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Alternative Farming Systems Information Center of the National Agricultural Library
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

ISSN: 1052-536X

Vegetables and Fruits:

A Guide to Heirloom Varieties and Community-Based Stewardship. Volume 2. Resource Organizations

Special Reference Briefs Series no. SRB 98-06

September 1998
Electronic version slightly revised, March 1999

Compiled By:
Suzanne P. DeMuth
Alternative Farming Systems Information Center, Information Centers Branch
National Agricultural Library, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture
Beltsville, Maryland 20705-2351

A Note About the Electronic Files for Each Volume

The publication Vegetables and Fruits: A Guide to Heirloom Varieties and Community-Based Stewardship was published in three printed volumes. The following sections were repeated in each volume: 1) Table of Contents for 3 volumes, 2) Introduction (including Notes and References) to 3 volumes, 3) Acknowledgements, 4) Alternative Farming Systems Information Center overview, and 5) document access instructions. To reduce duplication in the electronic versions, these sections have been extracted and placed in one document, A Guide to Heirloom Varieties and Community-Based Stewardship, archived separately with these three volumes.

The remainder of each volume is contained in a separate file which includes its respective citations, indices, and table of contents.
Volume 1. Annotated Bibliography
Volume 2. Resource Organizations [below]
Volume 3. Historical Supplement.

All files are available in this archive at:

In the original online edition, there were many cross-reference links to related entries, either within the same document, or to another document in this heirloom series. When you activate a link to another document, use your browser's "back" button to return to the document from which the link was selected.

Additional related entries can be located through use of the indices that accompany each document. Separate indices to publication titles, organization names, and persons (as authors or contacts) are found at the end of Volume 1, Volume 2, and Volume 3. (Note that there is no comprehensive index that covers all three documents. Therefore, to find all substantive references to particular publications or organizations, you will need to follow the links from each document's indices.)

Contents of Volumes 1, 2, and 3


The author is grateful to AFSIC staff, especially Mary Gold and Jane Gates, for their review of this document, helpful suggestions offered, and continuous encouragement thoughout its development. Sincere thanks are extended also to the individuals from stewardship organizations, seed companies, and nurseries who provided an array of useful and interesting materials and other information on their respective missions, activities, products, and services.

National Agricultural Library Cataloging Record:

DeMuth, Suzanne
Vegetables and fruit : a guide to heirloom varieties and community-based stewardship.
(Special reference briefs ; 98-05 -- 98-07)
1. Fruit--Heirloom varieties. 2. Vegetables--Heirloom varieties. 3. Fruit--Germplasm resources. 4. Vegetables--Germplasm resources. 5. Agrobiodiversity conservation. I. vol.1. Annotated bibliography. II. vol.2. Resource organizations. III. vol.3. Historical supplement. IV. Title.
aS21.D27S64 no. 98-05 -- 98-07

Go to: Top of Volume 2 | Contents of Volume 2 | Introduction | Notes and References
Part I. Vegetable Seed Exchanges or Seedbanks
Part II. Fruit Growers Organizations or Programs
Part III. Public Gardens and Living Historical Farm Museums in the U.S.
Part IV. National and International Genebanks, Including Government Programs
Part V. Other Resource Organizations and Programs
Part VI. Commercial Seed Companies
Part VII. Commercial Fruit Nurseries
Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160
Appendices (Volume 2): 1) AFSIC, 2) Publication Titles Index, 3) Periodical Articles Index, 4) Persons / Organizations Index

Volume 2. Resource Organizations

Contents of Volume 2

See for the following information about this 3-volume series: 1) Table of Contents for 3 volumes, 2) Introduction (including Notes and References) to 3 volumes, 3) Acknowledgements, 4) Alternative Farming Systems Information Center overview, and 5) document access instructions.

Part I. Vegetable Seed Exchanges or Seedbanks

Part II. Fruit Growers Organizations or Programs

Part III. Public Gardens and Living Historical Farm Museums in the U.S.

Part IV. National and International Genebanks, Including Government Programs

Part V. Other Resource Organizations and Programs

Part VI. Commercial Seed Companies

    1. United States
    2. Canada

Part VII. Commercial Fruit Nurseries

    1. United States
    2. Canada


Go to: Top of Volume 2 | Contents of Volume 2 | Introduction | Notes and References
Part I. Vegetable Seed Exchanges or Seedbanks
Part II. Fruit Growers Organizations or Programs
Part III. Public Gardens and Living Historical Farm Museums in the U.S.
Part IV. National and International Genebanks, Including Government Programs
Part V. Other Resource Organizations and Programs
Part VI. Commercial Seed Companies
Part VII. Commercial Fruit Nurseries
Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160
Appendices (Volume 2): 1) AFSIC, 2) Publication Titles Index, 3) Periodical Articles Index, 4) Persons / Organizations Index

Part I. Vegetable Seed Exchanges or Seedbanks

This section describes nonprofit, nongovernmental programs or projects that preserve and disseminate vegetable seeds and other plant materials, including heirloom, native, or rare varieties. Most of the 23 groups or projects listed here are based in the U.S.; the remainder include 1 Canadian, 3 European, and 2 Australian organizations. Most encourage their members to participate, at some level, as stewards of garden diversity, and several sell plant materials by mail to their members and the general public. Some of the living historical farm museums with heritage garden programs listed in Part III offer membership options also, which may include access to the vintage varieties of vegetables (and also fruits) displayed at museum sites. Several nonprofit seed exchanges sponsored by gardening magazines, or conducted via the Internet, are listed in Volume 1, Annotated Bibliography, in Section 4C and Section 7 (in Part I, "Vegetables and Fruits"), respectively. Although many of the groups cited here are commonly referred to as "seed-saving" networks, a number of them have members interested in fruits, or maintain heirloom fruit collections. Groups that emphasize fruit collection, preservation, and distribution are listed below in Part II, "Fruit Growers Organizations or Programs."

Catalog prices refer to printed catalogs obtained by mail. (Some organizations also offer partial or complete catalog information at their World Wide Web home pages.)

Key to catalog items available: B--bulk seed sizes for some or all stock; BK--books, other publications and media; GS--garden supplies and tools, or cooking or gift items; SC--thematic seed collections.

1. Abundant Life Seed (ALS) Foundation (P.O. Box 772, 930 Lawrence St., Port Townsend, WA 98368, tel. 360-385-5660 or 385-7192 (orders), fax 360-385-7455, e-mail
membership dues $30/yr basic plus additional rates
Forest Shomer, Founder/Director

A nonprofit, regional, seed preservation and educational organization working to "preserve genetic diversity and support sustainable agriculture though acquiring, propagating, and preserving native and naturalized seed, with special emphasis on those species not commercially available." Through catalog sales to the public, and also donations to the World Seed Fund, Abundant Life offers strictly open-pollinated, untreated seeds of vegetables, grains, flowers, herbs, wildflowers, trees, and shrubs, a portion of which are supplied by the Seed Growers Network. Members receive the newsletter, Seed Midden (3 issues/yr), seed discounts, and other benefits. (Web page contains the full text of newsletter back issues from Fall 1995 to Spring 1998.) Seed saving workshops are offered. Begun in 1985, the World Seed Fund is an international project that provides free seeds to support self-reliance within impoverished communities in developing countries, and also the U.S. and Canada (including inner-city garden and prison garden projects, for example). Abundant Life's 1999 catalog contains a broad selection of heirloom and commercially-endangered beans, tomatoes, corns, squash, and others, including varieties selected for Maritime Northwest conditions. Seed-saving supplies, and good selection of seed-saving and other books are available also. Established 1975. Catalog $2. B/BK/GS/SC

2. Arche Noah (Obere Strasse 40, A-3553 Schiltern, Austria, tel. 43 43 027348626, fax 43 43 027348627)
(also: c/o Seed Savers Exchange's Heritage Farm, 3076 N. Winn Rd., Decorah, IA 5210, tel. 319-382-5990)
Nancy Arrowsmith, Founder/Director

Based near Vienna, Arche Noah was founded in 1990 and modeled after Seed Savers Exchange (SSE) in the U.S. The group's 1600+ members, who are based primarily in Germany and Austria, work to preserve the genetic heritage of vegetables and grain crops in German-speaking Europe and the formerly Communist countries of Eastern Europe. The group maintains demonstration gardens, monitors the European seed industry, and sponsors plant collecting missions in Poland and the former Soviet Union. Some 3000 traditional Austrian and German crop varieties are maintained by the group's volunteer members and offered through its annual catalog, which serves as the sole source of private seeds in Austria. Arche Noah cooperates with other organizations with similar mission, and along with SSE helped to establish Seed Savers International (SSI). A selection of Arche Noah's organically-grown seeds are listed in SSE's annual Yearbook. (See entry 17, this volume, for more information on SSE, and entry 18 for more on SSI.)

3. Bountiful Gardens/Ecology Action (18001 Shafer Ranch Rd., Willits, CA 95490-9626, tel./fax 707-459-6410, e-mail
membership dues $30/yr/basic rate, plus additional rates
Bill and Betsy Bruneau, Garden Managers

Ecology Action is a nonprofit educational and research organization concerned with sustainable living and small-scale food production via biointensive mini-farming. One of its projects is Bountiful Gardens, a local store and mail-order service selling open-pollinated, untreated vegetable seeds (many of them European heirlooms and unique varieties), plus seeds of soil-enhancing compost crops, grains, herbs, and flowers. The 71-page 1999 catalog offers lengthy varietal descriptions and identifies biointensive, certified organic, or other seed production methods used, plus a broad selection of books and other publications (including Ecology Action Research Papers and Spanish-language materials; and seed-saving publications), and garden supplies and tools. Bountiful Gardens serves as the sole American distributor for Chase Seeds from the U.K.'s Henry Doubleday Research Association (for contact information, see entry 8, this volume). Member benefits include the quarterly Ecology Action Newsletter. Established 1983. (Ecology Action is 1 of 57 groups profiled in the World Sustainable Agriculture Association's new publication, For All Generations: Making World Agriculture More Sustainable; see book description in Volume 1, Annotated Bibliography, entry 67.) Regular catalog free; Rare Seeds Catalog ($2) includes additional varieties; bulk seeds price list ($1). B/BK/GS

4. Butterbrooke Farm Seed Co-op (78 Barry Rd., Oxford, CT 06478-1529, tel. 203-888-2000)
membership dues $12.50/yr/associates, plus additional rates
Tom Butterworth, Newsletter Editor

Butterbrooke Co-op is a nonprofit network of organic growers and seed savers that provides its members with chemically-untreated, open-pollinated vegetable and flower seeds, including named heirloom and short-maturity varieties. The group publishes gardening guides and a quarterly newsletter, Germinations, which, along with seed discounts, are a benefit of membership. Since 1979. Catalog available for SASE.

5. CORNS (c/o Carl Barnes, Rt. 1, Box 32, Turpin, OK 73950, tel. 580-778-3615)
Carl Barnes, Co-founder and Director

An informal network of corn enthusiasts co-founded some years ago by Carl and Karen Barnes. CORNS network participants are dedicated to preserving and utilizing the genetic diversity still existing among open-pollinated corn varieties, including pod, flour or flint, sweet, pop, and dent corns, and corn's close relative, teosinte. Some 8000 individuals participate as either members or member-growers (both without dues), maintaining several hundred corn varieties, including rare types and heirlooms. Selected varieties of dent, flint/flour, sweet, pod, and popcorns are available for purchase by nonmembers. Price list and general information, SASE and $1.

6. Eastern Native Seed Conservancy (ENSC) (P.O. Box 451, 222 Main St., Great Barrington, MA 01230, tel. 413-229-8316, e-mail
membership dues $25/yr/basic rate, $15/yr/low income, plus additional rates
Lawrence Davis-Hollander, Director

A nonprofit network of seed growers and others "dedicated to the biocultural conservation of economic plant resources, especially food and medicinal plants, adapted or endemic to the northeastern United States, with special consideration to those plants of North American origination or usage." ENSC is active in seed collection, banking, propagation, and redistribution, as well as education and advocacy for plant conservation and preservation of traditional plant knowledge. Current projects include CRESS Heirloom Seed Conservation Project (CRESS stands for Conservation and Regional Exchange by Seed Savers), concerned with creating a regional seed bank for food plants, and the Native Seeds Project, which preserves traditional and regionally important Native American corn and bean varieties. The organization maintains a public heirloom garden at the Bidwell House Museum in Monterey, Massachusetts, and sponsors an annual Epicurean Tomato Fete in the early Fall. Network members receive Daily Seed Planet, an occasional newsletter. ENSC's Web site describes additional projects and activities, lists vegetable seeds available for purchase, and provides information on Seeds-L, an Internet mailing list sponsored by ENSC. Seed catalog listing a sampling of members' varieties available (to U.S. residents) for first class stamp.

7. Garden State Heirloom Seed Society (GSHSS) (P.O. Box 15, Valley Rd., Delaware, NJ 07833, tel. 908-475-4861)
membership dues $8/yr
Joe and Roberta Cavanaugh, Co-founders

A New-Jersey based organization of gardeners and farmers working together to preserve regionally-suited heirloom crops. Member-gardeners conduct heirloom plant trials to assist member-farmers in choosing heirloom varieties with superior flavor and other desirable characteristics for direct market sales. GSHSS members, who may participate in a yearly heirloom tasting festival and other events, receive several publications, including an annual magazine, Summer Solstice Edition, plus GSHSS Seed Listings Catalog (an annual listing of member's seeds), and the results of annual plant evaluations.

8. Henry Doubleday Research Association (HDRA) (Heritage Seed Library, Ryton Organic Gardens, Coventry, CV8 3LG U.K., tel. +44 1203 303517, fax +44 1203 639229, e-mail
membership dues 18.50yr/std (for HDRA); 9/yr/HDRA members, 18/yr/nonmembers (for Heritage Seed Library)
Alan Gear, Chief Executive; Bob Sherman, Head of Horticulture; Louise Daugherty, Curator of HSL

Based at Ryton Organic Gardens in the English Midlands, HDRA is the largest organic gardening organization in Europe, with 25,000 members. The nonprofit group (founded in 1958 by Lawrence D. Hills, and named for a 19th-C. Quaker activist) carries out a wide array of programs aimed at "researching, demonstrating, and promoting environmentally-friendly growing methods" in the U.K., and also through small-scale agricultural projects in developing countries. Programs include an organic advisory service, research station/demonstration gardens, and work centered on preserving crop biodiversity, including addressing the legal and economic constraints that threaten the continued existence of traditional garden crops. The Association's "Adopt a Veg" Campaign helped to raise public awareness of garden plant conservation, food security, and consumer choice. In cooperation with other European organizations, HDRA works to improve the availability of non-bioengineered, organic seed stocks. Some 9000 members of the Heritage Seed Library (HSL) work to preserve several hundred old and unusual vegetable varieties that can't be legally sold because they aren't listed on the EU Seed Register. Recently, the group has received funding to more actively canvas for home-grown heirlooms; the three-year project is expected to culminate in a book, Britain's Lost Vegetables. HDRA publications include a quarterly newsletter, Growing Organically (formerly HDRA News), and seed-saving guidelines; the "Organic Gardening Catalog" lists vegetable and other seeds and publications available to the general public. Contact the organization for more information on the benefits and responsibilities of HSL membership.

9. Heritage Seed Curators Association (HSCA) (P.O. Box 1450, Bairnsdale, Victoria 3875 Australia, tel. (03) 5153 1034 or (03) 5155 0227, e-mail
membership dues $25/yr supporting, plus additional rates; Curator sample issues $6/each
Bill Hankin, President (also Curator Editor, and Co-ordinator of Australian Garden Seed Inventory Project)

A nonprofit organization concerned with preserving Australia's horticultural and garden heritage, including open-pollinated vegetables and commercially-nonviable varieties, and supporting garden biodiversity generally. The group is composed of plant curators and supporters who work with affiliated organizations on a variety of projects to identify, store, propagate, and encourage commercial reintroduction of heritage seed varieties. Member benefits include the HSCA's twice-yearly magazine, The Curator, whose Winter issue lists vegetable and fruit varieties available from members. (Selected articles from back issues from 1993 to 1998 are posted at the Web page.) Currently in progress is the Australian Garden Seed Inventory, a project that aims to list all open-pollinated vegetable varieties (and some heritage fruits) available from private individuals, seed exchanges, or seed companies (and available in draft form, including resource list, at Web site). A selection of books and seed-saving supplies is available. Since 1992.

10. Irish Seed Savers Association (Marley, St. Mullin's, County Carlow, Ireland, tel. +353 (503) 24 444

A seed-saving and plant preservation network working to perpetuate and distribute traditional and regionally-adapted Irish vegetable varieties not available from commercial outlets. In co-operation with the Armagh Orchards Trust and Dublin's University College, network members have established the Irish Apple Heritage Collection, which has located and propagated 100 old varieties known prior to the 1940s. Also, members are working with the Irish Genetic Resources Conservation Trust and Trinity College, Dublin, on a project to preserve native and cultivated varieties of oats, wheat, and other grains. Biannual newsletter includes seed catalog. (Web site includes links relating to Irish plant genetic resources.)

11. KUSA Research Foundation/KUSA Society (c/o Lorenz Schaller, P.O. Box 761, Ojai, CA 93023)
membership dues $30/yr (U.S., Canada, Mexico), $32/yr (elsewhere), basic rates
Lorenz Schaller, Founding Director

KUSA Research Foundation is a small, nonprofit, research and educational organization established in 1980 to increase knowledge of the ancient cereal grasses and other edible seed crops. (KUSA is transliterated from a Sanskrit word meaning "sacred grass" and refers to the important life-sustaining character of grain crops.) The Foundation maintains a seed collection of numerous crops from around the world, emphasizing folk varieties of traditional seed crops (both commercially-obsolete cultivars and improved types), which are intended to serve directly "innovative gardeners" and "small-scale mini-farmers." KUSA Society is the participatory membership component, which exists to provide opportunities for individuals to share common interests in edible seed crops, including ancient, rare, and endangered types of wheat, millet, oats, barley, quinoa, lentils, and others. Members receive The Cerealist (published irregularly) and seed discounts. Membership information available for $2 and SASE; "Seed and Literature Catalog" listing organically-grown seeds available in small quantities, and the Foundation's articles and booklets, available for $5. B

12. Maine Seed Saving Network (MSSN) (c/o Nicolas Lindholm, P.O. Box 126, Penobscot, ME 04476, tel. 207-326-0751)
membership dues $15/yr/basic, plus other rate categories; newsletter back issues (since Spring 1995) $1.25 each
Nicolas Lindholm, Founder and President

MSSN is a regional seed-saving organization serving "farmers and gardeners interested in growing and saving seed from food, ornamental, and medicinal crops." The nonprofit group's research and educational programs are aimed at identifying, promoting, preserving, and utilizing open-pollinated varieties. The Network publishes a quarterly newsletter, The Seedbed, with feature articles, network news, and resource information. Also, it distributes an annual seed catalog of member-grown, vegetable, herb, and flower seeds, as well as a selection of scionwood from Maine apples. Organically-grown seeds, which are available to nonmembers also, include Maine family heirlooms and commercial varieties that do well in Maine or similar climates. MSSN operates a lending library for members, and trial gardens, and holds an annual seed swap and harvest celebration event. Network events are announced regularly in the Maine Organic Farmers and Gardeners Association's quarterly newspaper, Maine Organic Farmer & Gardener, NAL S605.5.M3.

13. Medomak Valley High School Heirloom Seed Project (c/o Jon Thurston and Neil Lash, 320 Manktown Rd., Box 309, Waldoboro, ME 04572, tel. 207-832-6321, e-mail Neil_Lash@,,
Jon Thurston and Neil Lash, Instructors

The Medomak Valley High School seed savers are members of a unique horticultural class that teaches--in addition to practical gardening skills--local history, geography, and the value of plant biodiversity. Guided by teachers Thurston and Lash, the students collect seeds (and their associated stories), grow out the plants, and distribute seeds to heirloom collectors and gardeners around the world. The Project's particular interest is in locally-adapted, Maine family heirlooms that are well-documented; some 175+ varieties (the collection being especially rich in beans and tomatoes) are listed in the annual catalog, and also listed in Seed Savers Exchange's annual Yearbook. Seeds available are described at the Project's Web site.

14. Native Seeds/SEARCH (NS/S) (526 North 4th Ave., Tucson, AZ 85705, tel. 520-622-5561, fax 520-622-5991, e-mail, or
membership dues $20/yr/basic
Angelo Joaquin, Jr., Director; Gary Paul Nabhan and Mahina Drees, Co-founders

NS/S is a nonprofit membership organization working to conserve and promote the use of traditional crops and farming methods of the native peoples of the southwestern U.S. and northern Mexico. In addition to maintaining an important regional seed bank of unique varieties of food and other useful plants (containing currently some 1600 accessions from 98 species), the group conducts research, provides educational and community outreach programs, and has established a wild chile pepper preserve. One of the group's newest programs is the "Cultural Memory Bank," which collects and stores botanical and human cultural information about seedbank collections. Another is the Arizona Regis-TREE program (see entry 29, this volume). In 1992, the group launched the Traditional Native American Farmers Association (TNAFA), a group of Southwestern growers who work together on issues of mutual concern, including preserving their crop and farming heritage. These projects are supported in part by seed sales to members and nonmembers (seeds are available without cost to Native Americans in the region). Founded in 1983 by ethnobotanist Gary Nabhan and three others, Native Seeds/SEARCH grew out of the Meals for Millions gardening project on the Tohono O'odham reservation in Arizona (SEARCH stands for Southwestern Endangered Aridland Resource Clearinghouse). NS/S member benefits include a quarterly newsletter, Seedhead News (several articles from recent issues are posted at the organization's Web site). Four catalogs are published per year; the January "Seedlisting" emphasizes southwestern and Native American varieties of beans, corns (nearly 80 distinct types listed in the 1997 edition), chile peppers, squash, and grains, plus wildflowers, herbs, and some experimental varieties not yet well-characterized--over 300 seed varieties in all. Catalog subscription $1. B/BK/GS

15. Permaculture Seed and Plant Exchange (c/o Joe Hollis, Mountain Gardens, 3020 Whiteoak Creek Rd., Burnsville, NC 28714, tel. 704-675-5664)
membership dues $7/yr
Joe Hollis, Coordinator

A group of growers and collectors who share information and propagating materials (seeds, scionwood, etc.) from plants suited to permaculture systems. Members offer their surplus plant materials "at cost"; these are described in an annual catalog that lists a wide variety of plants (including hardy perennials, self-seeding annuals, and rare and heirloom vegetables), with information on use and culture. Contributing members receive discounts.

16. Scatterseed Project (c/o Will Bonsall, Box 1167, Farmington, ME 04938)
Will Bonsall, Coordinator; Gary Athenian, Assistant Coordinator

Maine subsistence farmers and seed collectors Will and Molly Bonsall founded the Scatterseed Project a number of years ago to collect, preserve, propagate, and distribute regionally-suited traditional varieties of vegetables, grains, and fruit trees. The Scatterseed collection is especially rich in cool-season crops and root vegetables, such as fava beans, peas, potatoes, rutabagas, and others. Plants that have been neglected by other conservation programs are a primary aim. Today largely a two-person operation, the Project works closely with Seed Savers Exchange (Bonsall serves as the network's peas and potatoes curator), offering seeds and other plant materials from its inventory of 1700+ (of 3000) organically-grown varieties, and also scionwood of apples and plums, to SSE members. (Seeds are listed in SSE's annual Yearbook--no separate catalog is available.). Will Bonsall has also served as a liason linking individuals and groups with formal germplasm programs nationally and internationally. Send SASE for further information. (Mr. Bonsall invites correspondence, but warns that a response may be slow in coming.)

17. Seed Savers Exchange (SSE) (3076 North Winn Rd., Decorah, IA 52101, tel. 319-382-5990, fax 319-382-5872, e-mail
membership dues $30/yr U.S., $35/yr Canada
Kent and Diane Whealy, Co-founders; Kathy Moen, Garden Manager; Joanne Thuente and Arllys Adelmann, Publications Coordinators

The leading organization in the U.S. heirloom movement, SSE is a nonprofit network of 8000 individuals who are working locally and internationally to save commercially-endangered vegetable and fruit varieties from extinction. SSE was founded in 1975 as a response to the immediate challenge of preserving the Whealy family's heirloom seeds. Its headquarters is Heritage Farm, where the group maintains its seed bank of 18,000 vegetable varieties and preservation gardens, and also an orchard of 700 named varieties of 19th-C. apples and 200 hardy grapes. The Farm's 170 acres are home also to a herd of rare Ancient White Park cattle. SSE members, who may participate as growers or nongrowers, receive three publications, each distributed annually according to a seasonal schedule. Two magazine-type publications are Seed Savers...Summer Edition (NAL SB115.S453) and SeedSavers...Harvest Edition (NAL SB115.S452). Both contain original and reprinted articles, book reviews, reports from the annual membership gathering, and more. (With black-and-white photos and drawings, issues have grown over the years from slim volumes, to 130- to 160-paged issues.) Topics center on various aspects of preserving agricultural crop biodiversity, from seed-saving procedures, to seed politics and ethnobotanical collection reports. Back issues are a valuable archive of organizational, historical, and resource information. Members receive also the Seed Savers...Yearbook (NAL SB115.S45), a directory that lists, in the 1999 edition, more than 21,000 heirloom vegetable seed varieties, and some fruit materials (totalling 11,500 unique varieties) available for exchange from 1000 listed members. Members may participate also in the Flower and Herb Exchange (the annual yearbook, NAL SB115.F56). Starting in 1996, and also through Yearbook listings, members gained access to a substantial portion of the unique varieties held at Heritage Farm's on-site collection. For network members and the general public, SSE's "Heirloom Seeds and Garden Gifts" Spring 1999 catalog (40-pages, in full color) offers seeds from diverse selection of vegetables, herbs, and flowers maintained at Heritage Farm, including Seed Savers International (and other thematic) seed collections, and books. (See also entry 18, this volume, for more on SSI.) B/BK/SC

18. Seed Savers International (SSI) (see Seed Savers Exchange, entry 17 above, for contact information)

Founded in 1993 to augment the preservation work of Seed Savers Exchange, Austria's Arche Noah (see entry 2, this volume), and other organizations, SSI funds collecting missions to preserve and document folk varieties of food crops in areas of the world that are especially rich in crop biodiversity, and where traditional agriculture and seed-saving traditions are being supplanted by improved commercial varieties and Western technologies. Recent expeditions to collect traditional vegetable varieties from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union have resulted in the addition of several thousand crop varieties to SSE's Heritage Farm collections. A selection of these varieties from Russia, Moldova, Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, and Ukraine are available for purchase, as well as seed collections (Russian and Polish). Free brochure available. SC

19. Seed Savers' Network (SSN)/Seed Aid Trust (Box 975, Byron Bay, NSW 2481, Australia, tel./fax (066) 856 624 (within Australia), 61-66-856-624 (international), e-mail
membership dues Aus$25/yr, plus additional rates
Michael and Jude Fanton, Co-founders and Directors

SSN is a national organization of farmers and gardeners across Australia, which was founded in 1986 by the Fantons (with leverage from well-known permaculturist, Bill Mollison) to preserve the genetic diversity of Australia's food crops and other useful plants. Its projects include educational programs, including seed-saving workshops and annual conference, nonprofit seed exchanges, and seed banks and preservation gardens. The Network serves as the public arm of Seed Aid Trust, which works overseas through educational programs, community development, and nonprofit seed banks and exchanges; current projects exist in Cuba, India, Sudan, Solomon Islands, and other areas. SSN members exchange seeds via the group's twice-yearly newsletter that lists over 4300 open-pollinated varieties of vegetables and herbs, permaculture plants, and fruit trees. Other publications include Seed Savers' Handbook (see Volume 1, Annotated Bibliography, entry 17) and an educational kit. A newsletter sample issue and portion of the vegetable inventory available, plus information on the Global Permaculture Plant and Seed Exchange, are posted at SSN's Web site. SSN is 1 of 57 organizations profiled in the 1997 book, For All Generations: Making World Agriculture More Sustainable (cited in Volume 1, Annotated Bibliography, entry 67).

Go to: Contents of Volume 2 | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160 | Appendices (Volume 2)

20. Seeds of Diversity Canada (SODC) (P.O. Box 36, Station Q, Toronto, ON M4T 2L7 Canada, tel. 905-623-0353 (voice mail), e-mail
membership dues $25/yr (Canada, U.S.), $35/yr elsewhere (regular rates); Seeds of Diversity back issues (from 1988) $4/each
Bob Wildfong, President

SODC works to locate, preserve, study, and promote the cultivation of heirloom and endangered varieties of Canadian food crops, through a variety of curatorial, advocacy, networking, and public education programs. It is the Canadian counterpart to Seed Savers Exchange (SSE) in the U.S.; the group's forerunner, which was known until 1995 as the Heritage Seed Program, began in 1984 as a project of Canadian Organic Growers (COG). Like SSE, the Canadian organization is nonprofit and run largely by volunteers; its diverse membership consists of amateurs and professionals with interests in preserving garden plants, among them backyard gardeners and farmers, horticultural historians, living history farm staff, and scientists. SODC's activities include cooperation with Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC) scientists on preservation projects. The group's base is the grower's network, composed of members who grow out seeds of endangered varieties and re-offer them to fellow members. Network members receive Seeds of Diversity magazine (3 issues/yr), plus an annual member seed listing of 1200+ distinct varieties (including 500+ tomatoes) available for exchange. Selected articles and an index to recent magazine issues are posted at SODC's Web page. Other publications include a resource list of seed sellers, nurseries and preservation organizations (also available at the Web page), suggested reading list, and 33-page illustrated booklet, How to Save Your Own Vegetable Seeds (in English and French). SODC news and information is regularly reported in COG's magazine, Eco-Farm & Garden (formerly Cognition), NAL SB453.5.C6. (The group's Web page is found at at

21. Seeds of Texas Seed Exchange
no longer in operation (08/28/07)

22. Ta S'ina Tokaheya Organization (P.O. Box 184, Crestone, CO 81131)
Suzanne Foote, Farm Manager and Seed Bank Director

Established in 1989 on the Pine Ridge Reservation in Oglala, South Dakota, its aim to revive the Lakota people's traditions, including foodways and farming practices, and to promote self-reliance and develop cottage industries-- "reviving the past for a sustainable future." Programs include a seed bank of traditional crop varieties of the Plains region, and a seed preservation project that conducts research into ancient practices.

23. Zuni Folk Varieties Project (ZFVP), Zuni Sustainable Agriculture Project (ZSAP) (P.O. Box 339, Zuni, NM 87327, tel. 505-782-5852)
Andrew Laahty, ZSAP Director; Fred Bowannie, Jr., Assistant Director

Both part of the larger Zuni Conservation Project, ZSAP and ZFVP work to locate, preserve, and promote the use of traditional Zuni crop varieties. Their work also supports studies of traditional organic farming and gardening methods that conserve and regenerate natural resources, and serve the needs of local people and their communities. ZFVP cooperates with New Mexico State University agronomists to study traditional varieties and others that may be suited to the dryland conditions of the Zuni Reservation. The programs issue an occasional newsletter, Zuni Farming for Today & Tomorrow. (See also Volume 1, Annotated Bibliography, entries 5, 323, and 335 for more information on ZFVP and its affiliates.)

Go to: Top of Volume 2 | Contents of Volume 2 | Introduction | Notes and References
Part I. Vegetable Seed Exchanges or Seedbanks
Part II. Fruit Growers Organizations or Programs
Part III. Public Gardens and Living Historical Farm Museums in the U.S.
Part IV. National and International Genebanks, Including Government Programs
Part V. Other Resource Organizations and Programs
Part VI. Commercial Seed Companies
Part VII. Commercial Fruit Nurseries
Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160
Appendices (Volume 2): 1) AFSIC, 2) Publication Titles Index, 3) Periodical Articles Index, 4) Persons / Organizations Index

Part II. Fruit Growers Organizations or Programs

The nonprofit groups or programs cited in this section have members who are interested in older varieties and fruit histories, although interest in old varieties per se is not their sole focus. Seven of the eight groups described are based in the U.S., while North American Fruit Explorers (NAFEX) has both U.S. and Canadian members. Several of the "seed-savers" organizations listed above in Part I, "Vegetable Seed Exchanges or Seedbanks," are concerned also with safeguarding fruit diversity, including distributing plant materials to their members or the general public. (An additional group, Fruit Dabblers, is cited in entry 147.)

24. Backyard Fruit Growers (BYFG) (c/o Don Zeigler, 817 High St., Akron, PA 17501-1417, tel. 717-859-3615 (eve., weekend), e-mail
Don Zeigler, Newsletter Editor

Begun in 1990 in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, BYFG is an informal association of amateur fruit growers and others interested in sharing information on growing fruits for home use. Now several hundred strong, the group holds events that include grafting workshops, scionwood and plant exchanges, orchard tours, and fruit tastings. Members receive a seasonal newsletter, Backyard Fruit Grower ($12/2 yrs), and the group cooperates on projects of mutual interest with the Landis Valley Museum in Lancaster (see entry 40, this volume). Over 500 varieties of different fruits (including heritage fruits) grown by members are listed in the annual Woodbank ($2/members, $10/general public). BYFG's Web site includes additional contact information, plus an activities calendar, list of focus groups and orchards, and ample links to Web sites of interest to backyard fruit enthusiasts.

25. California Rare Fruit Growers (CRFG) (c/o The Fullerton Arboretum - CSUF, P.O. Box 6850, Fullerton, CA 92834-6850, e-mail
(For membership or subscription information: Claire Gugenheim, 8289 Sugarman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92037-2222, tel. 619-453-3321)

CRFG is the largest amateur fruit growing organization in the world, its membership extending beyond California and comprised of hobbyists as well as commercial growers and other professionals with highly varied fruit interests. A 20-year index to the group's publications, including the CFRG Yearbook, (issued 1980-1985, NAL SB354.C3) and CFRG Journal (issued 1986-1988, NAL SB354.C3), is available in published form, or at the Web site, along with membership and other information, and many links to temperate and tropical fruit-related sites. CFRG's current membership magazine is the bimonthly Fruit Gardener (NAL SB354.C32).

26. Home Orchard Society (HOS) (P.O. Box 230192, Tigard, OR 97281-0192)
membership dues $10/yr
Chuck James, contact person

A nonprofit educational organization serving home fruit growers, "to promote the science, culture, and pleasure of growing fruit." Founded in 1976, HOS is based in Portland, Oregon, with nearly 1000 members (mostly from the Pacific Northwest plus elsewhere in the U.S.) and several branch chapters. The Society sponsors a lending library, orcharding/gardening classes emphasizing organic techniques, and a number of seasonal events, including a March scionwood exchange and October fruit show, plus pruning workshop, orchard tours, and annual meeting. The HOS Arboretum, an experimental orchard near Oregon City, displays a variety of tree and other fruits, including antique varieties and newer introductions. Members receive the quarterly Pome News.

27. Maine Tree Crop Alliance (MTCA) (RR1, Box 282, Unity, ME 04988, tel. 207-568-3444)
Jack or Lainie Kertesz, contact persons

MCTA is an informal network whose members exchange fruit materials and information on growing fruit trees. Members share knowledge and scionwood (apples, pears, plums, and others) at an annual Spring scionwood exchange held in central Maine; the event includes pruning and grafting workshops and is open to the general public. During some years the group holds a Fall fruit show/swap or formal fruit tasting. Members have broad interests, including antique fruit varieties suitable for the region. MCTN events and contacts are listed regularly in Maine Organic Farmer & Gardener (NAL S605.5 M3), the Maine Organic Farmers and Gardeners Association's quarterly newspaper.

28. Midwest Fruit Explorers (MidFEx) (c/o J.C. Anderson, P.O. Box 602, Grayslake, IL 60030)
J.C. Anderson, contact person (information and membership); or Jeff Postlewaite, Treasurer (P.O. Box 93, Markham, IL 60426-0093, tel. 708-596-7139, e-mail
membership dues $10/yr

A nonprofit, membership organization of amateur fruit growers, MidFEx is based in northeastern Illinois, with members also in northern and northwestern Illinois and southern Wisconsin. The group's interests center on "growing special, superior, and unusual fruits regardless of their appearance or commercial appeal," including unusual, little-known, and antique fruit and nut species and varieties that do well in the upper Midwest. Members exchange plant materials and information on propagating, growing, testing, and tasting; formal activities include an annual meeting, and grafting and pruning workshops held at the Chicago Botanic Garden, plus field trips, Fall harvest fair, and more. Member benefits include a periodic newsletter, The Grapevine.

29. Native Seeds/SEARCH's, Arizona Regis-TREE (see Native Seeds/SEARCH, entry 14 this volume, for contact information)
Robert Zahner, Coordinator

Native Seeds/SEARCH manages Arizona Regis-TREE, a program established in 1991 by a coalition of preservationists, horticulturists, and gardeners to recognize and conserve outstanding specimens or stands of heirloom fruit and nut trees with proven adaption to the region. Initial focus on heirloom fruits has expanded to include eminent native trees and food sources, and those otherwise important to native peoples. Apples, pears, and peaches predominate, while fig, quince, date, mulberry, and apricot trees, along with their stewards, have also been cited. Trees recognized to date (from both public and private lands) have some historical value, or horticultural potential, such as drought resistance. The program has eight co-sponsors including the Nature Conservancy, Boyce Thompson Arboretum, and Navajo Family Farms. Description of the 1996 awards is available in the Summer 1996 issue of Seedhead News, which is posted at Native Seeds/SEARCH's Web site. For more information, including availability of seed and cuttings, contact Native Seeds/SEARCH.

30. North American Fruit Explorers (NAFEX) (c/o Jill Vorbeck, 1716 Apples Rd., Chapin, IL 62628, tel. 217-245-7589; also: Jackie Kuehn, P.O. Box 29, Lucernemines, PA 15754, tel. 412-479-0266, e-mail
membership dues $8/yr (U.S), $12/yr (Canada), includes Pomona; back issues $3/volume
Jill Vorbeck, Membership Chairperson; Jackie Kuehn, Pomona Editor

Founded in 1967, NAFEX is a network of North American fruit enthusiasts devoted to "discovering, cultivating, appraising, improving, and appreciating superior varieties of fruits and nuts." The group's 3000+ members, based primarily in the U.S. and Canada, include academic pomologists and commercial growers, as well as backyard hobbyists, collectors, and breeders (although all members describe themselves as "amateurs" in the strict sense that each is motivated by the "love of fine fruit"). Members share information, experiences, and plant materials through a variety of forums, including the quarterly journal Pomona (named for the Roman goddess of fruit), annual meeting, and regional and special interest groups. Member's interests are broad, encompassing apples, pears, grapes, and other common fruits, plus less common types such as persimmons, mayhaws, pawpaws, and many others, as well as a variety of nut species. A portion of the group's members grow and collect antique apples and other fruits, making the group an excellent resource for historical varieties and information on fruit history. First issued in 1967, Pomona (NAL SB354.N6) contains member-contributed articles on various practical aspects of growing fruits (from pollination and propagation, to using the harvest), plus membership news, book reviews, and other resource information (such as nursery sources, member's orchards that can be visited, and recommended reading). Back issues contain much useful information for antique fruit enthusiasts and researchers. For instance, a list of books from NAFEX's extensive library collection on fruits and fruit management, which are available for loan to members, occurs in the Fall 1997 issue (p. 47-73), and for novices, a list of "learning materials" on fruit culture occurs in the Winter 1998 issue (p. 67-68). Indexes to Pomona articles from the period 1969-1989 are available, and tables of contents for recent issues are posted at the Web page, which has interesting links to related organizations and documents.

31. Seed Savers Exchange (SSE), Historic Apple Orchard Project (see Seed Savers Exchange, entry 17 this volume, for contact information)
Steve Demuth, Orchard Manager

Although SSE's energies were initially focused on preserving garden vegetables, the network has broadened its scope in the last decade to include collection and preservation of fruits and nuts. Two key initiatives included the Fruit, Berry and Nut Inventory (see Volume 1, Annotated Bibliography, entry 242), and the Historic Apple Orchard Project at Heritage Farm, begun in 1989. Serving as an adjunct to the USDA's National Clonal Germplasm Repository in Geneva, New York (see also entry 55, this volume), the Orchard is a living museum of more than 500 apple cultivars, emphasizing varieties originating in the upper Midwest and 19th-C. varieties, plus a collection of hardy wine and juice grapes. SSE has worked with members of amateur fruit growers groups (such as North American Fruit Growers or NAFEX, and California Rare Fruit Growers or CRFG) to identify and propagate fruit materials for the Orchard Project. (For more information on NAFEX and CRFG, see entries 30 and 25, respectively, this volume.)

32. Southern Fruit Fellowship (c/o Retta Davis, 1051 Evergreen Dr., Shreveport, LA 71118, tel. 318-686-4249, e-mail
or contact: Jesse Thompson, Editor, 548 John Stennis Dr., Meridian, MS 39305, tel. 601-681-6450
membership dues $7
Retta Davis, Membership Officer

An informal organization of hobbyist fruit growers located primarily throughout the southern U.S., whose members are dedicated to identifying and growing superior varieties. Heirloom enthusiasts are included among the group's amateur and professional fruit growers, who have diverse interests in an array of domesticated and wild fruits. Members meet informally several times a year, hold an annual meeting and also scionwood and budwood exchanges, and publish a quarterly newsletter.

Go to: Top of Volume 2 | Contents of Volume 2 | Introduction | Notes and References
Part I. Vegetable Seed Exchanges or Seedbanks
Part II. Fruit Growers Organizations or Programs
Part III. Public Gardens and Living Historical Farm Museums in the U.S.
Part IV. National and International Genebanks, Including Government Programs
Part V. Other Resource Organizations and Programs
Part VI. Commercial Seed Companies
Part VII. Commercial Fruit Nurseries
Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160
Appendices (Volume 2): 1) AFSIC, 2) Publication Titles Index, 3) Periodical Articles Index, 4) Persons / Organizations Index

Part III. Public Gardens and Living Historical Farm Museums in the U.S.

The following entries describe only a portion of the living historical farm museums or public gardens with displays of heritage plant varieties and their historical contexts, and related programs. In addition to these projects, heirloom gardens established for public education, research, or preservation purposes are maintained by several organizations cited in Parts I and II above. For more information on existing living history museums and public gardens in the U.S. and Canada, consult North American Horticulture (entry 243), Gardening by Mail (entry 244), or Farm Museum Directory (entry 247), each cited in Volume 1, Annotated Bibliography. A number of museum projects are listed in Carolyn Jab's book, Heirloom Gardener, although contact information for some of these has become outdated (see Volume 1, Annotated Bibliography, entry 3). For additional listings, including information on museums in Canada, see entry 20 (Seeds of Diversity Canada), and entry 61 (Association for Living Historical Farms and Museums) in this volume.

33. Accokeek Foundation, National Colonial Farm (3400 Bryan Point Rd., Accokeek, MD 20607, tel. 301-283-2113, fax 301-283-2049, e-mail
Charles "Skip" Kauffman, Director of Agriculture (ext. 27); Jean Mitchell, Museum Gardener (ext. 908)

Accokeek Foundation is a nonprofit organization working to protect the natural and human cultural heritage along the Potomac River. Complementary programs at the Foundation's Robert Ware Straus Ecosystem Farm (a modern research and demonstration farm centered on ecological and economic stability) and National Colonial Farm illustrate three centuries of agricultural practice in the region. National Colonial Farm, which was established in 1958 as a "living history" demonstration of a small tobacco farm on the eve of the American Revolution, includes authentic crop varieties and livestock breeds. Its active program of research, preservation, education, and demonstration of authentic crop varieties and farming methods has made it a leader in historic plant protection. The Foundation published a series of Research Reports during the period 1961-1986, currently out of print, which presented information on historical vegetable and fruit crops and their traditional culture. (See, for instance, Mary Ann Klein's report on seed-saving techniques at the Farm, in Volume 1, Annotated Bibliography, entry 19.) Colonial Farm staff members conduct a seed-saving program for Virginia Gourdseed corn (an important 18th-C. southern corn variety that was backbred and recovered by corn geneticist Ralph Singleton, the Foundation's first director), and also Orinoco and Rustica tobaccos, Red May wheat, and Bronze Arrowhead lettuce. The Museum Garden contains hundreds of authentic crop varieties with a long history in Maryland (including 97 vegetable varieties grown during the 1997 season). Among them are crops native to the Americas, and immigrants from Europe and Africa, all of them grown in styles appropriate to their history.

34. Buckley Homestead County Park (3606 Belshaw Rd., Lowell, IN 46356, tel. 219-696-0769)
Becky Crabb, Park Manager

The Buckley Homestead, which is operated by Lake County Parks & Recreation Dept., depicts farm and rural life in midcentral Indiana. Programs and activities at the 160-acre site include farmsteads and gardens dating to the 1850s and 1910s, with historically-accurate vegetables and orchard fruit varieties.

35. Cornell Plantations, Pounder Heritage Gardens (One Plantations Rd., Ithaca, NY 14850-2799, tel. 607-255-3020, fax 607-255-2404, email
Don Rakow, Plantations Director

Cornell Plantations, which is comprised of the botanical gardens and arboretum of Cornell University and its associated educational and research programs, maintains a variety of gardens featuring food, economic, and ornamental plants, and also landscapes and natural areas. Among its plantings, the Plantations maintains the "Heritage Crop Collection," consisting of some 100 vegetable varieties that were grown in the northeastern U.S. during the 19th C. Representative varieties once grown in kitchen gardens, some of them still widely-grown today, are found in the 4000-square foot gardens. Free brochure and other information on Cornell Plantations available.

36. Genesee Country Village & Museum (P.O. Box 310, Mumford, NY 14511-0310, tel. 716-538-6822, fax 716-538-2887, e-mail
Carolyn Haines, Director of Horticultural Programs; John Adams, Head Gardener

An open-air museum in western New York State that features over 40 buildings, plus artifacts, demonstrations, and seasonal programs depicting the cultural heritage of the Genesee Valley region. The site includes a number of flower, vegetable, and herb gardens, and also fruit orchards with antique apples, pears, plums, and others, each designed to reflect the environment of the restored building it accompanies. The heirloom seed program was established with the help of Cornell University horticultural historian Robert Becker. Seeds for over 65 garden heirlooms are available for purchase on-site or via mail-order, and gardeners may display their heirloom harvest at a 19th-C. agricultural fair. A selection of the museum's seeds are available from Harris Seeds (tel. 800-514-4441 to request home gardening seed catalog).

37. Hancock Shaker Village (P.O. Box 927, Pittsfield, MA 01202, tel. 800-817-1137 or 413-443-0188, fax 413-447-9357, e-mail
Bernice Gawran-Fiske, contact person

This recreation of the Hancock, Massachusetts, Shaker community illustrates the religious community's lifeways, including its architecture, material goods, farm- and worklife, and crafts of the mid-19th C. Demonstration gardens include a medicinal herb garden containing 90 of 300+ plants that were listed in an1873 pharmaceutical publication, and two heirloom vegetable gardens with plant varieties from Shaker seed lists from the 1830s and 1870s. Some seeds are contributed to the Seed Savers Exchange network, and some are available to museum members. An additional resource for heritage gardeners is the Village's research library of Shaker materials.

38. Hans Herr House (1849 Hans Herr Drive, Willow St., PA 17584, tel. 717-464-4438)
Doug Nyce or Julia Whitfield, contact persons

Built by Swiss-German immigrants, the Hans Herr House is the oldest house in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. The building (which served originally as a Mennonite meeting house) and its grounds have been restored to 1719 conditions. A historic apple orchard with numerous varieties appropriate to the Colonial era (Roxbury Russet, Spitzenburg, and Tollman Sweet among them) is maintained on the homesite, along with gardens containing heirloom vegetables, herbs, and flowers.

39. Jourdan Bachman Pioneer Farm (11418 Sprinkle Cut-off Rd., Austin, TX 78754, tel. 512-837-1215, fax 512-837-4503)
Todd Williams, Agricultural Coordinator

An outdoor, living history museum that recreates rural life in central Texas in the 1880s, through a variety of programs and materials, including "historically correct" crops grown in the homestead kitchen garden and in tenant and commercial farmers' fields. Some of the field crops are used to provide feed for the antique livestock breeds that the Farm maintains. Among the locally-adapted field and garden crop varieties grown by the staff are Texas Gourdseed corn, Wild Texas tomato, Green Nutmeg cantaloupe, and Black Valentine bean. The museum participates in the Seeds of Texas Seed Exchange.

Go to: Contents of Volume 2 | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160 | Appendices (Volume 2)

40. Landis Valley Museum, Heirloom Seed Project/Historic Gardens Program (2451 Kissel Hill Rd., Lancaster, PA 17601, tel. 717-569-0401, fax 717-560-2147)
Maggie Posselius, Heirloom Seed Project Coordinator

With several farmsteads and village buildings, plus an active exhibit and events program, this Lancaster County museum recreates and conveys the cultural and environmental history of Pennsylvania Germans in the region. The Museum's staff coordinates the "Historic Gardens Program," which centers on growing, preserving, and distributing pre-1940 plant varieties adapted to southeastern Pennsylvania. Members contribute some of these varieties to Seed Savers Exchange's network; in addition, seeds are offered to the general public via a mail-order seed catalog. Varieties of vegetables dating from the 1700s to 1800s are listed, as are some herbs, flowers, and antique apple scionwood, mostly from apples originating in the northeastern U.S., and several from the Midwest, England, and Canada (totalling nearly 100 varieties of seeds or scionwood). Museum staff hold apple grafting workshops and work closely with members of the Lancaster-based Backyard Fruit Growers Association (cited in entry 24, this volume). The Museum's seed program received the American Association for State and Local History Award of Merit in 1991. Catalog $4 (U.S.), $5 (Canada).

41. Living History Farms (2600 NW 111th St., Urbandale, IA 50322, tel. 515-278-5286 (office) or 515/278-2400 (events line recording), fax 515-278-9808, e-mail
Mike Whitmer, Agricultural Curator

This open-air farm museum near Des Moines represents five periods of Iowa's rural history. Exhibits at the 600-acre site include an Ioway tribe village dating to 1700, an 1850 pioneer farm, a 1900 farmstead, and also a contemporary farm. Horticultural demonstrations consist of vegetable and herb gardens, and fruit orchards. Most of the crops are authentic to the time period depicted; the Ioway site, for instance, includes historic varieties of corn, beans, and squash.

42. Monticello, Thomas Jefferson Center for Historic Plants (P.O. Box 316, Charlottesville, VA 22902-0316, tel. 804-984-9821 (Twinleaf customer service), fax 804-977-6140, e-mail
Peggy Cornett, Center Director (tel. 804-984-9816,; Maggie Stemann Thompson, Monticello's Vegetable Gardener; Peter J. Hatch, Monticello's Director of Gardens and Grounds

Restoration of Thomas Jefferson's gardens, vineyards, and orchards, which wasbegun in the late 1970s, has followed closely the plans outlined in Jefferson's Garden Book, which documented his culture of 250 vegetable and 170 fruit varieties. The Thomas Jefferson Center for Historic Plants was established at Monticello in 1987 to collect, preserve, and distribute historical plants, and to promote greater appreciation of their histories. The Center features Jefferson's horticultural interests, as well as varieties documented up until the early 20th C. A selection of plants grown at Monticello is available for purchase, including flower and vegetable seeds available by mail order. The Center's program calendar includes seed-saving workshops and other events, such as an annual antique apple-tasting event (held in the Fall with the help of Tom Burford, who served as proprietor of Burford Brothers Nursery, which itself is no longer in operation). The Center's annual newsletter, Twinleaf ($2/issue) includes garden seeds for sale, books, and other items; selected articles are available at the Web site. Brochures are available that list the plant varieties grown in the vegetable and fruit gardens, and include reading lists. (For description of the Garden Book, see Volume 3, Historical Supplement, entry 23.)

43. Museum of the Fur Trade, Bordeaux Trading Post (6321 Hwy. 20, Chadron, NE 69337, tel. 308-432-3843)
Gail DeBuse Potter, Director

Reconstructed within its original foundations, this trading post for the Sioux was in operation from 1833 to 1876. The museum maintains an active program of research, collection, and exhibition; its publications include Museum of the Fur Trade Quarterly, a scholarly periodical concerned with historical materials of fur trade commerce and the daily lives of traders, trappers, and native peoples. The garden project, which was begun three decades ago, preserves flint and flour corn, bean, and squash varieties obtained from members of local Mandan, Arikara, and Hidatsa tribes. A seed list that includes the Arikara watermelon, Mandan Red sweet corn, and other authentic crops is available.

44. Old Bethpage Village Restoration (Round Swamp Rd., Old Bethpage, NY 11804, tel. 516-572-8400)
Muriel E. Tatem, Gardener

Old Bethpage recreates and interprets domestic, community, and farm life on Long Island during the mid 19th C. Restoration work began in the early 1960s on the 200-acre site, which was first opened to the public in 1970 and is today supported by Nassau County Dept. of Recreation & Parks. Accompanying more than 55 historic buildings are several period gardens depicting horticultural practices and plant materials appropriate to the period 1766 to 1850. The gardens contain antique vegetable varieties, among them Lazy Wife pole bean, Jacob's Cattle bean, Dwarf Erfurt cauliflower, Crosby's Egyptian beets, Prince Albert peas, and White Cheesecake Pumpkin.

45. Old Sturbridge Village (1 Old Sturbridge Village Rd., Sturbridge, MA 01566-0200, tel. 508-347-3362, fax 508-347-5375)
Christie White, Program Supervivor for Horticulture

Through a variety of exhibits, resources, and programs, Old Sturbridge Village depicts everyday life in a small New England town in central Massachusetts during the period 1790 to 1840. Several period gardens on the 200-acre site display antique varieties of vegetables, herbs, and flowers; also on-site is an orchard of heirloom fruits. The museum sponsors an agricultural fair in September where gardeners can display heirloom vegetables. The museum maintains a research library containing agricultural and horticultural materials, and other resources documenting American material life. A brochure listing the specific garden crop varieties grown (some available for purchase) and historical source materials is available.

46. Oliver H. Kelley Farm (15788 Kelley Farm Rd., Elk River, MN 55330, tel. 612-441-6896)
Jim Mattson, Site Manager

A living history farm near Minneapolis, which portrays Minnesota agriculture during the 1850s to 1870s, the period when the farm was owned by Oliver Kelley (a progressive farmer and founder of the Grange, the first national agricultural organization). A National Historical Landmark preserved and developed by the Minnesota Historical Society, the 189-acre site contains gardens, fields, and orchards planted with 19th-C. vegetable and fruit varieties, including authentic varieties grown by Kelley and other Minnesota farmers. Apples, pears, cherries, peaches, grapes, and other fruits from the mid-19th C. have been established in the Kelley Farm's orchards. Field crops include red-eared Improved King Philip corn, an 1850s variety used as feed for the Farm's antique livestock breeds. Brochure describing the heritage gardens and related interpretive events held during the May-October season is available.

47. Schifferstadt Architectural Museum (1110 Rosemont Ave., Frederick, MD 20701, tel. 301-663-3885)
Mary Stevanus, contact person

The Colonial gardens at Schifferstadt (the oldest known house in Frederick, Maryland, dating to 1756) contain an array of vegetables, herbs, and ornamentals, including a number of authentic German heirlooms. Among the old vegetable varieties are Jacob's Cattle Trout beans, Blue Coco pole beans, Tennis Ball lettuce, and Black Spanish Long radish. The Museum's Web page includes links to other historical gardens in the U.S. and elsewhere, online seed and plant sources, as well as other resources for historical gardeners and heirloom enthusiasts.

48. Schumacher Farm County Park (5682 Hwy 19, Waunakee, WI 53597, tel. 608-849-4559)
Judy Borke, Site Coordinator
(also: Allen Holzhueter, contact person, 222 N. Hillside Terrace, Madison, WI 53705, tel. 608-238-0546, e-mail

Currently being developed by Friends of Schumacher Farm, this open air museum recreates the buildings, artifacts, and grounds typical of a south-central Wisconsin farm of the 1920s. Displays include herb, flower, and vegetable gardens; the latter contain heirlooms obtained from local family gardens (and additional local heirlooms are actively sought). Garden maps containing descriptions of the varieties grown are available.

49. Worcestor County Horticultural Society, S. Lothrop Davenport Preservation Orchard (Tower Hill Botanic Garden, 11 French Dr., P.O. Box 598, Boylston, MA 01505-0598, tel. 508-869-6111, fax 508-869-0314)

Orchard established by S. Lothrop Davenport in 1953 in North Grafton,Massachusetts, and later relocated to Old Sturbridge Village (see entry 45, this volume). The Worcester County Horticultural Society uses the Davenport Preservation Orchard for educational activities and sells scionwood of varieties originating in New England, plus other North American and international varieties. (See also Harlan T. Pierpont, Jr.'s article, "The garden of Eden" in American Horticulturist 55(1): 9-13 (Feb. 1976), NAL 80 N216, which lists 115 of the "best old apples" in the collection.) List of approximately 100 varieties of scionwood for sale, plus brochure with brief descriptions, available for SASE.

50. Wylie House (307 E. 2nd St., Bloomington, IN 47405, tel. 812-855-6224, e-mail

Owned and maintained by Indiana University, the Wylie House recreates the 1840s family home of Andrew Wylie, the University's first president. The museum's programs include an heirloom garden and seed-saving activities; varieties grown include White Runner bean, Oxheart carrot, Ragged Jack kale, Tom Thumb lettuce, Red Brazil sweet potato, and Yellow Pear tomato. The Wylie House's heirloom program includes a Spring sale of seeds from historical varieties of vegetables, flowers, and herbs, and August garden fair. The museum's educational services include a reference library of historical documents. (Back issues of the museum's newsletter and other heirloom resources are available at the museum's Web site.)

Go to: Top of Volume 2 | Contents of Volume 2 | Introduction | Notes and References
Part I. Vegetable Seed Exchanges or Seedbanks
Part II. Fruit Growers Organizations or Programs
Part III. Public Gardens and Living Historical Farm Museums in the U.S.
Part IV. National and International Genebanks, Including Government Programs
Part V. Other Resource Organizations and Programs
Part VI. Commercial Seed Companies
Part VII. Commercial Fruit Nurseries
Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160
Appendices (Volume 2): 1) AFSIC, 2) Publication Titles Index, 3) Periodical Articles Index, 4) Persons / Organizations Index

Part IV. National and International Genebanks, Including Government Programs

This section includes "formal sector" (i.e., professional or government) programs for management of plant genetic resources in the U.S. and Canada, and several projects funded by USDA's Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) Program. Volume 1, Annotated Bibliography contains additional information on the national and international genebanks (which can be located through the indexes). On the Internet, many of their Web sites can be accessed through links from the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System's Web page (see entry 54), or from several of the Web pages cited in Volume 1, Annotated Bibliography, in Part I, Section VII, "Additional Internet Sites."

51. Canadian Clonal Genebank (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research Branch, Greenhouse and Processing Crops Research Centre, Harrow, ON N0R 1G0 Canada, tel. 519-738-2251, fax 519-738-2929)
Margie Luffman, Curator (

Created in 1989 as part of Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC), the Canadian Clonal Genebank's mission is "to protect and preserve the genetic diversity of Canadian fruit crops and their wild relatives," through collection, evaluation, research, and documentation activities. Several thousand accessions contained in the genebank collection include apples, pears, and other tree, shrub, and small fruits, both Canadian cultivars and species, and wild relatives of modern varieties. (See entry 53, this volume, for more information on PGRC.)

52. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) (Via delle Sette Chiese 142, 00145 Rome, Italy, tel. 39-6 51892, fax 39-6 5750309, e-mail IPGRI@CGNET.COM)

Headquartered at the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization in Rome, IPGRI promotes plant collection and conservation for direct use in crop breeding programs, and also conducts research, provides training and information, and cooperates with other organizations involved in related activities. IPGRI is a member of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), an affiliation of private and public agencies that finance the work of 18 international research and plant genetic resources centers, most of them located in developing countries. Founded in 1974, the Institute was known as IBPGR (International Board on Plant Genetic Resources) until 1993. IPGRI publishes Geneflow (NAL SB123.G452), a periodical intended to enhance public awareness of issues relating to agricultural crop genetic resources. Issued annually, its focus is international, especially on developments in the gene-rich centers in the topics and subtropics. Contents include brief synopses of recent IPGRI events and activities, with reviews of IPGRI publications and numerous color photos and diagrams, the issues 20-30 pages in length. The 1997 issue of Geneflow reported on IPGRI's System-wide Genetic Resources Program (SGRP), which was established to deal with challenges relating to agricultural biodiversity, which were posed by the Global Plan of Action (GPA) adopted at Leipzig, to guide implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Short articles on safeguarding crop biodiversity, managing genebank collections, supporting on-farm management of traditional crops, and promoting research, education, and information exchange are included. Subscription available without charge. Web site contains abundant program information, including additional publications (such as the monthly Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter, NAL 451 F732, and IPGRI Newsletter for the Americas), and several report series, along with selective bibliographies on biodiversity conservation and related topics, public awareness briefing papers and press releases, and Web links.

53. Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC) (Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon Research Centre, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X2 Canada, tel. 306-956-7641, fax 306-956-7246, e-mail Richardsk@EM.AGR.CA)
Ken Richards, Research Manager

PGRC is Canada's national crop germplasm repository. Created in 1970 as part of the country's federal agency concerned with agriculture and food, the system consists of a national seed genebank, clonal repository, and several "genebank nodes" with crop-specific responsibilities. The collections consist of more than 100,000 seed and more than 3000 clonal accessions. Both the seedbank and clonal repository (the Canadian Clonal Genebank, see entry 51, this volume) are located in Harrow, Ontario, although the former will relocate to Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, by 1998. PGRC plans to convert its existing computerized database (abbreviated CAPGRIS) to the GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network) system used in the U.S., creating an inter-compatible North American germplasm information system. PGRC cooperates with Seeds of Diversity Canada (cited in entry 20, this volume) on a number of preservation programs. More information on the program, including its collections, facilities, and availability of plant materials are available at the Web sites.

54. U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (USNPGS), USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm Laboratory (NPGL) (Bldg. 003, Rm. 225, 10300 Baltimore Ave., Beltsville, MD 20705-2350, tel. 301-504-6235, fax 301-504-5536
Alan Stoner, Research Leader NPGL (e-mail

Administered by USDA's Agricultural Research Service, USNPGS is the nation's formal network of cooperating federal, state, and private organizations, which coordinates the collection, maintenance, and evaluation of plant germplasm and its distribution to users. USNPGS maintains some 450,000 plant accessions, adds 10,000 new accessions each year, and distributes over 150,000 packages of plant materials to plant breeders and researchers in the U.S. and foreign countries. International plant exchange, quarantine, and the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) are managed at NPGL in Beltsville. (Fully implemented in the mid-1980s, GRIN is the database management system that stores seed and plant records, and provides user access.) Available from this office is a 20-page, illustrated pamphlet, Seeds for Our Future: The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System, which describes the role of USNPGS' genebanks in preserving crop genetic diversity, including the system's components, how it operates, and its varied collections. The current 1996 edition includes a map designating locations of units within the national system, which consist of clonal repositories, plant introduction stations, and the National Seed Storage Laboratory (NSSL) in Denver, Colorado. (NSSL, which has been called the "Fort Knox of Seeds," preserves the base collection of seed-propagated plants and serves as back-up storage to other sites around the country.) For a select list of plants, the pamphlet notes where each is located (there is overlap for some species) among 20 locations within the federal system. Information on USNPGS' distribution policy (see also below), program and collection information, and staff contacts is offered at the central Web site or its unit locations, along with links within the system and to related Internet sites. Volume 1, Annotated Bibliography cites several books, articles, and other publications that provide more information on USNPGS' mission and programs. (See entry 55, this volume, for further description of USNPGS' fruit genebanks.)
Briefly, responsibilities for vegetables exist at the following sites: Griffin, Georgia (eggplant, okra, pepper, sweetpotato, squash, pumpkin, watermelon); Ames, Iowa (amaranth, asparagus, brassicas, cantaloupe, carrot, corn, cucumber, pumpkin, squash, sunflower, etc.); Geneva, New York (broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, celery, collard, onion, pumpkin, radish, squash, tomato); Pullman, Washington (beans,garlic, leeks, lettuce, peas, etc.); and Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin (potato).
With respect to distribution of plant materials, USNPGS is "devoted to free and unrestricted exchange of germplasm with all nations and permits access to U.S. collections by any person with valid use...normally this means plant breeders and researchers, including medical researchers and educators..." In most situations, the system lacks the financial and staff resources to supply significant amounts of materials to persons outside of these groups. In general, USNPGS curators prefer to cooperate with organizations (such as North American Fruit Explorers and Seed Savers Exchange) rather than individuals, to optimize limited resources. They encourage home gardeners to seek out the diversity of plant materials currently being preserved by these informal networks, and increasingly available from commercial outlets. Unlike the national genebanks, the grassroots networks have concentrated on safeguarding and disseminating the obsolete commercial varieties (some of them obtained from the national collections) and the family or ethnic heirlooms that home gardeners most often seek, and on crops that are less important commercially (and thus of lower priority in the federal system). Contact individual repositories for specific information on distribution policies.

55. U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (USNPGS), USDA-ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository (33447 Peoria Rd., Corvallis, OR 97333, tel. 541-750-8712, fax 541-750-8717, email (general info.)
Joseph Postman, Plant Pathologist (email; Kim Hummer, Research Leader/Curator (

Part of USNPGS, the Corvallis Repository contains important collections of cultivated varieties and wild species of pears, small fruits (such as blueberries, blackberries, and strawberries), mints, and other minor genera of temperate fruits (e.g., pawpaws, quinces, medlars, and others), and nut species. Information on program goals and activities, germplasm distribution policy, and staff, with a listing of available accessions by plant genera (and how to obtain the accessions list), is provided at the Web site, along with numerous links to horticultural and genetic resources sites. For instance, the list of pear accessions includes over 250 varieties that are over a century old; among them are numerous North American and European cultivars, those with special traits (antiques, fire-blight resistant, cold-hardy, red-skinned, etc.) and others. There are also color reproductions from Pears of New York and Small Fruits of New York; an interesting "archive of featured plants" (including 300-yr-old currant cultivars); plus descriptions of a couple dozen old kinds of pears. Preservation orchards at Corvallis are open to the public by pre-arrangement. Other USNPGS repositories with important temperate fruit collections: the Plant Genetic Resources Unit (PGRU) at Geneva, New York (responsible for apples, cold-hardy grapes, tart cherries, and certain vegetable crops, including some 20,000 accessions representing 300 species) and the National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) at Davis, California (cherries, apricots, peaches, plums, grapes and other fruits and nuts); research and/or preservation units exist also in Florida, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. (See entry 54, this volume, for general information on USNPGS.)

USDA's Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) Grant Projects

SARE is a competitive grants program that funds research, education, demonstration, and extension projects in order to advance knowledge in sustainable agriculture. Established in 1988, SARE is administered by four regional U.S. councils. The following three projects were funded in 1996 or 1997 in the Northeast, North Central, and Southern Regions. (For more information about SARE, contact Jill Auburn, SARE Director, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Rm. 3868, South Agriculture Bldg, 14th and Independence Ave., SW, AgBox 2223, Washington, DC 20250-2223, tel. 202-720-5203, e-mail, Web site

56. "Economics of seed saving on three biological farms in West Michigan." (project no. FNC97-0705) progress)
Paul W. Keiser, Project Coordinator

Project funded by the USDA's North Central Region SARE Program, to identify effective seed production techniques and associated costs for various types of seeds used on a "biological farm" in Michigan. Its goals: to assess how on-farm seed saving may help farmers to reduce operational costs, enhance knowledge of the farming ecosystem, and support self-sufficiency and regional sustainability. (For more more information contact the regional office: North Central Region SARE, 13-A Activities Bldg., University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0840, tel. 402-472-7081, e-mail

57. "Seed saving and biodiversity in the northeastern United States." (c/o Carolyn Sachs, Dept. of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, 110 Armsby Bldg., Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802-4507, tel. 814-863-8641, fax 814-865-3746, e-mail
Carolyn Sachs, Project Coordinator (conference homepage), also (in progress)

Project funded by the Northeast Region SARE Program, its goals to "study seed savers and facilitate seed saving and exchange in the Northeastern United States." Its specific aims: to assess the current extent of regional seed saving among farmers and gardeners; to learn why people save seeds, which species and varieties are valued, problems encountered, and the level of existing networking among individuals and groups; to assess the level of farmer awareness of crop genetic resources issues relating to preservation of biodiversity; and to facilitate communication among seed savers by various means. The project sponsored a conference and workshop, "Preserving crop biodiversity and saving seeds in the Northeast," held Nov. 14-15, 1997 in State College, Pennsylvania, which brought together seed savers and others with common interests, from the region and beyond.

58. Southern Seed Legacy (SSL) Project Network (c/o Robert E. Rhoades, Dept. of Anthropology, Baldwin Hall, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-1619, tel. 706-542-1042 or 542-5617, fax 706-542-3998, e-mail; or Virginia Nazarea, Dept. of Anthropology (same as above), tel. 706-542-3852, fax 706-542-3998, e-mail
Robert E. Rhoades and Virginia Nazarea, Coordinators

SSL is a broad-based, collaborative effort to preserve regionally-important crop plant diversity and associated cultural knowledge in thirteen states of the U.S. South, through plant collection and documentation, oral histories, networking, and education. In progress are efforts to promote on-farm and university-based research to assess genetic variation and further use of locally-adapted crop varieties in sustainable systems, and to support farmer and gardener participation and access to seed materials. The second annual heirloom seed swap was held in May 1998 at the Agrarian Connections Heritage Farm near Crawford, Georgia, along with other public-oriented workshops and symposia. Southern heirloom varieties collected thus far have been established in the "Southern Seed Legacy Garden" at the Georgia State Botanical Gardens in Athens. Publications include a twice-yearly newsletter, Seedlink, which reports on seed preservation activities, and the book, Yesterday's Ways...Tomorrow's Treasures, which describes SSL's memory banking process (cited in Volume 1, Annotated Bibliography, entry 6). A resource directory of network members is in progress. SSLP is a two-year project that was initated in August 1996, with support from Southern Region SARE Program. A two-page prospectus of the project program (and early accomplishments) is provided in Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education: Southern Region 1996 Annual Report (Griffin, GA: Southern Region SARE, 1996, p. 51-52). For availability of detailed annual reports (with contacts, list of heirlooms inventoried, literature review, and various accomplishments), contact the coordinators.

Go to: Top of Volume 2 | Contents of Volume 2 | Introduction | Notes and References
Part I. Vegetable Seed Exchanges or Seedbanks
Part II. Fruit Growers Organizations or Programs
Part III. Public Gardens and Living Historical Farm Museums in the U.S.
Part IV. National and International Genebanks, Including Government Programs
Part V. Other Resource Organizations and Programs
Part VI. Commercial Seed Companies
Part VII. Commercial Fruit Nurseries
Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160
Appendices (Volume 2): 1) AFSIC, 2) Publication Titles Index, 3) Periodical Articles Index, 4) Persons / Organizations Index

Part V. Other Resource Organizations and Programs

Most of the following are nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations based in the U.S., which are involved in research, education, or dissemination of information on plant germplasm management and related topics, or historical plants and gardens. Several are independent membership organizations, and some are affiliated with universities. A number of additional organizations of this type are cited in Volume 1, Annotated Bibliography, in Part I, Section VII, "Additional Internet Sites."

59. American Genetic Resources Alliance (AGRA) (2212 Griffith Park Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90039, tel. 213-913-2507, e-mail
Anne Marie Ruff, Coordinator

"Using knowledge and information to conserve our national genetic heritage," AGRA exists to aid in creating and sustaining a broad-based advocacy group to encourage optimal national support for the resources maintained in the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (USNPGS), including helping to "foster their utilization to meet current and future national and international needs for health and welfare." The Alliance evolved from a focus group connected with the operation of USNPGS, which is administered through the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Its Web site contains a variety of information and news concerned with plant genetic resources (including an overview of USNPGS and the relevance of heirloom varieties to American farmers and world agriculture), links to allied and related organizations, names of individuals associated with the organization, press releases prepared by AGRA and others, and more. (For more information on USNPGS, see entries 54 and 55, this volume.)

Go to: Contents of Volume 2 | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160 | Appendices (Volume 2)

60. The Ark Institute (P.O. Box 142, Oxford, OH 45056, 800-255-1912 (orders only), e-mail
Geri Guidetti, Founder/Director

The Maryland-based Ark Institute is a "hands-on research and teaching institute working to discover the knowledge, skills, and technologies essential for self-reliance," especially in the area of food self-sufficiency. Current projects and services center on organic, self-sustaining garden technologies, including preservation and use of open-pollinated and heirloom vegetable and grain seeds. Ark Institute Grain Supply Updates are archived at the Web site, with additional information on services and products available.

61. Association for Living Historical Farms and Agricultural Museums (ALHFAM) (c/o Judith Sheridan, Secretary/Treasurer, 8774 Route 45 NW, North Bloomfield, OH 44450, tel./fax 440-685-4410, e-mail (membership and general inquiries; see below for other contacts)
(also: ALHFAM's Publications Clearinghouse, c/o E. Alvin Gerhardt, Box 5026, Tusculum College, Greeneville, TN 37743-5026,
membership dues $15/yr regular, plus additional rates (includes ALHFAM Bulletin)

"An organization of people who bring history to life," ALHFAM is a valuable resource for historical information on plants and gardens, as well as other aspects of historical preservation relating to rural and farm life. Established in 1970, the nonprofit group serves the needs of staff members of living historical farms, agricultural museums, and outdoor museums of history and folklife. Its purpose is to "foster an exchange among an international membership about the history, technology, and social and cultural impact of rural people and their traditions, through time." Programs include an annual conference hosted by member institutions in the U.S. and Canada, regional meetings and newsletters, and professional interest groups; one such group, the Seeds and Plants Committee is concerned with historical garden interpretation (contact: Jim Herrold, P.O Box 305, Washington, TX 77880, tel. 409-878-2214, fax 409-878-2810, e-mail
AHLFAM publications: The Association updates regularly its "Source List for Historic Plants and Seeds," with publications, plant suppliers, and resource organizations, plus some guidance for doing historical plant research. (Source list free to members, $1 for others; for availability, contact Charlie Thomforde, Pennsbury Manor, 400 Pennsbury Memorial Rd., Morrisville, PA 19067.) Other publications include the quarterly AHLFAM Bulletin (NAL S549.U5L5, known formerly as Living Historical Farms Bulletin, until 1992) and Proceedings of the Annual Meeting (NAL S548.4.U6A8). A number of presentations from the yearly conference Proceedings have dealt with research and restoration activities involving historic plants and gardens at living history sites. Also from ALHFAM is John T. Schlebecker's compilation, Association for Living Historical Farms and Agricultural Museums: Bibliography of Articles Which Appeared in the Proceedings of the Annual Meetings, 1974-1980 (NAL Z6611.A33S34); additional bibliographies by Schlebecker (see entry 10) and R. G. Walther (see entry 12) are cited in Volume 3, Historical Supplement. An index to titles of presentations made during the 1979-1995 conferences (and contained in the Proceedings) is available at the Web site, along with links to many living history museums in the U.S. and abroad.

62. Chile Pepper Institute (Box 30003, Dept. 3Q, Las Cruces, NM 88003, tel. 505-646-3028, fax 505-646-6041, e-mail
Paul Bosland, Horticulturist and Director

The Chile Pepper Institute is a nonprofit educational and research organization and information clearinghouse administered by New Mexico State University. Broadly concerned with furthering knowledge of chile peppers and Capsicum species in general, the Institute (sometimes called Chili Pepper Institute, or Chili Institute) researches new cultivars and diseases, sponsors an annual conference, produces a variety of publications for pepper growers, admirers, and researchers, and maintains a germplasm bank of wild and domesticated Capsicum species and varieties. Member benefits (dues $25/yr/noncommercial, plus additional professional and business rates) include the quarterly Chile Pepper Institute Newsletter. More information (including a publications list, contents summaries for the Newsletter, and the Institute's newest venture, the International Center for Chile, plus links to other chile pepper sites) is available at the Web site.

63. Collective Heritage Institute (CHI) (826 Camio de Monte Rey, #A6, Santa Fe, NM 87505, tel. 505-986-0366, fax 505-986-1644, e-mail or
Kenny Ausubel, Founder and Co-executive Director; Nina Simons, Co-executive Director

A nonprofit research and education organization working in a variety of arenas to safeguard and celebrate biological and cultural diversity, and to promote ecological farming and environmental restoration. The Institute publishes a bi-annual newsletter, Collective Heritage Letter, and sponsors a yearly "Bioneers Conference" (held since 1990). The October 1998 gathering featured presentations by a variety of speakers (including Seed Savers Exchange's Kent Whealy) who offered scientific and social perspectives on, and visions for, nature and society. Regular memberships for CHI "allies" start at $35/yr/individuals, plus additional rates. Founder Kenny Ausubel helped to create also the New Mexican seed company, Seeds of Change (see entry 120, this volume), and he is author of the book, Seeds of Change (see Volume 1, Annotated Bibliography, entry 1).

64. Corn Improvement Club (c/o Michael Fields Agricultural Institute (MFAI), W2943 County Rd ES, East Troy, WI 53120, tel. 414-642-3303, fax 414-642-4028)
Bill Barber, contact person; Walter Goldstein MFAI Research Director

Formed in 1995, MFAI's Corn Improvement Club is a group of serious amateurs interested in improving corn varieties. Members work with some of the older open-pollinated corns, including Native American flint varieties with good taste and nutrient qualities, to improve their agronomic traits for the Northcentral region. Contact MFAI for additional information on the Club's activities. (See also brief article in Seed Savers Exchange's publication, Seed Savers 1995 Harvest Edition, p. 55-56, NAL SB115.S453.)

65. Cornell University, American Indian Program (AIP)/American Indian Agriculture Project (AIAP) (300 Caldwell Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, tel. 607-255-6587 or 607-255-5070, fax 607-255-6246, e-mail or
Jane Mt. Pleasant, AIP Director; José Barreiro, AIP Associate Director, Editor

Founded in 1982 to serve as a resource for students and the Native American community, Cornell's American Indian Program advances the University's partnership with nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, which began in the 1920s via the Indian Extension Program of agricultural and economics education and training. Today, AIP continues its mission to extend the university outwards into the community, through conferences, workshops, and other events; educational materials (such as the 4-H leader's guide, The Three Sisters: Exploring an Iroquois Garden, by M. Eames-Sheavly; see Volume 1, Annotated Bibliography, entry 318); and other initiatives involving economic and social aspects of resource management and indigenous agriculture. The Program publishes Native Americas (formerly Northeast Indian Quarterly and, until 1992, Akwe:kon Journal), a quarterly journal on issues of concern to native peoples of the Western Hemisphere. One of its current programs is the American Indian Agriculture Project, intended "to support and expand Native agriculture in New York," with efforts to halt further losses of Iroquois corn varieties. AIAP increases and improves traditional varieties, conducts research on indigenous cropping systems, and supports creative marketing outlets for Native-grown products. Iroquois White Flour corn for planting or food use is available for purchase. A brochure with information on corn products and publications is available; see Web site for additional information on AIP and links to Native American sites and documents.

66. Council for Responsible Genetics (CRG) (5 Upland Rd., Ste. 3, Cambridge, MA 02140, tel. 617-868-0870, fax 617-491-5344, e-mail
Web site

CRG is a nonprofit organization whose purpose is to create a forum for discussing and disseminating information about the broad societal aspects of genetic engineering. It works nationally and regionally through its role as an information clearinghouse, and sponsors topical conferences and workshops. CRG is governed by a diverse group of scientists and other professionals, and grassroots representatives. "Monitoring the social impact of biotechnology," GeneWatch, the Council's bimonthly newsletter, contains original and reprinted articles, news items, interviews, and reviews on the environmental, public health, legal, economic, and ethical dimensions of bioengineering human, animal, plant, and other life forms. Coverage includes bioengineered foods and labeling issues, and transgenic crops, and to lesser extent, crop biodiversity and genetic resources topics. (The Oct. 1996 GeneWatch issue, for instance, contains Doreen Stabinsky's article, "Who owns life? A short history of plant patents," p. 16-18.) Issues are typically 14-20 pages. Annual subscription (6 issues) costs $35/individuals, $24/organizations (both U.S.), plus additional rate categories.

67. The Cucurbit Network (TCN) (P.O. Box 560483, Miami, FL 33256, e-mail
Deena S. Decker-Walters, Co-editor.

The Cucurbit Network is composed of cucurbit scientists, growers, and other enthusiasts who are "dedicated to promoting conservation and understanding of the Cucurbitaceae through education and research." Members communicate through the twice-yearly Cucurbit Network News ($10/yr) and TCN's Web site. The newsletter includes short articles on varied topics of interest to the cucurbit community (from species profiles to germplasm preservation), news and events (symposia as well as melon festivals and gourd shows), book reviews, and other features. The Web site provides links to a variety of related online materials, including cucurbit genetics and germplasm organizations.

67a. Farmer Cooperative Genome Project (FCGP) (c/o Oregon Tilth Research and Education, 30848 Maple Dr., Junction City, OR 97448, tel. 540-998-3069, e-mail or
J.J. Haapala, contact person

A new collaborative project with national scope, which aims to "return farmers and gardeners to the practice of characterizing and saving seed," to serve broad goals of genetic preservation, and farmer/gardener self-reliance and participation. Its task is to study the feasability of a cooperative marketing arrangement in which farmers become familiar with seed resources; learn how to characterize crop varieties, and how to grow true breeding varieties, which may be developed for preservation or commerce; and how to work with the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System and other seed repositories. FCGP is administered by Oregon Tilth, and supported by the Fund for Rural America.

68. Genetic Resources Action International (GRAIN) (Girona 25, pral., E-08010 Barcelona, Spain, tel. (34) 93 301 13 81, fax (34) 93 301 16 27, e-mail
Henk Hobbelink, Renée Vellvé, and Nelson Alvarez, Seedling Co-editors

Based in Spain, GRAIN is a nonprofit organization found in 1990 to promote a better system for local and global management of genetic resources, one that emphasizes people's control over their own crop seeds, farming and food systems, food security, and health. GRAIN specializes in information analysis and exchange, and also campaigning and lobbying at the international level. The group's publications include the quarterly Seedling, with information and commentary on the seed industry, biotechnology, intellectual property issues, and local, low-input farming systems, as well as news on various organizations and their activities, including grassroots conservation efforts in the Third World, GRAIN programs, and resource reviews. Articles typically contain source information, the issues 36-40 pages in length. (Selected articles from 1995 to 1998 issues are online at the group's Web page.) Seedling subscription is complimentary to individuals or groups in developing nations and NGOs at large, US$35 for all others.

69. High Desert Research Farm (HDRF) (Ghost Ranch Conference Center, Abiquiu, NM 87510-9601, tel. 505-685-4333)
Tom Guiles, contact person

HDRF is a nonprofit organization working to "promote and help sustain family farm agriculture which is ecologically sound, sustainable, and rooted in the cultural traditions of northern New Mexico." Initiatives include research and demonstration, technical assistance to farmers, and education. HDRF issues an occasional newsletter, Seed & Harvest, which reports on specific projects and related topics concerned with environmental stewardship, community advocacy, small diversified farming, and conservation of endangered food crops. Includes gardening information useful to home gardeners in the arid Southwest.

70. Indiana Center for New Crops and Plant Products (1165 Horticulture Bldg., Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1165, tel. 317-494-1329, fax 317-494-0391, e-mail or
Jules Janick, Director; James E. Simon, Research Coordinator

Housed at Purdue University, the New Crops Center, as it is also known, serves as an educational resource and clearinghouse for information on "new crops," which is interpreted broadly to include new species or varieties, new crop-derived products, or new locations (or new commercial uses) for "old" or traditional crops. Until recent years, the Center issued twice-yearly New Crops News, with news and information centering primarily on new crops suited to the U.S. Midwest, and to lesser extent other regions. (Back issues from 1991 to 1995 are posted at the Web site.) At its Web page, the Center maintains "New Crop Resources Online Program" (or NewCROP), with hundreds of new crop profiles and fact sheets, source information, and directory of researchers. The site includes also an events calendar, information on the Center's New Crops Listserv, and many related links. The Center sponsored the Fourth National New Crops Symposium, "New Crops and New Uses: Biodiversity and Agricultural Sustainability," in Phoenix, Arizona, Nov. 8-11, 1998. Presentations by Gary Nabhan, Neil Hamilton, Peter Bretting, and Hope Shand, on plant exploration and germplasm management topics, were scheduled. (See Volume 1, Annotated Bibliography, entries 39 and 405, for selected papers from previous symposia.)

71. Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy (IATP) (2105 First Ave. South, Minneapolis, MN 55404, tel. 612-870-0453, fax 612-870-4846, e-mail
Mark Ritchie, President

A nonprofit organization established in the mid-1980s and based in Minneapolis, its mission "to create environmentally and economically sustainable communities and regions through sound agriculture and trade policy." IATP provides education and technical assistance, conducts policy-oriented research, and works to build international networks. The group has available a wide range of Internet resources and mailing lists (available also by fax or regular mail service) and other materials on food and agriculture topics, including biodiversity and genetic resources, intellectual property issues, and biotechnology. Current and back issues (1995-1998) of Intellectual Property & Biodiversity News are archived at the Web site, and some are available at Sustainable Earth Electronic Library's (SEEL) site at IATP is 1 of 57 groups profiled in the 1997 book, For All Generations: Making World Agriculture More Sustainable (cited in Volume 1, Annotated Bibliography, entry 67).

72. National Agricultural Biotechnology Council (NABC) (419 Boyce Thompson Institute, Tower Rd., Ithaca, NY 14853, tel. 607-254-4856, e-mail

A consortium of 25 nonprofit agricultural research and educational institutions in the U.S. and Canada, founded in 1988 by the Boyce Thompson Institute, in collaboration with Cornell University, Iowa State University, and others. Its purpose is to promote dialogue on "ethical, safe, efficacious and equitable development of the products and processes of agricultural biotechnology." NABC issues a quarterly newsletter, NABCnews (NAL S494.5.B563N332), and other periodicals, including (since 1989) the annual NABC Report series (NAL S494.5.B563N33), which communicates information from NABC's annual meeting. A number of the latter publications, which encompass broad and diverse viewpoints on current issues, have dealt with the links between biotechnology issues (including biological, ecological, social, institutional, and economic aspects) and issues of preservation and use of crop genetic resources. For example, NABC Report 7, Genes for the Future: Discovery, Ownership, Access (1995, 143 p., NAL S494.5.B56N33 no.7) examines critical aspects of intellectual property rights that control plant and animal products and technologies. The 1998 meeting was entitled "Agricultural Biotechnology and Environmental Quality: Gene Escape and Pest Resistance"; the meeting scheduled for June 1999 will address the impacts of biotechnology and industrial consolidation on global food security and sustainability.

73. National Hot Pepper Association (400 NW 20th St., Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33311, tel. 954-565-4972, fax 954-566-2208)
Betty Payton, Newsletter Editor

A nonprofit membership organization founded in 1991 by a group of hot pepper enthusiasts from around the U.S. Members (gardeners, hobbyists, chefs and gourmands, and product manufacturers) receive National Hot Pepper Association Newsletter, a quarterly publication currently edited by Betty Payton, who is co-owner of Pepper Gal seed company (see entry 110, this volume). A portion of the publication deals with pepper varieties and garden aspects. Annual dues $20/yr.

74. Oldways Preservation & Exchange Trust, Chefs Collaborative 2000 (25 First St., Cambridge, MA 02141, tel. 617-621-3000, fax 617-621-1230, e-mail; contact Mr. Bayless at Frontera Grill, 445 N. Clark St., Chicago, IL 60610); (Oldways home page)
membership dues starting at $35/yr
Vita Juan (membership info.); Rick Bayless, CC2000 Chairman; K. Dun Gifford, Oldways President/Founder

CC2000 is a network of more than 1000 prominent U.S. chefs working "to advance sustainable food choices for the next century." Its members create menus emphasizing wholesome, seasonally-grown foods; sponsor conferences and design programs and materials that educate children and adults about the impact of food choices on themselves, as well as the integrity of their cultures and the global environment; and actively support local organic/sustainable farmers. Beyond these direct measures to educate people on healthful, traditional diets, and to preserve and strengthen biological and cultural diversity through food choices, the Collaborative works to shape public policies on agriculture, food and nutrition. Network members hold an annual retreat, work through a number of state and regional chapters, and produce a quarterly newsletter. CC2000 is an educational initiative of the Massachusetts-based Oldways Preservation & Exchange Trust. A nonprofit educational organization founded in 1988, Oldways carries on a variety of programs concerned with preserving the healthful food and agricultural traditions of the world's cultures.

75. Rural Advancement Foundation International (RAFI) (RAFI International Office, 110 Osborne St., Suite 202, Winnipeg MB R3l 1Y5, Canada, tel. 204-453-5259, fax 204-925-8034, e-mail
(also: RAFI-USA, P.O. Box 640, Pittsboro, NC 27312, tel. 919-542-1396, fax 919-542-0069, e-mail;
Hope Shand, Biodiversity Project Director (; Edward Hammond, Programme Officer ( (Pittsboro); Pat Mooney, Executive Director (Winnipeg)

RAFI is a nonprofit policy research organization "dedicated to the conservation and sustainable improvement of agricultural biodiversity," and to socially-responsible development of technologies affecting Third World communities and agriculture. Since its founding in 1977, RAFI has been influential in shaping opinions, policies, and events within the international agro-biodiversity arena. The group maintains a central office in Winnipeg (formerly in Ottawa) and a U.S. affiliate in North Carolina. Publications include an occasional paper series, and also RAFI Communique (NAL S494.5.B563R3; subscription U.S. $30/yr/6 issues, elsewhere $35, except free to Third World subscribers, back issues $5). The Communique examines biological, economic, and political issues relating to intellectual property systems and genetic engineering, and their impacts on plant genetic diversity, farmers and rural society, and global food security; recent issues have provided updates on RAFI's work in monitoring structural changes in the seed industry. The full texts of Communique issues (back to June 1989) are posted at RAFI's main Web site, along with other publications and resources (such as "Community Seed Bank Kit" for development workers), and much additional information (including their own and collaborative work in opposing "Terminator Technology"). Many of RAFI's materials are available in several languages (French and Spanish text versions, as well as English, are found at the main Web page). RAFI maintains an e-mail list ( to distribute news updates, and an online news service, the "geno-types list." RAFI is 1 of 57 organizations profiled in the 1997 book, For All Generations: Making World Agriculture More Sustainable (cited in Volume 1, Annotated Bibliography, entry 67).

76. Sustainable Native Agriculture Center (SNAC) (P.O. Box 360, Arroyo Hondo, NM 87513)
John Kimmey, Director [Note 2/99: Unable to confirm postal address.]

A nonprofit research and conservation organization working to perpetuate traditional Native American crops, located on 146 acres owned by the Waterbird Institute. The Center works locally and internationally on problems of resource-limited farmers in the U.S. and the Third World. Projects include training workshops, and growing and testing local corn, beans, and squash varieties, which have been sent to farmers in India, China, South America, and elsewhere.

77. Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) Agriculture and Biotechnology Program (1616 P St. NW, Suite 310, Washington, DC 20036-1434, tel. 202-332-0900, e-mail
Jane Rissler and Margaret Mellon, Co-editors

Head-quartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts, UCS is comprised of over 70,000 scientist and citizen members who are concerned with responsible use of science and technology in the areas of energy and environmental management, agriculture, transportation, and national defense. The group's Agriculture and Biotechnology Program, based in Washington, DC, issues a periodic newsletter, Gene Exchange (NAL QH442.G461). Intended to serve as "A public voice on biotechnology and agriculture," issues contain news, analysis, and commentary on bioengineering in agriculture, including transgenic crops and their economic, regulatory, public health, environmental, and biodiversity aspects. Subscription is complimentary by contacting the Massachusetts office (Write to: Direct Mail Administrator, Union of Concerned Scientists, Two Brattle Square, Cambridge, MA 02238-9105, or fax 617-864-9405.) Several back issues, along with other information, are available at the Web page. (See also Ecological Risks of Engineered Crops, a recent book by Drs. Rissler and Mellon, cited in Volume 1, Annotated Bibliography, entry 48.)

Go to: Top of Volume 2 | Contents of Volume 2 | Introduction | Notes and References
Part I. Vegetable Seed Exchanges or Seedbanks
Part II. Fruit Growers Organizations or Programs
Part III. Public Gardens and Living Historical Farm Museums in the U.S.
Part IV. National and International Genebanks, Including Government Programs
Part V. Other Resource Organizations and Programs
Part VI. Commercial Seed Companies
Part VII. Commercial Fruit Nurseries
Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160
Appendices (Volume 2): 1) AFSIC, 2) Publication Titles Index, 3) Periodical Articles Index, 4) Persons / Organizations Index

Part VI. Commercial Seed Companies

For the most part, the nonprofit organizations that make seeds available to their members, and in some cases to nonmembers also, are listed in Part I of this volume. (An exception is the nonprofit South Carolina Seed Foundation, not a seed exchange or trust per se, which is arbitrarily listed below in this section.) Unless indicated otherwise, descriptions of companies and their seed and plant stock, and catalog prices, are based on information obtained from 1998 or 1999 printed catalogs, which has been supplemented in some cases with information from a company's Internet site or secondary sources.

As indicated in the entries below, some of the companies allow public access to their trial or demonstration gardens. Firms with especially good selections of seed-saving equipment and supplies are noted, although a number of others sell a variety of materials for seed-saving and storage (as indicated by the general code "GS"--see below). Some restrictions on shipping live plant materials are indicated, and, when known, the availability of organically-grown or untreated seeds is noted. (Contact the companies directly for more complete information on these topics.)

For other listings of seed companies selling heirlooms and other open-pollinated vegetable varieties (which were not consulted directly in preparing this resource guide), see Fedco Seeds (entry 88) and Seeds of Diversity Canada (entry 20), both in this volume. For information on additional companies, consult Gardening by Mail (entry 244) and Organic Gardening magazine (entry 234), both cited in Volume 1, Annotated Bibliography. Sue Stickland's new book, Heirloom Vegetables (entry 9 in Volume 1), provides an up-to-date listing of some additional companies. In addition, Canadian Organic Growers provides an 8-page list of organic seed suppliers (cost $1), which is regularly updated; ask for "Seed Sources for Organic Gardeners," available from COG, P.O. Box 6408, Station J, Ottawa ON K2A 3Y6, Canada (Web site A lengthy listing of Canadian seed sources, many vegetable seed sellers not cited in the short list below, is available at Web site (and linked to U.S. and other seed source lists). Northeast Organic Farming Association of New Hampshire (NOFA-NH) has compiled a listing of North American suppliers of organic, untreated, and heirloom seeds, and organically-grown vegetable seedlings (although many entries are duplicated in the listings below); for availability,contact NOFA-NH (4 Park Street, Suite 208, Concord, NH 03253. Phone: (603)224-5022. Email:

Key to catalog stock availability: B--bulk seed sizes for some or all stock, BK--books and other publications and media, GS--garden supplies and tools, or cooking or gift items, SC--thematic seed collections.

1. United States

78. Alfrey Seeds (P.O. Box 415, Knoxville, TN 37901, e-mail
Hershel Alfrey, Co-owner

Seeds for three dozen types of hot peppers, including exotics and heirlooms, plus a selection of sweet peppers, specialty and heirloom tomatoes, and other vegetables, are available from Hershel and Evelyn Alfrey. Since 1977. Descriptions and price list for SASE.

79. Borries Family (Rt. 4, Box 79, Teutopolis IL 62467, tel. 217-857-3377)
Leonard and Gerald Borries, Owners

The Borries are Illinois farmers and seed corn suppliers who sell the following four varieties of open-pollinated corn (in lb to bushel quantities): Boone County White, Reids, Krugs, and Henry Moore. Send SASE for price information. B

Go to: Contents of Volume 2 | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160 | Appendices (Volume 2)

80. W. Atlee Burpee & Company (300 Park Ave., Warminster, PA 18991-0001, tel. 800-333-5808 (customer service) or 800-888-1447 (orders), fax 800-487-5530)
George Ball, Jr., President

Open-pollinated and hybrid seeds of vegetables, flowers, and herbs are offered in Burpee's standard catalog, along with nursery stock (landscape plants and fruits) and gardening supplies. Starting in 1997, Burpee issued a special heirloom seed catalog containing selections of many of the popular vegetables and flowers from its past catalogs, with numerous illustrations from the originals. It describes 100 vegetable varieties (most dating to the 1880s-1930s) and 70 old-fashioned annual flowers, plus transplants for 40+ vegetable and flower varieties. The 1998 heirloom catalog has 30 new additions, with added color photos. Burpees maintains breeding and trial grounds in Pennsylvania and California, and operates a garden store at its Warminster location (tel. 215-674-8233). Since 1876. Catalogs free. B/GS

81. D.V. Burrell Seed Growers Co. (P.O. Box 150, Rocky Ford, CO 81067, tel. 719-254-3318, fax 719-254-3319)

A family-owned business selling hybrid and open-pollinated seed for a full line of vegetables, plus herbs and flowers. Burrell's informative catalog describes several hundred varieties, with disease and pest resistance information noted. The company is especially well-known for its broad selection of cantaloupes and watermelons, both open-pollinated and hybrid types. Seeds are available in bulk sizes for commercial growers (their primary clients) and smaller packets for home gardeners. Since 1900. Catalog free. B/GS

82. Chris Weeks Peppers (P.O. Box 3207, Kill Devil Hills, NC 27948)
Chris Weeks, Owner

Seeds available in 1997 included 40 hot and sweet pepper varieties, among them Mexican, South American, and Asian types, with a selection of perennial Capsicum species. Some seeds available in larger sizes. A small selection of Mr. Week's seeds are offered also through Pinetree Garden Seeds' catalog (entry 112, this volume). Price list with brief descriptions $1. B

83. Comstock, Ferre & Co. (263 Main St., Wethersfield, CT 06109, tel. 860-571-6590, fax 860-571-6595, e-mail
Pierre Bennerup, Owner

Originally a wholesale seedhouse during its first century or so of operation, Comstock, Ferre & Co. now operates as a retail seed supplier and garden center/nursery. The company sells seeds of older open-pollinated vegetables, plus newer selections showing superior garden performance. Most seeds are untreated. The firm's 1999 black-and-white catalog lists a full line of vegetables, plus annual and perennial flowers, and herbs. Since 1820. Catalog free. B/GS

84. The Cook's Garden (P.O. Box 535, Londonderry, VT 05148 (orders shipped from Cook's Order Center, P.O. Box 5010, Hodges, SC 29653-5010), tel. 800-457-9703, fax 800-457-9705, e-mail
Shepherd Ogden, President

"Seeds and supplies for the new American kitchen garden." Best known for their wide selection of salad greens, Cook's Garden co-founders Ellen and Shepherd Ogden offer a full line of open-pollinated and hybrid vegetables, including specialty vegetables, edible flowers, and culinary herbs, each well-described in an informative and attractive catalog. Vegetable seed selections in the 1999 catalog include many European and heirloom varieties, plus seed mixtures (mesclun and others). All seeds untreated. Trial gardens (located in Burlington, Vermont) are open to the public. Since 1983. The company's Web site contains many plant and gardening links to other interesting sites. (Shepherd Ogden writes prolifically on garden subjects, and together the Ogdens have co-authored a guide to culinary gardening, The Cook's Garden: Growing and Using the Best-tasting Vegetable Varieties (Rodale Press, 1989, NAL SB321.O35). It features recommended vegetable varieties, both old and new. Catalog $1. B/BK/GS/SC

85. DiGeorgi Seed Company (6011 'N' St., Omaha, NE 68117-1634, tel. 800-858-2580, orders; 402-731-3901, customer service)

This Nebraska firm sells a mix of open-pollinated and hybrid vegetable seeds for home gardeners and commercial growers, as well as seeds for a wide selection of grasses, perennial and annual flowers, and herbs (1200+ seed listings in all, each well-described with planting information). Since 1905. Catalog $2. B/GS/SC

86. Down on the Farm Seed (P.O. Box 184, Hiram, OH 44234)

A family-owned seed company that sells only untreated and open-pollinated seeds for a full line of vegetables, plus herbs and flowers. The firm's seed stock encompasses numerous traditional vegetable varieties, including 52 heirloom tomatoes. Since 1990. Catalog $1 (refundable). GS

87. Enchanted Seeds (P.O. Box 6087, Las Cruces, NM 88006, tel. 505-523-6058 or 505-233-3033)

This New Mexican firm sells both open-pollinated and hybrid peppers (hot, sweet, ornamental, and exotic), including NuMex varieties developed by breeders at New Mexico State University. Four-page brochure free.

88. Fedco Seeds (and Fedco Bulbs, Fedco Trees, Moose Tubers/Organic Growers Supply) (P.O. Box 520, Waterville, ME 04903-0520, tel. 207-873-7333 (-SEED), fax 207-872-8317)
C.R. Lawn, Founder and Seed Catalog Coordinator

A regional seed and nursery supply company consisting of four divisions. Fedco Trees sells hardy trees and shrubs and spring-planted bulbs (see also entry 154); Fedco Bulbs sells fall-planted flower bulbs; and Moose Tubers, affiliated with Organic Growers Supply, sells seed potatoes, onion sets, and spring-planted flower bulbs. Fedco Seeds offers seeds of vegetables (open-pollinated, heirloom, and hybrid) for superior flavor and productivity in the northeastern U.S. and other short-season areas, as well as flower, herb, grain, and cover crop seeds. Some seeds are grown by Fedco's Maine growers network; all are trialed in the Maine climate. The company's seed catalog lists numerous brassicas, greens, root crops, and other cool-season vegetables, plus an array of warm-season vegetables (and many potatoes available from Moose Tubers). Fedco seeks out heirlooms and others with commercial potential. Operated as a consumer/worker profit-sharing cooperative, the firm derives its name from its role as a Maine statewide cooperative garden project begun in 1978, in association with the now-defunct "Federation of Cooperatives." Volume discounts are offered to cooperative buyers; a portion of profits go to educational and seed-related projects. Interesting catalog contains meaty, fine-print descriptions (95 pages for the 1999 Spring catalog) that note varieties suited to market growing or other purposes, with growing advice. It forewarns seed savers of varieties about to be dropped from sale, for one reason or another. A list of seed suppliers that Fedco has found useful is available for SASE. Catalog subscription (3/yr) $2. B/BK/GS

89. Filaree Farm (182 Conconully Hwy, Okanogan, WA 98840, tel. 509-422-6940)
Ron Engeland, Co-owner

Filaree Farm in north-central Washington State offers organically-grown garlic by mail-order, and also sells a variety of vegetables and fruits (including 100 apple varieties) locally. Ron and Watershine Engeland grow 450 cultivated and wild garlic varieties, some available in limited quantities only. The firm's catalog contains excellent descriptions of named varieties from Europe, Asia, and elsewhere, including North American family heirlooms. Additional stock includes green manure seed, garlic books and products, and other supplies. Garlic guru Ron Engeland is author of the 1991 book, Growing Great Garlic (Filaree Productions, 213 p., NAL SB351.G3E53 1991; updated 1995 and currently in print), which describes garlic varieties. Since 1977. Catalog $2. B/BK/GS

90. Fox Hollow Seed Company (P.O. Box 148, McGrann, PA 16236-0148, tel./fax 724-548-7333 (SEED), tel. 888-548-SEED (orders only), e-mail
John Van Sicklin, Owner

An owner-operated seed company in western Pennsylvania, which is dedicated to preserving and distributing seeds of food and medicinal plants with traditional value. The firm's 1999 black-and-white, 49-page catalog lists a variety of open-pollinated vegetables, herbs, and flowers, including some interesting heirlooms; regular and "sampler" packet sizes are offered. Includes a selection of "oddity" seeds that may be of interest to collectors (see catalog's "Back Page"). A portion of seeds sold are grown organically "in house." Fox Hollow seeks out family heirlooms with potential for wider distribution. Since 1987 (formerly co-owned with Charles "Bud" Glendening). Catalog free.

91. Fred's Plant Farm (4589 Ralston Rd., Martin, TN 38237, tel. 800-550-2575)
Fred C. Stoker, Owner

Tennessee grower sells sweet potato plants for eight varieties in 50-plant to 10,000-plant sizes. Since 1947. Price list free.

92. Gallina Canyon Ranch (c/o P.O. Box 2334, Twin Falls ID 83303, tel. 800-424-8881, tel./fax 208-735-1044)
Elizabeth Berry, Owner

Elizabeth Berry grows specialty and exotic produce on her 6500-foot-high ranch in northern New Mexico. She sells three dozen bean varieties, including exotics, heirlooms, and Native American beans (available in 1-lb and 5-lb packages). Price list and descriptions available for SASE and $1 sent to her Idaho address. B

93. Garden City Seeds ( 778 Hwy 93 North, Hamilton, MT 59840, tel. 406-961-4837, fax 406-961-4877, e-mail
John Schneeberger, President

Montana firm specializes in seeds for hardy, early-harvest vegetable varieties. Untreated seed is mostly open-pollinated, a portion grown and trialed in the Bitterroot Valley. Headed by John Navazio, the company's breeding program works to develop vegetables with the flavor and nutrition of heirlooms, and the enhanced vigor and disease resistance sometimes associated with hybrids. Informative 1999 black-and-white catalog describes a broad vegetable selection, plus cover crops, flowers, and herbs, with supplemental growing and seed-saving information (cold hardy, certified organic, heirloom, or market farm varieties, and disease-resistant types are identified.) Garden City Seeds grew out of a nonprofit seed distribution organization, the Down Home Project, and was remade as a for-profit company in 1982. Catalog free. B/BK/GS

94. The Gourmet Gardener (8650 College Blvd., Suite 205IN, Overland Park, KS 66210-1806, tel. 913-345-0490)
Jean A. Demonchaux, Founder; Christopher E. Combest, President

Serving chefs and home gardeners, this Kansas seed company specializes in vegetable and edible flower seeds, and herbs (both seeds and plants), emphasizing varieties with superior flavor. Featured are numerous French and European varieties that are trialed in the U.S. as well as Europe, and include open-pollinated and heirloom types. Catalog free. B/BK/GS/SC

95. Grandview Farms (12942 Dupont Rd., Sebastopol, CA 95472, phone orders discouraged)
Jeff Dawson, Co-owner

Heirloom and specialty tomato seeds for home and market gardener are available from Jeff and Sharon Dawson. The company's 1999 seed listing includes 232 named types (cherries, plus red, pink and purple, bi-color, yellow and orange tomatoes, and pastes). All varieties offered--from Abe Lincoln to Zogola--are open-pollinated, the seed roster including Grandview Farms' "exclusive varieties." All seeds grown in western Sonoma County. Since 1988. Send SASE for seed listing with brief descriptions.

96. Heirloom Seeds (P.O. Box 245, W. Elizabeth, PA 15088-0245, tel. 412-384-0852, e-mail
Tom Hauch, Owner

This Pennsylvania firm sells open-pollinated seeds for classic vegetable varieties, herbs, and old-fashioned flowers, including American and European heirloom vegetables. All seeds are untreated. Catalog and Web site include brief varietal descriptions. Since 1988. Catalog $1 (refundable). BK/GS

97. Heritage Seed Company (P.O. Box 505, Star City, AR 71667-0505, tel. 505-628-4820)
Mark Sattelmeier, President

An Arizona company specializing in alliums, including perennial onions (topsetting and multiplier), shallots, and garlic (among them family and ethnic heirloom varieties), plus ornamentals, such as flowering alliums, daylilies, and daffodils. Book selection features alliums. Catalog (small but informative) available for first class stamp. BK

98. High Mowing Organic Seed Farm (813 Brook Rd., Wolcott, VT 05680, tel. 802-888-2480 for inquiries, phone orders discouraged)
Tom Stearns, Owner/Grower

A regional seed company (and preservation effort) specializing in heirloom vegetable varieties for New England. The 1999 catalog of certified organically-grown seeds lists 50 open-pollinated varieties, including heirlooms and rare types, all seeds grown "in house." The owner offers a seed search service to locate unusual or heirloom varieties, and also several on-farm seed-saving workshops. (Tom Stearns was formerly owner of Good Seed Farm of Vermont.) Catalog free. B

99. Horticultural Enterprises (P.O. Box 810082, Dallas, TX 75381-0082)

Offering "semillas autenticas Mexicanas," this Texas firm sells seeds for a couple dozen chiles and sweet peppers from Mexico, plus the U.S. and elsewhere, and a miscellany of other vegetables (including jicama, tomato, tomatillo) and herbs. Brochure (providing brief notes only) free.

Go to: Contents of Volume 2 | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160 | Appendices (Volume 2)

100. J.L. Hudson, Seedsman (Star Route 2, Box 337, La Honda, CA 94020, no tel. orders; send catalog requests to: J.L. Hudson, Seedsman, P.O. Box 1058, Redwood City, CA 94064)

Specializes in unusual and hard-to-find varieties of herbs, flowers, and "time-honored" (traditional and heirloom) vegetables, all of them open-pollinated. Informative "Ethnobotanical Catalog of Seeds" lists hundreds of plants, including traditional Zapotec vegetables, herbs, ornamentals, and medicinals from Oaxaca, Mexico, plus an eclectic book selection. Since 1911. Catalog $1 (includes Rare Seed Supplement).

101. Le Jardin du Gourmet (P.O. Box 75, St. Johnsbury Center, VT 05863-0075, tel. 800-659-1446 or 802-748-1446, fax 802-748-9592, e-mail

Vermont firm specializes in seeds for gourmet and international vegetable varieties, both open-pollinated and hybrid, plus herb and flower seeds and plants, and garlic and other alliums. Numerous French vegetable varieties are listed in the current catalog. Seeds are available in small-size, 25-cent sample packets, plus several larger sizes. Catalog with brief descriptions includes gourmet food items and book selection. Since 1954. Catalog $1. B/BK/GS

102. Johnny's Selected Seeds (Foss Hill Rd., Albion, ME 04910-9731, tel. 207-437-4301; fax 800-437-4290 (U.S.) or 207-437-2165 (elsewhere), e-mail
Rob Johnston, Jr., Founder and Chairman

Johnny's in south-central Maine offers home gardeners and small-scale growers a full line of open-pollinated and hybrid vegetable seeds, including numerous traditional vegetable varieties, plus flower, cover crop, grain, and other seeds. The firm uses organic seed growing methods when possible. Johnny's encourages seed saving among its customers and attempts to enhance availability of particular heirlooms by listing different selections each year. The company produces a portion of its own seeds and maintains an active breeding program, trial grounds, and retail store in Albion, Maine. The 1999 catalog (highly informative, full-color) contains excellent varietal descriptions, with a good selection of garden supplies and tools for sowing and saving seeds, and books (including a new edition of Growing Garden Seeds: A Manual for Gardeners and Small Farmers, a 32-page booklet by Rob Johnston). Since 1973. Catalog free. B/BK/GS

103. Kids in Bloom (KID) (P.O. Box 344, Zionsville, IN 46077, tel. 317-290-6996, fax 317-916-9033)
Kay Grimm and Beth Ann Maxon, Owners

A diversified company, based in Indianapolis, which designs, creates, and offers consultation for school, community, and other types of gardens, emphasizing hands-on learning and building life-enhancing skills for children, as well as revitalizing communities. One component of the firm involves growing and selling heirloom and specialty seeds; KID's "living history seeds" are tested in "challenging, urban environment conditions" and grown and processed without chemical treatments. Informative catalog (and also whimsical--designed with kids in mind) describes the vegetable, herb, and flower seeds offered, cites KID's projects, and provides more information for teachers and facilitators. Gathering Seed booklet ($2) tells about how to become seed quardians; seed catalog $1. SC

104. D. Landreth Seed Co. (P.O. Box 6426, 180 W. Ostend St., Baltimore, MD 21230, tel. 800-654-2407 or 410-727-3922, fax 410-244-8633)

Established in 1784, Landreth's is the oldest seedhouse in the U.S. and also one of the nation's oldest companies. Vegetable, flower, herb, and grass seeds are available, plus some perennial vegetables (alliums, rhubarb, etc.). Seeds advertised in the 1998 catalog include a selection of classic, 19th-C. vegetable varieties, plus other open-pollinated varieties and hybrids; among them are numerous beans, peas, cucurbits, and others. Catalog $2. B/GS

105. Melissa's Seeds (1124 Ramsey St., Hastings, MN 55033)
Melissa Hilsgen and Family, Owners

A family-owned seed business committed to selling the best open-pollinated vegetable seeds, most of them organically grown "in house." Under new ownership (formerly Noël's Seeds, owned by Noël Fahey). Small catalog free. BK/GS

106. Montana Garlic Farm (P.O. Box 1283, Big Timber, MT 59011, tel. 406-932-48228)
Katherine LoPiccolo, Co-owner

This family-owned business specializes in garlic, including high quality, consistent lines developed for superior flavor, aroma, and presentation. Currently, 136 varieties, including artichoke, marbled, porcelain, purple stripe, and rocambole types are being grown (the owners working to increase inventory). Varieties available in larger quantities are listed in the firm's small catalog. Garlic collections and sampler packages available. Under new ownership (formerly Richard Wrench). Catalog for SASE.

107. Ornamental Edibles (3622 Weedin Ct., San Jose, CA 95132, tel. 408-946-SEED (-7333), fax 408-946-0181, e-mail
Joyce W. McClellan, Owner

A California supplier selling vegetable, herb, and flower seeds for specialty markets and commercial growers, as well as home gardeners. A broad line of (mostly open-pollinated) seeds is available, among them 100+ varieties of lettuces and gourmet greens (mesclun), and vegetable varieties from the long-established French seedhouse, Vilmorin. Wide range of package sizes available. Informative catalog includes resource list and growing information, with a small selection of general gardening books, plus posters. Catalog free. B/BK/GS/SC

108. Pagano Seeds (c/o Lake Valley Seed, 5717 Arapahoe St., Boulder, CO 80303, tel. 303-449-4882, fax 303-449-8752, e-mail

Seeds of traditional Italian vegetable varieties are sold by Pagano Seeds, a 100-year-old Italian company, the seeds distributed in the U.S. by Lake Valley Seed. Varieties are listed at the Web site under "Italian seeds, vegetables." Free price list available.

109. Peaceful Valley Farm Supply (P.O. Box 2209, Grass Valley, CA 95945, tel. 530-272-4769, fax 530-272-4794)

This California firm established during the 1980s sells tools and supplies for organic farmers and gardeners, including seeds for vegetables, herbs, wildflowers, grasses, and an especially good selection of cover crops. Vegetable seeds include 80+ varieties, all open-pollinated and organically-grown by Seeds of Change in New Mexico (see entry 120, this volume); bulbs, potatoes and other plants are included in a Fall catalog supplement. Spring catalog includes large selection of growing supplies, soil amendments, organic pest control materials, and other products, plus good book selection. Catalog free. B/BK/GS

110. The Pepper Gal (P.O. Box 23006, Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33307-3006, tel. 954-537-5540, fax 954-566-2208)
Betty Payton, Co-owner

"Specialists in Capsicum seeds." Open-pollinated peppers (hot, sweet, and ornamental) from Asia, Europe, the Caribbean, and the American Southwest are sold by Betty and Bob Payton. Black-and-white catalog includes brief varietal descriptions, with a wide selection of international cooking books, plus gift items. Since 1978. Catalog for SASE. BK/GS

111. Peters Seeds & Research (PSR) (P.O. Box 1472, Myrtle Creek, OR 97457, tel. 541-874-2615, fax 541-874-3426, e-mail
Tim Peters, Founder and Owner

A broad array of vegetable seeds, plus a selection of perennial grain, herb, and flower seeds, are available from Oregon plant breeder Tim Peters, who is committed to preserving and improving open-pollinated crops. Among the numerous tomato selections are 19 seedless tomatoes. Varieties are well-described in an informative catalog that includes PSR's introductions. Tim Peters, who previously served as Territorial Seed Company's head breeder, offers breeding services and a membership option ($5-20 range) that includes invitations to trial grounds and other benefits. Catalog $1. B/SC

112. Pinetree Garden Seeds (Box 300, New Gloucester, ME 04260, tel. 207-926-3400, fax 888-52-SEEDS (73337), e-mail
Dick Meiners, Owner

Originally offering vegetable seeds in small packets for the home gardener, this Maine firm has grown to provide an extensive seed line (750+ types) that today includes herbs, flowers, cover crops, and other plants. Vegetable seeds are a mix of open-pollinated and hybrid varieties, with numerous heirlooms and Native American varieties, plus an array of seeds, predominently non-hybrid, from Europe, Asia, and Latin America. A portion of Chris Weeks' open-pollinated peppers are available (see entry 82, this volume). The 1999 catalog (167 pages) contains detailed descriptions from trial gardens in Maine, plus ample selection of garden supplies, tools, and books. Since 1979. Catalog free. BK/GS

113. Plants of the Southwest (Agua Fria, Route 6, Box 11A, Santa Fe, NM 87501, tel. 505-471-2212 or 800-788-SEED (-7333, orders only), fax 505-438-8800, e-mail

New Mexican firm sells drought-tolerant and native grasses, wildflowers, trees and shrubs (seed or plants available), and also seeds for traditional and modern vegetables varieties. All species and varieties are selected for difficult soils and low-water conditions. Good chile pepper selection (including seed collections), also corn, beans, and others. Since 1977.
Full-color catalog $3.50 (refunded from first order), price list for SASE. BK/SC

114. Redwood City Seed Company (P.O. Box 361, Redwood City, CA 94064, tel. 650-325-7333)
Craig Dremann, Co-founder and Co-owner

For past 26 years, Craig and Sue Dremann have offered an international selection of "endangered cultivated plants," all open-pollinated varieties of vegetables, herbs, and "specialty plants." Descriptive black-and-white catalog includes an interesting selection of books on traditional crops, economic botany, ecological restoration, and more (including Craig Dremann's 1984 publication, Vegetable Seed Production, which offers guidance in growing seeds in warm winter areas). Since 1971. Catalog $1, wholesale pricelist free, Catalog Supplement (a list of seasonal items, rare or unusual seeds, 2/yr) $2. BK

115. Ronniger's Seed Potatoes (P.O. Box 307, Ellensburg, WA 98360, tel. 509-925-6025, fax 509-925-9238, e-mail
David Ronniger, Owner

Ronniger's sells more than 50 varieties of certified organically-grown seed potatoes (including heirlooms and European strains), plus a selection of garlics, shallots, and perennial onions, perennials (such as rhubarb, asparagus), and cover crop seeds. The small, family-operated seed potato and vegetable farm is located in northeastern Idaho and products are shipped from Washington state. Catalog provides planting information and offers potato books and other items. (David Ronniger has served as potato curator for Seed Savers Exchange.) Since 1988. Catalog $2. BK/GS

116. Sand Hill Preservation Center (1878 230th St., Calamus, IA 52729, tel. 319-246-2299)
Glenn Drowns, Co-owner

This Iowa firm run by Glenn and Linda Drowns is "dedicated to the preservation of heirloom seeds and poultry." Vegetable and grain seeds, sweet potatoes (several dozen named varieties) and other food plants, as well as a broad array of organically-grown poultry species and breeds are available. The 1997 poultry and seed catalog includes a good selection of open-pollinated varieties of squash, melons, tomatoes (200+ including many heirlooms), corn, and others. All seeds grown on-site. Catalog free. SC

117. Santa Barbara Heirloom Seedling Nursery (P.O. Box 4235, Santa Barbara, CA 93140, tel. 805-968-5444, fax 805-562-1248, e-mail

Sells California-certified organically-grown transplants of open-pollinated vegetable varieties (almost exclusively family or cultural heirlooms), plus edible flowers and herbs. Several plant collections are available. Catalog provides varietal descriptions (including approximate origin dates) and also lists a more limited selection of vegetable and herb seeds, plus gifts and other items. Catalog $1 (refundable). GS

118. Seed Dreams (P.O. Box 1476, Santa Cruz, CA 95061-1476, tel. 408-458-9252 or 530-496-3221, e-mail
Shane Murphy, Founder and Owner

A small family-run company offering a diverse selection of vegetable and grain seeds, including traditional Native American and other heirloom varieties. All seeds are open-pollinated and grown organically on-site; some are available in bulk quantities (and not listed in the regular catalog--contact the company for this information). Seed Dreams offers seeds at no cost to various garden projects, including those involving young people and Native American gardeners. Catalog $2 (refundable). B (Contact Mr. Murphy for more information on his new nonprofit venture, Horse Creek Seed Sanctuary.)

119. Seeds Blüm (HC 33 Idaho City Stage, Boise, ID 83706-9725, tel. 800-742-1423 or 208-342-0858 (customer service), 800-528-3658 (orders), fax 208-338-5658, e-mail
Jan Blüm, Founder and Owner

Seeds Blüm celebrates garden diversity and encourages seed-saving by offering 1000+ varieties of open-pollinated vegetables, grains, flowers (edibles and ornamentals), and herbs. Seeds and plants (potatoes, onions, and other food crops) are grown for the Idaho firm by a network of small-scale growers around the U.S. Several projects are carried out under the banner of the "Garden to Garden Network," to allow gardeners to participate in varietal preservation and vegetable trials, and serve as area advisors. (See catalog or Web page for details.) An informative and entertaining catalog includes growing and seed-saving tips, book selection (including Seeds Blüm's Vegetable & Herb Seed Growing for the Gardener and Small Farmer, by Douglas C. Miller), and garden supplies. The seed catalog (which groups vegetable entries by botanical families to illustrate plant relationships) offers heirlooms galore among 68 tomatoes, 24 corns, 29 lettuces, 59 beans, and 42 potatoes. Many ethnic and uncommon vegetables are available. Since 1981. Informative Web site includes varietal descriptions, general seed information, and garden FAQs. Catalog $3 (U.S.), $5 (Canada). BK/GS

Go to: Contents of Volume 2 | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160 | Appendices (Volume 2)

120. Seeds of Change (P.O. Box 15700, Santa Fe, NM 87506-5700, tel. 888-SOC-SEED (762-7333), fax 888-FAX-4-SOC (329-4762), e-mail
Steve Badger, President; Alan Kapular, Director of Research

Seeds of Change sells a huge selection of exclusively open-pollinated and certified organically-grown seeds of vegetables, flowers, herbs, and cover crops, and also garlic, potatoes, and other food plant materials. The New Mexican company's 1998 catalog (in full color with growing information and well-described entries) lists over 400 varieties, including 120+ "heirloom and traditional varieties," as well as a number of vegetable introductions from Seeds of Change breeder Alan Kapuler, and Carole Deppe and others. Many seeds are available in bulk quantities. Also available: garden supplies, food products, posters, and books on general gardening and special subjects. Through its Seeds of Hope program, the company donates seeds to schools and relief efforts. The Deep Diversity seed bank (formerly Peace Seeds) originated by Alan Kapular is now owned and operated by Seeds of Change; contact the company for more information on the vegetable, herb, flower, and other seed varieties available from this collection. Established in 1989 (co-founded by Kenny Ausubel), Seeds of Change was recently purchased by the food conglomerate, M&M/Mars. Catalog free. B/BK/GS/SC

121. Seeds Trust - High Altitude Gardens (P.O. Box 1048, Hailey, ID 83333, tel. 208-788-4363, fax 208-788-3452,
Bill McDorman, Founder and Owner

A bioregional seed company dedicated to sustainable agriculture and preserving and enhancing genetic resources. The firm sells seeds, primarily open-pollinated, which are especially adapted to short-season, high-altitude gardening; its catalog describes a broad vegetable selection (including tomatoes from Siberia), plus flowers, herbs, and native grasses. Book selection includes McDorman's 32-page guide, Basic Seed Saving. Since 1984. Web page provides information about Seeds Trust's nonprofit affiliate, International Seed Saving Institute (ISSI), which is dedicated to preserving open-pollinated varieties. Catalog $3 (plus a listing of additional classic and heirloom varieties not in main catalog, available for SASE). B/BK/GS/SC

122. Shepherd's Garden Seeds (30 Irene St., Torrington, CT 06790-6658, tel. 860-482-3638, fax 860-482-0532, e-mail
Renée Shepherd, Owner

Shepherd's sells a mix of open-pollinated and hybrid vegetable seeds, including ethnic European and American heirlooms. Varieties valued by European gardeners and "bred for flavor, tenderness, and other fresh eating qualities" are featured. The company also sells culinary herb seeds and plants, flower seeds (including old-fashioned types and fragrant flowers), and a selection of other food plants (pototoes, onions, and others). Catalog includes various recipes, and a handful of books. Seeds are trialed in various locations to determine regional adaptability; ample plant descriptions in the 1999 catalog come from the firm's own Connecticut trial gardens. Since 1983. Catalog free. GS/SC

123. R.H. Shumway, Seedsman (P.O. Box 1, Graniteville, SC 29829, tel. 803-663-9771, fax 803-663-9772 or 888-437-2733)

This long-established South Carolina company sells mostly non-hybrid seed, including old-fashioned varieties of vegetables, flowers, and herbs, plus grains and cover crops, and a selection of nursery stock (mostly small fruits). The vegetable selection includes an especially large varietal array of peas, sweet potatoes, and tomatoes. Catalog is illustrated with line drawings from old seed catalogs, with a portion in color. (Shumways distributes also Totally Tomatoes seeds--see entry 130 this volume, and Vermont Bean Seed Company seeds--see entry 132 this volume.) Established 1870. Catalogs free. B/BK/GS

124. Sourcepoint Organic Seeds (1647 2725 Rd., Cedaredge, CO 81413-9205, tel. 970-856-7135)
Anpetu Oihankesni, Owner

Sells organically-grown, open-pollinated seeds for a variety of vegetables, leafy and cereal grains, legumes and oilseeds, medicinal and culinary herbs, and ornamental flowers. Selection includes Native American and other heirloom vegetable and grain varieties, with brief, informative descriptions arranged by plant families, and suggested book list. Owner available for contract research on specialty crops. Catalog $3

125. South Carolina Foundation Seed Association (1162 Cherry Rd, Box 349952, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-9952, tel. 864-656-2520, fax 864-656-1320)

A nonprofit corporation that distributes seed from experiment station and USDA releases. Annual sales catalog lists several dozen vegetables (open-pollinated and hybrid), plus seeds for two dozen garden vegetables from the southern U.S. family heirloom collection of David Bradshaw, Clemson University horticultural researcher and long-time heirloom variety collector. These interesting varieties are well-described and most are on display at the South Carolina Botanical Garden in Clemson, South Carolina (tel. 864-656-3403 for more information). Catalog for SASE. B

126. Southern Exposure Seed Exchange (SESE) (P.O. Box 170, Earlysville, VA 22936, tel. 804-973-4703, fax 804-973-8717)
Jeff McCormack, Owner/Director

SESE supports "cooperative self-reliance in agriculture" and sells (almost exclusively) open-pollinated vegetable seed, emphasizing varieties adapted to the Mid-Atlantic region and for local and specialty markets. A large percentage of SESE's seed is grown organically "in house"; all seed is untreated. The company's highly informative annual "Catalog & Garden Guide" describes a broad vegetable selection, among them many heirlooms and unique varieties difficult to find elsewhere. There are many beans, corns, and tomatoes, and also several dozen flowers (including a good selection of traditional open-pollinated sunflowers), herbs and native plants, and a selection of grains and legumes. Seed Shares, SESE's seed banking program for the preservation and exchange of garden seeds, is described briefly in the catalog. Since 1982. Catalog $2. B/BK/GS

127. Stokes Seed (P.O. Box 548, Buffalo, NY 14240-0548, tel. 716-695-6980, fax 888-834-3334 or 716-695-9649; Canadian customers: Stokes Seed Ltd., P.O. Box 10, St. Catharines, ON L2R 6R6 Canada, tel. 905-688-4300, fax 888-834-3334;
Wayne Gale, President

Stokes offers a full line of vegetables, herb, and flower seed, including over 450 vegetable varieties and numerous herbs. The family-owned firm operates an extensive breeding program to serve primarily local and fresh-market commercial growers, as well as home gardening customers. Full-color, 100+ page catalog with useful growing information and varietal descriptions (including disease-resistance information) lists numerous open-pollinated vegetables (including a moderate selection of peppers, tomatoes, cucurbits, and others), although hybrids predominate among some types of vegetables. Some seeds are enhanced by technologies that include film coating and pelleting. The company's 40-acre trial grounds and breeding plots near Niagara Falls, Ontario, are open to the public. Wayne Gale is currently president of the Canadian Seed Trade Association (see Volume 1, Annotated Bibliography, entry 266). Since 1881. Catalog free. B/GS

128. Territorial Seed Company (P.O. Box 157, Cottage Grove, OR 97424, tel. 541-942-9547, fax 888-657-3131 (toll free), e-mail; Canadian customers: Territorial Seed Ltd., Box 845, 206-8475 Ontario St., Vancouver, BC V5X 3E8 Canada, tel. 604-482-8800, fax 604-482-8822, e-mail
Tom Johns, President; Steve Solomon, Founder

Offering "hardy seeds for year 'round gardening," one of Territorial Seed's aims is to support people's self-sufficiency, by enabling production of abundant and good-tasting food all year round. The company sells a large variety of open-pollinated and hybrid vegetable seeds, plus a selection of herb, flower, and cover crop seeds, allium plants and bulbs, and other plant items. Varieties are evaluated in the company's research trial grounds in London Springs, Oregon. Hybrid selections predominate for some species, such as corn, melons, and sweet peppers. Informative catalog includes also a variety of gardening supplies, and books and other media for gardeners and market growers. Since 1979. Catalog free (also available online at Web site). B/BK/GS

129. Tomato Growers Supply Company (P.O. Box 2237, Fort Myers, FL 33902, tel. 941-768-1119, fax 941-768-3476)

Florida firm sells more than 300 tomatoes of all types, plus several dozen each of sweet and hot pepper varieties, including NuMex varieties from New Mexico State University's breeding program. Tomatoes are grouped into the following categories: early-, mid-, and late-season, beefsteak, processing, yellow and orange, and small-fruited. Varietal descriptions identify heirlooms and hybrids, and provide other useful information. Catalog free. B/BK/GS

130. Totally Tomatoes (P.O. Box 1626, Augusta, GA 30903, tel. 803-663-0016, fax 888-477-7333)

"Devoted to the avid tomato grower," Totally Tomatoes sells seeds for several hundred tomato varieties (250 are described in the 1999 catalog, 100 more are listed). Many heirlooms and unusual varieties, along with modern hybrids, are offered. Despite the company name, more than 100 named peppers are available in the latest catalog, approximately one-half of them non-hybrids. With varietal descriptions, and color photos for some. (Company is affiliated with R.H. Shumway, cited in entry 123.) Since 1992. Catalog free. B/GS

131. Underwood Gardens (4N381 Maple Ave., Bensenville, IL 60106, fax 888-382-7041 or 630-616-0232)
Maryann Underwood, Owner

This Illinois firm sells untreated seeds of open-pollinated and heirloom vegetables, plus herb and flower seeds. A membership option ($15/first yr) is available; benefits include seed discounts, access to additional seeds, and Ms. Underwood's seed-saving handbook, From Seed to Shining Seed. The company participates in the annual Heirloom Garden Show held at Garfield Farm, an 1840s living history farm near Chicago (tel. 630-584-8485). Quantity seed discounts offered to groups. Scionwood from 12 antique apples, provided by southern Wisconsin grower Dan Bussey, is listed in the 1999 catalog. Catalog $1. B/BK/SC

132. Vermont Bean Seed Company (6 Garden Lane, Fair Haven, VT 05743, tel. 802-273-3400, 803-663-0217 (orders), fax 888-500-7333)

Over 100 bean varieties are available from this Vermont company's 1999 catalog. The firm's seed stock includes also a broad line of open-pollinated and hybrid vegetable seed, plus a selection of herbs and flowers. All seeds are untreated. (The company is affiliated with R.H. Shumway, cited in entry 123.) Since 1975. Catalog free. B/GS

133. Willhite Seed (P.O. Box 23, Poolville, TX 76487, tel. 800-828-1840 or 817-599-8656, fax 817-599-5843, e-mail

Texas company that began as Willhite Melon Seed Farms sells a broad line of vegetable seeds (hybrids as well as heirlooms and other open-pollinated varieties), and features watermelons (several dozen open-pollinated types are described in the 1999 full-color catalog), melons, and pumpkins. A selection of French and Indian subcontinent vegetables is available. Variety evaluations are performed in trials in several U.S. locations. Catalog free. B/GS

2. Canada

For U.S. companies with Canadian divisions (or mailing addresses for Canadian customers), see Stokes Seeds Ltd. (entry 127) and Territorial Seed Company (entry 128) in the previous section. For additional Canadian firms, see the notes at the start of Part VI.

134. Ken Allan Seeds (61 South Bartlett St., Kingston, ON K7K 1X3 Canada, e-mail
Ken Allan, Owner

Ken Allan grows and sells a variety of sweet potatoes, older types among them, plus "Irish" potatoes and vegetable seeds, the latter including several heritage and unusual tomatoes, hot peppers, and popcorns. Plants and seeds are grown organically. Since 1991. Potatoes can't be shipped to the U.S. (Besides selling seeds, Ken Allan publishes Vegetable Garden Research; see Volume 1, Annotated Bibliography, entry 226.) SASE for price list and information.

135. Aurora Farm (R.R.1, 63-9, Creston, BC V0B 1G0 Canada, tel. 250-428-4404, e-mail
Barbara Scott, Co-owner

This small, family-run firm in southeastern British Columbia sells open-pollinated and heirloom vegetable seeds, plus a selection of flower and herb seeds. Seeds are untreated and grown using biodynamic principles. The catalog contains brief varietal descriptions, the seeds grouped by the plant part used (as root, leaf, flower, or fruit). In addition, Aurora Farm offers a training program in biodynamic agriculture and sells biodyamic products. Catalog $3. GS

136. Becker's Seed Potatoes (RR#1, Trout Creek, ON P0H 2L0 Canada, tel. 705-724-2305, fax 705-724-1392)

This small, family-run seed potato farm offers home gardeners a wide selection of spuds, including old standards, newer introductions, and specialty varieties, each available as whole potatoes or fungicide-treated eyes. Shipping to Canada only. Catalog free.

137. Dacha Barinka (46232 Strathcona, Chilliwack, BC V2P 3T2 Canada, tel. 604-792-0957)
David Schmierbach, Owner

A small seed, bulb, and plant company located in the Fraser Valley. Organically-grown plant stock includes several types of garlic, onions, and other alliums, including old European varieties. Also available: seeds of Chinese vegetables, flowers for drying, and miscellaneous vegetables; herb seeds and plants; and some small fruits and other perennial plants. Since 1980. Catalog for SASE.

138. Early's Farm & Garden Centre (2615 Lorne Ave., Saskatoon SK S7J 0S5 Canada, tel. 306-931-1982, fax 306-931-7110)

Early's offers vegetable and flower seeds well suited to prairie conditions, including open-pollinated and heirloom varieties, some of them organically grown. Since 1907. Catalog free in Canada, $2 to U.S. (refundable).

139. Fish Lake Garlic Man (RR2, Demorestville, ON K0K 1W0 Canada, tel. 613-476-8030)
Ted Maczka, Owner

This Ontario grower has been working for 20 years to improve the yields and quality of a number of garlic varieties, his goal to enhance the plant's popularity and make Canada self-sufficient in garlic. He offers some 20 varieties from the U.S. and elsewhere, all grown organically. Price list with production information $3 and SASE (to Canada); $4 and SASE to all other addresses (cash or money order only).

Go to: Contents of Volume 2 | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160 | Appendices (Volume 2)

140. Prairie Garden Seeds (Box 118, Cochin, SK S0M 0L0 Canada, tel. 306-386-2737, e-mail
Jim Ternier, Owner

A regional seed company offering open-pollinated, organically-grown seeds for vegetables, grains, and wildflowers suited to short-season, dry prairie conditions, including prairie-bred varieties. Informative catalog lists many older varieties, with a good assortment of heirloom beans, grains, and others, all well-described. Since 1985. Catalog for two first-class stamps (to Canada), $2 (to U.S.). B

141. Rawlinson Garden Seed (269 College Rd., Tururo, NS B2N 2P6 Canada, tel. 902-893-3051, fax 902-897-7303)
Bill Rawlinson, Co-owner

A small independent regional firm offering seeds of vegetables, herbs, cover crops, and flowers, for gardeners in the Atlantic provinces or similar short-season areas. Most selections are open-pollinated, many of them antique varieties and many organically grown (all seeds untreated). Catalog free in Canada, $1 to U.S.

142. Salt Spring Seeds (SSS) (P.O. Box 444, Ganges P.O., Salt Spring Island, BC V8K 2W Canada, tel. 250-537-5269)
Dan Jason, Owner

A British Columbian company selling certified organically-grown vegetable, grain, and herb seeds and other plants that are well-adapted to northern climates. High-yielding, high-protein, and flavorful crops that contribute to local and regional self-reliance are featured; the company offers, for instance, over 100 beans, numerous tomatoes, an array of antique and other interesting grain crops (wheats, barleys, etc.) and 50+ garlic varieties, each well-described with sowing and seed-saving information. Additional varietal information available at low cost from SSS's databases. Since 1987. Garlic shipped to Canada only. (Dan Jason has written a number of garlic books and also a gardening guide, Greening the Garden; for the latter, see Volume 1, Annotated Bibliography, entry 18.). Catalog $2. B/BK

143. Terra Edibles (Box 164, Foxboro, ON K0K 2B0 Canada, tel. 613-968-8238 or 613-394-4211, fax 613-968-6369, e-mail
Karyn Wright and Don McKay, Co-owners

An Ontario firm selling organically-grown heirlooms and unusual open-pollinated varieties, specializing in flavorful, nutritious, and space-saving types. The 1998 catalog includes a number of interesting tomatoes, beans, and other vegetables, plus a root vegetable selection, and flower and herb seeds. Also available, Judy Gaunt's booklets on growing tomatoes and potatoes. Since 1993 (established by Judy Gaunt, company recently changed hands). Catalog $1. BK/GS

144. Vesey's Seeds (York, Prince Edward Island, Canada C0A 1P0 Canada, tel. 800-363-7333 (orders) or 902-368-7333, fax 800-686-0329 or 902-566-1620, email or; U.S. customers: P.O. Box 9000, Calais, ME 04619-6102)
B.E. (Bev) Simpson, Owner/President

This Prince Edward Island seed company serves commercial farmers and home gardeners, specializing in vegetable, flower, and herb seeds for short-season gardening in the Maritimes and locales with similar climate. Informative, full-color catalog describes several hundred varieties, many of them hybrids, but also some old-time favorites. Since 1939. Catalog free. B/BK/GS

145. William Dam Seeds ( P.O. Box 8400, Dundas, ON L9H 6M1 Canada, tel. 905-628-6641, fax 905-627-1729, e-mail
René W. Dam, President

This small family firm sells seeds and sundries to home gardeners and small market growers in Canada and elsewhere. A full line of untreated seeds, including vegetables (open-pollinated and hybrid), herbs, flowers, and greencrops, and also potatoes (supplied by Beckers Seed Potatoes, see entry 136, this volume), bulbs, and nursery rootstocks (rhubarb, asparagus, etc.) are available. Informative, full-color catalog in English includes French names for plants, and notes open-pollinated and early-maturing varieties, and those best for market or freezer. (The 1999 catalog lists 900 varieties.) Store and trial grounds (where organic methods are emphasized) are located at 279 Hwy 8, West Flamborough, Ontario. Some items shipped to Canada only. Since 1949. Catalog free to Canada, $2 to U.S. B/BK/GS

Go to: Top of Volume 2 | Contents of Volume 2 | Introduction | Notes and References
Part I. Vegetable Seed Exchanges or Seedbanks
Part II. Fruit Growers Organizations or Programs
Part III. Public Gardens and Living Historical Farm Museums in the U.S.
Part IV. National and International Genebanks, Including Government Programs
Part V. Other Resource Organizations and Programs
Part VI. Commercial Seed Companies
Part VII. Commercial Fruit Nurseries
Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160
Appendices (Volume 2): 1) AFSIC, 2) Publication Titles Index, 3) Periodical Articles Index, 4) Persons / Organizations Index

Part VII. Commercial Fruit Nurseries

In addition to the following firms, an extensive listing of commercial, mail-order nurseries, including heirloom fruit sellers, is available in Seed Savers Exchange's 1993 directory, Fruit, Berry and Nut Inventory (see Volume 1, Annotated Bibliography, entry 242). Regularly updated information on fruit sellers in the U.S. and Canada is available from Seeds of Diversity Canada (entry 20), North American Fruit Explorers (entry 30), and Association for Living Historical Farms and Museums (entry 61), each cited elsewhere in this volume, as indicated, and also from Organic Gardening magazine (see Volume 1, Annotated Bibliography, entry 234).

Key to catalog stock availability: BK--books and other publications and media, GS--garden/orchard supplies and tools, or cooking or gift items

1. United States

146. Ames' Orchard & Nursery (18292 Wildlife Rd., Fayetteville, AR 72701, tel. 501-443-0282, 800-443-0283, orders only)
Guy Ames, Co-owner

This Ozarks nursery run by Guy and Carolyn Ames sells apples, pears, and other tree and small fruits. In the firm's 1999 catalog, modern and some antique apples are available, and disease-resistant varieties for organic and low-spray maintenance are featured. Catalog for two first-class stamps.

147. Applesource (1716 Apples Rd., Chapin, IL 62628, tel. 800-LUV-FUJI (588-3854) (orders) or 217-245-7589, fax 217-245-7844, e-mail
Tom and Jill Vorbeck, Owners

"The mail order market place for specialty apples," in business since the early 1980s. Applesource sells old and new apples in several package types, for fruit tastings and to help customers evaluate varieties prior to planting trees. (Note that Applesource does not supply trees or propagating material per se, but the owners can advise on commercial sources of trees and scionwood for the apple varieties sold.) Catalog includes brief varietal descriptions; apple-ordering season is Oct. 1st - Jan. 1st. The Vorbeck's are affiliated with North American Fruit Explorers; she is currently membership chairperson (see entry 30, this volume). Mr. Vorbeck coordinates an apple enthusiast group in central Illinois known as "Fruit Dabblers"--contact him for more information. His flavor favorites were reported in NAFEX's Pomona (Summer 1995, p. 3-4) and reprinted in Home Orchard Society's Pome News (Fall 1995, p. 5-7). Catalog free.

148. Bear Creek Nursery (P.O. Box 411, Northport, WA 99157, tel. 509-732-6219, fax 509-732-4417, e-mail,
Donna Carleton, Co-owner

A Washington firm just south of the Canadian border, offering a large selection of hardy plants. Hunter and Donna Carleton's nursery stock includes apple trees or scionwood for over 250 varieties (mostly antiques from New England and elsewhere in the U.S., northern Europe, and Russia, selected for hardiness, fruit quality, and productivity), plus a selection of stone fruits, small fruits, nut trees, and other trees and shrubs for utility and ornament. Rootstocks (cold-hardy apples and others), conservation grade stocks for mass plantings, and other items are available, as well as custom propagation. Informative catalog $2. BK/GS

149. Bluebird Orchard & Nursery (4711 3-Mile Rd. NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49525, tel. 616-837-9598)
Tim Strickler, Owner

Mr. Strickler sells scionwood from 170+ apple cultivars, both old and new varieties, and including numerous old southern apples and unique local varieties. (Although the nursery has a Michigan address, the orchards are located in southwestern Virginia, zone 6.) Price list free.

150. Calhoun's Nursery (295 Blacktwig Rd., Pittsboro, NC 27312, tel. 919-542-4480)
Lee Calhoun, Co-owner

Lee and Edith Calhoun sell antique apples that originated or were widely grown in the South, and they are the only commercial source for several dozen old varieties. (Mr. Calhoun is author of Old Southern Apples, cited in Volume 3, Historical Supplement, entry 144.) Catalog describes two dozen old southern apples and additional named cultivars (almost 200) are listed. Custom grafting offered, also fact sheets and 8-page illustrated apple pruning guide ($1) available. Catalog $1.

151. Christian Homesteading Movement (Oxford, NY 13830-0971)
Richard Fahey, Co-owner

The Fahey family sells more than 200 varieties of apples as scionwood only (A to L varieties available in even years, M-Z in odd years). They also sell supply scionwood from 12 pears, 27 plums, 14 cherries, and 2 mulberries. Orchards are maintained organically and include a breeding program for disease resistant and long-keeping apples. In addition, Richard and Anna Marie Fahey have offered homesteading courses (including fruit-growing workshops) at their rural New York farm since 1961. Send SASE for brochure listing varieties available (includes a list of the best apples for no-spray organic culture).

152. Cumberland Valley Nurseries (P.O. Box 471, McMinnville, TN 37111-0471, tel. 800-492-0022 or 931-668-4153, fax 931-668-7251)
Philip M. Pelham, President

This Tennessee nursery specializes in peaches--over 90 varieties, mostly heritage types, are available. Additional stock includes plums, nectarines, pears, cherries, and apples (including several antiques). No orders to AZ, CA, OR, WA, or Canada. Established 1902. Price list free.

153. Cummins Nursery (18 Glass Factory Bay Rd., Geneva, NY 14456, tel. 315-789-7083, e-mail
Stephen and James Cummins, Co-owners

Stephen and James Cummins' small family-run nursery specializes in antique, unusual, and disease-resistant fruit trees. The firm's selection of custom-grafted trees (and rootstocks) includes apples (14 cider apples and 26 antiques), pears, apricots, peaches, and others; small fruits are available also in their 1999 catalog. The owners will locate and propagate "special varieties." Cummins Nursery is successor to the New York State Fruit Tree Association; father Dr. James Cummins is a retired Cornell University root stock breeder. Web page includes current catalog, with varietal descriptions. Catalog free.

154. Fedco Trees (see Fedco Seeds, entry 88, for contact information)
Roberta and John Bunker, Coordinators

Fedco Trees sells hardy tree fruits and nuts, small fruits, and berries, as well as ornamentals. Plants are supplied by several nurseries, including small-scale Maine growers. Informative catalog lists several old Maine apple trees and other heirlooms, plus fruit books and orcharding supplies. Grafted bareroot trees available, also special orders. (The Bunkers are founding members of the Maine Seed Saving Network; see entry 12, this volume.) BK/GS

155. Greenmantle Nursery (3010 Ettersburg Rd., Garberville, CA 95542, tel. 707-986-7504)
Ram Fishman, Co-owner

Ram and Marissa Fishman's small California nursery specializes in fruit trees and nuts for homesteaders. Their nursery stock, well-described in an informative catalog, includes antique apples that originated locally, plus pears, plums, peaches, and other fruits and nuts. Custom grafting available. (Mr. Fishman is author of Handbook for Fruit Explorers, cited in Volume 1, Annotated Bibliography, entry 25.) Catalog $3.

156. Hidden Springs Nursery (170 Hidden Springs Lane, Cookeville, TN 38501, tel. 931-268-2592 or 268-9889, e-mail
Hector Black, Co-owner

Hector and Susie Black operate a permaculture-oriented "organic forest farm," and also nursery, the latter selling a variety of fruits providing "edible landscaping for people and wildlife." Plant materials include a selection of disease-resistant apples, and antiques (Black Limbertwig and Newtown Pippen among them), plus a variety of other tree and small fruits for the mid-South, including natives and unusual types. Catalog $1. BK

157. Johnson Nursery (Rt. 5, Box 29-J, Ellijay, GA 30540, tel. 888-276-3187 (toll-free) and 706-276-3187, fax 706-276-3186, e-mail
Bill Johnson, Co-owner

This North Georgia Mountain nursery run by Bill and Elisa Johnson specializes in apples, both antique and modern varieties for the South. Pears, peaches and nectarines, plums, cherries, grapes, and a selection of other small fruits are available also. Antiques and disease-resistant types are noted in their informative 1999 catalog. Catalog free. BK/GS

158. Lawson's Nursery (2730 Yellow Creek Rd., Ball Ground, GA 30107, tel. 770-893-2141)
Jim Lawson, Co-owner

Jim and Bernice Lawson, who are long-time apple collectors and sellers, offer a wide selection of old and new apple varieties (as one- and two-year-old trees by mail-order), including cultivars for the southern U.S. Informative catalog describes also a selection of peaches and pears, plus other common and uncommon fruits and nut trees. Catalog free. BK

159. Long Hungry Creek Organic Farm & Nursery (Box 163, Red Boiling Springs, TN 37150)
Jeff Poppen, Co-owner

This wholesale organic vegetable and cattle farm with local sales also offers several dozen antique and modern apple trees by mail-order. Jeff Poppen and Debby Beaver's nursery stock includes disease-resistant cultivars and old southern apples chosen to do well in Tennessee and Kentucky and similar areas. Brochure/price list free.

Go to: Contents of Volume 2 | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160 | Appendices (Volume 2)

160. Orchard Lane Growers (5014 Orchard Lane, Gloucester, VA 23061, tel. 804-694-0470 after 6 p.m.)
Rollin Wooley, Owner

From his Virginia nursery, Mr. Wooley sells a wide selection of interesting heritage apple varieties, including old southern favorites and others originating in North American, Europe, and elsewhere. In addition, he conducts apple tastings at Colonial Williamsburg. Variety/price list includes some additional plants, among them pears, peaches, and jujubes.

161. Rocky Meadow Orchard & Nursery (360 Rocky Meadow Rd. NW, New Salisbury, IN 47161, tel. 812-347-2213, fax 812-347-2488)
Ed Fackler, Owner

Mr. Fackler's Indiana nursery sells tree fruit varieties found to be high quality, hardy, and productive for direct-market sales or home fruit orchards, plus more standard commercial varieties. Informative catalog listing the company's stock of antique and modern varieties includes several dozen apples (including disease-resistant types), plus crab apples, pears, and plums. Rootstocks, scionwood (send SASE for more extensive scionwood inventory listing) are also sold, and custom propagation is available. (The owner is currently president of North American Fruit Explorers and writes a regular column, "Back to basics," in the North American Fruit Explorer's magazine, Pomona; for more on the organization, see entry 30, this volume.) Catalog $2.

162. St. Lawrence Nurseries (325 State Hwy. 345, Potsdam, NY 13676, tel. 315-265-6739, e-mail
Bill MacKentley, Co-owner

From their small, family-run operation near the New York-Ontario border, Bill and Diana MacKentley specialize in fruits and nut trees for northern climates. Nursery stock is managed organically. Varieties offered in the firm's 1998 catalog include tree fruits (apples, plums, and others), nut trees, small fruits (grapes, blueberries, and others), and "edible ornamentals" attractive to wildlife. The apple selection (over 120 varieties) consists of many old types and disease-resistant lines, with informative entries on origins and other characteristics; other classic fruits are available also. Since the 1920s. Catalog free.

163. Sonoma Antique Apple Nursery (4395 Westside Rd., Healdsburg, CA 95448, tel. 707-433-6420, tel./fax 707-433-6479)
Larry Harrison, Co-owner

Specializing in "flavorful old varieties," this California nursery sells several dozen apples, mostly heritage types from North America and elsewhere, plus pears, plums, and peaches, all grown organically. A selection of nut trees, berries, grapes, and other fruits, and a limited amount of apple and pear scionwood, and espaliers are offered also by Larry and Carolyn Harrison. Informative catalog provides general descriptions with brief varietal histories. Catalog $2 (refundable with order), price list free. BK

164. Southmeadow Fruit Gardens (P.O. Box 211, 10603 Cleveland Ave., Baroda, MI 49101, tel. 616-422-2411, fax 616-422-1464)
Theo Gröotendorst, Owner

"Choice and unusual fruit tree varieties for the connoisseur and home gardener." This long-established Michigan firm sells more than 250 apple trees (including many antique varieties from all over North America, European varieties, and old English cider apples), plus a good selection of commercial apple varieties, crab apples, pears, stone fruits, grapes, currants and gooseberries, and conservation fruits (i.e., hardy natives attractive to wildlife and people). Rootstocks are sold also. Price and variety list free; Southmeadow Illustrated Catalog (112 p.) with histories and descriptions of most varieties costs $9. (This firm is listed in some sources under its affiliate, Gröotendorst Nurseries.)

165. The Urban Homestead (818 Cumberland St., Bristol, VA 24201, tel. 540-466-2931)
Tim Hensley, Co-owner

Tim and Donna Hensley's Virginia nursery sells antique and modern apple trees. An informative catalog lists their stock of nearly 80 varieties, including numerous old southern varieties, plus apples from northern states, England, and elsewhere. Custom grafting offered. Catalog free.

166. White Oak Nursery (494 White Oak Rd., Strasburg, PA 17579-9733)
Amos Fisher and Amos L. Beiler, Co-owners

This Pennsylvania firm under new ownership sells more than 60 apple varieties, both old-fashioned and high-quality newer ones. Good-keeping winter apples are featured. Also available: 20 peaches, plus a handful of other varieties of stone fruits, plus pears and other nursery stock. Firm known previously as Fisher's Nursery. Catalog free.

2. Canada

167. Corn Hill Nursery (Route 890, RR 5, Petitcodiac, NB E0A 2H0 Canada, tel. 506-756-3635, fax 506-756-1087)

This New Brunswick nursery sells a broad range of fruit and ornamental trees and shrubs and herbaceous perennials suited to the colder zones of the U.S. and Canada. Several dozen hardy apples, including 18 heirloom and scab-resistant varieties are featured in the 1997 catalog. Offers custom grafting for commercial growers. (Unable to ship trees to U.S.) Catalog $2. BK

168. Inner Coast Nursery (Box 115, Mansons Landing, Cortes Island, BC V0P 1K0 Canada, tel. 250-935-6384, e-mail
Bill Wheeler, Co-owner

A family-run nursery offering 300+ varieties of "rare, heritage and exceptional fruit trees" grown on rootstocks suited to a broad range of local conditions. Plant stock, which is grown organically, includes apples (over 200 North American, English, and other types), plums, peaches, cherries, medlars and quince, pears, and nut trees, and miscellaneous perennials. Several apple collections (classic, coastal homestead, and popular) are available. Bill and Elena Wheeler's informative catalog contains growing information, varietal descriptions, and tips on the best uses for particular apples (for dessert, cooking, etc.), with lengthy bibliography. Trees shipped within Canada only. Catalog $4.

Go to: Top of Volume 2 | Contents of Volume 2 | Introduction | Notes and References
Part I. Vegetable Seed Exchanges or Seedbanks
Part II. Fruit Growers Organizations or Programs
Part III. Public Gardens and Living Historical Farm Museums in the U.S.
Part IV. National and International Genebanks, Including Government Programs
Part V. Other Resource Organizations and Programs
Part VI. Commercial Seed Companies
Part VII. Commercial Fruit Nurseries
Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160
Appendices (Volume 2): 1) AFSIC, 2) Publication Titles Index, 3) Periodical Articles Index, 4) Persons / Organizations Index

Volume 2: Appendices

Volume 2: Index to Publication Titles (Books, Periodicals)

(Numbers within parentheses and preceded by "p." refer to page numbers within the WordPerfect version of the text; all other numbers refer to entry numbers, 1 - 168.)

Akwe:kon Journal [Cornell University, American Indian Program], 65
ALHFAM Bulletin [Association for Living Historical Farms and Agricultural Museums], 61
American Varieties of Garden Beans, (p.18)
America's First Cuisines, (p.17)
Apple Tree, (p.18)
Ark Institute Grain Supply Updates, 60
Association for Living Historical Farms and Agricultural Museums: Bibliography of Articles Which Appeared in the Proceedings of the Annual Meetings, 1974-1980, 61

[Top of Title Index]

Backyard Fruit Grower [Backyard Fruit Growers], 24
Basic Seed Saving [Seeds Trust], 121
Becoming Native to This Place, (p.18)
Breed Your Own Vegetable Varieties, (p.18)
Britain's Lost Vegetables, 8
Buffalo Bird Woman's Garden, (p.18)

[Top of Title Index]

Cerealist [KUSA Research Foundation/KUSA Society], 11
Chile Pepper Institute Newsletter, 62
Cognition [Canadian Organic Growers], 20
Collective Heritage Letter [Collective Heritage Institute], 63
Community Seed Bank Kit [Rural Advancement Foundation International], 75
Competing Paradigms: The Debate Between Alternative and Conventional Agriculture, (p.18)
Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources: Grassroots Efforts in North America, (p.17)
Cook's Garden: Growing and Using the Best-tasting Vegetable Varieties, 84
Cucurbit Network News, 67
Curator [Heritage Seed Curators Association], 9

[Top of Title Index]

Daily Seed Planet [Eastern Native Seed Conservancy], 6

Eco-Farm & Garden [Canadian Organic Growers], 20
Ecological Risks of Engineered Crops, 77
Ecology Action Newsletter [Bountiful Gardens/Ecology Action], 3
Enduring Seeds, (p.17,18)

[Top of Title Index]

Field and Garden Vegetables of America,(p.18)
First the Seed: The Political Economy of Plant Biotechnology, 1492-2000, (p.17, 18)
For All Generations: Making World Agriculture More Sustainable, 3, 19, 71, 75
From Seed to Shining Seed [Underwood Gardens], 131
Fruit, Berry and Nut Inventory, (p.56)
Fruit Gardener [California Rare Fruit Growers], 25
Future Horizons: Recent Literature in Sustainable Agriculture, (p.18)

[Top of Title Index]

Garden Book [Thomas Jefferson's], 42
Garden Seed Inventory, (p.17)
Gardening for Profit, (p.18)
Gathering Seed [Kids in Bloom], 103
Gene Exchange [Union of Concerned Scientists, Agriculture and Biotechnology Program], 77
GeneFlow [International Plant Genetic Resources Institute], 52
Genes for the Future: Discovery, Access, Ownership [National Agricultural Biotechnology Council], 72
GeneWatch [Council for Responsible Genetics], 66
Germinations [Butterbrooke Farm Seed Co-op], 4
Going Local: Creating Self-reliant Communities in a Global Age, (p.17)
Grapevine [Midwest Fruit Explorers], 28
Greening the Garden, 142
Growing Garden Seeds: A Manual for Gardeners and Small Farmers [Johnny's Selected Seeds], 102
Growing Great Garlic, 89
Growing Organically [Henry Doubleday Research Association], 8
GSHSS Seed Listings Catalog, 7
Guide to Historical Research at the National Agricultural Library: The General Collection, (p.18)

[Top of Title Index]

Handbook for Fruit Explorers, 156
HDRA News [Henry Doubleday Research Association], 8
Heirloom Gardener, (p.18)
Heirloom Vegetables, (p.43)
How to Save Your Own Vegetable Seeds [Seeds of Diversity Canada], 20
Human Nature: Agricultural Biodiversity and Farm-based Food Security, (p.17)
Intellectual Property & Biodiversity News [Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy], 71
IPGRI Newsletter for the Americas [International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Newsletter], 52

[Top of Title Index]

Journal [California Rare Fruit Growers], 25

Living Historical Farms Bulletin, 61
Livingston and the Tomato, (p.18)

Maine Organic Farmer & Gardener, 12, 27
Monocultures of the Mind: Perspectives on Biodiversity and Biotechnology, (p.18)
Museum of the Fur Trade Quarterly, 43

[Top of Title Index]

NABC Report [National Agricultural Biotechnology Council], 72
NABCnews [National Agricultural Biotechnology Council], 72
National Hot Pepper Association Newsletter, 73
Native Americas [Cornell University, American Indian Program], 65
New Crops News [Purdue University, Indiana Center for New Crops and Plant Products], 70
1959 Potato Handbook, (p.18)
Northeast Indian Quarterly [Cornell University American Indian Program], 65

Old Southern Apples, (p.17)
Organic Gardening, (p.43, 56)
Our Sustainable Table, (p.17)

[Top of Title Index]

Pears of New York, 55
Plant Genetic Resources, (p.17)
Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter [International Plant Genetic Resources Institute], 52
Pome News [Home Orchard Society], 26, 147
Pomona [North American Fruit Explorers], 30, 147, 161
Proceedings of the Annual Meeting [Association for Living Historical Farms and Agricultural Museums], 61

RAFI Communique [Rural Advancement Foundation International], 75
Rape of Canola, (p.18)
Research Reports [Accokeek Foundation], 33

[Top of Title Index]

Seed Midden [Abundant Life Seed Foundation], 1
Seed & Harvest [High Desert Research Farm], 69
Seed Savers' Handbook [Seed Savers' Network], 19
Seed Savers... Harvest Edition [Seed Savers Exchange], 17
Seed Savers... Spring Edition [Seed Savers Exchange], 17
Seed Savers...Yearbook [Seed Savers Exchange], 17
Seedbed [Maine Seed Saving Network], 12
Seedhead News [Native Seeds/SEARCH], 14, 29
Seedling [Genetic Resources Action International], 68
Seedlink [Southern Seed Legacy Project Network], 58
Seeds for Our Future: the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System, 54
Seeds of Change, 63
Seeds of Change: A Quincentennial Commemoration, (p.18)
Seeds of Diversity [Seeds of Diversity Canada], 20
Seeds of Texas' Vegetable Seed-Savers Handbook, 21
Shattering: Food, Politics, and the Loss of Genetic Diversity, (p.17, 18)
Small Fruits of New York, 55
Southmeadow Illustrated Catalog [Southmeadow Fruit Gardens], 164
Summer Solstice Edition [Garden State Heirloom Seed Society], 7
Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program: Southern Region 1996 Annual Report, 58

Three Sisters: Exploring an Iroquois Garden, 65
Twinleaf [Thomas Jefferson Center for Historic Plants], 42

[Top of Title Index]

Vegetable & Herb Seed Growing for the Gardener and Small Farmer [Seeds Blüm], 119
Vegetable Garden, (p.18)
Vegetable Garden Research [Garden Research Exchange], 134
Vegetable Seed Production [Redwood City Seed Company], 114

What are People For?, (p.17)
Woodbank [Backyard Fruit Growers], 24

Yearbook [California Rare Fruit Growers], 25
Yesterday's Ways...Tomorrow's Treasures, 58

Zuni Farming for Today & Tomorrow [Zuni Sustainable Agriculture Project/Zuni Folk Varieties Project], 23

[Top of Title Index]

Go to: Top of Volume 2 | Contents of Volume 2 | Introduction | Notes and References
Part I. Vegetable Seed Exchanges or Seedbanks
Part II. Fruit Growers Organizations or Programs
Part III. Public Gardens and Living Historical Farm Museums in the U.S.
Part IV. National and International Genebanks, Including Government Programs
Part V. Other Resource Organizations and Programs
Part VI. Commercial Seed Companies
Part VII. Commercial Fruit Nurseries
Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160
Appendices (Volume 2): 1) AFSIC, 2) Publication Titles Index, 3) Periodical Articles Index, 4) Persons / Organizations Index

Volume 2: Index to Articles in Periodicals

Agriculture and Human Values, (p.17)
American Horticulturist, 49
American Journal of Alternative Agriculture, (p.17)

Biotechnology/Diversity Week, (p.18)

CIAT International, (p.17)

Diversity, (p.17)

Earth Ethics, (p.17)

Genewatch, 66
Global Pesticide Campaigner, (p.17)
In Good Tilth, (p.17)

Pome News, 147
Pomona, 147, 161

Scientific American, (p.17)
Small Farm Today, (p.17)

Vegetarian Times, (p.17)

Go to: Top of Volume 2 | Contents of Volume 2 | Introduction | Notes and References
Part I. Vegetable Seed Exchanges or Seedbanks
Part II. Fruit Growers Organizations or Programs
Part III. Public Gardens and Living Historical Farm Museums in the U.S.
Part IV. National and International Genebanks, Including Government Programs
Part V. Other Resource Organizations and Programs
Part VI. Commercial Seed Companies
Part VII. Commercial Fruit Nurseries
Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160
Appendices (Volume 2): 1) AFSIC, 2) Publication Titles Index, 3) Periodical Articles Index, 4) Persons / Organizations Index

Volume 2: Index to Persons and Organizations

Abundant Life Seed Foundation, 1
Accokeek Foundation, National Colonial Farm, 33
Adams, John, 36
Adelmann, Arllys, 17
Agrarian Connections Heritage Farm, 58
Alexander, N.C., (p.17)
Alfrey, Hershel, 78
Alfrey Seeds, 78
Allan, Ken, 134
Alvarez, Nelson, 68
American Genetic Resources Alliance (AGRA), 59
American Indian Agriculture Project (AIAP) [Cornell University], 65
Ames, Guy, 146
Ames' Orchard & Nursery, 146
Anderson, J.C., 28
Applesource, 147
Arche Noah, 2
Arizona Regis-TREE [Native Seeds/SEARCH], 29
Ark Institute, 60
Arrowsmith, Nancy, 2
Association for Living Historical Farms and Agricultural Museums (ALHFAM), 61
Athenian, Gary, 16
Aurora Farm, 135
Australian Garden Seed Inventory Project, 9
Ausubel, Kenny, 63, 120

[Top of Name Index]

Backyard Fruit Growers (BYFG), 24, 40
Badger, Steven, 120
Bailey, L.H., (p.18)
Ball, George, Jr., 80
Barber, Bill, 64
Barnes, Carl, 5
Barreiro, José, 65
Barrett, T. (Thomas) M., (p.17)
Bayless, Rick, 74
Bear Creek Nursery, 148
Beaver, Debby, 159
Becker, Robert, 36
Becker's Seed Potatoes, 136, 145
Beiler, Amos L., 166
Bennerup, Pierre, 84
Berry, Elizabeth, 92
Berry, W. (Wendell), (p.17)
Beus, C. (Curtis) E., (p.18)
Bidwell House Museum, 6
Black, Hector, 156
Bluebird Orchard & Nursery, 149
Blüm, Jan, 119
Bonsall, Will, 16
Bordeaux Trading Post [Museum of the Fur Trade], 43
Borke, Judy, 48
Borries Family, 79
Bosland, Paul, 62
Bountiful Gardens/Ecology Action, 3
Bowannie, Fred, Jr., 23
Bradshaw, David, 125
Bretting, Peter, 70
Bruneau, Betsy, 3
Bruneau, Bill, 3
Buckley Homestead County Park, 34
Bunker, John, 154
Bunker, Roberta, 154
Burford Brothers Nursery, 42
Burford, Tom, 42
Burpees [seed company], 80
Burr, F. (Fearing, Jr.), (p.18)
Burrells [seed company], 81
Bussey, Dan, 131
Butterbrooke Farm Seed Co-op, 4
Butterworth, Tom, 4

[Top of Name Index]

Calhoun, C.L. (Creighton Lee), (p.17), 150
Calhoun's Nursery, 150
California Rare Fruit Growers (CRFG), 25
Canadian Clonal Genebank [Plant Gene Resources of Canada], 51
Canadian Organic Growers (COG), 20, (p.43)
Carleton, Donna, 148
Cavenaugh, Joe, 7
CC2000 (Chefs Collaborative 2000), 74
Chapman, S. (Susan), (p.18)
Chase Seeds, 3
Chefs Collaborative 2000 [Oldways Preservation & Exchange Trust], 74
Chile Pepper Institute [Chili Institute], 62
Chris Weeks Peppers, 82, 112
Christian Homesteading Movement, 151
Coe, S. (Sophie D.), (p.17)
Collective Heritage Institute (CHI), 63
Colonial Williamsburg, 160
Combest, Christoher E., 94
Comstock, Ferre & Co., 83
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), 52
Convention on Biological Diversity, 52
Cook's Garden, 84
Corn Hill Nursery, 167
Corn Improvement Club [Michael Fields Agricultural Institute], 64
Cornell University, American Indian Program (AIP)/American Indian Agriculture Program (AIAP), 65
Cornell Plantations, Pounder Heritage Garden, 35
Council for Responsible Genetics (CRG), 66
Crabb, Becky, 34
CRESS Heirloom Seed Project, 6
Cucurbit Network, 67
Cumberland Valley Nurseries, 152
Cummins, James, 153
Cummins Nursery, 153
Cummins, Stephen, 153

[Top of Name Index]

D. Landreth Seed Co., 104
D.V. Burrell Seed Growers Co., 81
Dacha Barinka, 137
Dahl, K. (Kevin), (p.17)
Dam, René W., 145
Darling, H.M., (p.18)
Daugherty, Louise, 8
Davenport Preservation Orchard [Worcester County Historical Society], 49
Davenport, S. Lothrop, 49
Davis, Retta, 32
Davis-Hollander, Lawrence, 6
Dawson, Jeff, 95
Decker-Walters, Deena S., 67
Deep Diversity, 120
Demonchaux, Jean A., 94
Demuth, Steve, 31
Deppe, C. (Carol), (p.18), 120
DiGeorgi Seed Company, 85
Down on the Farm Seed, 86
Drees, Mahina, 14
Dremann, Craig, 114
Drowns, Glenn, 116

[Top of Name Index]

Eames-Sheavly, M., 65
Early's Farm & Garden Center, 138
Eastern Native Seed Conservancy (ENSC), 6
Ecology Action [Bountiful Gardens], 3
Enchanted Seeds, 87
Engeland, Ron, 89

[Top of Name Index]

Fackler, Ed, 161
Fahey, Richard, 151
Fahey, Noël, 105
Farmer Cooperative Genome Project/Oregon Tilth, 67a
Fanton, Jude, 19
Fanton, Michael, 19
Fedco Seeds (and Fedco Bulbs, Fedco Trees, Moose Tubers/Organic Growers Supply), 88
Fedco Trees, 154
Feenstra, G. (Gail) W., (p.17)
Filaree Farm, 89
Fish Lake Garlic Man, 139
Fisher, Amos, 166
Fisher's Nursery, 166
Fishman, Ram, 155
Flower and Herb Exchange, 17
Foote, Suzanne, 22
Fowler, C., (p.17,18) Fox Hollow Seed Company, 90
Francis, C. (Charles) A., (p.18)
Frankel, O.H. (Otto Hertzberg), (p.17)
Fred's Plant Farm, 91
Fruit Dabblers, 147

[Top of Name Index]

Gale, Wayne, 127
Gallina Canyon Ranch, 92
Garden City Seeds, 93
Garden Research Exchange, 134
Garden State Heirloom Seed Society (GSHSS), 7
Garfield Farm, 131
Gaunt, Judy, 143
Gawran-Fiske, Bernice, 37
Gear, Alan, 8
Genesee Country Village & Museum, 36
Genetic Resources Action International (GRAIN), 68
Georgia State Botanical Gardens, 58
Gerhardt, Alvin E., 61
Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) [USDA/ARS], 54
Gifford, K. Dun, 74
Glendening, Charles "Bud," 90
Global Permaculture Plant and Seed Exchange, 19
Goldstein, Walter, 64
Good Seed Farm of Vermont, 98
The Gourmet Gardener, 94
Grandview Farms, 95
Greenmantle Nursery, 155
Grimm, Kay, 103
Gröotendorst Nurseries, 164
Gröotendorst, Theo, 164
Gugenheim, Claire, 25
Guidetti, Geri, 60
Guiles, Tom, 69

[Top of Name Index]

Haapala, J.J., 67a
Haines, Carolyn, 36
Hamilton, Neil D., 70
Hammond, Edward, 75
Hancock Shaker Village, 37
Hankin, Bill, 9
Hans Herr House, 38
Harris Seeds, 36
Harrison, Larry, 163
Hatch, Peter J., 42
Hauch, Tom, 96
Hegyes, G. (Gabriel), (p.18)
Heirloom Seeds, 96
Henderson, P. (Peter), (p.18)
Henry Doubleday Research Association (HDRA), 8
Henry Doubleday Research Association (HDRA), Chase Seeds, 3
Hensley, Tim, 165
Heritage Farm [Seed Savers Exchange], 2, 17
Heritage Seed Company, 97
Heritage Seed Curators Association (HSCA), 9
Heritage Seed Program (HSP), 20
Herrold, Jim, 61
Hidden Springs Nursery, 156
High Altitude Gardens [Seeds Trust], 121
High Desert Research Farm (HDRF), 69
High Mowing Organic Seed Farm, 98
Hills, Lawrence D., 8
Hilsgen, Melissa, 105
Historic Apple Orchard Project [Seed Savers Exchange], 31
Hobbelink, Henk, 68
Hollis, Joe, 15
Holzhueter, Allen, 48
Home Orchard Society (HOS), 26
Horse Creek Seed Sanctuary, 118
Horticultural Enterprises, 99
[J.L.] Hudson, Seedsman, 100
Hummer, Kim, 55

[Top of Name Index]

Indiana Center for New Crops and Plant Products, 70
Inner Coast Nursery, 168
Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy (IATP), 71
International Board on Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR); International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI), 52
International Center for Chile, 62
International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI); International Board on Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR), 52
International Seed Saving Institute (ISSI) [Seeds Trust - High Altitude Seeds], 121
Irish Genetic Resources Conservation Trust, 10
Irish Seed Savers Association, 10

[Top of Name Index]

J.L. Hudson, Seedsman, 100
Jabs, C., (p.18)
Jackson, W. (Wes), (p.18)
James, Chuck, 26
Janick, Jules, 70
Jardin du Gourmet, 101
Jason, Dan, 142
Jefferson, Thomas, 42
Joaquin, Angelo, Jr., 14
Johns, Tom, 128
Johnny's Selected Seeds, 102
Johnson, Bill, 157
Johnson Nursery, 157
Johnston, Rob, Jr., 102
Jourdan Bachman Pioneer Farm, 39
Juan, Vita, 74

[Top of Name Index]

Kapuler, Alan, 120
Kauffman, Charles "Skip," 33
Keiser, Paul W., 56
Kelley, Oliver H., 46
Ken Allan Seeds, 134
Kertesz, Jack, 27
Kertesz, Lainie, 27
Kids in Bloom (KID), 103
Kimmey, John, 76
Klein, Mary Ann, 33
Kloppenburg, J. (Jack, Jr.), (p.17,18)
Kneen, B. (Brewster), (p.18)
Kuehn, Jackie, 30
KUSA Research Foundation/KUSA Society, 11

[Top of Name Index]

Laahty, Andrew, 23
Lake Valley Seed, 108
Landis Valley Museum, 40
[D.] Landreth Seed Co., 104
Lash, Neil, 13
Lawn, C.R., 88
Lawson, Jim 158
Lawson's Nursery, 158
Lindholm, Nicolas, 12
Living History Farms, 41
Livingston, A.(Alexander) W., (p.18)
Long Hungry Creek Organic Farm & Nursery, 159
LoPiccolo, Katherine, 106
Luffman, Margie, 51
Lustgarden, S. (Steve), (p.17)

[Top of Name Index]

MacKentley, Bill, 162
Maczka, Ted, 139
Maine Organic Farmers and Gardeners Association (MOFGA), 12, 27
Maine Seed Saving Network (MSSN), 12
Maine Tree Crop Alliance (MCTA), 27
Mangelsdorf, P. (Paul) C., (p.17)
Margolis, C. (Carolyn), (p.18)
Mattson, Jim, 46
Maxson, Beth Ann, 103
McClellan, Joyce W., 107
McCormack, Jeff, 126
McDorman, Bill, 121
McKay, Don, 143
Medomak Valley High School Heirloom Seed Project, 13
Meiners, Dick, 112
Melissa's Seeds, 105
Mellon, Margaret, 77
Michael Fields Agricultural Institute, Corn Improvement Club, 64
Midwest Fruit Explorers (MidFEx), 28
Miller, D.R.,(p.18)
Miller, Douglas C., 119
Minnesota Historical Society, 46
Mitchell, Jean, 33
Moen, Kathy, 17
Mollison, Bill, 19
Montana Garlic Farm, 106
Monticello, Thomas Jefferson Center for Historic Plants, 42
Mooney, P. (Patrick R.), (p.17,18), 75
Moose Tubers/Organic Growers Supply, 88
Mt. Pleasant, Jane, 65
Murphy, Shane, 118
Museum of the Fur Trade, Bordeaux Trading Post, 43

[Top of Name Index]

Nabhan, G.P. (Gary Paul), (p.17,18), 14, 70
National Agricultural Biotechnology Council (NABC), 72
National Colonial Farm [Accokeek Foundation], 33
National Clonal Germplasm Repository [U.S.], 31, 54, 55
National Hot Pepper Association, 73
National Seed Storage Laboratory (NSSL), 54
Native Seeds Project [Eastern Native Seed Conservancy], 6
Native Seeds/SEARCH (NS/S), 14
Native Seeds/SEARCH (NS/S), Arizona Regis-TREE, 29
Navazio, John, 93
Nazarea, Virginia, 58
New Crops Center [Purdue University], 70
New Mexico State University, Chile Pepper Institute, 62
New York State Fruit Tree Association, 153
Newcombe, Peggy, 42
Noël's Seeds, 105
North American Fruit Explorers (NAFEX), 30, 31, 147, 161
North Central Region SARE Program, 56
Northeast Organic Farming Association of New Hampshire, (p.43)
Northeast Region SARE Program, 57
Nyce, Doug, 38

[Top of Name Index]

Ogden, Shepherd, 84
Oihankesni, Anpetu, 124
Old Bethpage Village Restoration, 44
Old Sturbridge Village, 45, 49
Oldways Preservation & Exchange Trust, Chefs Collaborative 2000, 74
Oliver H. Kelley Farm, 46
Orchard Lane Growers, 160
Oregon Tilth [Farmer Cooperative Genome Project], 67a
Ornamental Edibles, 107

[Top of Name Index]

Pagano Seeds, 108
Payton, Betty, 73, 110
Peace Seeds [Seeds of Change], 120
Peaceful Valley Farm Supply, 109
Pepper Gal, 110
Pelham, Philip M., 152
Permaculture Seed and Plant Exchange, 15
Peters Seeds & Research (PSR), 111
Peters, Tim, 111
Pierpont, Harlan T., 49
Pinetree Garden Seeds, 82, 112
Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC), 20, 53
Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC), Canadian Clonal Genebank, 51
Plants of the Southwest, 113
Poppen, Jeff, 159
Posselius, Maggie, 40
Postlewaite, Jeff, 28
Postman, Joseph, 55
Potter, Gail Debuse, 43
Pounder Heritage Garden [Cornell Plantations], 35
Prairie Garden Seeds, 140
Purdue University, Indiana Center for New Crops and Plant Products, 70

[Top of Name Index]

R.H. Shumway, Seedsman, 123
Rakow, Don, 35
Rawlinson, Bill, 141
Rawlinson Garden Seed, 141
Redwood City Seed Company, 114
Rhoades, Robert E., 58
Richards, Ken, 53
Ritchie, Mark, 71
Rissler, Jane, 77
Rocky Meadow Orchard & Nursery, 161
Ronniger, David, 115
Ronniger's Seed Potatoes, 115
Rossman, A.Y., (p.18)
Rowe, Jack, 21
Ruff, Anne Marie, 59
Rural Advancement Foundation International (RAFI), 75

[Top of Name Index]

S. Lothrop Davenport Preservation Orchard [Worcester County Horticultural Society], 49
Sachs, Carolyn, 57
St. Lawrence Nurseries, 162
Salt Spring Seeds (SSS), 142
Sand Hill Preservation Center, 116
Santa Barbara Heirloom Seedling Nursery, 117
Sattelmeier, Mark, 97
Scatterseed Project, 16
Schaller, Lorenz, 11
Schifferstadt Architectural Museum, 47
Schlebecker, John T., 61
Schmierbach, David, 137
Schneeberger, John, 93
Schumacher Farm County Park, 48
Scott, Barbara, 135
Seed Dreams, 118
Seed Savers Exchange (SSE), 17
Seed Savers Exchange (SSE), Historic Apple Orchard Project, 31
Seed Savers International (SSI), 2, 18
Seed Savers' Network (SSN)/Seed Aid Trust, 19
Seed Shares [Southern Exposure Seed Exchange], 126
Seeds Blüm, 119
Seeds of Change, 63, 109, 120
Seeds of Diversity Canada (SODC), 20
Seeds of Hope [Seeds of Change], 120
Seeds of Texas Seed Exchange, 21
Seeds Trust - High Altitude Gardens, 121
Shand, H. (Hope), (p.17), 70, 75
Shepherd, Renée, 122
Shepherd's Garden Seeds, 122
Sheridan, Judith, 61
Sherman, Bob, 8
Shiva, V. (Vandana), (p.18)
Shomer, Forest, 1
Shuman, M. (Michael) H., (p.17)
[R.H.] Shumway, Seedsman, 123, 130, 132
Simon, James E., 70
Simons, Nina, 63
Simpson, B.E., 144
Singleton, Ralph, 33
Solomon, Steve, 128
Sonoma Antique Apple Nursery, 163
Sourcepoint Organic Seeds, 124
South Carolina Botanical Garden, 125
South Carolina Foundation Seed Association, 125
Southern Exposure Seed Exchange (SESE), 126
Southern Fruit Fellowship, 32
Southern Region SARE Program, 58
Southern Seed Legacy (SSL) Project Network, 58
Southmeadow Fruit Gardens, 164
Stabinsky, Doreen, 66
Stearns, Tom, 98
Stemann, Maggie, 42
Stevanus, Mary, 47
Stickland, Sue, (p.43)
Stoker, Fred C., 91
Stokes Seeds, 127
Stoner, Alan, 54
Strickler, Tim, 149
Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) Program [USDA], 56, 57, 58
Sustainable Earth Electronic Library (SEEL), 71
Sustainable Native Agriculture Center (SNAC), 76

[Top of Name Index]

Ta S'ina Tokaheya Organization, 22
Tatum, Muriel E., 44
Ternier, Jim, 140
Terra Edibles, 143
Territorial Seed Company, 111, 128
Thomas Jefferson Center for Historic Plants [Monticello], 42
Thomforde, Charlie, 61
Thompson, Jesse, 32
Thuente, J. (Joanne), (p.17), 17
Thurston, Jon, 13
Tomato Growers Supply Company, 129
Totally Tomatoes, 130
Tower Hill Botanic Garden, 49
Tracy, W.W., Jr. (William Woodbridge), (p.18)
Traditional Native American Farmers Association (TNAFA), 14

[Top of Name Index]

Underwood Gardens, 131
Underwood, Maryann, 131
Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), Agriculture and Biotechnology Program, 77
USDA Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) Program, 56, 57, 58
USDA-ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository, 31, 55
USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm Laboratory (NPGL), 54
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (USNPGS), 54, 55, 59
U.S. National Seed Storage Laboratory (NSSL), 54
Urban Homestead, 165

[Top of Name Index]

Van Sicklin, John, 90
Vellvé, Renée, 68
Vermont Bean Seed Company, 132
Vesey's Seeds, 144
Vilmorin [seed company], (p.18), 107
Viola, H. (Herman) J., (p.18)
Vorbeck, Jill, 30, 147
Vorbeck, Tom, 147

[Top of Name Index]

W. Atlee Burpee & Company, 80
Walter, A., (p.17)
Weeks, Chris, 82, 112
Whealy, Diane, 17
Whealy, K. (Kent), (p.17), 17, 63
Wheeler, Bill, 168
White, Christie, 45
White Oak Nursery, 166
Whitfield, Julia, 38
Whitmer, Mike, 41
Wildfong, Bob, 20
Wilhite Seed, 133
William Dam Seeds, 145
Williams, Todd, 39
Wilson, G.L. (Gilbert Livingstone), (p.18)
Wooley, Rollin, 160
Worcester County Horticultural Society, S. Lothrop Davenport Preservation Orchard, 49
World Seed Fund, 1
Wrench, Richard, 106
Wright, Karyn, 143
Wylie House, 50

[Top of Name Index]

Zahner, Robert, 29
Zeigler, Don, 24
Zuni Folk Varieties Project (ZSAP), Zuni Sustainable Agriculture Project (ZSAP), 23

[Top of Name Index]

Go to: Top of Volume 2 | Contents of Volume 2 | Introduction | Notes and References
Part I. Vegetable Seed Exchanges or Seedbanks
Part II. Fruit Growers Organizations or Programs
Part III. Public Gardens and Living Historical Farm Museums in the U.S.
Part IV. National and International Genebanks, Including Government Programs
Part V. Other Resource Organizations and Programs
Part VI. Commercial Seed Companies
Part VII. Commercial Fruit Nurseries
Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160
Appendices (Volume 2): 1) AFSIC, 2) Publication Titles Index, 3) Periodical Articles Index, 4) Persons / Organizations Index

Alternative Farming Systems Information Center

The Alternative Farming Systems Information Center (AFSIC) is one of several topic-oriented Information Centers at the National Agricultural Library (NAL). The Library, located in Beltsville, Maryland, is the foremost agricultural library in the world, and is one of four U.S. national libraries, long with the Library of Congress, the National Library of Medicine, and the National Library of Education. AFSIC is supported, in part, by USDA's Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) program.

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Telephone: 301/504-6559 or 301/504-5724
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Go to: Top of Volume 2 | Contents of Volume 2 | Appendices (Volume 2)
Citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160

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The Alternative Farming Systems Information Center, March 9, 1999