommended sources for some flower and grass seeds, plus farm supplies. Following is a section listing one or several seed trade synonyms for each standard variety name. Final sections cite seed prices and standard package sizes, with brief advice for publishing a catalog.
Related work: The author followed this book with The Seed Grower: A Practical Treatise on Growing Vegetable and Flower Seeds and Bulbs for the Market (Marietta, PA: [Charles Johnson], 1906, 191 p., NAL 61 J62S). This pocket guidebook provides seed production information specific to a variety of vegetables, notes on leading vegetable varieties, and a miscellany of information for commercial seed growers.

35. Minges, Philip A., ed. Descriptive List of Vegetable Varieties Introduced Between 1936 and 1968 by Public and Private Breeders in North America. St. Joseph, MI: American Society for Horticultural Science; Washington, DC: American Seed Trade Association, 1972. 194 p. NAL Z5354.P7M5

Provides brief descriptions of more than 1000 vegetable varieties, based on the originator's descriptions and compiled from information previously published during the period 1954-1968 in Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural Science (NAL 81 S012). Varietal summaries for seed-grown and clonally-propagated vegetables are grouped alphabetically by plant type (from asparagus to watermelon), citing year of introduction, source history (originator, date, and lineage), and distinguishing features (e.g., appearance, quality, resistance, and regional adaption), plus literature reference. For most seed-grown vegetables, the vast majority of new varieties were open-pollinated; the new sweet corns, almost entirely F1 hybrids, were exceptions. A few culinary herbs are included also. With a list of private seed companies, mostly from the U.S. and Canada, which developed some of the new cultivars. (For availability, contact ASTA, cited in Volume 1, Annotated Bibliography, entry 265.)

36. Sturtevant, E.L. "The history of garden vegetables." American Naturalist, vol. 21-25 (Jan. 1887-Sept. 1891) [for page nos., see description below]. NAL 470 Am36

A series of articles in the American Naturalist, which were published at irregular intervals during the period 1887 to 1891. Professor Sturtevant indicates in the first article that the series should rather be titled "notes on" garden vegetables, since it covers more than history. The purpose of the articles was to contribute to "a study of the extent of variation...produced in plants through cultivation." Plant entries are arranged alphabetically by common name (some of them little-known today and likely perplexing modern readers, since there is no name index). Included are plants recognized by Vilmorin-Andrieux's Vegetable Garden (cited in entry 39, this volume), Fearing Burr's Field and Garden Vegetables of America (entry 31, this volume), and Bernard M'Mahon's American Gardener's Calendar (11th ed., New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1857; reprinted in 1976, ARB SB93.M16). Information for each plant (ranging from a brief paragraph, to several pages for the more popular and better-documented vegetables) consists of botanical name, notes on usage, documented history in the garden, common names in various European languages, and synonymy (i.e., other published botanical names), plus descriptions of known varieties and their origins. Includes many plants nowadays more generally grouped as culinary or medicinal herbs. With bibliography for each article (sources cited in footnotes), and without illustration. (For an American Naturalist article series on New World vegetables, also by Dr. Sturtevant and from the same period, see entry 56, this volume.)
Articles and subjects:
Vol. 21 (1887): p. 49-59, African valerian to anise; p. 125-133, Arachacha ( South American plant with edible roots) to asparagus bean; p. 321-333, Australian "spinage" (Chenopodium species) to bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); p. 433-444, beet to burnet; p. 520-532, cabbage to carrot; p. 701-712, caterpillars (Scorpiorus species with caterpillar-like seed pods) to chicory; p. 826-833, Chinese cabbage to corn salad; p. 903-912, costmary to earth-nut (Lathyrus tuberosus); p. 975-984, egg-plant to evening primrose (or German rampion).
Vol. 22 (1888): p. 420-432, fennel to hyssop; p. 979-987, kohl-rabi to lettuce.
Vol. 23 (1889): p. 665-677, lima bean to mustard.
Vol. 24 (1890): p. 30-48, nasturtium to parsnip; p. 143-157, parsnip chervil to pepper (Capsicum annuum); p. 313-332, Portugal cabbage (Brassica oleracea costata) to rocambole (Spanish garlic); p. 629-646, rocket salad (now better known as arugula) to shallot; p. 719-744, skirret to squash (including squash, pumpkin, and gourd).
Vol. 25 (1891): p. 694-706, Stachys affinis (an oriental root vegetable) to tomato; p. 801-806, tomato (Lycopersicon species, continued) to turnip (Brassica species).

37. Tracy, W.W., Jr. American Varieties of Lettuce. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry, 1904. Bureau of Plant Industry Bulletin no. 69. 101 p. [plus 27 plates]. NAL 1 P69B no.69

A detailed study of Lactuca sativa, from cultivars Advancer to Yellow Winter. The author concluded that of 404 varieties named in seed catalogs, 107 represented truly distinct varieties. Supplemented with information on features peculiar to lettuce, the format and scope of this study resemble that of Tracy's 1907 report, American Varieties of Garden Beans (entry 96), and 1902 report, List of American Varieties of Peppers (entry 87, both cited in this volume). With black-and-white photographic plates of representative varieties.
Related works: By the 1930s, USDA and experiment station researchers had scaled back their detailed, exhaustive descriptions of garden vegetables, as typified by Tracy's lettuce inventory, finding it more useful for commercial interests to describe, for each vegetable, the existing forms of a more limited number of "standard types." Each of the six publications that follow, which were published during the period 1934-1941, discuss the diversity found in existing types and the factors involved in establishing standard types. They present detailed varietal histories and source information, botanical classifications, and reviews of environmental conditions influencing plant characters. The following reports describe 9 cabbage, 21 onion, 8 carrot, 8 beet, 10 spinach, and 18 garden pea varieties, respectively. Each includes black-and-white or color photos of representative varieties. Victor Boswell et al.'s 1933 report, Descriptions of Types of Principal American Varieties of Tomatoes (cited in entry 78, this volume) follows this format as well.
Boswell, Victor R. Descriptions of Types of Principle American Varieties of Cabbage. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1934. Miscellaneous Publication/U.S. Department of Agriculture no. 169. 22 p. [15 leaves of plates]. NAL 1 Ag84M no.169
Magruder, Roy, et al. Descriptions of Types of Principal American Varieties of Onions. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1941. Miscellaneous Publication/U.S. Department of Agriculture no. 435. 87 p. [30 p. of plates] NAL 1 Ag84M no.435
Magruder, Roy, et al. Descriptions of Types of Principal American Varieties of Orange-fleshed Carrots. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1940. Miscellaneous Publication/U.S. Department of Agriculture no. 36. 48 p. [22 p. of plates]. NAL 1 Ag84M no.361
Magruder, Roy, et al.. Descriptions of Types of Principal American Varieties of Red Garden Beets. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1940. Miscellaneous Publication/U.S. Department of Agriculture no. 374. 60 p. [30 p. of plates]. NAL 1 AG84M no. 374
Magruder, Roy, et al. Descriptions of Types of Principal American Varieties of Spinach. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1938. Miscellaneous Publication/U.S. Department of Agriculture no. 316. 60 p. [28 p. of plates]. NAL 1 Ag84M no.316
Shoemaker, D.N. and E.J. Delwiche. Descriptions of Types of Principal American Varieties of Garden Peas. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1934. Miscellaneous Publication/U.S. Department of Agriculture no. 170. 39 p. [7 leaves of plates]. NAL 1 Ag84M no.170

38. Tracy, W.W., Jr., et al. List of American Varieties of Vegetables for Years 1901 and 1902. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry, 1903. Bureau of Plant Industry Bulletin no. 21. 402 p. NAL 1 P69B no.21

A listing of all known varieties of vegetables sold during 1901 and 1902 by U.S. and Canadian seedhouses. To fill the widening gap of reliable information on existing vegetable varieties, William W. Tracy and his colleagues made the "ultimate endeavor" to locate existing seed catalogs. The report was intended to supplement seed catalog information and to serve as a first step towards more careful study of the qualitities of particular varieties and their value to gardeners, farmers, researchers, and seed sellers. (The writers dared to hope that it might lead to the use of a single name for a given variety.) The list covers more than 80 kinds of garden plants--from Chinese artichoke to Wonderful Sugar watermelon--and includes some vegetables rather obscure today, such as chufa, fetticus, martynia, and rampion. For each plant species or plant form, entries consist of recognized names, alphabetically arranged, along with seedsmen's synonyms or similar names, and codes identifying seedhouses (totalling more than 250) that sold each variety. The list covers 685 named cabbages, 320 table beets, 340 sweet corns, 560 bush and 255 pole beans, 320 cucumbers, 530 lettuces, and large numbers of other garden vegetables. (The writers did not attempt, within this work, to determine which varieties were truly distinct. Tracy later found, for instance, that only a quarter of 400+ lettuce varieties were likely unique--see American Varieties of Lettuce, entry 37.)

39. MM. Vilmorin-Andrieux of Paris; W. Robinson, ed., Mark Miller, translator. The Vegetable Garden: Illustrations, Descriptions, and Culture of the Garden Vegetables of Cold and Temperate Climates. Palo Alto, CA: Jeavons-Leler Press, 1976. 620 p. NAL SB323.V52 1976, ARB SB323.V51 1976

An encyclopedic reference work on 19th-C. vegetable varieties, published as Les Plantes Potagères by Messrs. Vilmorin-Andrieux, senior members of La Maison Vilmorin (an important French seedhouse and nursery), and later made available in English translation. Although its focus is on European garden plants, the work is useful to others (including North Americans and Australians), since many varieties traveled with immigrants or were imported commercially, and the authors make frequent reference to North American varieties. The body of the book consists of horticultural descriptions of hundreds of kitchen garden plants, among them vegetables, and culinary and medicinal herbs, which are arranged alphabetically from alexander to yam (Chinese). Descriptions for each plant type (some of them little known today) include detailed cultural advice, names in several European languages, and prominent varieties, the latter with notes on appearance and value, usually 1-2 paragraphs in length but sometimes more brief and vague. There are several dozen broccolis (including colors other than green); many cabbages, lettuces, and beans of various types; 30+ squashes, marrows, and pumpkins; 60+ peas described in detail (plus notes on more than 100 English, French, and German garden peas). Many varieties, especially those with distinctive fruits or other edible parts, are shown by line drawings. Appended with detailed subject index. This volume is a reprint of the first 1885 edition published by John Murray, London (NAL 91 V71V). The preface to theEnglish edition offers commentary on changes made from the French work, its contribution to the current movement towards diet reform and "greater use of the vegetable world" for human food, and on the "chaotic state of nomenclature of vegetables." The first four French editions appeared in 1883, 1890, 1904, and 1925 (NAL 91 V71V); the English translation lacks the bibliography found in these French works. Volume reissued in 1981 by Ten Speed Press, currently in print; available AL,BG,FE,HD,SE,SS.
Related work: A selection of the vintage vegetable varieties sold by Vilmorin's seedhouse (formerly known as Vilmorin-Andrieux) is found in Les Plantes Potagères: L'Album Vilmorin (preface by Jacques Barrau, [France]: Bibliotheque de l'Image, 1996, NAL SB320.9.P58 1996). This publication, a recent re-issue of the classic French print collection, consists of 46 high-quality, full-color plates illustrating more than 200 vegetable cultivars that were sold by the seed firm in the 19th C. A number whose descendents are still available today are included.

1C. Fruits

40. Downing, A.J., rev. by Charles Downing. The Fruits and Fruit Trees of America, or, the Culture, Propagation, and Management in the Garden and Orchard, of Fruit Trees Generally, with Descriptions of all the Finest Varieties of Fruit, Native and Foreign, Cultivated in This Country. New York: John Wiley & Sons; London: Chapman & Hall, 1900. 1098,xii,189 p. NAL 93.21 D75F 1900

The standard work on fruits and fruit culture in the 19th C., when, in the author's words, "America [was] a young orchard." Appraising fruits as "the perfect union of the useful and beautiful," the author's first aim was to increase interest in the cultivation of fruit trees, and secondly, to provide a reference book for fruit culture and varietal selection. Eight preliminary chapters cover various aspects of fruit production, the topics including propagation methods, pruning and training, soil aspects, and pest problems. Each of the fourteen subsequent chapters (Ch. 9-22) covers a specific fruit; included are the more popular pome and stone fruits, oranges, and other tree fruits; small fruits (blackberries, currants, strawberries, etc.); grapes; almonds and other nuts; melons and watermelons (Cucurbitaceae); and a few others. Each chapter, with general background information and fruit names in several European languages, surveys fruit uses, specific cultural parameters, and classification, and includes a catalog of varieties. Varietal descriptions, typically 1-2 paragraphs long, cite alternative names and origins, with concise notation of fruit appearance, quality, and ripening period; for some fruit types and varieties there are notes on distinguishing plant traits, productivity, varietal comparisons, and other relevant features. Ch. IX on apples (p. 58-429) covers hundreds of varieties--from Abbot to Zoar Greening--and includes crabs and Siberian apples. This chapter ends with a select list of varieties suited for marketing, table use, cooking, and storage, noting regional suitability for some. Supplemental materials include several name indexes (French names, names for specific fruits, additional apple synonyms) and general subject index; in addition, there are descriptive entries for additional varieties of each fruit type, which were compiled from information contributed by U.S. and Canadian pomologists. Prefatory material includes a lengthy list of contributing fruit experts, and list of publications cited. (First issued in 1845 by Andrew J. Downing and published by Wiley and Putnam, this work went through numerous editions. This content summary refers to the most recent 1900 edition, which, starting with the 1857 edition, was revised by A.J.'s brother Charles, following the original author's death in 1852.)

41. Hartman, Henry. Catalog and Evaluation of the Pear Collection at the Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State College, Agricultural Experiment Station, 1957. Technical Bulletin/Oregon State College, Agricultural Experiment Station no. 41. 80 p. NAL 100 Or3S no.41

This 1957 report from the Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station reports on 272 pear species, named varieties, and types that were "survivors" of trials performed during the years since the collection was first assembled in 1913. The base collection consisted of French varieties of Pyrus communis (116 remaining from the original 450 types; a few of them several centuries old) which was supplemented with Northern China, Korea, and Japan pears (P. ussuriensis varieties and hybrids, and sand pear varieties and hybrids), plus introductions from USDA and other government and private sources. For the Communis varieties, entries contain information on date and place of origin when known, fruit qualities (such as color, taste, season, storage characters), and more briefly, on tree qualities (including blight resistance). For each, previous pear literature (including Ragan's Nomenclature of the Pear, entry 44, and Hedrick's Pears of New York, entry 43, both in this volume) is cited. Descriptions of the Usuri pears, sand pears, and some "primitive types" are less detailed. With bibliography.

42. Hedrick, U.P. Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits. New York: Macmillan, 1922. 370 p. NAL 93.21 H35, ARB SB355.H4 1922

Intended to provide accurate description of the hardy fruits grown commercially or found in old orchards in North America, and to aid in their selection. The author indicates that the work was conceived to replace the previous century's primary references, A.J. Downing's Fruits and Fruit Trees of America (see entry 40, this volume) and John J. Thomas' American Fruit Culturist (see below under "related works"). Part I covers pome fruits (apples, crab-apples, pears, quinces); Part II, drupe fruits (apricots, cherries, nectarines, peaches, plums); Part III, grapes; Part IV, brambles (raspberries, blackberries, dewberries); Part V, currants and gooseberries; Part VI, health fruits (cranberries, blueberries, huckleberries); Part VII, strawberries; and Part VIII, miscellaneous fruits (persimmons, mulberries, paw-paws, and others). Each section summarizes fruit botany and history and offers a descriptive listing of varieties, with synonyms, plant and fruit attributes, and brief comments on specific origins and usage. With black-and-white drawings of fruit cross-sections, plus photographic plates for a selection of the varieties. Includes glossary of botanical terms and index to species names and synonyms. Second edition issued in 1938 (NAL 93.21 H35 ed.2).
Related works: Also from U.P. Hedrick is the book, Systematic Pomology (Macmillan, 1925, 488 p., NAL 93.1 H35S), which presents American pomological material in a classified arrangement. Designed to serve as a textbook, its content is based on the early 20th-C. series of monographs on hardy fruits (see the reports by U.P. Hedrick et al., and S.A. Beach et al., entries 43 and 47, respectively), and also on Hedrick's Cyclopedia. The full title of Thomas' text, noted earlier in this entry, is American Fruit Culturist: Practical Directions for the Propagation and Culture of All Fruits Adapted to the United States. From a prominent New York pomologist, nursery owner, and writer, this work went through 21 editions from 1849 to 1903 (NAL 93.21 T36), the later editions updated by William H.S. Wood (New York: William Wood and Co.) Its forerunner, The Fruit Culturist (New York: March H. Newman and Co., 1847), went through four editions. Each volume contains an extensive section describing both standard and newer fruit varieties among mostly temperate-zone fruits, as well as some subtropicals judged superior for garden cultivation.)

43. Hedrick, U.P., with G.H. Howe et al. The Pears of New York. Albany, NY: J.B. Lyon Company, 1921. Report of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station for the Year 1921 [pt.] II. 636 p. NAL 93.36 H35, ARB S95.E2 1921

A definitive treatise on historical American pears, sixth in a series of reports on hardy fruits issued from the New York Agricultural Experiment Station during the period 1908 to 1925. Its authors sought to create a "complete record of the development of the pear wherever cultivated up to the present time," and to account for the pear's history, uses, and botanical characteristics, with descriptions of pears growing in New York State and the U.S., and with full details on pear nomenclature and economic status. The report covers 80 classical cultivars of value for home or commercial orchards, with brief descriptions of many more, including notable newer varieties and desirable breeding stock. Contents include the history of the pear (Ch. 1), pear species and their characteristics (Ch. 2), pear culture (Ch. 3), leading pear varieties (Ch. 4), and minor varieties (Ch. 5). For each variety named in Ch. 4, there are 1-2 pages of textual description, with bibliographical references regarding history, descriptions, or economic status, and also footnotes offering biographical sketches of noted pear horticulturists. Each variety is illustrated in a full-page watercolor of the mature fruit. For minor varieties in Ch. 5 there are briefer descriptions, without illustration, of several hundred international varieties. A total of 2929 cultivars are described. With a comprehensive bibliography to American pear literature and relevant European works, plus index to pear names and synonyms. With 80 color plates. (The color plates from this volume, and from Small Fruits of New York, are reproduced at the Web site of the U.S. National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in Corvallis, Oregon, at See Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entries 54 and 55, for more information on NCGR's fruit collections.) S.A. Beach et al.'s Apples of New York (entry 47, this volume) is also part of this series, known alternatively as Fruits of New York.
Related works: Also completed under the direction of Ulysses P. Hedrick, the following five reports were issued in the "Fruits of New York" series:
Hedrick, U.P., with G.H. Howe et al. The Cherries of New York. Albany, NY: J.B. Lyon Company, 1915. Report of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station for the Year 1914 [pt.] II. 371 p. NAL 93.32 H35C, ARB S95.E2 1914
Fourth monograph on the cultivated cherries. Includes history of cherry culture, leading varieties, and minor varieties. Describes 1145 varieties, at least three-quarters of them originating in Europe. With bibliography and subject index, plus color plates showing 54 cherry varieties.
Hedrick U.P., with G.H. Howe et al. The Peaches of New York. Albany, NY: J.B. Lyon Company, 1917. Report of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station for the Year 1916 [pt.] II. 541. p. NAL 93.35 H35Pe, ARB SB371.H42
Fifth report in series covers the history of the peach, its botanical and horticultural classification, commercial peach culture in America and New York State, leading peach varieties, and minor varieties. A total of 2181 varieties are described. With comprehensive peach bibliography and subject index, plus 84 color plates of leading varieties.
Hedrick, U.P., with G.H. Howe et al. The Small Fruits of New York. Albany, NY: J.B. Lyon Company, 1925. Report of the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 [pt.] II. 614 p. NAL 94 H352, ARB SB381.H43x
Seventh monograph covering the bramble fruits (the raspberries, blackberries, and dewberries), bush fruits (currants and gooseberries), and strawberries. Addresses evolution and systematics for each fruit group. With 94 color plates depicting representative varieties, plus bibliography and subject index.
Hedrick, U. P., with N.O. Booth et al. The Grapes of New York. Albany, NY: J.B. Lyon Company, 1908. Report of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station for the Year 1907 [pt.] II. 564 p. NAL 95.1 H35, ARB S95.E2 1907
Second monograph covers Old World grapes, American grapes, viticulture in New York State, species of American grapes, leading American grape varieties, and minor varieties. With bibliography and subject index, plus color plates depicting the fruits of 92 varieties.
Hedrick, U.P., with R. Wellington et al. The Plums of New York. Albany, NY: J.B. Lyon Company, 1911. Report of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station for the Year 1910 [pt.] II. 616 p. NAL 93.37 H35P, ARB SB377.H42
Subjects covered in this third report include the edible plums (history, horticulture, and botany), plum culture, leading varieties, and minor varieties. With bibliography and subject index, plus 89 color plates.

44. Ragan, W.H. Nomenclature of the Pear: A Catalog-Index of the Known Varieties Referred to in American Publications from 1804 to 1907. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry, 1908. Bureau of Plant Industry Bulletin no. 126. 268 p. NAL 1 P69B no. 126

A catalog of accepted pear names and synonyms compiled by a pomological expert, who has, in searching the American pear literature for this compilation, "no pains spared to make it as complete and reliable as possible." Pear names and descriptions were collected from American pomological texts, reports, and catalogs back to 1804. Leading names (or synonyms) are arranged alphabetically in tabular format with the abbreviated descriptions conveying the following: literature references, varietal origin (U.S., England, France, etc.), and fruit characteristics, the latter including size, form, color, texture, flavor (rated as acid, subacid, perfumed, sweet, sprightly, vinous), quality (rated poor to best), and season of maturity, plus additional remarks. The author notes that the study identifies relationships among known pear names and does not claim that all leading names identify truly distinct varieties. Report includes a bibliography of mostly 19th-C. references, plus brief index to contents.

45. Ragan, W.H. Varieties of Fruits Recommended for Planting. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1904. Farmers' Bulletin/U.S. Department of Agriculture no. 208. 48 p. NAL 1 Ag84F no.208

From the American Pomological Society, a list of recommended fruit varieties, simplified from a more comprehensive report from the USDA's Division of Pomology. Information was gained from experiences and observations of numerous practicing fruit growers within each region, the author judging it a "trustworthy" listing of fruit varieties adapted to each of 19 U.S. and southern Canadian districts. Information is arranged by districts; under each there is brief description of geographical features, then an alphabetical listing by fruit type (including popular and miscellaneous tree fruits, grapes, small fruits, and some tree nuts, the particulars varying by region). Either "highly recommended" or "recommended" varieties are named, and for some, promising types suggested for trial. Includes numerous apples and other tree fruits, with generally fewer named types in other categories. For some fruits, such as apples, the character of each type is denoted briefly by terms such as "dessert" (i.e., good when eaten in a fresh or uncooked state), "market" (good shippers), "kitchen" (good cooking qualities), or other terms suggesting best use. Includes map. The more comprehensive report consisting largely of tabular data is entitled, Revised Catalog of Fruits Recommended for Cultivation in the Various Sections of the United States and the British Provinces, from USDA's Division of Pomology and American Pomological Society (Bulletin no. 8, 63 p., NAL 1 P77B); an earlier version was published as Bulletin no. 6, 39 p.

46. Zielinski, Quentin Bliss. Modern Systematic Pomology. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown Co., 1955. 296 p. NAL 93.1 Z6

A treatise on systematic pomology, the science dealing with the study of various kinds of fruits and their botanical and horticultural relationships. Part I contains chapters on the principles of systematic pomology, plant nomenclature and identification, origins of cultivated fruits, botanical structures of fruits and flowers, the origin and improvement of fruit varieties, and the literature of systematic pomology. The latter chapter in Part I (Ch. 10, p.101-106) contains a number of useful historical references for descriptions of fruit varieties in general, plus specific works on apples, pears, plums, peaches, and other fruits, and nuts. Notable texts are listed also in Ch. 12 in this section, which consists of a chronological outline of important developments in systematic pomology. (Other chapters in Part I contain reference lists.) Part II consists of 17 chapters covering the stone fruits (including apricots, cherries, plums, peaches and nectarines, and almonds), pome fruits (apples, pears and quince), small fruits (blueberries and huckleberries, cranberries, currants and gooseberries, strawberries, blackberries and raspberries), grapes, nut trees (walnuts and butternuts, pecans and hickories, filberts and chestnuts), citrus group, and subtropical, tropical, and other fruits. Each chapter in this section surveys important botanical characteristics, and botanical and horticultural varieties. A useful reference for pomologists and historians, providing access to the important older literature and information on the fruits of commerce of the period. Supplemented with an extensive glossary and subject index.

1D. Apples

47. Beach, Spencer Abrose, with Nathaniel O. Booth and Orrin M. Taylor. The Apples of New York. Albany, NY: J.B. Lyon Company, 1905. New York State Agricultural Experiment Station Report 1902/03, Pt. II. 2 vol. NAL 93.31 B35, ARB S95.E2

Apples of New York was the first report in an important series of monographs on hardy tree and small fruits, issued by pomologists at New York's Experiment Station during the period 1902 to 1925. Published in two volumes, the work provides indispensible documentation of apple varieties known at the start of this century. Their value extends beyond the state borders, due to the publication's broad coverage and careful, specific descriptions, which were based on information accumulated from Station observations and evaluations, as well as from other fruit growers in the state and elsewhere. Preliminary chapters consider botanical classification of the apple, development of apple culture in New York State, and varietal identity and adaption to particular regions. Together, the main portion of Vol. 1 and all of Vol. 2 describe hundreds of named varieties; the first covers winter apples (410 varieties) and the second, early-ripening varieties and crab apples (321 varieties). Each variety profile cites a list of authorities and synonyms, with general notes on suitability for New York (and sometimes elsewhere), historical data, and detailed technical descriptions of trees and fruit. Entries include varieties not recommended for New York culture because of inadequate productivity or fruit quality, and some fairly obsolete, but noted for their historical value. With attractive color and half-tone plates for a selection of varieties (indexed in Vol. 1), and lengthy list of 19th-C. authorities cited (Vol. 1). Each volume contains an index to technical terms and variety names, and Vol. 2 contains a combined index. Subsequent volumes in the series were completed under the direction of Ulysses P. Hedrick; see Pears of New York and related titles, entry 43, this volume.

48. Green, W. J., Paul Thayer, and J.B. Keil. Varieties of Apples in Ohio. Wooster, OH: Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, 1915. Bulletin/Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station no. 290. p. 31-184. NAL 100 OH3S (2) no.290

This 1915 publication reports on apple varietal characteristics, to assist orchardists in identifying and selecting suitable varieties. The main portion consists of technical descriptions, 1-2 pages in length, for 116 apples (from Arkansas to York Imperial); apples originating in North America, Western Europe, and Russia are included. Sketches provide information on varietal origin; tree appearance, hardiness, and productivity; and fruit appearance and qualities, including maturity season and best uses. Limitations and comparisons with other varieties are included, and some additional information on disease susceptibilities is provided in several tables. Report includes discussion and tabular data on varietal adaption, apple-growing areas of Ohio, apple quality, and culinary uses. Contains 20 black-and-white photographic plates showing representative fruits. With bibliography (sources cited in footnotes and within text; general reference sources, p. 32, and cider-making publications, p. 50).
Related work: Ohio apple evaluations are continued with C.W. Ellenwood's report, Varieties of Apples in Ohio II (Bulletin no. 411, 64 p.), which describes 155 additional cultivars.

49. Magness, J.R. Apples Varieties and Important Producing Sections of the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1941. Farmers' Bulletin/U.S. Department of Agriculture no. 1883. 32 p. NAL 1 Ag84F no.1883

This report from a USDA pomologist presents a variety of information on leading commercial apple varieties within the U.S., which, by the early 1940s, still included old kinds such as Ben Davis, Grimes Golden, Northern Spy, Gravenstein, Esopus Spitzenburg, and others. The author describes briefly the development of the commercial apple industry, citing changes in the leading varieties and increasing regional specialization which had, by the time of his writing, largely replaced the ubiquitous farmstead apple. He notes that "many low-quality varieties, formerly popular because of long-keeping in farm storages or because they would produce well under partial neglect, are being replaced by better quality kinds." For widespread acceptance, these improved kinds needed to be hardy and productive, bearing attractive fruits of good dessert quality with good storage and handling quality. A portion of the report describes the tree and fruit characteristics, pollination requirements, color characteristics, and relative disease susceptibilities of 30 varieties. Approximately two-thirds of the report surveys each of six geographic areas within the mainland U.S., citing climate and topographical features, factors affecting apple production, and principle varieties grown. Includes statistics on apple varieties of previous periods. With tables and maps.

50. Ragan, W.H. Nomenclature of the Apple: A Catalog of the Known Varieties Referred to in American Publications from 1804 to 1904. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry, 1905. Bureau of Plant Industry Bulletin no. 56. 395 p. NAL 1 P69B no. 56

A catalog of named varieties of American apples "offered to the fruit growers of the country [as] the only approximately complete and elaborate catalog of the nomenclature of the apple thus far published." Relying on American Pomological Society (APS) rules to correct and simplify apple nomenclature, the publication was designed to serve as a standard guide for future varietal names. Following an introduction outlining the work (with review of APS rules), the main section consists of tables listing varietal names; 14,000 in all, both leading names and synonyms, are arranged alphabetically in single-line entries. Authority information and synonyms follow each leading name, along with notes on origins and fruit attributes. The fruit qualities described are similar to those outlined for the pear (see W.H. Ragan's Nomenclature of the Pear, entry 44), and supplemented with notes on fruit use (as cider, dessert, family, kitchen, or market apples). The data provided are more or less complete, depending on the depth of information in the original sources. Supplemented with a bibliography listing more than 200 books, reports, periodicals, and catalogs, plus index.

51. Shaw, J.K. Descriptions of Apple Varieties. Amherst, MA: Massachusetts State College, 1943. Bulletin/Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station no. 403. 187 p. NAL 100 M38H (1) no.403

This report of a study by Massachusetts researchers was intended to assist commercial fruit growers, by identifying vegetative characteristics of apple varieties grown commonly during the 1940s. It consists of technical sketches of 91 varieties, with brief descriptions of trees, shoots and bark, leaves, and also prominent characteristics, including features that help to delineate similar varieties. With black-and-white photos.

52. Watts, R.L. Apples of Tennessee Origin. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee, Agricultural Experiment Station, 1896. Bulletin/Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Tennessee no. [35]. 34 p. NAL100 T25S (1) no. 35

For Tennessee farmers and fruit growers, a partial report derived from initial study of a collection of seedling apples originating in the state. Describes some two dozen varieties (from Allison to Wetmore) judged to be of "doubtless value" in their vicinity of origin, but largely untried for general orchard planting in other regions. Following a brief introduction to the purpose of the study, the varietal descriptions (which range from a couple paragraphs to several pages) include notes on history, fruit and tree characteristics, eating quality, and season. For some varieties, synonyms, assessments from the originator, and comparisons to other known types are noted. Descriptions of some of the more well-known varieties are meager, and some descriptions originate from published reports (such as A.J. Downing's Fruits and Fruit Trees of America, cited in entry 40, this volume). Fruits of some varieties are shown in black-and-white drawings.
Related work: A subsequent evaluation by the author appeared in 1897 with the title, Apples of Tennessee Origin: Second Report (Bulletin no. 39, 18 p., NAL 100 T25(1) no.39).

53. Woolverton, Linus. The Canadian Apple Growers Guide. Toronto: William Briggs, 1910. 264 p. NAL 93.31 W88

This early 20th-C. publication from a pomologist affiliated with the Dept. of Agriculture for Ontario was intended to serve as a reference guide for apple growers in Canada and the northern U.S., combining production advice with an inventory of Canadian varieties. Part I contains 20 chapters on topics that range from buying a farm and choosing varieties, to planting, culture, grafting, harvest, storage, marketing, pest control, and related subjects. Part II, comprising one-half of the book, consists of varietal sketches of apples--Alexander to Zusoff--originating, for the most part, in Canada, Russia, and the U.S. Information was based primarily on the writer's observations, supplemented with those of other pomologists, and correlated with published apple reports from pomological experts. Descriptions include notes on origins, tree and fruit characters, flesh qualities, general quality and use, season of maturity (applicable to the southern parts of Ontario), and for some, synonyms, commercial value, popularity, and reference to previous apple literature. Fruits from a portion of the named types are depicted in black-and-white photos. Part III lists varieties recommended for planting in various Ontario and Canadian apple districts. Includes varieties recommended for commercial or home use, grouped by relative ripening period. Lacks name index and complete bibliography.

2. Native American Agriculture and New World Crops

2A. General Subjects

54. Castetter, Edward F. and Willis H. Bell. Pima and Papago Indian Agriculture. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 1942. Inter-American Studies I. 245 p. NAL 31.1 C27

This report on the subsistence agriculture of the Pima and Papago Indians of Arizona served as the first volume of a scholarly series of monographs on cultural relations in Latin America and the American Southwest. Its content was based on the authors' field studies conducted during 1938-1940 among Pima and Papago informants from several Arizona territories, and supplemented with relevant data from historical, archaeological, and ethnographical literature. Chapter topics include an introduction to the culture and history of the Pimans (the name applied to the Pima-Papago group in the U.S. and Mexico; Ch. I); land, climate, and vegetation (Ch. II); early subsistence, including wild animal and plant use (Ch. III); cultivated food and fiber crops (Ch. IV); land selection, development, and ownership (Ch. V); agricultural implements (Ch. VI); planting, irrigation, and cultivation (Ch. VII); harvest, storage, and seed selection (Ch. VIII); cultivation and ceremonial use of tobacco (Ch. IX); and general ceremonial aspects of Piman agriculture (Ch. X). Ch. IV (p. 73-121) gives a detailed account of the uses of various types of maize, beans (kidney, lima, and tepary), pumpkins, gourds, cotton, tobacco, devil's claw (Martynia), wheat and barley, watermelons and muskmelons, cowpeas and other legumes, and chili peppers. Ch. VIII offers details for each of the crops mentioned in Ch. IV, including particular varietal uses. Text (without illustration) is supplemented with lengthy bibliography and subject index.
Related work: A subsequent volume by these same authors, with parallel content and format, is entitled Yuman Indian Agriculture: Primitive Subsistence on the Lower Colorado and Gila Rivers (University of New Mexico Press, 1951, 274 p., NAL 31.3 C27).

55. Parker, Arthur C. Iroquois Uses of Maize and Other Food Plants. New York State Museum Bulletin 144. Albany, NY: University of the State of New York, 1910. 119 p. NAL 500 N48B no. 144

An important ethnological study of the New York and Canadian Iroquois' cultivation and use of maize and other food plants, based on original inquiry and historical review. Part 1 (Section I throught X) concerns the culture and uses of maize (or Indian corn). Topics include early records of corn cultivation (e.g., origins, importance in early English colonies); customs of cultivation (dealing with topics ranging from land clearing and division of labor, to corn harvest and storage); corn in ceremony and legend; varieties of maize used by the Iroquois and other Eastern tribes; corn culture terminology; utensils and containers for food preparation; cooking and eating customs; particular foods made from corn (including ceremonial and unusual foods); and non-food uses of the corn plant for utility and ornament. Section V (p. 41-43) cites the use of several varieties of soft, flint, sweet, and pod corns. Part 2 covers other food plants, both domesticated and wild; Sections XI through XVIII consider cultivated crops (beans, squashes, melons), as well as wild food plants (including fruits, nuts, food roots, fungi and lichens, and other plant types and parts). For some plants there are descriptions of food dishes and circumstances of use, and relative values of certain foods. Common and botanical plant names, including plant and varietal names of corn, beans, cucurbits, and others in the Seneca language, are provided. Included is a list of the writer's informants, with published sources cited in footnotes; there is also a list of authorities quoted, plus subject index. With numerous black-and-white photos and illustrations of plants and other agricultural subjects. Reprinted in 1983 by Irografts Ltd, Ontario.
Related works: Parker's original text was reprinted in the first section of the 1968 volume entitled, Parker on the Iroquois (William N. Fenton, ed., Syracuse University Press, Book 1, p. 5-119; reissued 1981 and currently in print). This publication includes also Parker's The Code of Handsome Lake, and The Seneca Prophet (both in Book 2), and The Constitution of the Five Nations (Book 3), plus the editor's lengthy introduction consisting of biographical commentary and critique of Parker's work.

56. Sturtevant, E. Lewis. "Kitchen garden esculents of American origin." American Naturalist, vol. 19, no. 5 (May 1885) - vol. 19, no. 7 (July 1885) [for page nos., see description below]. NAL 470 Am36

This three-part series of articles in 1885 issues of American Naturalist dealt with common garden vegetables that were thought, at the time, to have New World origins. (For the alliums, Sturtevant notes that they are not natives, but cites documentation for their long history in the Americas.) Another series of articles by Sturtevant, also in American Naturalist and from the same period, is cited in entry 36 above.
Articles and subjects:
May 1885, p. 444-457: alkekengi (strawberry tomato or Physalis pubescens); beans (kidney, lima, asparagus, scarlet runner); cucumber; garlic, leeks, onion, chives
June 1885, p. 542-553: Jerusalem artichoke; Martynia species.; nasturtium species; Capsicum peppers; potato
July 1885, p. 658-669: pumpkins and squash; purslane; sweet corn; sweet potato; tomato

57. Wilson, Gilbert L., new introduction by Jeffrey R. Hanson. Buffalo Bird Woman's Garden: Agriculture of the Hidatsa Indians. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1987. 129 p. NAL E99.H6W337 1987

First published in 1917, this classic account of Native American agriculture is available today in reprint. It provides an oral history account of the food crops and cultivation practices of the Hidatsa tribe, as told to the author by Buffalo Bird Woman, an accomplished gardener who was born in 1839 and lived along the upper Missouri River in what is now North Dakota. Castetter and Bell (writing in 1942 in Pima and Papago Indian Agriculture; see also entry 54 this volume) cited the original publication as "the best account of the technique of Indian agriculture yet published." Anthropologist Gilbert Wilson translated and transcribed his informant's very detailed account of gardening activities throughout the year, from preparing fields for spring planting of corn, squash, beans, and sunflowers, to harvesting, processing, cooking, and food storage. Within the text are recipes for typical foods, and also stories, songs, and ceremonies that were essential for a generous harvest. The appearance and characteristics of particular crop varieties grown (including five distinct corn types), with particular uses for each, are described. In Wilson's words, the account is "[not] merely of Indian agriculture. It is an Indian woman's interpretation of economics; the thoughts she gave to her fields; the philosophy of her labors." Supplemented with numerous maps, diagrams, and other illustrations. The reprint edition includes an added selection of Wilson's original black-and-white photos, plus a general review of the work's significance, and introduction offering background information on the origins and lifeways of the Hidatsa people and Wilson's relationship with Buffalo Bird Woman's family. Text lacks subject index, but includes detailed table of contents. First published in 1917 with the title, Agriculture of the Hidatsa Indians: An Indian Interpretation, by Gilbert Livingstone Wilson (University of Minnesota, Studies in the Social Sciences no. 9, NAL 31.1 W69). The volume was reissued by Minnesota Historical Society Press in 1990, currently in print; available AL,BG,GC,NS,PN,PW,SB,SC,SS.

2B. Corn (Maize)

58. Abbott, Gail T. Varieties of Corn in Ohio. Wooster, OH: Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, 1911. Circular/Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station no. 117. p. 23-67. NAL 100 OH3S no.117

The author was assisted by Ohio corn farmers and grain dealers in compiling this report on the predominant corn varieties grown in the state during several years prior to 1911. Besides documenting the characteristics of regionally-important corn types, the author aimed also "to preserve for future generations a little of Ohio's local history as we find it written into one of her greatest crops." The report includes fairly lengthy descriptions of 27 varieties and crosses (Clarage, Rotten Clarage, Leaming, Reid's Yellow Dent, Monitor, Baker's Early, and Hackaberry among them), most of them developed by Ohio farmers. Includes black-and-white photos of ears of each named type. Descriptive summaries consider varietal origins, improvement efforts, plant and ear appearance, growth characteristics, and relationships to other named types. Report includes tabular data on corn varieties grown in each Ohio county, and for some corn types, the names of local farmers growing them.

59. Anderson, Edgar and William L. Brown. "The history of the common maize varieties of the United States Corn Belt." Agricultural History 26(1): 2-8 (Jan. 1952). NAL 30.98 Ag8

Describes the ancestry of Corn Belt hybrid varieties, including the common yellow dent cornsthat prevailed in the major corn production areas in the 19th C., the northern flints of the eastern U.S. and elsewhere, and the southern dents. Includes discussion of farmers' and corn breeders' improvements in open-pollinated varieties, starting in the 1840s, and relates the histories of several important varieties, including Virginia Gourdseed, Reid's Yellow Dent, and Lancaster Surecropper. With bibliography (sources cited in footnotes).

Go to: Contents of Volume 3 | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160 | Appendices (Volume 3)

60. Atkinson, Alfred and M.L. Wilson. Corn in Montana: History, Characteristics, Adaption. Bozeman, MT: Montana Agricultural College Experiment Station, 1915. Bulletin/Montana Agricultural Experiment Station no.107. p. 9-127. NAL 100 M76-1 no. 107

The purpose of this early 20th-C. report from Montana agronomists was to provide evidence of the suitability of certain corn types to the state's agronomic and climatic circumstances, and to support their conclusion that "the corn crop is destined to occupy an important place in Montana's agriculture." Part I considers briefly the economics of corn production in the principle corn-growing states of the Midwest, with reasons why it might also be profitably grown in Montana and other northwestern states. Part II considers the history of corn production by Native American tribes (among them the Arikara, Mandan, and Hidatsa of the upper Missouri River Valley) and also immigrant farmers in regions north of the "so-called" Corn Belt, and highly-adapted corn types well-suited to Montana. Part III discusses corn classification and describes five corn groups based on kernal type and earliness. This section (p. 50-92) contains fairly lengthy summaries of the origins, distribution, and characteristics of 26 varieties (those judged "most promising" for the Northwest), as well as more brief notes on several dozen additional named types. Part IV examines climatic factors that influence regional corn production. Part V presents data from 1913-1914 studies on traits (such as leaf area, tillering, stalk height, ear height and size) that aid the northern corn's adaption to short-season areas and differentiate them from Corn Belt types, with results of variety trials in several state locations. With numerous black-and-white illustrations and photos. Includes summary, p. 128, plus bibliography (sources cited in footnotes).

61. Biggar, H. Howard. "The old and the new in corn culture. " In: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Yearbook 1918. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1918. p. 123-36. NAL 1 Ag84Y 1918

A USDA scientist reviews corn production and its contemporary and prior role in American agriculture. Discussion is presented under the following section headings: Corn and the early colonies, Corn and the Indian, Kinds of corn grown by the Indians, Primitive seed-testing methods, Nettle seed tester, Primitive corn-planting methods (Indian cornfields, primitive tools), Plants as indicators of the season, Seed selection and storing, Indian corn foods, Primitive and modern methods of culture, Corn and the westward movement, Corn and the packing industry, Silo and the corn crop, Variations of the corn plant, and Corn and the struggle for democracy (i.e., during WWI). Types of Indian corn color varieties and current corn diversity are mentioned briefly. The article cites specific source publications but without complete citations. With black-and-white photos.

62. Brown, William L. and Edgar Anderson. "The northern flint corns." Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 34(1): 1-29 (Feb. 1947). NAL 451 M69

Considers the morphology, cytology, and archaeological and botanical history of the early-maturing northern flint corns, once widespread and commercially important in eastern North America, but "now little more than a curiosity in much of the region where they were formerly grown." Provides descriptions (in tabular notes) of 30+ varieties collected from the U.S. and Canada during 1946-1947, and discusses their contribution to modern Corn Belt dents. With black-and-white photographic plates, plus bibliography. The authors' study of North American corns continued with the report on southern dent corns (entry 63 below).

63. Brown, William L. and Edgar Anderson. "Thesouthern dent corns." Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 35(3): 255-268 [plus 6 plates, no. 18-23] (Sept. 1948). NAL 451 M69

As follow-up to their 1947 report on the northern flint corns (entry 62 above), here authors Brown and Anderson reviewed the history, morphology, and cytology of the dent corns of the U.S. South (many of them used extensively in developing the more highly derived Corn Belt varieties), and their value for future breeding programs. Includes early historical references and descriptions (in tabular notes) of several dozen old varieties, including Virginia Gourdseed, Shoepeg, Hickory King, and others. With bibliography.

64. Carter, George F. and Edgar Anderson. "A preliminary survey of maize in the southwestern United States." Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 32(3): 297-322 [plus unnumbered plate] (Sept. 1945). NAL 451 M69

This article reviews and offers preliminary classification of the types of maize cultivated in the U.S. Southwest, including traditional maize types grown by contemporary Hopi, Zuni, Pima, and other desert tribes, the prehistoric Basketmakers, and others. Includes several black-and-white photographic plates, and bibliography.

65. Erwin, A. T. "The origin and history of pop corn, Zea mays L. var. indurata (Sturt.) Bailey mut. everta (Sturt.) Erwin." Agronomy Journal 41(2): 53-56 (Feb. 1949). NAL 4 AM34P

The author defines and reviews existing knowledge regarding pop corn (or popcorn), with respect to its origins, uses, and varieties. His review of historical North American works revealed that pop corn was "conspicuously absent in the horticultural literature" prior to 1838, and apparently little known by pre-Columbian tribes. Erwin surmised that pop corn is a flint corn mutant, and that its relatively recent use grew out of Native Americans' use of parching corn. Includes bibliography.

66. Finan, John J. "Maize in the great herbals." Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 35(2): 149-191 (May 1948). NAL 451 M69

This article consists of a detailed review of the textual descriptions and illustrations of maize found in important 16th-C. and 17th-C. European herbals, which have provided a valuable chronicle of the kinds of maize used in Europe for the first centuries following its introduction. Includes reproductions from old woodcuts, and lengthy bibliography. Report was reissued separately in 1950, under the same title, by Chronica Botanica Company (NAL 452.2 F49).

67. Freeman, G.F. Papago Sweet Corn, A New Variety. Tucson, AZ: Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station, 1915. Bulletin/Agricultural Experiment Station no. 75. p. [453]-468, [2] leaves of plates. NAL 100 Ar4 no.75

An Arizona researcher reports herein on a new variety of sweet corn that was selected from crosses between two types of native corns obtained from Papago farmers in southern Arizona. His purpose to improve locally-adapted corns, author Freeman notes that "...we cannot hope to secure really high grade green corn for table use in Arizona until we are able to grow sweet corn locally." The narrative describes the results of four years of breeding and selection work to improve corn yield and ear size. Included also are results of pollination studies and varietal comparisons. Determined to be intermediate in moisture and sugar content among several field and sweet corns, Papago was found, by several yield criteria, to be "uniformly superior" to 15 popular Eastern sweet corns, and also more resistant to ear worms and corn smut; overall it was expected to produce "a fair crop" in southern Arizona or the Lower Colorado River Valley. The report concludes with planting advice and short discussion of controlling smut and ear worms in Arizona corn crops. Includes tabular data and several black-and-white photos.

68. Steece, Henry M. "Corn Culture Among the Indians of the Southwest." The Indian School Journal [U.S. Indian Training School, Chilocco, Oklahoma] 22(3): 8-19 (Oct. 1922). NAL 59.22 St3

Following a brief historical review of corn's role in agriculture and trade in the North American Southwest, the author, a USDA scientist, describes corn culture by contemporary Navajo, Hopi, and Zuni in northwestern New Mexico and northeastern Arizona. Topics include land and water use, corn planting methods (including techniques and ceremonies), agricultural implements, harvest, and seed selection. The corn color varieties grown by several groups are mentioned briefly. With black-and-white photos of people and field settings. (The article was reprinted from Natural History 21(4): 414-424, July/Aug. 1921, NAL 500 N483J. Also contained in this issue is a short article by Charles W. Mead, "Indian corn or maize," p. 409-413, on its traditional food uses.)

69. Sturtevant, E.L. Varieties of Corn. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1899. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Experiment Station Bulletin no. 57. 108 p. NAL 1 Ex6B no.57

This final summary of Dr. Sturtevant's 20-year study on maize and maize culture treats more than 770 maize varieties and synonyms, and includes classification of the assortment of closely-related forms into pod, pop, flint, dent, soft, and sweet corns. The text provides a general update on scientific knowledge of corn and its "exceedingly divergent forms," plus botanical and historical descriptions of the six corn groups. The larger portion of the report describes and classifies several hundred named varieties; for each there are brief notes on origins (with introduction date, and public or private source), synonyms, characteristics of the seed, ears, and plants for each, and relationships to other types. With a glossary of corn terms and index to variety names and synonyms. With bibliography (sources cited in footnotes).

70. Tapley, William T., Walter D. Enzie, and Glen P. Van Eseltine. The Vegetables of New York. Volume I, Part III: Sweet Corn. Albany, NY: J.B. Lyon Co., 1934. 111 p. NAL 91 H35, NAL SB321.N4 v.1 pt.3, ARB S95.E2 1928-

Part III in this four-part series covers the history of domesticated maize, in Ch. I; the systematic botany of maize and its close allies (sugarcane, sorghum, and others), along with a synonymy of maize varieties (i.e., a synthesis of historical names), in Ch. II; and descriptions of sweet corn varieties, in Ch. III. This last section, serving as the heart of the report (p. 14 onwards), covers several hundred white- and yellow-kernaled sweet corn varieties and other maize forms used in their immature stage as "sweet corn," with a list of obscure varieties (i.e., those with either scant documentation, unavailable for testing, or of minor importance). There are also general notes on trial conditions, the corn literature, and other topics, plus glossary of maize-related terms. Includes 23 full-page color plates depicting ears of 22 varieties and seeds of 30 varieties, plus bibliography and subject index. Issued as a report of the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station for the year ending June 30, 1934, and also called Sweet Corns of New York.
Related works: For general description of "The Vegetables of New York" series, see entry 32. The monograph on Phaseolus beans is cited in entry 91, and cucurbits monograph, entry 103.

71. Ten Eyck, A.M. and V.M. Shoesmith. Indian Corn. Manhattan, KS: Kansas State Agricultural College, Agricultural Experiment Station, 1907. Bulletin/Experiment Station, Kansas State Agricultural College no. 147. p. 225-295. NAL 100 K13S no. 147

This report documents two Kansas researchers' study of 112 dent corn varieties, which was undertaken during the years 1903 to 1906. Their results, presented in tabular format, identify the most productive varieties, with notes on corn type (yellow or white dent), seed source, days to maturity, yields, and seed traits. The text contains additional discussion of notable varieties, with extensive description of various cultivation parameters, and also breeding and selection work (this latter section considering general aspects and summarizing work done to improve varieties such as Reid's Yellow Dent, Hildreth, Silvermine, Kansas Sunflower, and others). Summary provided on p. 292-295. Includes black-and-white photos and diagrams, with bibliography (sources cited in footnotes).

72. Wallace, Henry A. and Earl N. Bressman. Corn and Corn Growing. 4th ed. New York: J. Wiley & Sons; London: Chapman & Hall, 1937. Wiley Farm Series. 436 p. NAL 59.22 W152 ed.4

First published in 1923 and revised in 1925, 1938, 1937, and 1949, and intended for used as a college textbook, this work is a practical guide to corn production and related aspects. In this 4th edition, corn production topics include planting, insect and disease control, yield testing, raising corn for fodder and silage, influence of temperature and rainfall, seed collection and testing, and related subjects. The authors address also such topics as corn plant development, botanical classification and races (dent, flint, sweet, soft, and others), corn breeding, historical and current economic role of corn, corn growing regions in the U.S., and production economics. Ch. 15 (p. 206-220) describes the 21 leading open-pollinated corn varieties used in different parts of the Corn Belt, with names of 100+ other important varieties and where each is (or was) grown. Includes black-and-white illustrations and photos, plus subject index and bibliography (references appending each chapter). The 5th edition (1949) containssignificantly less information on open-pollinated corn varieties, with updated agronomic practices and economics associated with hybrid corn production.

73. Weatherwax, Paul. Indian Corn in Old America. New York: Macmillan, 1954. 253 p. NAL 59.22 W37I

A treatise on the role of corn in Native American cultures, its aim to illustrate the vital role of the corn plant and associated systems of agriculture and household arts in pre-Columbian America. Drawing from an array of historical sources, the work centers largely on the situation encountered by Spanish explorers in the 16th C., with discussion of the Spanish encounter itself, and also corn's reception in the Old World, geographical centers of corn culture in the Americas, agricultural practices, corn-based foods and beverages, and other lesser-known corn products. Other topics include modern corn's botanical relationships, the search for its wild ancestor, corn's improvement as a food crop by native farmers, and the plant's mythological associations among New World cultures. Ch. 3 (p. 8-27) provides background information on historical sources (including South, Meso-, and North American documents, starting with Columbus' Journal) that chronicle the story of corn. Supplemented with black-and-white photos and illustrations, with a definitive bibliography citing important historical and current sources, and subject index.

74. Will, George F. and George E. Hyde. Corn Among the Indians of the Upper Missouri. Saint Louis, MO: William Harvey Miner Co., 1917. Little Histories of North American Indians [series]. 323 p. NAL 59.22 W66C

This study of the corn culture of native tribes of the upper Missouri River Valley examines corn planting and cultivation practices, corn harvest and storage, corn as food, corn as an article of trade among tribes andwith whites, the sacred character of corn (including corn origin myths), and corn ceremonies over the seasons. Ch. 8 (p. 284-317) describes varieties in use among 12 tribes (including the southwestern tribes), and their respective merits; among them are flint corns, 8-rowed flour corns, 12- or more rowed flour corns, and dent corns. The authors acknowledge their heavy reliance on Atkinson and Wilson's 1915 corn study from the Montana Agricultural Experiment Station (see Corn in Montana, entry 60, this volume), and note with regret that their own study should have been done 50 years earlier, before important representative corn varieties had been lost. The text includes photos of plant materials and other subjects. With bibliography (sources cited in footnotes) and subject index. Reprinted in 1976 by University of Nebraska Press, volume out of print.

2C. Tomatoes

75. Babb, M.F. and James E. Kraus. Results of Tomato Variety Tests in the Great Plains Region. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1939. Circular/U.S. Dept. of Agriculture no. 533. 12 p. NAL 1 Ag84C no.533

This report describes 18 tomato varieties, including better-known types (such as Bonny Best, Earliana, and Marglobe) and lesser-known varieties (Danmark, Penn State, Speed, and others) that were evaluated at the Cheyenne, Wyoming, field station and other sites. Descriptions, some fairly lengthy, consider varietal origins, earliness, plant and fruit appearance, and suitability for particular localities in the Great Plains region, and for garden or market use. With black-and-white photos.

76. Bailey, L.H. Notes on Tomatoes. Lansing, MI: Agricultural College of Michigan, 1886. Bulletin/Agricultural College of Michigan no. 19. 15 p. NAL100 M58S no.19

One of the earliest comparative studies of extant tomato varieties, this report by Professor Bailey consists of evaluation of 76 "so-called varieties" sold by U.S. seedhouses. The summary provides notes on the qualities of known varieties (grouped according to fruit color and shape), with synonyms used in the seed trade, and also tabular data noting seed suppliers, germination times, fruit yields, and percent "rot" (an increasingly serious fungal condition). Includes commentary on contemporary limitations in scientific knowledge of tomatoes, and problems with seed quality and varietal identity--"the varieties [having] grown so numerous and their individual merits so evenly praised" so as to confound the inexpert tomato grower. With bibliography.

77. Bailey, L.H. Notes on Tomatoes. Lansing, MI: Agricultural College of Michigan, 1887. Bulletin/Agricultural College of Michigan no. 31. p. 66-88. NAL100 M58S no.31

This 1887 report continues the author's previous year's study of tomato varieties (reported in Bulletin no. 19, entry 76 above). For this follow-up publication, 110 named varieties from American and several leading European seedsmen were evaluated. For each of several dozen types there is a paragraph of description, along with synonyms and foreign name translations; the tomatoes include "common market," cherry, currant, and pear and plum types. For several varieties, there are tabular data on seed origins, fruit size, and seed production. The summary names 11 "best varieties" for market, among them Paragon, Queen, Puritan, and 8 others. The report provides general discussion of tomato nomenclature, trade names, and descriptions, plus review of tomato culture and tomato rot. With line drawings of plants and fruits. (The tomato section of this bulletin is followed by reports on peppers, alliums (onions and garlic), and fruits, which are not otherwise cited in this resource guide.)

78. Boswell, Victor R., et al. Descriptions of Types of Principal American Varieties of Tomatoes. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1933. Miscellaneous Publication/U.S. Department of Agriculture no. 160. 23 p. [31 p. of plates] NAL 1 Ag84M no.160

This 1933 publication on tomatoes served as the first volume in a series of reports from USDA researchers, whose purpose was to distinguish standard vegetable varieties in commercial trade. It presents the results from a collaborative study of the characteristics of nine common cultivars that were introduced to the seed trade during the period 1889-1925, and which, at the time of the study, were estimated to account for 90 percent of tomatoes grown in the U.S. Responding to concerns of seed and vegetable growers and canners, the researchers' purpose was to identify and delineate varieties that might serve as standards against which others could be judged. For those in the seed or horticultural trade, such efforts would improve seed reliability, help identify misnamed varieties, and support further improvement of chosen varieties; and for the seed-buying public, they would serve to "eliminate the hundreds of 'so-called' varieties in commercial trade that often are not distinctly different." The bulk of the report consists of 1-2 page descriptions of each of nine varieties grown for market, home, or canning use (including Earliana, Bonny Best, Globe, Marglobe, Early Detroit, Greater Baltimore, Stone, Santa Clara), with notes on fruit and plant characteristics. Also includes descriptions of methodologies used. With black-and-white plates, and color plates of plants and fruits.
Related works: For the companion reports on standard vegetable types, which were issued during the 1934-1941 period, see the publications by W.W. Tracy and his associates, cited in entry 37, this volume.

79. Friend, W.H. Tomato Varieties and Fertilizers for the Lower Rio Grande Valley. College Station, TX: Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, 1931. Bulletin/Texas Agricultural Experiment Station no. 438. 38 p. NAL 100 T31S (1) no.438

Texas researchers report herein a study of 50+ tomato varieties, offering their findings with respect to relative yields, fruit size and uniformity, maturity, and other characteristics, all of which are presented in tabular format. Includes also more lengthy description of 10 noteworthy varieties that seemed better adapted to the region, although none were judged to approach the "ideal" commercial type. The summary (p. 37-38) names Bonny Best, John Baer, Clark's Early, and several others as most suitable for market use. Includes bibliography, with black-and-white photos of tomato fruits.

Go to: Contents of Volume 3 | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160 | Appendices (Volume 3)

80. Livingston, A.W. Livingston and the Tomato: Being the History of Experiences in Discovering Choice Varieties Introduced by Him, with Practical Instructions for Growers. Columbus, OH: A.W. Livingston, 1893. 172 p. NAL SB349.L58

Alexander Livingston was an Ohio horticulturist and seedsman who made important early contributions to the improvement of tomato varieties for the tomato trade (and also the home garden) during the 1870s to 1890s. (Some of Livingston's varieties that were presumed extinct have resurfaced in recent years among Seed Savers Exchange's member network.) In this book, he cites briefly the merits of 13 improved varieties, including Paragon, Acme, Perfection, and Beauty, and how they served particular demands of the tomato market. There is also brief discussion of selection methods used, and his recommendations for improving the North American seed trade of the time. A portion of the book is devoted to description of methods for commercial tomato cultivation (from seedsowing and crop management, to harvest), along with recipes for several dozen food and medicinal uses for tomatoes, and a state-by-state market review for 1891-1892. The text is prefaced by a biographical profile (p. 7-15) of A.W. Livingston. With black-and-white photos, plus subject index. Reissued by Ohio State University Press (1998), with new foreword by Andrew F. Smith (author of Tomato in America; see entry 169, this volume), and appendix containing color plates of tomato varieties, and current sources. Reprinted volume currently in print; available SS.

81. Newman, C.C. Notes on Varieties of Tomatoes; Barre, H.W. Tomato Diseases. Clemson College, SC: South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, 1910. Bulletin/South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station no. 153. 36 p. NAL 100 So8 (1) no.153

In the first section (p. 1-30) of this 1910 report, a South Carolina researcher presents the results obtained from studying 42 tomato varieties, including "novelties" and "untried" types. The best early and general crop tomatoes among them are noted. Tabular data summarizing information on fruit yields, ripening dates, fruit color, form, and flavor, and other features are included. With black-and-white photos of individual fruits.

82. Taft, L.R. and M.L. Dean. Tomatoes and Potatoes. Agricultural College, MI: Michigan State Agricultural College Experiment Station, 1904. Bulletin/Michigan Agricultural Station no. 214. p. 13-22. NAL 100 M58S no.214

This report of tomato evaluations in Michigan consists of brief notes (1-2 lines each) on 80+ varieties, including seed source information and observations regarding vine hardiness, fruit size and color, etc. The tomatoes included red and yellow types, the latter judged to be "of especial value for preserving purposes." (A report on potato varieties with brief descriptions of several dozen early and late-maturing varieties follows, p. 18-22.)

83. Werner, H.O. Tomatoes for North Dakota. Fargo: ND: North Dakota Agricultural College, Government Agricultural Experiment Station for North Dakota, 1915. Bulletin/North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station no. 111. p. 209-232. NAL 100 N813 no.111

This 1915 report consists of a North Dakota field station researcher's study of 87 tomato varieties (122 strains), which was intended to provide a basis for future breeding work. Along with general information on tomato cultural experiments, it provides descriptions of early-maturing tomatoes (Earliana, June Pink, and others), medium-early types (Globe, Stone, and others), and more briefly, several small-fruited and colorful "novelties." Includes tabular data on seed source yields, fruit color and shape, and other characteristics. Summary (p. 232) names Bonny Best, Chalk's Jewel, June Pink, and a few others as best for the region.

84. White, Thomas H., J.B.S. Norton, and J.F. Monroe. Tomatoes: Varieties, Diseases, Culture. College Park, MD: Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station, 1914. Bulletin/Maryland Agricultural Station no. 180. p. 89-134. NAL 100 M36S no.180

Consists of separate reports from each author; Part 1, "Tomato variety and planting tests" covers p. 89-102. Maryland researchers evaluated some of the "old standard" tomatoes, as well as "novelties" available from American seedsmen. Tabular data present the results of variety trials conducted during 1907-1913, with information on fruit yields, maturity, and harvest period for some 20 varieties, among them Alexander Livingston's introductions--Acme, Beauty, Paragon, and others. (See Livingston and the Tomato, entry 80, this volume, for more information on Livingston's tomatoes.) Greater Baltimore and Bonny Best were consistently high yielders; a dozen other types (including reds, pinks, and irregular-shaped tomatoes) were also judged superior. Contains black-and-white photos in the "Tomato culture" section (p. 114-134).
Related work: For an earlier report on tomato variety testing at the Maryland field station, see T.H. White's and W.R. Ballard's 1906 report, Tomatoes: Testing Varieties, Culture, Training and Spraying (Bulletin no. 113, p. 89-112, NAL 100 M36S no. 113).

85. Yeager, A.F. Tomato Breeding. Fargo, ND: Agricultural Experiment Station, North Dakota Agricultural College, 1933. Bulletin/North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station no. 276. 20 p. NAL 100 N813 no.276

In this 1933 report, North Dakota researchers discussed methods used in current tomato breeding work, and their objectives--to enhance earliness and to produce uniform color varieties. Includes review of the origins and features of Bison, Fargo Yellow Pear, Golden Bison, Pink Heart, and several other varieties. With black-and-white photos, plus bibliography.

2D. Capsicum Peppers

86. Erwin, A.T. The Peppers. Ames, IA: Agricultural Experiment Station, Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts, 1932. Bulletin/Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station no. 293. p. 117-152. NAL 100 Io9 no.293

A comprehensive treatment of Capsicum botany and horticultural groupings, culture, and diseases. Following a brief survey of pepper history, the report reviews pepper botany and horticulture, including the role of capsaicin in pepper pungency, flower and fruit production, and other topics, with a key to identification of cultivated Capsicum groups. The following section (and the bulk of the report) describes eight pepper groups and subgroups based on fruit characteristics: tabasco, cayenne, cherry, celestial, perfection, tomato, bell, and yellow bell. For each there is discussion of botanical features, uses in commerce, history, and notable cultivars, ending with a list of representative cultivars (more than 130 total). The author notes that over 200 cultivars were studied (and while this group included a large proportion of synonyms, alternate names were not sorted out in the report itself). He discusses the increase in varietal names over the previous century, and to shorten the lists of varieties ("only a few of ... outstanding merit"), emphasizes in this publication each group's general characteristics, as yielded under Iowa conditions. Cultivation aspects, production areas, important diseases, and pepper usage in food and medicine are discussed briefly. With black-and-white line drawings and photos, plus bibliography.

87. Tracy, William W., Jr. A List of American Varieties of Peppers. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1902. USDA Bureau of Plant Industry Bulletin no. 6. 19 p. NAL 1 P69B no.6

Intended to help overcome existing confusion and redundancy in pepper varietal names (often enhanced by seed sellers, as the author notes, and denoting either real or imagined differences), this report consists of a register of names of garden peppers (both sweet and hot) sold by seedhouses in the U.S. and Canada in 1901. For each varietal name, arranged alphabetically, there are coded lists of seedsmen who sold each variety in that year, followed by a list of "similar names" (meaning closely related names assigned by different seedsmen, whether for like or unlike varieties), and also "seedsmen's synonyms" (names assigned by seedsmen in catalogs, which for some may be misapplied). A list of seedsmen and their locations occurs separately. This work deals only with nomenclature and commercial availability, and descriptive information on the varieties named is lacking. (As noted in the preface, it was intended to serve as preamble for a subsequent work describing the qualities of various advertised varieties of seeds, to aid the "progressive cultivator" to select varieties best suited to a particular location, soil, climate, and use.)

2E. Phaseolus Beans

88. Bailey, L.H. The Pole Lima Beans. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, 1896. Bulletin (Cornell University, Agricultural Experiment Station no. 115. p. 344-372. NAL 100 N48C(1) no.115

In this 1896 report on the pole limas, 13 named varieties are described (p. 350-359), each variety grouped within one of the two tribes: the sieva (or Carolina) limas, and the "true" limas, i.e., the flat (or large-seeded) and potato limas. Also profiled are the so-called horticultural limas (a form of Phaseolus vulgaris) and the Chickasaw limas (Conavalia ensiforis, Jack or horse bean). Descriptions (generally one paragraph long for named varieties) provide information on history, appearance of pods and seeds, earliness, merits, and seed origin. Includes a narrative on growing methods in New York State (with mention of the best varieties in terms of yield, quality, and earliness, p. 368), and also in southern California, the largest lima bean producing area in the world. With black-and-white drawings of plant parts presented throughout the text.
Related work: This report on pole lima beans extends the author's evaluation of the dwarf limas, which was reported the previous year. The earlier report, which provided more comprehensive information on the botany and history of the lima beans, is entitled, Dwarf Lima Beans (Bulletin no. 87, 1895, p. 78-101, NAL 100 N48C(1) no.87).

89. DuPre, J.F.C. Notes on Varieties of Beans. Fort Hill, SC: South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, 1893. Bulletin/South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station no. 10. 8 p. NAL 100 So8 (1) no.10

In this late 19th-C. report, a South Carolina researcher presents findings from a study of the Phaseolus beans, which included 34 varieties of "bunch or dwarf" beans and 8 varieties of pole or "running" beans. (Each of these groups includes both common and lima beans.) For each variety there are 2-4 lines providing data on seed source, yield, earliness, pod and seed appearance, and pod stringiness. Summary (p. 8) includes notes on the best beans of each type; several dwarf beans were found superior, and among the pole beans, Golden Wax and Early Golden Cluster Wax "cannot be surpassed." Cultivation methods and anthracnose susceptibility are briefly noted.

90. Freeman, G.F. Southwestern Beans and Teparies. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, 1912. Bulletin/Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station no. 68. p. 573-619 [ plus 6 leaves of plates]. NAL 100 Ar4 no.68

This report from an Arizona researcher provides general discussion and varietal information on the tepary and other beans native to the arid Southwest, the author noting that although teparies are well known among native peoples, they have been ignored in the horticultural literature. The account provides detailed discussion of the botanical relationships among frijoles and tepary beans--each recognized as distinct by native farmers--the former type a kidney bean, and the latter a distinct species formerly recognized only in the wild state. Included for each type are descriptions of several named varieties, as well as several dozen designated as "color types" (some occurring as admixtures and found to breed true upon selection). The report includes terms used for various native beans by local tribes, with discussion of the food value of the teparies and methods used for bean production under both dry-farming and irrigation conditions. Tabular data on yields for a number of teparies and other beans grown under various conditions, with brief discussion of markets and prices, are provided. The authors identified 23 distinct frijoles and 47 distinct teparies, noting their superior adaption to the region and their potential as a money crop for local farmers. With summary, p. 617-619. Includes color plates of 70 types of bean seeds, and black-and-white photos and line drawings of plants.

91. Hedrick, U.P., et al. The Vegetables of New York. Volume I, Part II: The Beans. Albany, NY: J.B. Lyon Company, 1931. 110 p. NAL 91 H35, NAL SB321.N4 v.1, pt.2, ARB S95 E2 1928-

Part II of this four-volume series from the New York Agricultural Experiment Station is concerned primarily with the Phaseolus beans, including common (or kidney) beans, limas, and runner beans. Chapter I surveys in detail the bean's history of cultivation, with notes on development of horticultural varieties in the U.S. Ch. II summarizes the systematic botany of beans and their allies. Ch. III, the heart of the work (p. 17 onwards), presents varietal descriptions grouped into six classes: pole garden beans (green or wax pods), dwarf garden beans (green or wax pods), horticultural (or shell) beans (pole or dwarf), field beans, lima beans (pole or dwarf), and runner beans. This section includes description of testing methodologies, discussion of name format used, and glossary of terms, and cites important bean publications. Like other reports in this series, the varietal descriptions include keys to literature references, synonyms, source history (and pedigree information when available), and notes on plant, pod, and seed characters. Some obscure types are grouped among the more important commercial and home garden bean varieties. Color photos depict representative plants and pods, and for the majority of varieties, the seeds also. With bibliography and subject index. Report known also as Beans of New York.
Related works: For general description of the "Vegetables of New York" series, see entry 32. For the companions to this treatise on beans, see entry 70 for the sweet corn monograph, and entry 103 for the cucurbit monograph.

92. Irish, H.C. Garden Beans as Esculents. Twelfth Annual Report of the Missouri Botanical Garden. St. Louis, MO: The Garden, 1901. p. 81-165 [plus 10 plates]. NAL 91.56 Ir4

During the years 1898 to 1901, the author studied all bean varieties that could be obtained from American and European seedhouses. This publication reports on his evaluations of named types of Phaseolus species (P. vulgaris, P. lunatus, and P. multiflorus), as well as Dolichos species., Vigna catjang, Glycine hispida, and Vicia faba. Includes brief review of current knowledge of bean taxonomy and nomenclature, discusses classification systems (by use, pod color, etc.), and for each genus, a key to identifying species; there is also description of cultivation techniques and disease problems. The bulk of the report profiles several dozen bean varieties (for the limas and common (or kidney), runner, and broad (or fava) beans), and also several varieties of hyacinth beans, yardlongs, and soybeans. For each named type, there is precise description of plant, pod, and seed, along with comments on productivity, earliness, etc., and reference to the plate number depicting each seed. For some varieties, there is origin information, along with names in translation (including German names, and French names from Vilmorin's catalog or 1885 Vegetable Garden, the latter cited in entry 39, this volume), and synonyms from other sources (including Fearing Burr's 1863 Field and Garden Vegetables of America, entry 31, this volume). Includes black-and-white photographic plates showing 166 seed specimens, with line drawings of plants of each species. With indexes to bean names and synonyms, plus lengthy bibliography (sources cited in footnotes). Also known by its cover title, Garden Beans.

93. Jarvis, C.D. American Varieties of Beans. Ithaca: NY: Cornell University, 1908. Bulletin (Cornell University, Agricultural Experiment Station) no. 260. p. 149-255. NAL 100 N48C(1) no.260

A comprehensive report from New York bean specialists, on the diversity and utility of garden beans grown in the U.S. for home and market use. The bulk of the report (p. 181-243) consists of detailed descriptions of known varieties, including synonyms in use (and "confusing names"--those that are distinct but might be thought similar), origin and introduction by seed companies, appearance of plants and seeds, comments on productivity and utility, and comparisons with other varieties. This section covers 150+ common (or kidney) beans (including dwarf and pole, wax- and green-podded types), 30 limas (small and large, dwarf and pole types), 5 runner beans (Phaseolus multiflorus), 3 broad (or English) beans (Vicia faba), and 1 asparagus bean (Dolichos sesquipedalis). Also described: the black bean (or cowpea, Vigna catjang), and soy bean (Glycine hispida), each existing in "many varieties" (unnamed) that differ in seed color and size. Desirable bean varieties for home use, fresh market, canning, and other purposes are listed (p. 162-164). The report includes commentary on the production of new bean varieties in the U.S., and discussion of bean classification and nomenclature (including a dichotomous key to seed identification and existing varietal name confusion), bean culture, and insect enemies and diseases. Sixteen plates in color and black-and-white depict the seeds and pods of the more distinctive varieties featured within the text. With bibliography (sources cited in footnotes), plus index to bean names.

94. Mackie, W.W. "Origin, dispersal, and variability of the lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus." Hilgardia 15: 1-29 (1943). NAL 100 C12H

The author draws from early records of explorers, botanists, and archaeologists in this account of the lima bean's origins in Guatemala, and the subsequent pre-Columbian dispersal of three distinct lines to the southern U.S. (the Hopi branch), Central America (Carib branch), and the northwest coast of South America (Inca branch), and their further development. Author Mackie notes that each of these three branches has contributed to modern horticultural varieties of Phaseolus lunatus. Lima bean nomenclature and taxonomy, with discussion of climatic adaptations, breeding and inheritance, and other topics are reviewed. Numerous types of limas, including named varieties, are mentioned throughout the text of the report. With bibliography, plus color plates illustrating the seeds mentioned in the text, including 43 types from the Hopi branch, which were collected in the U.S. from Native American and commercial sources.

95. Pearl, Raymond and Frank M. Surface. Studies on Bean Breeding. I. Standard Types of Yellow Eye Beans. Orono, ME: Maine Agricultural Experiment Station, 1915. Bulletin/Maine Agricultural Experiment Station no. 239. p. 161-176. NAL 100 M28S (1) no.239

Maine bean breeders discuss their efforts and accomplishments in producing true-breeding strains of Yellow Eye beans, at the time the most popular variety grown in the state. The report includes discussion of the two principal classes, the Old-fashioned Yellow Eye and Improved Yellow Eye (or Boston Yellow Eye) beans, along with detailed description of size, shape, and color characteristics proposed for standard types of each, to meet contemporary demands from bean buyers in the Boston market. Includes a brief overview of current bean production in Maine, with commentary from Boston bean marketers on the bean standards, and also brief discussion of the popularity of each type within and beyond the state. The report is supplemented with color and black-and-white plates depicting desirable and undesirable bean seeds of each type. The bibliography cites only W.W. Tracy's comprehensive 1907 report on American garden bean varieties, cited in entry 96 just below.

96. Tracy, W.W., Jr. American Varieties of Garden Beans. Bureau of Plant Industry Bulletin no. 109. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry, 1907. 173 p. NAL 1 P69B no.109

A continuation of extensive work by William Woodbridge Tracy, Jr., and his colleagues, to catalog American garden vegetable diversity at the start of the 20th C. This work was undertaken to serve as a standard reference to document the qualities of existing garden beans--the author noting that the increasing number of vegetable varieties had created "a confused condition." At the time, beans rated second to potatoes in terms of vegetable importance in the U.S., and second in crop value. The preliminary portion of this report surveys briefly the botany of garden and field bean species (Phaseolus, Vigna, Vicia, and others), provides a classification and identification key, and then describes the variety forms (in terms of plant, pod, and seed characters) for bush and pole kidney beans (or common beans, P. vulgaris) and lima beans (P. lunatus). Following is a summary listing desirable varieties for home or market use. The main body of the report (p. 37-132) consists of descriptions of distinct varieties, totalling 185 types with 400 names; these are grouped according to plant habit and pod color, for the kidneys and limas, and included are brief accounts of the (fewer) available types of asparagus, runner, and English broad bean varieties. Each varietal description provides information on the years examined; numbers of seedsmen who list each; plant, pod, and seed appearance; quality and other comparisons with similar varieties; synonyms; history of introduction; and key to illustrations. Following is an alphabetical "Catalog of variety names" covering virtually all garden and field beans available commercially in the U.S. (Included are some found to be duplicates of distinct types.) With black-and-white photos depicting each variety's seed and pods (and for some, leaf types), plus name and subject index.
Related works: For related USDA publications on various standard vegetable varieties, see entry 37 (for lettuce, cabbage, onions, carrots, beets, spinach, and garden peas), and entry 78 for Victor R. Boswell et al.'s study of tomatoes.

2F. Squashes and Pumpkins (Cucurbita species)

97. Bailey, L.H. "The domesticated cucurbitas." Gentes Herbarum (The Kinds of Plants) 2: 62-115 (1929). NAL 450 B15

Professor Bailey remarks in this report that the familiarity and utilitarian usage of the pumpkin tribes have limited our appreciation of these crops, which are "amongst the marvels of the vegetable world," in their "many unusual and extravagant characters." With this publication, he sought to engender greater interest in, and appreciation of, the horticultural and biological aspects of the many cultivated cucurbit varieties. Topics include the botanical and geographic origins of pumpkins and squash; cross-breeding and hybridizing studies (terms noted to have been supplanted by "plant breeding"); "Inside the pepo" (on the fruit structure in Cucurbita pepo); Linnaeus'taxonomic assessment of Cucurbita and how the five species he recognized were currently regarded; systematic treatment of the cultivated cucurbits; the turban squashes of C. maxima (whose fruit structure resembles "a squash within a squash"); and an updated synonymy of published botanical names within the cultivated Cucurbita group. The systematics portion (comprising the bulk of the report, p. 86-108) includes discussion of various vernacular names for this plant group, plus botanical descriptions of C. pepo, C. maxima, C. moschata, and C. fiscifolia (this section including only passing mention of notable varieties for each). Plants and plant parts are depicted in photos and line drawings, including drawings from old botanical works. Bibliographic references are cited within the text.

98. Batson, W.A., ed. The Cucurbits, Illustrated. Waterloo, NE: J.C. Robinson Seed Co., 1937. 148 p. NAL 91.51 B32

From a Nebraska seed company, this publication describes several dozen types of cultivated cucurbits, including cucumbers, watermelons, banana squash, cushaw and cheese pumpkins, and Jack o'lanterns, the selection including old favorites and new introductions. For each plant group, there are 1-2 pages reviewing commercial production, plant breeding work, and related topics. For each variety, there is a brief synopsis of its physical characteristics, principle use (e.g., for shipping or home use), relative maturity, and other notable features, such as disease resistance. Fruits of each variety are shown in black-and-white photos. This publication, which was issued to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the company's founding, updates the first edition issued in 1925. Citing the large turnover in cucurbit varieties and types during this period (some 45 new varieties were added and 45 old varieties had become obsolete), the editor noted the existence of "highly competitive markets demand[ing] improved qualities and uniformity in products of every kind." The booklet contains also several pages of discussion on cucurbit breeding, diseases, and insects.

99. Castetter, E.F. and A.T. Erwin. A Systematic Study of Squashes and Pumpkins. Ames, IA: Agricultural Experiment Station, Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, 1927. Bulletin/Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station no. 244. p. 105-135. NAL 100 Io9 no.244

In this report, the authors worked to sort out confusing nomenclature within the horticultural literature (and also names used by the lay person) for the squashes and pumpkins, and the varieties of each grown within the U.S. It discusses basic differences between the two groups, including whether they "mix," and botanical origins. The major portion of the report describes species, groups, and varieties of pumpkins (C. pepo and C. moschata, p. 112-127) and squashes (C. maxima, p. 127-135). Profiles of 39 pumpkin varieties and 29 squashes, each varying from several lines to more lengthy commentary, consider appearance, merits, and origins, including the seed company that introduced or listed a given variety, and synonyms for more standard names. (Similar group descriptions were presented in the 1929 report by Erwin and Haber, entry 101, this volume.) With black-and-white photos and line drawings, plus bibliography (source materials cited in footnotes).

Go to: Contents of Volume 3 | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160 | Appendices (Volume 3)

100. Corbett, L.C. Squashes. Brookings, SD: South Dakota Agricultural College and Experiment Station, 1895. Bulletin/South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station no. 42. p. 77-92. NAL 100 So82 (1) no.42

South Dakota researchers tested the suitability of 13 "squash" varieties for cultivation in the state, and also investigated the lack of fruit production typically reported by growers. Their report contains brief discussion of pollination processes among squashes, seeding and cultivation methods, and insect enemies. Included also are results of varietal testing of 13 types (among them Cucurbita pepo, C. moschata, and C. maxima), with notes on appearance and merits for market or home growers; Summer Crookneck was found to be the best early variety, and Pike Peak and Sibly Squash, the highest-yielding. Lack of fruit set was attributed to the absence of pollinators, which, for home use, might be remedied by hand pollination.

101. Erwin, A.T. and E.S. Haber. Species and Varietal Crosses in Cucurbits. Ames, IA: Agricultural Experiment Station, Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts, 1929. Bulletin/Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station no. 263. p. 346-372. NAL 100 Io9 no.263

This publication from Iowa researchers reports on early work done to elucidate genetic relationships among pumpkins and squashes. It includes commentary on the origins and and horticultural history of the pumpkin species, Cucurbita pepo and C. moschata, and the true squashes, C. maxima. Brief botanical descriptions of the major groups within each species, and several varietal names for each group, are provided. In addition, there is discussion of the relationship of inbreeding among the squashes and pumpkins, to resulting vigor and productivity, and the results of species and intervarietal crosses (the authors concluding that, providing the varieties are grouped as above, the squashes and pumpkins don't cross-breed). Conclusions (p. 369-372) include the names of several dozen commercial cultivars and synonyms; p. 359 lists the origins of several varieties used in the study. With black-and-white photos and line drawings, and bibliography (sources cited in footnotes).

102. Gregory, James J.H. Squashes: How to Grow Them. Rev. ed. Marblehead, MA: James J.H. Gregory, 1893. 94 p. NAL 91.51 G86

Most of this "pocket guide" to squashes and squash production addresses cultivation parameters, including fertilizing, seeding, fruit set, insect pests, harvest, storage, and marketing, along with discussion of seed saving. Twelve winter squash varieties are described; they include the fleshy-stemmed Hubbard squash, which the author named and introduced to the public, plus American Turban, Autumnal Marrow, Marblehead, and others, along with the woody-stemmed Crookneck, Yokohama, Cashaw, and others. Included also are briefer sketches of several summer squash varieties. The fruits of named types are depicted in black-and-white drawings. The more lengthy summaries include information on varietal histories (sometimes quite detailed), plus comments on appearance, quality, and comparisons with similar types. First published in 1867 (New York: O. Judd & Co., 69 p., NAL 91.51 G86, NAL 91.42 G86C). For information on additional summer, fall, and winter squashes, the reader is referred to the "excellent work," Field and Garden Vegetables of America (cited in entry 31, this volume), by author Gregory's friend, Fearing Burr.

103. Tapley, William T., Walter D. Enzie, and Glen P. Van Eseltine. The Vegetables of New York. Volume I, Part IV: The Cucurbits. Albany, NY: J.B. Lyon Company, 1937. 131 p. NAL 91 H35, NAL SB321.N4 v.1, pt. 4, ARB S95 E2 1928-

Serves as the fourth segment of the "Vegetables of New York" series, from the New York Agricultural Experiment Station. This comprehensive treatise on the cultivated cucurbits contains introductory chapters on their history (Ch. I) and systematic botany (Ch. II). Ch. III covers the squashes and pumpkins, with botanical classifications, horticultural histories, and varietal descriptions of Cucurbita maxima, C. pepo, and C. moschata. In similar format, Ch. 4 covers muskmelons and Ch. 5, cucumbers (Cucumis species). Dozens of varieties in each group are described, with synonyms and details on plant and fruit characters, varietal history, comparisons with other named types, and a listing of literature references keyed to the bibliography. The volume is appended with a brief account of methods used, glossary, and detailed subject index. Vivid color plates (61 total) depict the fruits of 24 squashes and pumpkins, 13 muskmelons, and 24 cucumbers. Volume sometimes called Cucurbits of New York.
Related works: For general description of the series, see entry 32. For the companions to this treatise on the cucurbits, see entry 70 for the report on sweet corn, and entry 91 for the report on Phaseolus beans (each cited in this volume).

104. Yeager, A.F. and E. Latzke. Buttercup Squash: Its Origin and Use. Fargo, ND: Agricultural Experiment Station, North Dakota Agricultural College, 1932. Bulletin/North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station no. 258. 19 p. NAL 100 N813 no.258

In 1922 North Dakota researchers Yeager and Latzke undertook a squash breeding program that was initially focused on the Hubbard squash. Their aim was to develop a desirable variety that would take the place of the sweet potato, which had proved unsatisfactory in variety testing in the region. This report, issued ten years hence, describes the origin of the Buttercup variety, a small turban-shaped squash selected from an accidental cross of Quality and Essex Hybrid, and also considers growing methods and the variety's cooking and food qualities. A good portion of the bulletin consists of general instructions for cooking and several dozen recipes (p. 13-19). With black-and-white photos, and bibliography (sources cited in footnotes).

2G. Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum)

105. Clark, C.F. and P.M. Lombard. Description of and Key to American Potato Varieties. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1946. Circular/United States Department of Agriculture no. 741. 50 p. NAL Ag84C no.741

This USDA publication describes 53 potato varieties of North American and also foreign origin, including cultivars currently or formerly commercially important. H.M. Darling, writing in the 1959 Potato Handbook (see entry 106 below), called it "one of the most significant contributions on the subject to date." Thirty-nine cultivars--Blue Victor to White Rose--are described in detail, with names (earliest known or best known), synonyms, origins, detailed descriptions of plants, flowers, and tubers, and miscellaneous notes on commercial use, breeding, geographic importance, disease resistance, etc. Also provided are more brief profiles of 14 varieties that no longer exist, or have disappeared from commercial use but are grown locally in home gardens. According to the authors, some of these were once commercial types; others are newer introductions that do not conform to market standards, or produce purple-fleshed tubers and are grown in gardens due to their "special qualities." The report reviews the literature on potato varieties and classification schemes in Europe and American (primarily early 20th-C. studies), plant characters (i.e., leaf, stem, sprout, and tuber), and comments on the confusion of names for older varieties. Includes a key to variety identification, with black-and-white drawings and color illustrations of plant parts. With bibliography and name index.

106. Darling, H.M. "North American potato varieties." In: 1959 Potato Handbook [Potato Varieties Issue]. New Brunswick: Potato Association of America, 1959. p. 19-41. NAL 75.8 P842P

The main portion of this report (p. 21-39) consists of summary descriptions of potato varieties grown for seed stock in North America; included are important commercial types grown widely, and some with more local distribution. Descriptions of 122 cultivars (from Antigo to Yampa) include source data (introduction date and breeder, when known), plant and tuber descriptions, relative maturity, and for some, comments on commercial and breeding value, relationships with other named types, yields, cooking quality, disease resistance, and hardiness. Descriptions are based on the original published reports, when available; more complete information can be found in the literature cited for each variety (for the older varieties, many are based on Clark and Lombard's 1946 report, cited in entry 105 above). The cultivars include a few originating in the late 19th C. and early 20th C., and some with tubers more colorful than standard types; most, however, are white-fleshed and date to the 1930s-1950s period. Also includes brief comments on "the changing variety picture" due to continuous new releases from breeding programs, U.S. certified seed production, and late blight disease resistance. Includes bibliography.

107. Rane, F. William and Leigh Hunt. Potatoes: Varieties, Fertilizers, Scab. Durham, NH: New Hampshire College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, 1897. Bulletin/New Hampshire College Agricultural Experiment Station no. 41.14 p. NAL 100 N45 (1) no.41

This late 19th-C. report consists of varietal comparisons of 80 potato cultivars grown during the 1896 season in New Hampshire. Tabular results provide yield data (e.g., Reeves Rose, the highest yielding, and Early Market, the lowest). Following are brief descriptions of 32 varieties, mostly white-, and red- to rose-fleshed types, with disparate information on origins (dates of introduction and sources), plant descriptions, relative maturities, marketability, keeping qualities, disease resistance, etc. Summary (p. 14) presents general recommendations based on the authors' and other studies. Includes black-and-white photos showing representative tubers of 80 varieties.

108. Starnes, Hugh H. Irish Potatoes. Experiment, GA: Georgia Experiment Station, 1895. Bulletin/Georgia Experiment Station no. 29. p. 295-354. NAL 100 G29S no. 29

The first two sections of this report by a Georgia researcher cover Solanum tuberosum culture (from soil preparation, to harvest), and "affections and remedies" (being fungal diseases and insect pest problems). Part III (p. 318-339) presents the results of comparative evaluations of 60 varieties made during 1894, and studies of 240 varieties (from Albright's Seedling to Yosemite) made the following year. Data presented in tabular format include commercial seed source, relative maturity, tuber characteristics (shape, size, and color), and tuber yields, with general remarks on value, productivity and relative appearance (the latter including types judged as handsome, beautiful, ugly, and hideous, and whose yields were "disappointing" or generally "worthless"). Other notable findings, both positive and negative, are discussed very briefly within the text. Other experiments in this section examined starch contents for some varieties, and also planting methodologies, fertilizers, etc. Summary (p. 352-354) cites recommended varieties. Tubers from each variety are shown in black-and-white photographic plates. Drawings of old farm machinery and tools occur in the first section.

109. Stuart, William. Group Classification and Varietal Descriptions of Some American Potatoes. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1915. Bulletin of the U.S. Department of Agriculture no. 176. 56 p. NAL 1 Ag84B no.176

This early 20th-C. study presents a classification of the potato varieties known in the U.S. during the early years of the 20th C. It was intended to serve as preamble "toward a satisfactory or intelligent study of the varieties themselves." Preliminary material includes a review of early classification efforts dating from the 1880s and based on morphologic characters (tuber qualities, flower color, etc.). A brief outline of the distinguishing features of 11 different potato groups (Cobbler, Triumph, Rose, Early Ohio, and others) is presented, then for each group, a more comprehensive description of tuber form and color, sprout appearance, flower color, relative maturity, and plant characteristics. Includes a list of varieties belonging to each group, with comments on commercially important or other notable cultivars, and the extent and location of commercial production in the U.S. The bulk of the report (p. 13-56) consists of descriptions of nearly 250 varieties, which were selected from a much larger inventoried group on the basis of commercial value (past or present), breeding value, and general interest to "older potato enthusiasts." The descriptions, arranged alphabetically from Acme, Early to World's Wonder, include origin date and seedhouse (or individual) source, relative maturity, tuber appearance, and reference to original published descriptions (from seed catalogs, journals, or other documents). Synonyms are not included in the descriptions, but are cross-referenced from the main listing (without name index). With 19 black-and-white plates of tubers representing each group.
Related work: A later publication by this author, entitled The Potato; Its Culture, Uses, History and Classification (Kary C. Davis, ed., Chicago, IL: J.B. Lippincott, 1937, 508 p., NAL 75 St9 ed.4), includes a slightly updated classification, and similar varieties catalog, but lacks the varietal descriptions of the earlier work.

110. Taft, L.R. Potatoes. Agricultural College, MI: Michigan State Agricultural College Experiment Station, 1896. Bulletin/Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station no. 131. p. 341-349. NAL 100 M58S no.131

A Michigan researcher's report on comparisons of potato varieties (and also fertilizer treatments) conducted in Michigan during the years 1894 and 1895. Following description of the experimenter's methods, data for 90 varieties are presented in tables, with relative maturities and several yield measurements, followed by brief comments on the more "promising sorts" in terms of productivity. Following is a section listing 40+ varieties (from Acme to Wilson's First Choice), with brief comments on yields, appearance, and overall quality. Contains a listing of the commercial sources of seed potatoes that were grown for the first time that year.
Related works: This report supplements a previous report, entitled Potato Tests, by the same author (Bulletin no. 85, 21 p., NAL 100 M58S no.85). The earlier study presented comparative data on 142 potato types (p. 3-12), including 50 varieties evaluated for the first time, with descriptive notes and seedsmen sources for the latter group. For L.R. Taft and M.L. Dean's 1904 report on tomatoes and potatoes, see entry 82, this volume.

111. Wicks, W.H. Variety Study of the Irish Potato. Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas, College of Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment Station, 1917. Bulletin/University of Arkansas, College of Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment Station no. 137. 32 p. NAL 100 Ar42 no.137

During the years 1915 to 1917, an Arkansas researcher evaluated 70 types of commercial, early market potatoes. Varieties used in the study were classified according to William Stuart's 1915 published scheme of 11 groups, with reiteration of the brief descriptions from that earlier report (cited in entry 109, this volume). Figures show black-and-white photos of tubers of several named types belonging to each group, plus a listing of tubers grouped by maturity season (mostly white-fleshed, with some pink and red varieties). Tabular data for each year, from several test sites, indicate yields of marketable and culled tubers (arranged from high yielding to low). Included also are comments on yields compared to Bliss Triumph, a popular variety grown by nearly all growers, and high rankers. Other factors examined in the study included storage quality among varieties, seed handling, and other production factors (with notes on land preparation, planting, fertilization, cultivation, harvesting, and other methods). With black-and-white photos of representative tubers, agricultural scenes, and tools. Bibliography cites Stuart's report only.

Go to: Top of Volume 3 | Contents of Volume 3 | Introduction | Notes and References
Part I. Vegetables and Fruits and Historical Gardening (Bibliographies)
Part II. Historical Varieties (Books, Articles, Agricultural Reports)
Part III. Histories of Vegetables and Fruits (Books and Articles)
Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160
Appendices (Volume 3): 1) Current Books 2) AFSIC, 3) Publication Titles Index, 4) Periodical Articles Index, 4) Persons / Organizations Index

Part III: Histories of Vegetables and Fruits (Books and Articles)

1. Vegetables and Fruits

A. General Subjects

112. Davies, Jennifer, foreword by Peter Thoday. The Victorian Kitchen Garden. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1987. 160 p. NAL SB322.D39

This book is companion volume to a British Broadcasting Company (BBC) television series documenting the rediscovery and refurbishment of Chilton Gardens, a Victorian-style kitchen garden in Berkshire. Besides providing an interesting record of the restoration project and old-time gardening skills and methods (which sufficed to provide fresh produce year-round for a British estate house), the production effort highlighted fruit and vegetable diversity of the period. The project was aided by Harry Dodson, a retired head gardener with personal knowledge of the old ways of raising garden fruits and vegetables. The narrative depicts the process of researching and locating particular plants and varieties authentic to the period; historical documents found useful are cited, as are the specific histories of some old varieties still in existence. There is brief discussion of the horticultural industry and seed trade of the previous century, and modern efforts to preserve garden diversity in the face of economic forces favoring uniformity (including the European Common market requirement that all modern commercial vegetables are "D.U.C.," or "distinct, uniform, and constant"). Supplemented with color plates and, throughout the text, numerous black-and-white illustrations depicting plants, planting diagrams, and garden tools and materials. Although many of the old growing techniques described were quite sophisticated and labor intensive, they may interest modern gardeners who wish to stretch the growing season, control pests without synthetic chemicals, and maximize production in a small space. With bibliography and subject index. Volume out of print.

113. Diamond, Jared M. "How to make an almond: The unconscious development of ancient crops." In: Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1997. Ch. 7, p. 114-130.

Drawing from many sources and fields of study, evolutionary biologist Jared Diamond offers, in his new book, an informative and very lucid account of the ecological and historical basis for the very different trajectories (technological and social) of different societies around the globe. An introductory section chronicles human evolution and history, and presents a rationale for the book. Two chapters in Part 2 (focusing on the rise and spread of food production) are especially relevant to this resource guide. Ch. 7 and also Ch. 8, the latter entitled "Apples or Indians: Why did peoples of some regions fail to domesticate plants?" (p. 131-156), examine the processes of domestication of food crops, the outcomes found to be highly dependent on geographic variations in the "local suites" of wild plants and animals available for modification. Ch. 7 examines how and why particular plants became crops, from human and plant points of view; the selection processes for desired traits (for visible features, such as size, shape, flavor, and also invisible traits, such as seed dispersal); how farming changed the plants' environments; and differing ease of domestication for different kinds of plants. Ch. 8 explores further varied reasons for uneven development of indigenous agricultures, which were constrained by local flora and fauna. Here, the author compares and contrasts developments in southwest Asia (the "Fertile Crescent"), the eastern U.S., and New Guinea. Details on important food and fiber crops on various continents are provided. Bibliography for these chapters, p. 434-439. (As the book title implies, succeeding chapters deal with subsequent developments--writing, weaponry, and other technological innovations, and infectious diseases--which were made feasible by initial uneven developments in food production.) The book, which is appropriate for general readers, received the Pulitzer Prize. Currently in print.

114. Harlan, Jack R. The Living Fields: Our Agricultural Heritage. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995. 271 p. NAL GN799.A4H37 1995

The writer surveys existing evidence on the evolution of crop plants and the origins of agriculture, relying on archaeological data as well as information gained from botany, genetics, and anthropology. Preliminary chapters introduce the heart of the book, a world tour that examines important time periods and geographic areas, and the particular plants and animals that co-evolved with human societies within particular regions, in processes found to be "diffuse in both time and space." Ch. 1 presents various origin beliefs and theories, including agriculture as divine gift, as process of discovery, as religious rite, or as response to resource stress and crowding. Ch. 2 describes the processes and stages of domestication of cereal crops, other seed crops, weedy relatives, vegetatively propagated plants, and animals. Ch. 3 reviews the methods of archaeology, and the types of information gained from archaeologic studies. A survey of the prehistoric agricultural systems and food and fiber crops of the Near East, Africa, Far East, and the Americas, respectively, is offered in Ch. 4-7; animal husbandry in each region is considered more briefly. The domestication patterns of maize, beans, squashes, and other important New World crops are discussed in Ch. 7. Ch. 8 describes some traditional cropping techniques and tools used by early agriculturalists. The final chapter assesses briefly the merits of various origin theories, and the present state of the world's food supply, with Professor Harlan's commentary on the current status of crop genetic resources management. Throughout, the author tells of his experiences gained through a lifetime of plant collection and study. Illustrated with drawings, maps, and black-and-white photos, and appended with a bibliography and subject index. Currently in print.
Related work: Dr. Harlan's earlier book, entitled Crops and Man, first published in 1975 (ARB SB185.H31) and revised in 1992 (Madison, WI: Crop Science Society of America, 283 p., NAL SB71.H3 1992), is similar in its scope and treatment of crop evolution, but covers some aspects in more detail. Currently in print.

115. Hedrick, Ulysses P., with addendum to 1920 by Elisabeth Woodburn. A History of Horticulture in America to 1860. Portland, OR: Timber Press, 1988. 634 p. NAL SB319.H32 1988, ARB SB319.H32 1988

A well-documented survey of the development of horticultural arts and sciences in the Colonial and post-Revolutionary periods, providing discussion of regional developments and nationalistic influences. The primary author, a distinguished New York horticulturalist, points out that the book is "primarily concerned with gardening, fruit growing, and viticulture; not with gardens, orchards, and vineyards." Part I consists of six chapters on Indian crops and garden practices, and gardening in New England, New York, the South Atlantic colonies, and the Delaware River and Chesapeake Bay regions, citing for each region the contributions of various immigrant groups. Part II contains eight chapters surveying post-Revolutionary and later developments (to 1860) in various regions, including the North Atlantic, South Central, and Gulf States, and the Far West. Part III contains four chapters on botanic explorers and gardens, the dawn of plant breeding, horticultural literature of the 1700-1860s period (Ch. 17, p. 467-498), and horticultural societies during the 1790-1860 period. Hedrick's source materials are cited in footnotes. The original book has been augmented with Elisabeth Woodburn's narrative summary (p. 515-591) of noteworthy gardening books and other publications covering the period 1860-1920. Included here are chapters that review the fruit literature (general, regional, and individual fruits, p. 528-539) and vegetable literature (p. 540-548), plus sections on practical horticulture (i.e., a general category denoting all aspects of vegetable, fruit, and flower gardening), landscape and gardens, and flowers and ornamental plants. Author Woodburn's section provides brief sketches of numerous publications on vegetables, fruits, and their culture, including important regional histories on horticultural subjects. With many black-and-white drawings and photos, plus subject indexes. Includes combined bibliography to both sections. (First published in 1950 by Oxford University Press, New York, 551 p., NAL 90.51 H35, ARB SB83.H4.) Volume out of print.

116. Heiser, Charles B., Jr. Seed to Civilization: The Story of Food. Rev. ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990. 228 p. NAL S421.H4 1990, ARB S421.H4 1990

A collection of 13 essays on "the plants and animals that stand between us and starvation." Opening chapters survey contemporary knowledge of the origins of agriculture, citing various lines of evidence that help to explain why humans became more reliant on domesticated crops and livestock, and examine the types of nutrients in plant and animal foods. The heart of the book covers specific food plants, where and when they were domesticated and further improved, and how they have been used. This portion covers grasses grown for edible seeds (wheat, maize, rice, and others, Ch. 5), sugar cane and sugar beets (Ch. 6), beans and other legumes (Ch. 7), starchy staples, including potatoes, sweet potatoes, manioc, and bananas (Ch. 8), coconuts (Ch. 9), and oil plants, sunflower and cotton (Ch. 10). Ch. 11, entitled "To complete the meal," deals with the plants that add variety or nutrition to people's diets, including vegetables, fruits, nuts, and beverage and spice plants. There are also essays on domesticated food animals (Ch. 4, "Meat: The luxury food"); and on plant selection and variability (Ch. 12), with a brief exploration of current and future issues relating to food production and security (Ch. 13). With numerous photos and drawings throughout, plus bibliography (briefly annotated) and subject index. First published in 1973 and revised in 1981 (San Francisco: W.H. Freeman). Newest edition currently in print.

117. Hyland, Howard L. "History of plant introduction in the United States." In: Plant Genetic Resources: A Conservation Imperative. Christopher W. Yeatman, David Kafton, Garrison Wilkes, eds. Boulder, CO: Westview Press (for American Association for the Advancement of Science), 1984. AAAS Selected Symposia Series no. 87. Ch. 1, p. 5-14. NAL SB123.3.P63

This book chapter from a USDA plant introduction officer surveys the introduction of exotic plant germplasm and its role in making the U.S. "the world leader in agricultural production." It covers early activities prior to 1898, when the USDA's formal program of plant introduction was established; the period 1898-1930, the peak years of field collecting; the "lean years" of the 1930s through 1948; and the period 1948-1975, when a coordinated program of regional plant introduction stations was established, with priorities on enhanced research and communication, and plant conservation. Includes bibliography. The volume includes 10 other essays presented at a symposium on the history of crop plant development, and its use and conservation in North America. Currently in print.
Related work: Similar coverage of the topic addressed in this chapter is offered in H. L. Hyland's earlier article, "History of U.S. plant introduction," in Environmental Review 4: 26-33 (1977), NAL Q125.E5.

118. Klose, Norman. America's Crop Heritage: The History of Foreign Plant Introductions by the Federal Government. Ames, IA: Iowa State College Press, 1950. 156 p. ARB SB109.1.K56

An historical account of the foreign crop plants that fortified and diversified the North American agricultural base, re-oriented the agricultural and economic landscape, and brought fundamental changes to people's diets. Plant introduction work carried out by agents and agencies of the federal government, for which extensive documentation exists, is the main focus. The narrative commences with the work of individuals and agricultural societies during the Colonial period, when the importation of plants was "a constant necessity" to supplement the relatively few crops that were domesticated by native farmers (versus the many that were known to immigrants), and continues through the mid-20th C. The text describes development of various federal initiatives and programs during the 19th C., such as the U.S. Congress' expensive and controversial seed distribution program, creation of the Office of Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction in 1897, and shifting emphasis towards plant breeding over plant introductions, to improve crops. Early statesmen as agricultural promoters (Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin, among others), and trained agricultural explorers and plant collectors (including David Fairchild and Frank Meyer) who made lasting contributions to American agriculture, are profiled. For the major staple and fiber crops, and also temperate fruits and vegetables, tropicals, and forage and forest crops, the book cites notable plant introductions and crop histories. (Besides successful introductions, some of the plants that "didn't take," such as cinchona and tea, are documented also.) With a handful of photos and illustrations. Supplemented with bibliography, subject index, and texts of several historic documents. Volume out of print.

119. Lawrence, George H.M. "The development of American horticulture." In: America's Garden Legacy: a Taste for Pleasure. Philadelphia, PA: Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1978. p. 89-101. NAL SB451.A4, ARB SB451.L39

The writer looks back to review various changes in, and influences on, U.S. horticulture, highlighting important Colonial crops and their histories, increasing specialization that created distinctive industries (among them nursery and seed trade firms), and evolution of the horticultural literature. At the time of publication, the writer served as director of the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. This essay accompanies seven others based on the Society's 1976 symposium on "amenities and history of American horticulture given in the Bicentennial Year."

Go to: Contents of Volume 3 | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160 | Appendices (Volume 3)

120. Leighton, Ann. American Gardens in the Eighteenth Century: "For Use or For Delight." Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1986. 514 p. NAL SB451.L42 1986, ARB SB451.L42 1986

Two chapters in this fascinating and well-researched account of 18th-C. gardens and gardening in the Mid-Atlantic seaboard are concerned with vegetables, fruits, and their culture. Ch. 8 (p. 189-215) surveys period kitchen gardens, providing lists of the vegetables grown (among them New World natives and Western European imports--the overall variety rather slim by comparison to later periods). The author cites original records, including the writings of Virginia growers George Washington and Thomas Jefferson. Ch. 9 (p. 217-245) surveys fruit culture in the Mid-Atlantic region. Drawing upon records left by horticulturists in Pennsylvania, Virginia, and the Carolinas, Leighton describes fruit husbandry practices and the more popular fruit species generally available. Featured are types of imported apples, apricots, cherries, currants, figs, gooseberries, grapes, mulberries, nectarines, nuts, peaches, pears, plums, pomegranates, quinces, and strawberries, and also American nuts, currants, quinces, raspberries, and strawberries. Prominant cultivars are named. Subjects examined in other chapters include plant exploration and collection; garden design; influential botanists and horticulturists; developmental influences on American horticulture; and the roots of commercial horticulture. The text contains numerous black-and-white drawings from old texts, plus an annotated listing of plants most frequently cultivated in 18th-C. gardens, lengthy bibliography, and subject index. First published in 1976 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, NAL SB451.L42), the reprinted volume currently in print.
Related works: American Gardens in the Eighteenth Century continues the author's horticultural history trilogy begun in an earlier work, Early American Gardens:"For Meate or Medicine" (University of Massachusetts Press, 1986, 441 p., NAL SB451.L4 1986, ARB SB451.L4 1986). The earlier book, which covers developments in 17th-C. New England, includes a chapter entitled "'For meate...' or 'What they ate'" (p. 89-111), on the food plants grown or gathered by Pilgrims and other early settlers. Part II, covering nearly one-half of the book, consists of an index to the fruits, vegetables, and herbs grown "for meate or medicine," with information on plant culture and uses, summarized from 17th-C. writers. For some, the particular types of each plant are described, or varietal names are cited. A third volume in this series is American Gardens of the Nineteenth Century:"For Comfort and Affluence" (University of Massachusetts Press, 1987, 395 p., NAL SB451.3 L46, ARB SB451.3.L46). Ch. 5, "Seedsmen and their nurseries" (p. 67-82) portrays the contributions of influential seed and plant purveyers and significant publications; otherwise the narrative has little emphasis on utilitarian vegetables and fruits. All three titles currently in print.

121. Manks, Dorothy S. "How the American nursery trade began." In: Origins of American Horticulture. Plants and Gardens [Brooklyn Botanic Garden] 23(3): 4-11 (Autumn 1967). NAL 450 P694

Surveys the early roots and development of commercial horticulture in the U.S., highlighting important events and influences from the early Colonial period to the 1860s. With black-and-white maps and illustrations from old catalogs. The volume contains some two dozen articles on various aspects of the history of American gardens and gardening, including noted horticulturists. Much of the work centers on ornamental horticulture, although this chapter and a few others touch on topics relevant to food crops and gardens. Also published separately in 1968 with the title, America's Garden Heritage: Explorers, Plantsmen and Gardens of Yesterday: Origins of American Horticulture. (For availability from the publisher, see contact information in Volume 1, Annotated Bibliography, entry 365.)

122. Ricker, Percy L. and Magdalene R. Newman. "The Nursery and Seed Trade Catalog Collection of the United States Department of Agriculture." National Horticulture Magazine 23(4): 220-231 (Oct. 1944). NAL 80 N216, ARB aSB115.R5

Discusses the role of USDA's commercial nursery and seed catalog collection as "a center of plant information," as it was perceived during the later years of WWII. Traces briefly its development since the early 20th C. and early sources. By 1926 the collection of (primarily) U.S. and Western European catalogs, which dated from the 18th C., numbered 70,000 items. Illustrated with copies of old seed lists and catalog pages.

123. Scripps, Edythe Henderson and Dolly Maw. "Peter Henderson: Bringing the dark into daylight." American Horticulturist 55(1): 4-8 (Feb. 1976). NAL 80 N216

A profile of the 19th-C. horticulturist and seedsman as innovator, researcher, writer, and also crusader who deplored horticultural charlatans. Peter Henderson wrote the (now-classic) 1867 book, Gardening for Profit (cited in entry 33, this volume).

124. Stuart, David C. The Kitchen Garden: A Historical Guide to Traditional Crops. Gloucester, England: Sutton, 1987. 270 p. ARB SB320.8.E85.S77 1987

A British publication recounting the history of the kitchen garden and its vegetable, flower, and herb flora, emphasizing the ways that particular plants of the temperate zones (especially in Great Britain) were cultivated and used for food or medicine. A preliminary section surveys general developments in the evolution of the European garden, the "magic and medicine" associated with the garden and crop improvement, the evolution of husbandry techniques, and crop breeding and conservation. Most of the book (p. 59 onwards) consists of sketches of individual plants, covering numerous vegetables grown for their roots, fruits, and green parts, as well as tree, shrub, vine, and small fruits; nuts; and herbs (mostly culinary). Plant entries are arranged by common name; each includes botanical name and place of origin, with one to several pages of horticultural descriptions and notes on usage, based on literature from the Classical age to the more recent past. For some plants there is mention of varieties known, and superior forms among them. With black-and-white illustrations from old texts, and subject index. Bibliography cites over 100 publications, including 18th-C. and 19th-C. histories, gardening texts, cookbooks, and herbals. Originally published in 1984 (London: Robert Hale Ltd). Volume out of print.

125. Tucker, David M. Kitchen Gardening in America: A History. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, 1993. 205 p. NAL SB320.6.T83 1993

An insightful account of the evolution of the American kitchen garden, "a wonderful craft from rural America that survives amid the affluence of urban civilization" (p. 177). Eleven essays tracing gardening forms and popular movements consist of the following: Native American gardens and gardening (Ch. 1); English beds (on the raised-bed, intensive garden styles typical of the 17th-19th C. period, Ch. 2); The garden of the good wife (on women's role as managers of the Colonial kitchen garden, with regional and ethnic styles, Ch. 3); The enlightenment garden of Thomas Jefferson (Ch. 4); Gardening for health (examining popular enthusiasm in the early 19th C. for the physical and psychic benefits of gardening, vegetarian diets, and country living, Ch. 5); Seed catalogs and straight rows (on the influence of the growing commercial seed industry on the American gardener's abandonment of seed saving, and replacement, by the end of the 19th C., of European-style gardens with those resembling "miniature versions of farm fields," Ch. 6); Balance of nature in the garden (on Darwinian ideas in the struggle for dominance over garden pests, Ch. 7); Country life in the suburbs (Ch. 8); Victory gardening (on patriotic food gardens during the World Wars, Ch. 9); Back to muck and magic (on the 20th-C. response against chemical and scientific gardening, and rise of the natural gardening movement led by J.I. Rodale, Ch. 10); and Garden and community (on the 1970s surge in community gardens during the decade of inflation and environmental concern, Ch. 11). A final essay discusses the garden's appeal to both nostalgic sentiments and utilitarian traditions, with commentary on the rise during the Bicentennial decade of the "folk crusade" to save endangered garden vegetables. Source materials provided in end notes. With subject index. Currently in print.

1B. Vegetables

126. Bastable, Louise. "J.J.H. Gregory, Seedsman." Seed Savers 1987 Harvest Edition p.72-78 (1987). NAL SB115.S452

Profiles James Gregory, a Massachusetts seedsman well-known in the latter half of the 19th C. Gregory introduced numerous squash varieties (hence his title, the "Squash King"), as well as numerous varieties of beans, corns, and other garden plants, and he wrote widely on agricultural topics. (His 1893 book, Squashes: How to Grow Them, is cited in entry 102, this volume.)

127. Becker, Robert. "How to verify an heirloom variety." Seed Savers 1986 Harvest Edition p. 36-44. (1986). NAL SB115.S452.

For those growing period gardens or preserving old varieties, Professor Becker reviews in this article some of the more useful historical sources, and offers guidance in identifying old varieties. (He notes that most good varietal descriptions appeared after the mid-point of the 19th C.) Topics considered: plant breeding systems, genetic stability over time, name confusion, and some of the "problems and pitfalls" encountered. With bibliography of (mostly) 19th-C. works (and most of them cited in this resource guide). First presented to a conference on heirloom seeds and programs, held May 5-6, 1986, at National Colonial Farm in Accokeek, Maryland. Other speakers whose talks are included in this Harvest Edition issue were those of corn scientist Garrison Wilkes (p. 24-29, on realizing and communicating the value of our crop heritage) and USDA scientist Alan K. Stoner (p. 30-35, on the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System, the "national program for genetic preservation").

128. Becker, Robert F. "Pages from the past." American Vegetable Grower 24(12): 12-13 (Dec. 1976). NAL 80 C733

For readers of this trade magazine, the author surveys briefly the growing importance of seed catalogs to home gardeners and commercial growers in the mid-1800s, noting the frequent tendency to exaggerate claims on the varieties sold.

129. Becker, Robert. "Planting a historical seed garden: Learning about Shaker vegetable seed production." Fine Gardening 5: 44-47 (Jan./Feb. 1989).

Recounts the author's detective work and sources consulted in recreating Shaker-style vegetable gardens at Genesee Country Village & Museum in New York. Authentic heirloom varieties used and present-day commercial sources are noted. (The late Dr. Becker, formerly horticultural sciences professor at the New York Agricultural Experiment Station in Geneva, was widely known as an expert on the history of food crops and the U.S. seed industry, and consultant to living history museum garden programs.)

130. Becker, Robert F. "Vegetable gardening in the United States: A history, 1565-1900." HortScience 19(5): 624-629 (Oct. 1984). NAL SB1.H6

Surveys developments in, and influences on, the history of U.S. horticulture, considering the home kitchen garden and also the crops, techniques, and patterns of commercial vegetable production. Contains a listing of "possible crops and representative cultivars" from a typical 1870s farmer's garden. Includes illustrations from 19th-C. texts, plus bibliography citing numerous 19th-C. publications. (Article was reprinted in six parts in Historical Gardener, Summer 1992-Winter 1993; also in Seed Saver's 1995 Harvest Edition, p. 131-146, NAL SB115.S452.) This HortScience issue includes Dr. Becker's short companion article, "American vegetable seed industry--A history," p. 610,772.

131. Boswell, Victor R. "Our vegetable travelers." National Geographic 96(2): 145-217 (Aug. 1949). NAL 470 N213

On the "origin, nature, behavior, and travels" of garden vegetables commonly grown in the U.S. Following a brief survey of the history of vegetable gardening, plant migrations, and plant improvement, there are profiles of corn, beans, potatoes, squash, and other New World plants, as well as three dozen others from Asia, Europe, and Africa. Plants are illustrated by full-page color drawings. With bibliography (sources cited in footnotes).

132. Christopher, Thomas. "Heirloom seed catalogs." Horticulture 63(12): 24-27 (Dec. 1985). NAL 80 H787

Illustrates the value of seed catalogs as historical records of American gardening and the seed and nursery industries, as examples of fine garden writing and American folk art, and as educational tools and advertising vehicles. Cites notable U.S. catalogs from the late 1700s to the modern age.

133. Halliwell, Brian. "Vegetables in the Seventeenth Century." The Garden: Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society 108(3): 96-100 (March 1983). NAL 84 L84J

Offers a glimpse of the types of vegetable and salad herbs--both the typical sorts and those highly prized--that were grown in English gardens 300 years ago, and how they were used. (The writer served, at the time, as assistant curator at the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew.)

134. Kraft, Ken and Pat Kraft. "Ah, the old-time seed catalogs!" Smithsonian 5(11): 98-100,102,104-105 (Feb. 1975). NAL QH1.S5

Highlights the vegetable and flower plants and varieties advertised one hundred years earlier in seed catalogs. Cites seedsmen's testimonials and advice, and varietal names, illustrating the wealth of information that can be gleaned from these horticultural documents.

135. Paine, Laura. "Hands to work, hearts to God: The story of the Shaker seed industry." HortTechnology 3(4): 375-382 (Oct./Dec. 1993). NAL SB317.5.H68

Examines the development and workings of theShaker religious communities' seed businesses, which operated independently of the commercial seed trade to produce seeds widely considered to be the best available in North America. With reproductions of Shakers' garden seed lists. Bibliography includes references on the Shakers and the early days of the U.S. seed industry.

136. Pieters, A.J. "Seed selling, seed growing, and seed testing." In: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Yearbook 1900. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1900. p. 549-574. NAL 1 Ag84y

This USDA Yearbook chapter provides an overview of the development of the seed industry in the U.S., beginning with the late Colonial period. There is information on seed dealers of the mid-1700s to the first half of the 1800s, types and sources of seeds sold, and development of the seed catalog in pamphlet form with plant descriptions and cultural directions. It includes commentary on the contemporary catalog--which served as "seedsman's agent" and also, when honest in text and illustration, "textbook of horticulture." The author noted that vegetable novelties (the seedsman's "money makers") had become routinely advertised by 1880; he remarked that some forms with intrinsic merit had enriched horticulture, while others without permanent value had disappeared. The chapter examines also the development of seedhouses and the export trade, and the rapid growth in vegetable and flower seed farms during the previous 40 years. Other topics include production of agricultural seeds (grasses and clovers); progress in varietal development of seed-grown vegetables (highlighting the tomato) and flowers; and the beginnings of seed testing in Europe and the U.S. (which was hampered, the author noted, by "the apathy of the buyers"). With line drawings and black-and-white photos, plus bibliography (sources cited in footnotes).

1C. Fruits

137. Dennis, Frank G., Jr. "Fruit cultivar and germplasm evaluation." HortScience 32(6): 1007-1010 (Oct. 1997). NAL SB1.H6

Examines the "Era of Variety Testing," the 1880-1900 period when much effort was applied by U.S. agricultural station researchers to the task of comparing fruit varieties. Surveys development during the 1700s of early varietal collections, the rise of horticultural societies (in response to varietal profusion), the functions of varietal testing at agricultural experiment stations, and professional criticisms of the utility of testing programs. Describes the growth of testing programs at the New York Agricultural Experiment Station at Geneva, and the Michigan State University Agricultural Experiment Station at South Haven. The author believes that variety testing continues to benefit growers by providing unbiased information needed to judge productivity and profitability, and, despite its possible shortcomings in representing true "science," the late 19th-C. and early 20th-C. flood of activity "paved the way for the scientific breeding programs of today." With bibliography.

138. Hatch, Peter J. The Fruits and Fruit Trees of Monticello. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1998. 222 p. NAL E332.74.H38 1998

Peter Hatch's new book is a literary and artistic companion to the restored orchards and vineyards at Monticello, the culmination of 20 years of work to restore the Fruitery as a living museum collection. According to the writer, "The search for the fruits and fruit trees of Monticello, the documentation of Thomas Jefferson's 170 varieties, and the quest for true-to-name specimens inspired [the] book," whose title alludes to A.J. Downing's Fruits and Fruits Trees of America. The narrative is arranged in three main sections, following an introduction to the origins of North American horticulture, and Thomas Jefferson as fruit cultivator. Part I provides background on the farm orchard and fruit garden, including contemporary influences, noted horticulturalists of the period, Jefferson's fruit library, and garden methodologies, from planting to pest care. Jefferson's planning and progress on Monticello's South Orchard are featured. Individual fruits are considered in Part II (covering the tree fruits--apples, peaches, cherries, pears, plums, apricots, nectarines, almonds, and quinces) and Part III (grapes, figs, strawberries, currants, gooseberries, and raspberries). For each fruit, and emphasizing especially the apple ("Our democratic fruit"), peach, and cherry, the author explores their horticultural and social histories in Virginia and the region, and their plantings at Monticello. The text is profusely illustrated with black-and-white drawings and photos from historical works, with color plates of a number of fruit varieties. It is supplemented with a list of varieties grown by Jefferson, plus detailed notes on source materials, and subject index.

139. Magness, J.R. "How fruit came to America." National Geographic 100(3): 325-377 (Sept. 1951). NAL 470 N213

USDA pomologist traces the geographic origins, New World histories, and improvement of the popular fruits that we often take for granted, the vast majority of them newcomers to the Americas. Covers temperate-zone tree fruits (apples, pears, peaches, figs, olives, and others), grapes, small fruits (brambles, strawberries, and others), and tropicals such as bananas, lemons, date palm, oranges, avocados, and others. Contains minimal varietal information. With numerous color drawings and black-and-white illustrations, plus bibliography (sources cited in footnotes).

Go to: Contents of Volume 3 | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160 | Appendices (Volume 3)

140. Roach, Frederick A. "History and evolution of fruit crops." HortScience 23(1): 51-55 (Feb. 1988). NAL SB1.H6

British fruit expert traces temperate fruit cultivation, from ancient Greece and Rome to 20th-C. Europe and North America, surveying the origins, travels, and improvements of important tree and small fruits. The author points out that losses in genetic richness will diminish an ancient legacy, since "practically all of the characters seen today in the majority of temperate fruits were present in those used 2000 years ago," and "since that time there has only been...a shuffling of characters" by breeding and selection, which has improved most fruits. This paper was one of several presented at a 1986 symposium, "Temperate Fruit Crops: History and Management of Crop Genetic Resources." Material was derived from the author's 1985 book, Cultivated Fruits of Britain: Their Origin and History (Oxford: Basil Blackford, 349 p., NAL SB354.6.G7R63, volume out of print).

141. Upshall, W.H., ed. History of Fruit Growing and Handling in the United States of America and Canada 1860-1972. Kelowna, British Columbia: Regatta City Press (for American Pomological Society), 1976. 360 p. NAL SB354.6.U5H5

Intended as continuation of U.P. Hedrick's book, History of Horticulture in America to 1860 (cited in entry 115, this volume), this text documents fruit industry progress from "the stage of farm orchards and rich men's hobbies to the scientifically based business it has become." Numerous contributors cover topics that include USDA and Canada Dept. of Agriculture (now known as Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada) research programs for particular fruits, fruit handling and storage, insect and disease control, and developments in fruit culture in particular states and provinces. The book is included here for its potential value in identifying centers of research and breeding activity and its lengthy resource list. Ch. VII (p. 311-326), prepared by George L. Slate, consists of an extensive bibliography of North American pomological literature. Included are more than one hundred 19th-C. and 20th-C. works on general fruit topics, plus historical publications on specific fruits (apple, citrus, grape, peach, pear, and other fruit trees, nut trees, and small fruits), and list of professional and trade organizations and horticultural periodicals. With black-and-white photos and subject index. (For availability, contact the American Pomological Society, Business Office, Robert M. Crassweller, 102 Tyson Bldg., University Park, PA 16802, tel. 814-863-6163.)

142. Van Ravenswaay, Charles. A Nineteenth-Century Garden. New York: Universe Books, 1977. 75,[5] p. NAL SB454.R3, ARB SB454.R3

This book consists largely of reproductions of illustrations of fruits, flowers, trees, and shrubs, which were published during the 1850s to early 1870s period, for commercial use by "tree peddlers," as nursery agents were called. The sampling of color and black-and-white plates includes both idealized and more life-like portrayals of popular ornamentals and fruiting plants, which were formerly produced in Rochester, New York, a major nursery center during this period. Among the tree and small fruits illustrated: Northern Spy apple, Herstine red raspberry, Crawford's Early peach, Martha grape, Seckel pear, Lady apple, Jefferson plum (a rival of the Green Gage plum) and a handful of others, some of them still available today. Opposite each fruit illustration is an account of the horticultural history and qualities of each, drawn from various pomological writings. A preliminary section surveys the historical development of gardens and horticultural interests in the U.S. in the 1800s, citing the roles of influential horticulturists, new plant materials as raw materials for breeders, growth of commercial nurseries and the seed trade, development of the horticultural literature, and the growing fashion for garden and landscape design. There is also a short narrative providing background on the plates as "an innovation in American popular art." With bibliography. Currently in print.

1D. Apples

143. Calhoun, Creighton Lee. "History of southern apple culture and varieties." Seeds of Time: Cultivating New Visions of the Past. Proceedings of the 1992 Conference and Annual Meeting 15: 59-69. Washington, DC: Association for Living Historical Farms and Agricultural Museums. NAL S548.4.U6A8

The owner of Calhoun's Nursery in Pittsboro, North Carolina, reviews the unique apple varieties originating in the rural South and their popularity during the 18th C. and 19th C., as well as orchard practices and apples suited to particular uses. (For contact information for Calhoun's Nursery, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 150.)

144. Calhoun, Creighton Lee. Old Southern Apples. Blacksburg, VA: McDonald & Woodward Publishing Co., 1995. 326 p. NAL SB363.2.U6C35 1995

A unique work providing good reading as well as definitive information, with interest for apple growers, connoisseurs, and horticultural and folk historians. Old Southern Apples chronicles and celebrates 1600 varieties of apples formerly grown in the U.S. South, nearly 1400 of them originating in the region. To assist in compiling this work, the author studied 268 nursery catalogs collected at the National Agricultural Library (the USDA's Nursery and Seed Trade Catalog Collection) and relied on numerous historical texts. The apples described are those known before 1928, a time when subsistence farming and commercial breeding work in the South had severely declined. The main section contains A-to-Z descriptions of some 300 apples known to exist today (Abram to York Imperial), along with varieties presumed extinct (Aaron Holt to Zeigler's Sweeting). For each entry there are synonyms, plus commentary on folk and commercial history, descriptions of trees (brief) and fruits (more detailed), with a list of states where varieties were sold and respective historical periods. Other chapters supplement these descriptions with information on the history of the apple in the South, apple cultivation practices, and apple uses. Appended with a lengthy bibliography of books, agricultural bulletins and reports, articles, and important periodicals, along with an annotated list of commercial sources (many of them cited in this publication as well) and index to apple names and synonyms. The work is enhanced by 48 handsome reproductions selected from over 3000 watercolor paintings of apples prepared by staff artists in the USDA's Division of Pomology. Currently in print. (The author is co-owner of Calhoun's Nursery; for contact information, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 150.)

145. French, R.K. The History and Virtues of Cyder. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1982. 200 p. NAL TP563.F73

In the author's words, "Cyder is no longer made. This book shows why not, and why it should be: what cyder is, how to make it and how to enjoy it. It is a plea for Real Cyder." The narrative explains the difference between "cyder," a wine-strength drink fermented from apple juice of named fruit varieties, and "common cider," a watered-down version that is ancestor to the modern-day cider beverage. Part I chronicles the evolution of cyder-making, from its origins in antiquity to the 17th C.--"the heydey of English cyder." This section portrays the rise of cyder-making from family enterprise to cottage industry, and ultimately to a highly-profitable enterprise controlled by cider merchants, whose decline in England was induced by a series of economic and other changes. The author's well-researched account draws from a variety of early writings that illuminate the people and social conditions of the time, as well as cyder science and technology. Part II relies on historical precedence to describe for modern cyderists how Real Cyder ought to be made; the topics, which are discussed in order of the cyderist's year, include orchard location and soils, tree planting, grafting, gathering fruit, grinding and pressing, fermentation, and bottling, along with an outline of potential problems and how they can be corrected. This section describes the "kinds" of modern apples suited to cyder-making, since authentic varieties, like the Redstreak apple, have long since vanished. Part III is concerned with using cyder once it's made; topics include adding flavor and color, seasonal recipes, using herbs and spices, with recipes for cooking with cyder and with left-over cider apple varieties (which are "bittersweet" and unsuited to raw eating). This section includes folklore and rituals associated with English cyder and cyder-making. With many black-and-white illustrations of tools and equipment, from old texts, plus lengthy bibliography and subject index. Volume out of print.

146. Stilphen, George Albert. The Apples of Maine. Bolster's Mills/Harrison, ME: Stilphen's Crooked River Farm, 1993. 378 p.

This book is subtitled, A Compilation of the Historical, Physical and Cultural Characteristics of all the Varieties Known to Have Been Grown in the State of Maine. It was adapted by the author from a master's thesis prepared in 1911 by Frederick Charles Bradford, with Mr. Stilphen's extensive corrections, revisions, and addenda. The original writer's purpose was to examine the changing tastes for apples over time. Since then the book has become a valuable field guide for apple collectors and historians in the Northeast and elsewhere. Preliminary materials include a lengthy bibliography, commentary on authenticating old apple trees, and an essay, "Maine apples--Gift from the past," which presents the historical context of Maine apples, rural life, and the apple industry in the previous centuries, and suggests what has been lost with the extinction of this precious heritage (since only a dozen or so of the varieties described in the book are thought to remain in existence). The heart of the book (p. 14-341) consists of profiles of 700 varieties once grown in the state, 200 of them originating in Maine. Descriptions are detailed and well-referenced, the length of each sketch depending on the apple's former popularity. For instance, the description of the Baldwin apple--once Maine's leading variety--covers five pages. Information for each variety--from Acme to Zachary--includes synonyms, literature references, where the variety was grown, and its origin, appearance, and character, including limitations and merits. The narrative includes interesting anecdotes that bring the many "lost" varieties to life. With glossary of terms, and appendices that cite statistics on the changing tastes of apple consumers over the period 1873 to 1970. Includes indexes to variety names, Maine town names, and persons. Volume out of print.

147. Ward, Ruth. "Lord of the cider apples." Garden: Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society 117(11): 512-513 (Nov. 1992). NAL 84 L84J

British writer traces the history of the Redstreak apple, a seedling apple known since 1657 and one of the most popular cider apples of the time. With bibliography citing original publications. (The writer is author of Harvest of Apples, issued in 1988 by Penguin Books.)

2. Native American Agriculture and New World Crops

A. General Subjects

148. Coe, Sophie D. America's First Cuisines. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1994. 276 p. NAL F1219.76.F67C64 1994

A fascinating, detailed synthesis "written to celebrate the contribution made by the original inhabitants of the New the food of the contemporary world." Centering on the Aztec, Mayan, and Incan cultures, one portion deals with the diverse flora and fauna that these New World peoples gathered, domesticated, and ate prior to the 15th-C. encounters with the Spanish. Included are vignettes of important plant staples (maize, manioc, potatoes), vegetables and fruits (beans, peanuts, squash, pineapples, and others), and also flavorings (vanilla and chocolate); the narrative examines the botany, domestication, and evolution of these plants and their migration to other areas of the globe. A second thematic element concerns the uses of particular foods--the major ones treated in the first section and also locally-important plant and animal foods. In the author's words, the story "moves from the ingredients to the menus in which they were employed," to explore the foodways--preparation techniques, preservation methods, recipes, and also beliefs, customs, and etiquette--associated with particular foods and beverages, and as it does, shedding light on numerous aspects of daily life. The book examines also the "hybrid cuisine" of the Spaniards during the era immediately following foreign conquest, and contrasts the four "culinary cultures" with foods and food choices of the industrialized 20th C. Well-researched and insightful, the content is drawn from numerous contemporary informants and secondary source materials. It offers a food historian's perspective on crop and food histories (e.g., the author considers food preferences and prejudices, and factors affecting acceptance or rejection of newly-encountered foodstuffs). There is minimal emphasis on the types of maize, beans, and other plants used for particular purposes. With maps and line drawings from historical texts, plus bibliography and subject index. Currently in print; available NS.

149. Ebeling, Walter. Handbook of Indian Foods and Fibers of Arid America. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1986. 971 p. NAL E78.W5E34

An important reference work on the plants and animals used as food and fiber by human societies native to the largely arid, western regions of North America. Relying on documentation from historians, archaeologists, ethnobotanists, and others, the author discusses the pre-agricultural, paleolithic period of the first Americans' arrival in the New World, and the post-Columbian period prior to the extensive cultural changes that later occurred. The areas considered include the Great Plains, Great Basin, California's Owens Valley, lower Colorado River Basin, U.S. Southwest, and Mexican Central Plateau. For each geographic region, there is description of specific wild plant materials utilized, with botanical and habitat descriptions and information on the plant parts used and specific uses. Also considered are animal resources (fish, game, and insects) and lifestyle adaptions (tools, housing, household materials, etc.) permitting use of local resources. Portions of the text center on the cultivated crops and agricultural practices of the tribes of the lower Colorado River valley (p. 439-450) and the Pimans of the southwestern deserts (p. 597-644), with discussion of the kinds of crops grown and their cultivation, food uses and preparation, and food storage. Other sections consider crop domestication, agricultural practices, and crops used (along with their dietary significances) by Hopi, Zuni, and Hohokam tribes and the people of the Tehuacán area in Mexico. With black-and-white photos and illustrations, including line drawings of plant materials. Contains a comprehensive bibliography, plus tabular data on plant species used (region, plant part used, and key to illustration), glossary of botanical terms, and subject index. Volume out of print.

150. Foster, Nelson and Linda S. Cordell, eds. Chilies to Chocolate: Food the Americas Gave the World. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 1992. 191 p. NAL SB176.A48C45 1992, ARB SB176.A48.C45 1992

Intended to aid in "retrieving food from abstraction," this anthology of essays explores the evolutionary pathways and cultural roles of "some of the great plants that feed us," providing a focus on important New World crops that have already achieved worldwide economic importance, or may yet do so. Eleven contributors examine (in ten chapters) the botanical, social, and geographical histories of maize, Phaseolus beans, chili peppers, vanilla, and cacao; additional chapter topics include the adoption of tomatoes and potatoes by European eaters, renewed interest in the "leafy grains" (or pseudocereals) amaranth and quinoa, and the locally-important Andean root crops that served as staple foods for the Inca. Gary Nabhan's epilogue provides commentary on the loss of geneticdiversity and accompanying agricultural and culinary traditions associated with New World crops. The book is supplemented with a bibliography of general and topical references for further reading, plus list of food plants indigenous to the Americas, notes on contributors, and subject index. Chapters by Walton Galinat , on corn (entry 159), Lawrence and Lucille Kaplan, on beans (entry 174), and Jean Andrews, on chili peppers (entry 170), are cited elsewhere in this volume. Currently in print; available NS,PW.

151. Viola, Herman J. and Carolyn Margolis, eds. Seeds of Change: A Quincentennial Commemoration. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991. 277 p. NAL E112.S45 1991, ARB E112.S45 1991

A collection of essays by prominent historians and scholars, which reexamine the various transformations (biological, cultural, and economic) stemming from the movements of plants, animals, microbes, and people between the Old and New Worlds following Columbus' "voyages of discovery." The publication's purpose was to "interpret the true meaning" of Columbus' 1492 encounter that changed world history, given that, as one of the editors noted, "...every seed of change, whether accidental or intentional, had both positive and negative consequences." The text served as companion to the Columbus Quincentenary exhibition, "Seeds of Change," held at the Smithsonian Institution's Museum of Natural History in 1992 (the title itself borrowed from Henry Hobhouse's 1985 book, Seeds of Change, London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 245 p., NAL SB71.H62, on the global impact of five plants--maize, tobacco, quinine, tea, and sugar). Most relevant to the subject scope of this publication are two chapters with horticultural focus: "American food crops in the Old World" (on the migration of maize and potatoes, p. 43-59), by William H. McNeill; and "New World, vineyard to the old" (on the movement of European grapes, Vitis vinifera, and wine production, to the Americas, p. 60-69), by Henry Hobhouse. A final chapter examines briefly the "legacy of conquest" with respect to indigenous knowledge, food crop biodiversity, and sustainable development. In large format with numerous color photos and drawings, plus bibliography and subject index. Currently in print.

2B. Corn (Maize)

152. Aldrich, Nelson. "A social history of corn." Country Journal, p. 46-52 (Sept. 1983).

A rumination on the interdependence of corn and various New World peoples, tracing corn's role as the mainstay of self-sufficiency in the late 16th-C. and early 17th-C. settlements on the Atlantic seaboard, to the market economy of the mid-20th C.

153. Bird, Robert Mck. "Maize evolution from 500 B.C. to the present cultivars." Biotropica 12(1): 30-41 (March 1980). NAL GH301.B52

Traces the evolution of modern maize, whose "variation...relates to recent and ancient [human] cultural events." Discusses maize racial complexes descended from seven major ancestral types, and the South, Central, and North American regions that define maize types. With lengthy bibliography.

154. Brown, William L. "Hybrid vim and vigor." Science 84 [American Association for the Advancement of Science] p. 77-78 (Nov. 1984). NAL Q1.A3S3

Describes George H. Schull's profound influence on corn and plant breeding, resulting from his pioneering use of heterosis or "hybrid vigor" in early 20th-C. corn breeding experiments. Schull developed highly inbred, uniform corn lines that could be cross-bred to produced higher-yielding hybrids with specific desirable characteristics. "Today virtually all corn produced in developed countries is from hybrid seed. From those blue bloods of the plant kingdom has come a model for feeding the world."

155. Brown, W.L. and H.F. Robinson. "The status, evolutionary significance and history of eastern Cherokee maize." Maydica 37(1): 29-39 (1992). NAL59.8 M45

Discusses the Cherokee white, 8-10-rowed flour corn, a remnant of the "Eastern Complex" corns of the northern and eastern U.S., which remains an important food crop for North Carolina Cherokee. Includes a brief history of the Eastern Band of the Cherokee people and the modern status of maize, and discusses development of an in-situ germplasm project to rescue, maintain, and use traditional varieties. (In the 1980s, the senior author, former president and CEO of Pioneer Hi-Bred International, and now deceased, resurrected a project he began in the 1940s to restore the original traits to this historical maize variety.)

156. Fussell, Betty. "The desert farmers of the Southwest." American Horticulturist 71(6): 36-41 (June 1992). NAL 80 N216

On Native American Hohokam, Hopi, and Zuni farmers and their reliance on corn--the "civilizer of the Southwest desert." (Article is excerpted from the author's Story of Corn, cited in Volume 1, Annotated Bibliography, entry 340.)

157. Fussell, Betty. "When corn was king." Journal of Gastronomy 1(4): 75-85 (1985). NAL GT2850.J68

The author links corn art and architecture of 19th-C. America to more ancient corn civiliations, in this account centered on the corn palaces erected in the 1880s "corn boom" years in Sioux City, Iowa.

158. Galinat, Walton C. The Evolution of Sweet Corn. Amherst, MA: Experiment Station, College of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, 1971. Research Bulletin/Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station no. 591. 20 p. NAL 100 M38H (1) no.591

University of Massachusetts professor reviews the evolutionary history of sweet corn, as a basis for its further improvement. Includes an overview of ancestral source materials that have contributed to the development of modern inbreds and "may serve as a resource for their improvement in terms of recapturing lost characters." (The author warns that with replacement of old open-pollinated varieties, "maize may be left like the Dodo, [a flightless, now extinct bird that] put all of its evolutionary eggs in one basket.") The author describes 13 early varieties, from Papoon (the first Colonial sweet corn, a New England variety introduced in 1779 from the Iroquois in Plymouth, Massachusetts), to Spanish Gold, introduced in 1931. Since this report appeared, several corn varieties mentioned, such as Stowell's Evergreen, Country Gentlemen, and Black Mexican, have become more readily available through seed exchanges or commercial sources. With bibliography.

159. Galinat, Walton C. "Maize: Gift from America's first peoples." In: Chilies to Chocolate: Food the Americas Gave the World. Nelson Foster and Linda S. Cordell, eds. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 1992. Ch. 4, p. 47-60. NAL SB176.A48C45 1992, ARB SB176.A48C45 1992

Asking "Where did [maize] come from, and where is it going?" a noted corn breeder discusses corn's ancestry and the pathways of its modern development (which have yielded hundreds of distinct races), and addresses the legacy of domestication. (For general book description, including other chapters cited, see entry 150, this volume.)

Go to: Contents of Volume 3 | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160 | Appendices (Volume 3)

160. Goodman, Major M. "The history and evolution of maize." CRC Critical Reviews in Plant Science 7(3): 197-220 (1988). NAL QK1.C83

Corn breeder synthesizes current knowledge on maize, considering corn culture in ancient America, geography and evolution, early differentiation (including a detailed look at the controversy and evidence concerning the origins of maize and closely related teosinte), and development of historically important races. Although rather technical, the article offers much historical information, along with a comprehensive bibliography citing 225 references.

161. Gould, Stephen Jay. "A short way to corn." In: The Flamingo's Smile: Reflections in Natural History. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1984. Ch. 24, p. 360-373.

From the writer's fourth volume of essays on the patterns of biological history, from monthly columns in Natural History magazine. Gould explains the "teosinte theory" on the origin of corn, put forward by botanist Hugh Iltis, to illustrate the evolutionary concept of homologous structures. He considers also the co-evolution of this important food plant with early agriculturalists, and outlines the potential value of teosinte (corn's putative ancestor) in broadening the resilience and genetic base of corn crops. With footnotes and general bibliography supplementing the volume. Republished by W.W. Norton & Co., 1985, currently in print.
Related work: For Iltis' original, detailed report, see the article, "From teosinte to maize: The catastrophic sexual transmutation," in Science 222(4626): 886-894 (Nov. 25, 1983), NAL 470 Sci2.

162. Hardeman, Nicholas P. Shucks, Shocks, and Hominy Blocks: Corn as a Way of Life in Pioneer America. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1981. 271 p. NAL SB191.M2H36

A well-researched, interesting account of the pre-eminent role of corn--the principal product of American pioneer life--to aid the reader in better understanding those times. In the author's words, "I have attempted to portray corn in its setting as staff and style of life; as culture, art and craft; as unifying family purpose, which became a national driving force." The book focuses primarily on the middle period of U.S. history, which was characterized by westward expansion. Individual chapters examine in detail the production aspects of corn (tools and techniques for planting, cultivating, harvest, storage, processing, and dealing with pests and diseases), corn's uses for food ("100 ways"), beverage (including pioneer spirits--"100 proof"), and other uses made obsolete with modern science and industry, and also the crop's influence in shaping economics, labor, and recreation, as illustrated in language, literature, songs, and games. Other topics include a survey of the botanical and geographic aspects of corn's origins, the kinds of corns inherited from indigenous peoples and their cultural roles, and 19th-C. improvements made by farmers such as John Lorain and Robert Reed. Illustrated with black-and-white line drawings, and supplemented with a comprehensive bibliography of source materials. Currently in print.

163. Harpstead, D.D. "Man-molded cereal: Hybrid corn's story." In: That We May Eat. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1975. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Yearbook 1975. p. 213-224. NAL 1 Ag84y 1975

A short history of the development of hybrid corn, starting with pioneering work done in the 1700s and proceeding to the full ascendency of hybrid varieties during the 1920s to 1950s period. Briefly comments on the Southern corn leaf blight that "almost spelled disaster for the American corn crop in 1970." With short bibliography.

164. Mangelsdorf, Paul C. "Hybrid corn." Scientific American 185(2): 39-47 (Aug. 1951). NAL 470 Sci25

A detailed account of the development of hybrid corn, which allowed U.S. farmers to "[grow] more corn on fewer acres than ever before in this country's history." The author reviews the strides made in understanding the genetic phenomenon known as "hybrid vigor," citing the influential work of Charles Darwin, William Beal, George Schull, Donald Jones, and others. He describes the hybrid production process, and breeding achievements to date, and surmises on future prospects. Noting that by 1951 more than 99 percent of Corn Belt acreage was planted to hybrids, he expressed concern over the possible extinction of the open-pollinated strains "admirably contrived for maintaining genetic plasticity," which were no longer being grown by farmers. With diagrams and black-and-white photos, plus short bibliography, p. 72.

165. Raloff, Janet. "Corn's slow path to stardom: Archaeologists rewrite the history of maize--and New World civilization." Science News (Washington D.C.) 143(16): 248-50 (April 17, 1993). NAL 470 Sci24

Discusses new findings suggesting that maize was adapted and developed by Native Americans who were already farmers and gardeners, contrary to earlier notions that maize itself played a seminal role in launching agriculture in the Americas. (Draws from several presentations made at the 1993 American Association for the Advancement of Science conference.)

166. Wallace, Henry A. and William L. Brown. Corn and Its Early Fathers. Rev. ed. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, 1988. Henry A. Wallace Series on Agricultural History and Rural Studies. 141 p. NAL SB191.M2W31 1988

For general readers, this book examines the development of modern hybrid corn and its divergence from American antecedents of the 1920s, the 1850s, and the 1800s. Following a general description of the corn plant and overview of the development of hybrid corns, topics considered include Native Americans' development and use of corn, farmer/scientist improvements in the 18th C. and 19th C., and 20th-C. crossbreeding work that produced the high-yielding yellow dent hybrids that define the Corn Belt today. Included are biographical sketches of the scientists and farmers whose ideas and work contributed to hybrid corn development (from Charles Darwin, "great-grandfather of hybrid corn," to Henry A. Wallace, whose wide-ranging career included his role as influential promoter of hybrid corn, and founder of Hi-Bred Corn Company--later to become Pioneer Hi-Bred International--as well as U.S. Secretary of Agriculture). A final chapter added to the revised edition by William Brown, retired chairman of Pioneer Hi-Bred International, considers the values of "the forgotten corns," the many-eared corn types of the 1800s whose demise was first stimulated by the corn shows of the 1890s-1920s, then furthered by modern hybrid breeding, which together encouraged production of corn plants with uniform, large, single ears. Supplemented with black-and-white photos, with bibliography and index. First published in 1956 (Michigan State University Press, NAL 59.22 W152Co). Volume out of print.

167. Weatherwax, Paul. "The Indian as a corn breeder [presidential address]." Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 51: 13-21 (1942). NAL 500 IN2

Discusses development of maize varieties by native farmers, who had taken from the wild state "a plastic grass plant of some sort and by a process of breeding unsurpassed anywhere in the world...[they] made of it the cereal which is so varied, so adaptable, and so efficient in turning raw materials into food that it has dominated American agriculture for 2000 years...This achievement makes the Indian worthy of a longer chapter in human history." With bibliography. Weatherwax wrote the corn classic, Indian Corn in Old America, cited in entry 73, this volume.

2C. Tomatoes

168. Jenkins, J.A. "The origin of the cultivated tomato." Economic Botany 2: 379-392 (1948). NAL 450 Ec7

Reviews in some detail the historical evidence with respect to the Peruvian-Ecuadoran origin of the cultivated tomato's ancestral form, and the plant's subsequent domestication and spread to other regions. Includes discussion of European historical documents and the author's current observations on wild and cultivated tomatoes in Mexico, a prominent center of tomato diversity and likely the source of dissemination of cultivated tomatoes. With bibliography.

169. Smith, Andrew F. The Tomato in America: Early History, Culture, and Cookery. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1994. 224 p. NAL TX803.T6S65 1994

An in-depth, lively account of the tomato's introduction to and early tenure in the U.S., exploring the early skepticism (in some quarters) of its actual food value, to its subsequent and current wide popularity. Tapping a wide variety of published and unpublished sources, the chronicle examines in detail the popular lore and myth of the tomato, including the general notion that the tomato was widely thought to be poisonous, and the fanciful and more plausible stories of the tomato's introduction to the U.S. Part 1 (the body of the text) traces tomato culture, popularity, and uses in the U.S., focusing on the pre-Civil War era. Topics include the tomato's botanical origins, European and North American perspectives, and various influences on its culinary adoption and other uses; included are chapters on 19th-C. "tomato medicine," the "great tomato mania" of the 1830s-1840s, and various tomato phenomena in the post-Civil War period, up to the present. (This section includes only brief mention of some of the tomato varieties of the late 1800s.) Part II consists of early 19th-C. recipes, the directions and spelling left in their original form. Part III provides source information, including a bibliography (general references plus culinary history, historical cook books and reprints, tomato history and culture), supplemental chapter notes, and list of organizations, including heirloom seed sources. With index to names and general subject index. Although the pre-Civil War tomato varieties have disappeared, as Smith notes, the book contains much information on the tomato's social history, which may interest tomato gardeners and connoisseurs. Currently in print; available SE.

2D. Capsicum Peppers

170. Andrews, Jean. "The peripatetic chili pepper: Diffusion of the domesticated Capsicums since Columbus." In: Chilies to Chocolate: Food the Americas Gave the World. Nelson Foster and Linda S. Cordell, eds. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 1992. Ch. 6, p. 81-83. NAL SB176.A48C45 1992, ARB SB176.A48C45 1992

This book chapter traces the chili pepper's travels, following Western contact, from South America to foreign lands and cuisines, and including their relatively late coming to North America. (For general book description and other chapters cited, see entry 150, this volume.)

171. Pickersgill, Barbara. "The domestication of chili peppers." In: The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals. Peter J. Ucko and G.W. Dimbleby, eds. Chicago, IL: Aldine Publ. Co., 1969. p. 443-450. NAL S421.R4 1968.

Relying on archaeological and botanical evidence, a pepper scientist reviews the historical distribution of the cultivated species of chili peppers in Central and South America, and the physical changes occurring with domestication. Pepper variability, from 17th C. accounts of Spanish chroniclers, is considered also. With bibliography of current and historical works. The volume consists of the proceedings from an international meeting of the "Research Seminar in Archaeology and Related Subjects," held in London in 1968. (It contains also J. Smartt's article, "Evolution of American Phaseolus beans under domestication," p. 451-462.)

2E. Phaseolus Beans

172. Hankin, Bill. "Lost bean varieties." The Curator [Heritage Seed Curators Assoc.](Autumn 1996).

Synthesizes information on several dozen historic bean varieties no longer available from Australian sources. Consists of brief sketches compiled by the author (currently president of Heritage Seed Curator's Association, HSCA) from old Australian seed catalogs and the published literature, including Vilmorin-Andrieux's Vegetable Garden (cited in entry 39, this volume). With bibliography. For contact information for HSCA, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 9.

173. Kaplan, Lawrence. "Archeology and domestication in American Phaseolus (beans)." Economic Botany 19(4): 358-368 (Oct./Dec. 1965). NAL 450 Ec7

Following brief overviews of the four Phaseolus species that are important food crops (i.e., common, lima, runner, and tepary beans), this article centers on structural changes in seeds that accompany domestication, and the antiquity of bean cultivation in the New World. With maps showing historical distributions, and bibliography.

174. Kaplan, Lawrence and Lucille N. Kaplan. "Beans of the Americas." In: Chilies to Chocolate: Food the Americas Gave the World. Nelson Foster and Linda S. Cordell, eds. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 1992. Ch. 5, p. 61-79. NAL SB176.A48C45 1992, ARB SB176.A48C45 1992

This book chapter sketches the New World Phaseolus beans with respect to their antiquity, prehistoric travels, and development, which together have led to numerous "names, tastes and uses." (For further description of Chilies to Chocolate, including other chapters cited, see entry 150.)

2F. Squashes and Pumpkins (Cucurbita species)

175. Decker, Deena S. "Origin(s), evolution, and systematics of Cucurbita pepo (Cucurbitaceae)." Economic Botany 42(1): 4-15 (Jan./March 1988). NAL 450 Ec7

Relying on various lines of evidence (archaeological, botanical, biochemical, historical), in this article the author updates information on botanical origins, subsequent diversification, and systematic relationships among members of C. pepo, whose seed remains from a Mexican cave date back 9000 years, making them the oldest known seed remains among Cucurbita genus members. She cites evidence for the origins of a number of gourd and squash types in the eastern U.S., which may have diversified further in other locales. The article is based on the author's doctoral dissertation, and although rather technical, it identifies important cucurbit literature and proposes a new classification reflecting current knowledge. With bibliography. (The author serves as co-editor of Cucurbit Network News, cited in Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 67.)

176. Nee, Michael. "The domestication of Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae)." Economic Botany 44(3 Supplement): 56-68 (July/Sept. 1990). NAL 450 Ec7

Reviews current knowledge regarding domestication of, and botanical relationships among, the five cultivated species of Cucurbita, known to ancient cultures throughout the New World and likely first domesticated for their nutritious seeds. Covers C. maxima, C. pepo (including Jack-o-lantern, zucchini, spaghetti, acorn, and others), C. argyrosperma (formerly C. mixta), C. moschata (butternut and golden cushaw), and C. ficifolia (grown in Asia and Central and South America). Includes maps showing geographic distributions, and bibliography.

177. Whitaker, Thomas W. "Ecological aspects of the cultivated Cucurbita." HortScience 3(1): 9-11 (Spring 1968). NAL SB1.H6

In this article, a noted cucurbit authority and USDA plant breeder reviews contemporary knowledge of the uses, geographical distribution, botanical relationships, domesticated histories, and some specific ecological aspects of the squashes, pumpkins, marrows, cushaws, and closely related plants. Dr. Whitaker, along with Glen N. Davis, co-authored an important reference book on the squash family, entitled Cucurbits: Botany, Cultivation, and Utilization (New York: Interscience Publishers, 1962, 249 p., NAL 91.51 W58).

2G. Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum)

178. Brown, C.R. "Origin and history of the potato." American Potato Journal 70(5): 363-373 (May 1993). NAL 75.8 P842

An historical review of the potato, examining biological and sociological influences on its development and widespread adoption as a food crop. The article touches on topics such as genetic uniformity that contributed to the Irish potato famine, subsequent potato breeding efforts and germplasm collections, and use of traditional cultivars in Peru. It was first presented at a mini-symposium, "Past, Present and Future Uses of Potatoes," held at the Potato Association of America's 1992 annual meeting. Although contained in a professional journal, the article is suited to general readers. With bibliography.

179. Glendinning, D.R. "Potato introductions and breeding up to the early 20th Century." New Phytologist 94: 479-505 (1983). NAL 450 N42

Scottish scientist reviews in some detail the history of potato varietal introductions and breeding procedures, to support a comparison of the breadth of the gene pool of early 20th-C. and more recent potato lines, with respect to the wide variation among wild potato species and primitive South American cultivars. Historically, viral problems prompted large-scale seedling selections that enhanced significantly the numbers of extant potato varieties in the late 18th C. to early 19th C. Deliberate crossing became widespread in the latter part of the 19th C.; by the 20th, breeding among survivors of blight epidemics resulted in 500+ British and 50+ North American varieties. These types, as well as their more modern successors, were judged to be quite inbred, with limited genetic variation compared to the gene pools of closely-related plants. Appendices provides sample pedigrees for a number of potato varieties. With extensive bibliography.

180. Hawkes, J.G. "The history of the potato." Garden: Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society 92(5): 207-224 (May 1967). NAL 84 L84J

The first of three articles on the history of Solanum tuberosum, by an English potato specialist. Among the topics covered in some detail: relationships of wild and cultivated potatoes; archaeological evidence for historical cultivation; early accounts by Spaniards in the New World; various names in native dialects; and the potato's introduction to Europe and early cultivation. (The potato in North America is mentioned in passing only.) Includes a chronology of early records and events; several unnumbered color plates accompany each article. The series continues in vol. 92(6): 249-262 (June 1967) and vol. 92(7): 288-302 (July 1967), with a lengthy bibliography accompanying the third article. The articles are derived from a 1966 lecture delivered to the Royal Horticultural Society on the 30th anniversary of a lecture by another potato expert, Dr. Redcliffe Salaman.

181. Johns, Timothy. "The domestication of the potato." Herbarist 42: 14-20 (1982). NAL 80 H41

Reviews early history and traditional uses of Solanum tuberosum, "one of the world's best known crops, truly... a gift of nature, time and human endeavor." The article considers its wild relatives, other cultivated tuber-bearing Solanum species, and human selection for potato diversity, which has resulted in 4000 South American varieties differing in shape, color, flavor, etc. Relates also how potatoes (including alkaloid-containing, bitter types) are used in traditional settings by Andean people. Johns is author of the book, With Bitter Herbs They Shall Eat It (University of Arizona Press, 1990, NAL GN476.73J64, volume out of print), a treatise on the chemical ecology of plants and connections with human diet and medicine, which considers also the potato's domestic evolution. With bibliography and line drawings.

Go to: Top of Volume 3 | Contents of Volume 3 | Introduction | Notes and References
Part I. Vegetables and Fruits and Historical Gardening (Bibliographies)
Part II. Historical Varieties (Books, Articles, Agricultural Reports)
Part III. Histories of Vegetables and Fruits (Books and Articles)
Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160
Appendices (Volume 3): 1) Current Books 2) AFSIC, 3) Publication Titles Index, 4) Periodical Articles Index, 4) Persons / Organizations Index

Volume 3: Appendices

Volume 3: Selected Sources for Current Books

The following are seed banks/exchanges and commercial plant and seed suppliers that distribute a number of the books cited within this volume. (The two-letter codes indicating availability occur at the end of the respective annotations.) Additional information on each of these organizationsand companies is provided in Volume 2, Resource Organizations, Part I, "Vegetable Seed Exchanges or Seed Banks"; Part VI, "Commercial Seed Companies"; and Part VII, "Commercial Fruit Nurseries."

Abundant Life Seed Foundation, P.O. Box 772, 930 Lawrence St., Port Townsend, WA 98368, tel. 360-385-5660 or 385-7192 (orders), fax 360-385-7455, e-mail

Bountiful Gardens, 18001 Shafer Ranch Rd., Willits, CA 94590-9626, tel. 707-459-0150, fax 707-459-5409

Fedco Seeds, P.O. Box 520, Waterville, ME 04903-0520, tel. 207-873-7333 (-SEED), fax 207-872-8317

Garden City Seeds, 778 Hwy 93 North, Hamilton, MT 59840, tel. 406-961-4837, fax 406-961-4877, e-mail

Henry Doubleday Research Association, Heritage Seed Library, c/o Ryton Organic Gardens, Coventry, CV8 3LG U.K., tel. +44 1203 303517, fax +44 1203 639229, e-mail

Native Seeds/Search, 526 North 4th Ave., Tucson, AZ 85705, tel. 520-622-5561, fax 520-622-5991,

Plants of the Southwest, Agua Fria, Route 6, Box 11A, Santa Fe, NM 87501, tel. 505-471-2212 or 800-788-SEED (-7333) (orders), fax 505-438-8800

Ronniger's Seed Potatoes, P.O. Box 307, Ellensburg, WA 98360, tel. 509-925-6025, fax 509-925-9238, e-mail

Seeds Blüm, HC 33 Idaho City Stage, Boise, ID 83706-9725, tel. 800-742-1423 or 208-342-0858 (customer service), 800-528-3658 (orders), fax 208-338-5658, e-mail

Seeds of Change, P.O. Box 15700, Santa Fe, NM 87506-5700, tel. 888-SOC-SEED (762-7333), fax 888-FAX-4-SOC (329-4762)

Southern Exposure Seed Exchange, P.O. Box 170, Earlysville, VA 22936, tel. 804-973-4703, fax 804-973-8717

Seed Savers Exchange, 3076 North Winn Rd., Decorah, IA 52101, tel. 319-382-5990, fax 319-382-5872, e-mail

Go to: Top of Volume 3 | Contents of Volume 3 | Introduction | Notes and References
Part I. Vegetables and Fruits and Historical Gardening (Bibliographies)
Part II. Historical Varieties (Books, Articles, Agricultural Reports)
Part III. Histories of Vegetables and Fruits (Books and Articles)
Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160
Appendices (Volume 3): 1) Current Books 2) AFSIC, 3) Publication Titles Index, 4) Periodical Articles Index, 4) Persons / Organizations Index

Volume 3: Index to Publication Titles (Books, Periodicals)

Go to: A| B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |

(Numbers within parentheses and preceded by "p." refer to page numbers within the WordPerfect version of the text; all other numbers refer to entry numbers, 1 - 181.)

Agriculture of the American Indian: A Select Bibliography, 17
Agriculture of the Hidatsa Indians: An Indian Interpretation, 57
American Fruit Culturist, 42
American Gardener's Calendar, 23, 36
American Gardens in the Eighteenth Century: "For Use or For Delight," 120
American Gardens of the Nineteenth Century: "For Comfort and Affluence," 120
American Varieties of Beans, 93
American Varieties of Garden Beans, (p.18), 96
American Varieties of Lettuce, 37
America's Crop Heritage: The History of Foreign Plant Introductions by the Federal Government, 118
America's First Cuisines, (p.17), 148
America's Garden Heritage: Explorers, Plantsmen and Gardens of Yesterday: Origins of American Horticulture, 121
America's Garden Legacy: A Taste for Pleasure, 119
Apple Tree, (p.18)
Apple Varieties and Important Producing Sections of the United States, 49
Apples of Maine, 146
Apples of New York, 43, 47
Apples of Tennessee Origin, 52
Apples of Tennessee Origin: Second Report, 52
ASTA-ASHS Vegetable Variety Names, 28

[Top of Title Index]

Beans of New York, 91
Becoming Native to this Place, (p.18)
Better Plants and Animals--II, 27
Bibliography of Agriculture in the United States, 8
Bibliography of Books and Pamphlets on the History of Agriculture in the United States, 1607-1967, 10
Bibliography of Books, Pamphlets, and Films Listed in the Living Historical Farms Bulletin, from December 1970 Through January 1986, 12
Bibliography of Books, Pamphlets, and Films Listed in the Living Historical Farms Bulletin, from December 1970 Through May 1976, 12
Bibliography of Corn, 16
Bibliography of Plant Genetics, 13
Bibliography on the Agriculture of the American Indians, 17
Breed Your Own Vegetable Varieties, (p.18)
Buffalo Bird Woman's Garden: Agriculture of the Hidatsa Indians, (p.18), 57
Buttercup Squash: Its Origin and Use, 104

[Top of Title Index]

Canadian Apple Growers Guide, 53
Catalog and Evaluation of the Pear Collection at the Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station, 41
Cherries of New York, 43
Chilies to Chocolate: Food the Americas Gave the World, 150, 159, 170, 174
Code of Handsome Lake, 55
Competing Paradigms: The Debate Between Alternative and Conventional Agriculture, (p.18)
Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources: Grassroots Efforts in North America, (p.17)
Constitution of the Five Nations, 55
Corn Among the Indians of the Upper Missouri, 74
Corn and Corn Growing, 72
Corn and Its Early Fathers, 166
Corn Culture Among the Indians of the Southwest, 68
Corn in Montana: History, Characteristics, Adaption, 60, 74
Corn in the Development of the Civilization of the Americas: A Selected and Annotated Bibliography, 14
Crops and Man, 114
Cucurbits: Botany, Cultivation, and Utilization, 177
Cucurbits, Illustrated, 98
Cucurbits of New York, 103
Cultivated Fruits of Britain: Their Origin and History, 140
Cyclopedia of American Agriculture: A Popular Survey of Agricultural Conditions, Practices, and Ideals in the United States and Canada, 22
Cyclopedia of American Horticulture, 22
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits, 42

[Top of Title Index]

Description of and Key to American Potato Varieties, 105
Descriptions of Apple Varieties, 51
Descriptions of Types of Principle American Varieties of Cabbage, 37
Descriptions of Types of Principle American Varieties of Garden Peas, 37
Descriptions of Types of Principle American Varieties of Onions, 37
Descriptions of Types of Principle American Varieties of Orange-fleshed Carrots, 37
Descriptions of Types of Principle American Varieties of Red Garden Beets, 37
Descriptions of Types of Principle American Varieties of Spinach, 37
Descriptions of Types of Principle American Varieties of Tomatoes, 78
Descriptive List of Vegetable Varieties Introduced Between 1936 and 1968 by Public and Private Breeders in North America, 35
Dictionary Catalog of the National Agricultural Library, 1862-1965, 3
Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals, 171
Dwarf Lima Beans, 88

[Top of Title Index]

Early American Gardens: "For Meate or Medicine, " 120
Enduring Seeds, (p.17, 18)
Evolution of Sweet Corn, 158

Farm Book [Thomas Jefferson's], 23
Field and Garden Vegetables of America: Containing Full Descriptions of Nearly Eleven Hundred Species and Varieties, with Directions for Propagation, Culture, and Use, (p.18), 31, 33, 36, 92, 102
First the Seed: The Political Economy of Plant Biotechnology, 1492-2000, (p.17, 18)
Flamingo's Smile: Reflections in Natural History, 161
Fruit Culturist, 42
Fruits and Fruit Trees of America, or, the Culture, Propagation, and Management in the Garden and Orchard, of Fruit Trees Generally, with Descriptions of all the Finest Varieties of Fruit, Native and Foreign, Cultivated in This Country, 23, 40, 42, 52, 138
Fruits and Fruit Trees of Monticello, 138
Fruits of New York, 43, 147
Future Horizons: Recent Literature in Sustainable Agriculture, (p.18)

[Top of Title Index]

Garden and Farm Books of Thomas Jefferson, 23
Garden Beans, 92
Garden Beans as Esculents, 92
Garden Book [Thomas Jefferson's], 23
Garden Pepper (Capsicum Sp.), 18
Garden Seed Inventory, (p.17)
Gardening For Profit: A Guide to Successful Cultivation of the Market and Family Garden, (p.18), 33
Gardens of Colonial Williamsburg, 1
Going Local: Creating Self-reliant Communities in a Global Age, (p.17)
Grapes of New York, 43
Group Classification and Varietal Descriptions of Some American Potatoes, 109
Guide to Historical Research at the National Agricultural Library: The General Collection, (p.18)
Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies, 113

[Top of Title Index]

Handbook of Indian Foods and Fibers of Arid America, 149
Harvest of Apples, 147
Heirloom Gardener, (p.18)
Heirloom Vegetable Gardening, 31
Heritage of American Agriculture: A Bibliography of Pre-1860 Imprints, 2
Historical Books and Manuscripts Concerning Horticulture and Forestry in the Collection of the National Agricultural Library, 7
History and Virtues of Cyder, 145
History of American Agriculture, 5
History of Fruit Growing and Handling in the United States of America 1860-1972, 141
History of Horticulture in America to 1860 [with Addendum to 1920], 115, 141
History of Science and Technology: An International Annotated Bibliography, 4
Human Nature: Agricultural Biodiversity and Farm-based Food Security, (p.17)

[Top of Title Index]

Indian Corn, 71
Indian Corn in Old America, 73
Irish Potatoes, 108
Iroquois Uses of Maize and Other Food Plants, 55

Kitchen Garden: A Historical Guide to Traditional Crops, 124
Kitchen Gardening in America: A History, 125

[Top of Title Index]

List of American Varieties of Peppers, 87
List of American Varieties of Vegetables for Years 1901 and 1902, 38
List of References for the History of Agricultural Science in America, 9
List of References for the History of Fruits and Vegetables in the United States, 8
Literature of Crop Science, 3
Living Fields: Our Agricultural Heritage, 114
Living Historical Farms Bulletin, 12
Livingston and the Tomato: Being the History of Experiences in Discovering Choice Varieties Introduced by Him, with Practical Instructions for Growers, (p.18), 80, 84

[Top of Title Index]

Maize in the Great Herbals, 66
Medicinal and Food Plants of the North American Indian: A Bibliography, 19
Modern Systematic Pomology, 46
Monocultures of the Mind: Perspectives on Biodiversity and Biotechnology, (p.18)

[Top of Title Index]

Native Americans: A Resource Guide, 21
1959 Potato Handbook [Potato Varieties Issue], (p.18), 105, 106
Nineteenth-Century Garden, 142
Nomenclature of the Apple: A Catalog of the Known Varieties Referred to in American Publications from 1804 to 1904, 50
Nomenclature of the Pear: A Catalog-Index of the Known Varieties Referred to in American Publications from 1804 to 1907, 44
Notes on Tomatoes [1886], 76
Notes on Tomatoes [1887], 77
Notes on Varieties of Beans, 89
Notes on Varieties of Tomatoes, Tomato Diseases, 81

[Top of Title Index]

Old Southern Apples, (p.17), 144
Origins of American Horticulture, 121
Our Sustainable Table, (p.17)

[Top of Title Index]

Papago Sweet Corn, A New Variety, 67
Parker on the Iroquois, 55
Peaches of New York, 43
Pears of New York, 43
Peppers, 86
Pima and Papago Indian Agriculture, 54, 57
Plant Exploration and Introduction, 6
Plant Genetic Resources, (p.17)
Plant Genetic Resources: A Conservation Imperative, 117
Plants Potagères, 39
Plants Potagères, L'Album Vilmorin, 39
Plums of New York, 43
Pole Lima Beans, 88
Potato Handbook [1959], 105, 106
Potato: Its Culture, Uses, History and Classification, 109
Potato Tests, 110
Potatoes, 110
Potatoes: Varieties, Fertilizers, Scab, 107
Preliminary List of References for the History of Agicultural Science and Technology in the United States, 9
Primary U.S. Historical Literature of Crop Science, 1850-1949, 3

[Top of Title Index]

Rape of Canola, (p.18)
Results of Tomato Variety Tests in the Great Plains Region, 75
Revised Catalog of Fruits Recommended for Cultivation in the Various Sections of the United States and the British Provinces, 45

[Top of Title Index]

Seed Grower: A Practical Treatise on Growing Vegetable and Flower Seeds and Bulbs for the Market, 34
Seed to Civilization: The Story of Food, 116
Seeds of Change, 151
Seeds of Change: A Quincentennial Commemoration, (p.18), 151
Seeds of Time: Cultivating New Visions of the Past, Proceedings of the 1992 Conference and Annual Meeting, 143
Seedsman's Assistant: Compendium of the Growing Sources of Seeds, Vegetables, Flowers..., 34
Selected Bibliography for Garden History in Canada, 11
Selections from Garden and Farm Topics, 33
Seneca Prophet, 55
Shattering: Food, Politics, and Loss of Genetic Diversity, (p.17, 18)
Shucks, Shocks, and Hominy Blocks: Corn as a Way of Life in Pioneer America, 162
Singleton Sweet Corn Bibliography, 15
Small Fruits of New York, 43
Southwestern Beans and Teparies, 90
Species and Varietal Crosses in Cucurbits, 101
Squashes, 100
Squashes: How to Grow Them, 102, 126
Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture, 22
Story of Corn, 156
Studies on Bean Breeding, I. Standard Types of Yellow Eye Beans, 95
Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World, 24
Sturtevant's Notes on Edible Plants, 24
Sweet Corns of New York, 70
Systematic Pomology, 42
Systematic Study of Squashes and Pumpkins, 99

[Top of Title Index]

That We May Eat [USDA Yearbook 1975], 163
Thomas Jefferson's Garden Book, 1766-1824: With Relevant Extracts from His Other Writings, 23
Tomato Breeding, 85
Tomato Diseases, 81
Tomato in America: Early History, Culture, and Cookery, 80, 169
Tomato Varieties and Fertilizers for the Lower Rio Grande Valley, 79
Tomatoes and Potatoes, 82
Tomatoes for North Dakota, 83
Tomatoes: Testing Varieties, Culture, Training and Spraying, 84
Tomatoes: Varieties, Diseases, Culture, 84
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Yearbook[s], 25, 26, 27, 61, 136, 163

[Top of Title Index]

Varieties of Apples in Ohio, 48
Varieties of Apples in Ohio II, 48
Varieties of Corn, 69
Varieties of Corn in Ohio, 58
Varieties of Fruits Recommended for Planting, 45
Variety Study of the Irish Potato, 111
Vegetable Garden: Illustrations, Descriptions, and Culture of the Garden Vegetables of Cold and Temperate Climates, (p.18), 23, 36, 39, 92, 172
Vegetable Variety Names, 28
Vegetables of New York, 32
Vegetables of New York, Volume I, Part II: The Beans, 91
Vegetables of New York, Volume I, Part IV: The Cucurbits, 103
Vegetables of New York, Volume I, Part IV: The Peas, 32
Vegetables of New York, Volume I, Part III: Sweet Corn, 70
Victorian Kitchen Garden, 112

What are People For?, (p.17)
With Bitter Herbs They Shall Eat It, 181

Yuman Indian Agriculture: Primitive Subsistence on the Lower Colorado and Gila Rivers, 54

[Top of Title Index]

Go to: Top of Volume 3 | Contents of Volume 3 | Introduction | Notes and References
Part I. Vegetables and Fruits and Historical Gardening (Bibliographies)
Part II. Historical Varieties (Books, Articles, Agricultural Reports)
Part III. Histories of Vegetables and Fruits (Books and Articles)
Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160
Appendices (Volume 3): 1) Current Books 2) AFSIC, 3) Publication Titles Index, 4) Periodical Articles Index, 4) Persons / Organizations Index

Volume 3: Index to Articles in Periodicals

Go to: A| B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |

Agricultural History, 59
Agriculture and Human Values, (p.17)
Agronomy Journal, 65
American Horticulturist, 123, 156
American Journal of Alternative Agriculture, (p.17)
American Naturalist, 36, 56
American Potato Journal, 178
American Vegetable Grower, 128
Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 20, 62, 63, 64, 66

BioScience, (p.18)
Biotropica, 153
Biotechnology/Diversity Week, (p.18)

[Top of Articles Index]

CIAT International, (p.17)
Country Journal, 152
CRC Critical Reviews in Plant Science, 160
Cucurbit Network News, 175
Curator, 172

[Top of Articles Index]

Diversity, (p.17)

Earth Ethics, (p.17)
Economic Botany, 168, 173, 175, 176
Environmental Review, 117

Fine Gardening, 129

Garden: Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society, 133, 147, 180
Gentes Herbarum (The Kinds of Plants), 97
Global Pesticide Campaigner, (p.17)

[Top of Articles Index]

Herbarist, 181
Hilgardia, 94
Historical Gardener, 130
Horticulture, 132
HortScience, 28, 130, 137, 140, 177
HortTechnology, 135

[Top of Articles Index]

In Good Tilth, (p.17)
Indian School Journal, 68

Journal of Gastronomy, 157

Living History Farms Bulletin, 12

Maydica, 155

National Geographic, 131, 139
National Horticultural Magazine, 29, 30, 122
Natural History, 68, 161

[Top of Articles Index]

Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science, 167
Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 35
Proceedings of the 1992 [ALHFAM] Conference and Annual Meeting, 143

Science, 161
Science 84, 154
Science News, 165
Scientific American, (p.17), 164
Seed Savers...Harvest Edition, 126, 127, 130
Small Farm Today, (p.17)
Smithsonian, 134

Vegetarian Times, (p.17)

[Top of Articles Index]

Go to: Top of Volume 3 | Contents of Volume 3 | Introduction | Notes and References
Part I. Vegetables and Fruits and Historical Gardening (Bibliographies)
Part II. Historical Varieties (Books, Articles, Agricultural Reports)
Part III. Histories of Vegetables and Fruits (Books and Articles)
Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160
Appendices (Volume 3): 1) Current Books 2) AFSIC, 3) Publication Titles Index, 4) Periodical Articles Index, 4) Persons / Organizations Index

Volume 3: Index to Organizations and Persons

Go to: A| B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |

Abbott, Gail T., 58
Agricultural College of Michigan, 76, 77
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 141
Aldrich, Nelson, 152
Alexander, N.C., (p.17)
American Pomological Society, 45, 50, 140
American Seed Trade Association, 28, 35
American Society for Horticultural Science, 28, 35
Anderson, Edgar, 59, 62, 63, 64
Andrews, Jean, 170
Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station, 67, 90
Association for Living Historical Farms and Museums, 12, 143
Atkinson, Alfred, 60

[Top of Name Index]

Babb, M.F., 75
Bailey, L.H. (Liberty Hyde), (p.18), 22, 76, 77, 88, 97
Ballard, W.R., 84
Baron, Robert C., 23
Barre, H.W., 81
Barrett, T. (Thomas) M., (p.17)
Bastable, Louise, 126
Batson, W.A., 98
Beach, S.A. (Spencer Ambrose), 43, 47
Beal, William, 164
Becker, Robert F., 31, 33, 127, 128, 129, 130
Bell, Willis H., 54, 57
Bercaw, Louise O., 14
Berry, W. (Wendell), (p.17)
Bessey, Ernst A., 25
Betts, Edwin Morris, 23
Beus, C. (Curtis) E., (p.18)
Biggar, H. Howard, 61
Bird, Robert McK., 153
Booth, N.O. (Nathaniel Ogden), 43, 47
Boswell, Victor R., 27, 29, 30, 37, 78, 131
Bradford, Frederick Charles, 146
Bressman, Earl N., 72
Brinkley, M. Kent, 1
Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 121
Brown, C.R., 178
Brown, William L., 59, 62, 63, 154, 155, 166
Buffalo Bird Woman, 57
Burr, F. (Fearing, Jr.), (p.18), 23, 31, 33, 36, 92, 102

[Top of Name Index]

Calhoun, C.L. (Creighton Lee), (p.18), 143, 144
Canada Dept. of Agriculture, 141
Carter, George F., 64
Castetter, E. F. (Edward Franklin), 54, 57, 99
Chapman, S. (Susan), (p.18)
Chappell, Gordon W., 1
Christopher, Thomas, 132
Clark, C.F. (Charles Frederick), 105
Coe, S. (Sophie D.), (p.17), 148
Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1
Colvin, Esther M., 13
Corbett, L.C. (Lee Cleveland), 100
Cordell, Linda S., 150, 159, 170, 174
Cornell University, Agricultural Experiment Station, 88, 93
Crop Science Society of America, 114

[Top of Name Index]

Dahl, K. (Kevin), (p.17)
Darling, H.M., (p.18), 105, 106
Darwin, Charles, 164, 166
Davies, Jennifer, 112
Davis, Glen N., 177
Davis, Kary C., 109
Dean, M.L., 82
Decker, Deena S., 175
Delwiche, E.J., 37
Dennis, Frank G., 137
Department of Agriculture for Ontario, 53
Deppe, C. (Carolyn), (p.18)
DeVault, George, 33
Diamond, Jared M., 113
Dimbleby, G.W., 171
Dodson, Harry, 112
Downing, A.J. (Andrew Jackson), 40, 42
Downing, Charles, 40
DuPre, J.F.C., 89

[Top of Name Index]

Eberling, Walter, 149
Edwards, Everett E., 8, 17
Ellenwood, C.W., 48
Enzie, Walter D., 70, 103
Erwin, A.T., 65, 86, 99, 101
Eubank, Sharon Y., 12
Evans, Shirley King, 21

[Top of Name Index]

Fairchild, David, 118
Feenstra, G. (Gail) W., (p.17)
Fenton, William N., 55
Finan, John J., 66
Foster, Nelson, 150, 159, 170, 174
Fowler, C. (Cary), (p.17, 18)
Francis, C. (Charles) A., (p.18)
Frankel, O. H. (Otto Hertzberg), (p.17)
Franklin, Benjamin, 118
Freeman, G.F. (George Fouche), 67, 90
French, R.K. (Roger Kenneth), 145
Friend, W.H. (William Heartsill), 79
Fusonie, Alan M., 2
Fussell, Betty, 156, 157

[Top of Name Index]

Galinat, Walton C., 15, 158, 159
Genesee Country Village & Museum, 129
George Washington University, Biological Sciences Communication Project, 16
Georgia Experiment Station, 108
Glendinning, D.R., 179
Goodman, Major M., 160
Gould, Stephen Jay, 161
Green, W.J. (William James), 48
Gregory, J. (James) J.H., 102, 126

[Top of Name Index]

Haber, E.S. (Ernest Straign), 99, 101
Halliwell, Brian, 133
Hankin, Bill, 172
Hannay, Annie M., 14
Hanson, Jeffrey R., 57
Hardeman, Nicholas P., 162
Harlan, Jack R. (Rodney), 114
Harpstead, D. (Dale) D., 163
Hartman, Henry, 41
Harvey, Cecil L., 17
Hatch, Peter J., 138
Hawkes, J.G. (John Gregory), 180
Hedrick, U.P. (Ulysses Prentiss), 24, 32, 42, 43, 91, 115
Hegyes, G. (Gabriel), (p.18)
Heiser, Charles B. (Bixler), Jr., 116
Henderson, Alfred, 33
Henderson, P. (Peter), (p.18), 33, 123
Herendeen, Donna, 3
Heritage Seed Curators Association, 172
Hi-Bred Corn Company, 166
Hobhouse, Henry, 151
Howe, G.H. (George Henry), 43
Hunt, Leigh, 107
Hurt, Mary Ellen, 4
Hurt, R. Douglas, 4
Hyde, George E., 74
Hyland, Howard L., 117

[Top of Name Index]

Iltis, Hugh, 161
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), 16
Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station, 86, 99, 101
Irish, H.C., 92

[Top of Name Index]

J.C. Robinson Seed Co., 98
Jabs, C. (Carolyn), (p.18)
Jackson, W. (Wes), (p.18)
Jarvis, C.D (Chester Deacon)., 93
Jenkins, J.A., 168
Jefferson, Thomas, 23, 118, 120, 125, 138
Johns, Timothy, 181
Johnson, Charles, 34
Jones, Donald, 164

[Top of Name Index]

Kafton, David, 117
Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 71
Kaplan, Lawrence, 173, 174
Kaplan, Lucille N., 174
Keil, J.B., 48
Kloppenburg, J. (Jack, Jr.), (p.17, 18)
Klose, Norman, 118
Kneen, B. (Brewster), (p.18)
Kraft, Ken, 134
Kraft, Pat, 134
Kraus, James E., 75

[Top of Name Index]

Larson, Nellie G., 14
Latzke, E. (Esther), 104
Lawrence, George H.M., 119
Leighton, Ann, 120
Liao, T.R. (Tien-Ren), 5, 6
Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium, 119
Library of Congress, 5, 6, 7, 14
Lippert, Laverne Francis, 18
Livingston, A. (Alexander) W., (p.18), 80, 84
Lombard, P.M. (Perley Maxwell), 105
Lorain, John, 162
Lustgarden, S. (Steve), (p.17)
Lynas, Lothian, 19

[Top of Name Index]

M'Mahon, Bernard (M.), 23, 36
Mackie, W.W. (William Wylie), 94
Magness, J.R. (John Robert), 49, 139
Magruder, Roy, 37
Maine Agricultural Experiment Station, 95
Mangelsdorf, P. (Paul C.), (p.17), 164
Manks, Dorothy S., 121
Margolis, C. (Carolyn), (p.18), 151
Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station, 84
Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station, 15, 51, 158
Maw, Dolly, 123
McCue, George Allen, 20
McNeill, William H., 151
Mead, Charles W., 68
Meyer, Frank, 118
Michigan State Agricultural College Experiment Station, 82, 110
Michigan State University, Agricultural Experiment Station, 137
Miller, D.R., (p.18)
Miller, Mark, 39
Minges, Philip A., 35
Monroe, J. (John) F., 84
Montana Agricultural Experiment Station, 60
Monticello, 23, 138
Mooney, P. (Patrick R.), (p.17, 18)
Murray, John, 39

[Top of Name Index]

Nabhan, G.P. (Gary Paul), (p.17, 18), 150
Naftalin, Mortimer Lewis, 7
National Agricultural Library, 2, 7, 14, 21, 144
National Colonial Farm, 127
Nauta, Laura R., 21
Nee, Michael, 176
New Hampshire College Agricultural Experiment Station, 107
New York Botanical Garden Library, 19
New York [State] Agricultural Experiment Station, 24, 32, 43, 47, 70, 91, 103, 129, 137
Newman, C.C., 81
Newman, Magdalene R., 122
North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station, 83, 85, 104
Norton, J.B.S. (John Bitting Smith), 84

[Top of Name Index]

Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, 48, 58
Olsen, Wallace C., 3
Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station, 41

Paine, Laura, 135
Parker, Arthur C., 55
Parks Canada, Canadian Heritage, 11
Pearl, Raymond, 95
Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 119
Pickersgill, Barbara, 171
Pieters, A.J. (Adrian John), 136
Pioneer Hi-Bred International, 155, 166
Potato Association of America, 106, 178
Pursell, Carrol W., 9

[Top of Name Index]

Ragan, W.H. (William Henry), 44, 45, 50
Raloff, Janet, 165
Rane, F. William, 107
Rasmussen, Wayne B., 17
Reed, Robert, 162
Ricker, Percy L., 122
Roach, Frederick A., 140
Robinson, H.F., 155
Robinson, J.C. [seed co.], 98
Robinson, W., 39
Rodale, J.I. (Jerome Irving), 125
Rogers, Earl M., 8, 9
Rossiter, Margaret W., 9
Rossman, A.Y., (p.18)

[Top of Name Index]

Salaman, Redcliffe, 180
Scharffenberg, Richard S., 18
Schlebecker, John T., 10
Schull, George H., 154, 164
Scripps, Edythe Henderson, 123
Seed Savers Exchange, 80
Shand, H. (Hope), (p.17)
Shaw, J.K. (Jacob Kingsley), 51
Sherman, Martha A., 13
Shiva, V. (Vandana), (p.18)
Shoemaker, D.N., 37
Shoesmith, V.M., 71
Shuman, M. (Michael) H., (p.17)
Singleton, Willard Ralph, 15
Slate, George L., 141
Smartt, J., 171
Smith, Andrew F., 80, 169
Smithsonian Institution, 151
South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, 81, 89
South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station, 100
Sprague, Isaac, 31
Starnes, Hugh H., 108
Steece, Henry M., 68
Stilphen, George Albert, 146
Stoner, Alan K., 127
Stuart, David C., 124
Stuart, William, 109
Sturtevant, E.L. (Edward Lewis), 24, 36, 56, 69
Surface, Frank M., 95

[Top of Name Index]

Taft, L.R., 82, 110
Tapley, William T., 70, 103
Taylor, Orrin M., 47
Ten Eyck, A.M. (Albert Moore), 71
Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, 79
Thayer, Paul, 48
Thomas, John J., 42
Thuente, J. (Joanne), (p.17)
Tracy, W.W., Jr., (William Woodbridge), (p.18), 37, 38, 87, 95, 96
Tucker, David M., 125

[Top of Name Index]

Ucko, Peter J., 171
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 13, 17, 21, 25, 26, 27, 49, 61, 69, 75, 78, 105, 109, 117, 136, 139, 141, 163
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry, 37, 38, 44, 50, 87, 96
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, 8
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Division of Pomology, 45, 144
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Nursery and Seed Trade Catalog Collection, 122, 144
U.S. National Clonal Germplasm Repository, 43
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System, 127
U.S. Office of Foreign Plant and Seed Introduction, 118
University of Arkansas, College of Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment Station, 111
University of California, Agricultural History Center, 9
University of Tennessee, Agricultural Experiment Station, 52
Upshall, W.H. (William Harold), 141

[Top of Name Index]

Van Eseltine, Glen P., 70, 103
Van Ravenswaay, Charles, 142
Vilmorin [of Paris], (p.18), 39, 92
Vilmorin-Andrieux, Mssrs., 39
Viola, H. (Herman ) J., (p.18), 151
Von Baeyer, Edwinna, 11

[Top of Name Index]

Wallace, Henry A., 72, 166
Walter, A., (p.17)
Walther, R. (Robert) G., 12
Ward, Ruth, 147
Warner, Marjorie, 13
Washington, George, 120
Watts, R. (Ralph) L., 52
Weatherwax, Paul, 73, 167
Weaver, William Woys, 31
Webber, Herbert J., 25
Wellington, R. (Richard), 43
Werner, H.O. (Harvey Oscar), 83
Whealy, K. (Kent), (p.17)
Whitaker, Thomas W., 177
White, Thomas H., 84
Wicks, W.H. (William Hale), 111
Wilkes, (H.) Garrison, 117, 127
Will, George F., 74
Wilson, G.L. (Gilbert Livingstone), (p.18), 57
Wilson, M.L. (Milburn Lincoln), 60
Wood, William H.S., 42
Woodburn, Elisabeth, 115
Woolverton, Linus, 52

Yeager, A.F. (Albert Franklin), 85, 104
Yeatman, Christopher W., 117

Zielinski, Quentin Bliss, 46

[Top of Name Index]

Go to: Top of Volume 3 | Contents of Volume 3 | Introduction | Notes and References
Part I. Vegetables and Fruits and Historical Gardening (Bibliographies)
Part II. Historical Varieties (Books, Articles, Agricultural Reports)
Part III. Histories of Vegetables and Fruits (Books and Articles)
Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160
Appendices (Volume 3): 1) Current Books 2) AFSIC, 3) Publication Titles Index, 4) Periodical Articles Index, 4) Persons / Organizations Index

Alternative Farming Systems Information Center

The Alternative Farming Systems Information Center (AFSIC) is one of several topic-oriented Information Centers at the National Agricultural Library (NAL). The Library, located in Beltsville, Maryland, is the foremost agricultural library in the world, and is one of four U.S. national libraries, long with the Library of Congress, the National Library of Medicine, and the National Library of Education. AFSIC is supported, in part, by USDA's Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) program.

AFSIC specializes in locating and accessing information related to non-conventional cropping and livestock systems, including sustainable, organic, low-input, biodynamic, and regenerative agriculture. AFSIC focuses also on alternative crops, new uses for traditional crops, and crops grown for industrial production. AFSIC staff create and publish Quick Bibliographies (QBs), Special Reference Briefs (SRBs), and Agri-Topics (ATs). These publications focus on specific topics of current interest. Most AFSIC publications are available in ASCII text from the Center's Web site, under "AFSIC Publications." To obtain AFSIC publications on computer diskette, or inhardcopy (limited availability), please make requests by contacting the AFSIC office by phone, mail, or e-mail. A complete list/printable order form of all AFSIC publications and format availability is available under "List of AFSIC Publications" at the Web site.

Books, articles, and videocassettes cited in AFSIC's bibliographic publications are not available directly from AFSIC. For information on how to obtain these materials, refer to the following NAL "Document Delivery" information.

Specific topics not covered by AFSIC QBs, SRBs, and ATs may be addressed, on request, by AFSIC reference staff through brief, complimentary database searches.

For further information concerning the services and activities of the Center, contact:

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National Agricultural Library, Rm 123
10301 Baltimore Ave.
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Telephone: 301/504-6559 or 301/504-5724
FAX: 301/504-6409
TDD/TTY: 301/504-6856
Web site:

Go to: Top of Volume 3 | Contents of Volume 3 | Appendices (Volume 3)
Citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160

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The Alternative Farming Systems Information Center, March 9, 1999