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ISSN: 1052-5378

Raising Emus and Ostriches

Special Reference Briefs Series no. SRB 97-06

August 1997
Internet links revised Nov. 2000; February 2009
Automated AGRICOLA database and Web site searches, added February 2009
Supplement: Resources Published September 1997 to 2001

Compiled By:
Rebecca S. Thompson
Alternative Farming Systems Information Center, Information Centers Branch
National Agricultural Library, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture
Beltsville, Maryland 20705-2351

National Agricultural Library Cataloging Record:

Thompson, Rebecca S.
Raising emus and ostriches.
(Special reference briefs ; 97-06)
1. Emus--Bibliography. 2. Ostriches--Bibliography. I. Title
aS21.D27S64 no. 97-06


Raising Emus and Ostriches


The emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) and ostrich (Struthio camelus) are Ratites. These flightless birds have broad, rounded breast plates missing the keel to which the breast or flight muscles attach. They have recently become of increased interest as an alternative enterprise.

This publication contains selected resources on emu and ostrich farming and is intended to be a starting point for information seekers. Topics covered include: animal husbandry; reproduction (breeding techniques, fertility, hatching, genetics, etc.); housing and care in captivity; diet and nutritional requirements; feeds and feeding; rearing techniques; identification, treatment or prevention of diseases or disorders; farm management; slaugh ter and processing; markets and marketing; commercial products (feathers, leather, meat, emu oil, decorative eggs); and recipes and nutrient values of meat.

Resources were identified from searches of numerous databases, including the National Agricultural Library's (NAL) AGRICOLA and ISIS systems, and by searching the Internet. The inclusion or omission of a publication or resource is not meant as endorsement or disapproval.


References to ostriches are found in ancient Egyptian, Greek, and Roman literature and in the Bible. They may have existed mil lions of years ago in the Southern parts of the Euro-Asiatic continent.(1) In ancient times, ostrich feathers or plumes were often worn as a sign of nobility. Today, ostriches are native to South Africa where they have been commercially bred for more than 100 years. In the late 1800's, South African farmers raised almost a million ostriches to meet fashion industry needs.(2)

The Ratite Encyclopedia describes three separate ventures, beginning in 1882, in which ostriches were brought from Africa to the United States.(3) In the 1880's, ostrich farms were created in the United States in response to the increasing demand, and resulting high prices, for ostrich feathers used in the fashion industry.(4) Changes in the fashion industry and the tough eco nomic times of World War I led to a declining market for ostrich products. In the 1980's, raising ostriches for profit again became popular when a growing demand for ostrich products, including leather, and a U.S. ban on trade with South Africa resulted in higher prices.(4)

Ostriches breed between three and four years of age. Several hens mate with one male, and in the Spring, each lays her eggs in the same shallow nest. For six weeks, the male incubates the eggs at night, alternating with the dominant female during the day. Chicks reach their full height within six months. Depend ing on the subspecies, an adult ostrich may weigh 200-350 pounds and stand seven to 10 feet tall. With strong, muscular legs, the ostrich can run up to 40 mph. Domestic birds may have a 50-year life span; wild ostriches live 20-30 years.

Ostrich meat, hides (leather), and feathers have commercial value. The meat, with a texture and color similar to beef, is low in fat, calories, and sodium. It has fewer calories, less fat, and less cholesterol than beef, emu, chicken, or turkey. It also is a good source of iron and protein. Egg shells are carved into ornaments, used as containers, or made into decorative jewelry. The ostrich farmer may breed young stock for resale or sell eggs for hatching.


Emus are native to Australia. The original inhabitants consumed emu meat and used the oil for medicinal purposes. Wild emus in Australia are considered a threat competing with other livestock for resources such as food and water. They also trample and destroy wheat and other crops.(5) In the early 1900's, Western Australia's government set a bounty on emus and, in 1932, even attempted to exterminate the bird. To protect crops and live stock, the government built hundreds of miles of fencing, suc cessfully restricting the migrating birds to the open forests and plains. Until the early 1990's, the Australian government prohibited commercial emu farming. It has now licensed a few farms. The United States first imported emus between 1930 and 1950. However, commercial emu farming in the U.S. did not begin until the late 1980's.

The female begins to breed between 18 months and three years of age, and may continue to produce eggs for more than 15 years. It is the male who incubates the eggs which hatch in about 50 days. The emu grows to full size within two years standing five to six feet tall and weighing as much as 150 pounds. With powerful legs similar to the ostrich, it can run up to 40 mph. An emu lives about 30 years.

Emu products include leather, meat, and decorative egg shells. Emu oil is sold for cosmetic and pharmaceutical purposes. Young stock also may be bred for resale, and eggs can be sold for hatching. Emu meat, like ostrich meat, is similar in texture and color to beef. Compared to beef, it has more iron, protein, and vitamin C. The low fat meat has less sodium than beef, chicken, or turkey.

Many publications cited are available through local public or university libraries. For publications in the NAL collection, NAL call numbers are included. For information about Interlibrary Loan, consult your local library system or contact the NAL Document Delivery Services Branch, NAL, 10301 Baltimore Ave., Beltsville, MD 20705-2351; phone 301-504-5755; fax 301-504-5675; e-mail

The Alternative Farming Systems Information Center (AFSIC) is one of several Information Centers at the NAL that provide in-depth coverage of specific subject areas relating to the food and agricultural sciences. AFSIC focuses on alternative farming systems and crops that aim to maintain agricultural productivity and profitability, while protecting natural resources. Support for the Center comes to the Library from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Sustainable Agriculture Research and Educa tion (SARE) program which is under the jurisdiction of the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES).

This publication is available in hardcopy, or electronically on computer diskette, or via AFSIC's Internet Web Site: Please send comments and corrections regarding this publication, or requests for additional copies to:

Alternative Farming Systems Information Center
National Agricultural Library, ARS, USDA
10301 Baltimore Ave., Room 132
Beltsville, MD 20705-2351
phone: 301-504-6559; fax: 301-504-6409



1) Vandervoodt, Claire. The Dasana Ostrich Guide: A Practical Handbook. Devonport: Nova Creative Publishing, 1995.
2) Batty, Joseph. Ostrich Farming. Midhurst: Beech Publishing House, 1995.
3) Drenowatz, Claire. The Ratite Encyclopedia: Ostrich, Emu, Rhea. San Antonio, TX: Ratite Records, 1995. p. 19-20.
4) Wiley, C.B. "Dinosaurs to Ratites in Only 250 Million Years." Live Animal Trade & Transport Magazine V(2):5-16. June 1993.
5) Minnaar, Phillip and Maria Mannaar. The Emu Farmer's Handbook. Groveton, TX: Induna Company, 1992. 178 pp.


Automated Database and Web site Searches

The automated searches below were added to this publication in February 2009. Select a link to locate journal articles, books, scholarly papers and articles, and Web sites.

AGRICOLA (AGRICultural Online Access) is a bibliographic database of citations to the agricultural literature created by the National Agricultural Library (NAL) and its cooperators. The records describe publications and resources encompassing all aspects of agriculture and allied disciplines. [Read more about AGRICOLA.]

  1. Articles | Books
    Search strategy:
    Find any of these terms in the subject ("struthio camelus" OR "dromaius novaehollandiae" OR ostrich or ostriches OR emu or emus or ratite or ratites).
    Exclude records related to " Food Science and Food Products"

  2. Articles | Books
    Search strategy:
    Find any of these terms in the subject: ("struthio camelus" OR "dromaius novaehollandiae" OR ostrich OR ostriches OR emu OR emus OR ratite or ratites)
    AND find any of these terms in the subject field: (farming OR farmed OR agriculture OR production OR raising OR raised OR breeding OR husbandry OR raising OR feeds OR diet).
    Exclude records related to " Food Science and Food Products"

Google Scholar







American Emu Association (AEA)
P.O. Box 740814
Dallas, TX 75374-0814
Phone: 208-983-7928
FAX: 520-962-9430

American Ostrich Association (AOA)
P. O. Box 166
Ranger, TX 76470
Phone: 254-647-1645
E-mail: aoa @
Contact form:
Publication: American Ostrich

Food Safety and Inspection Service
United States Department of Agriculture
Washington, D.C. 20250-3700

  1. Poultry Preparation Ratites (Emu, Ostrich, and Rhea) (PDF)
  2. Ratites: Inspection Issues
  3. For more information, search "ratites" "emus" or "ostriches" at FSIS Web site,

Australian Ostrich Association
National Secretariat
45 Settlement Road
Victoria 3223
Phone: 03 5251 3610
FAX: 03 5251 3820

British Domesticated Ostrich Association
Craig Culley, Secretary and Treasurer
33 Eden Grange
Little Corby, Carlisle, UK CA4 8QW
Phone: + 44 1228 562532
FAX: + 44 1228 562187

Canadian Emu Association
Stratford, Ontario, Canada N5A 6S2
Phone: 519-271-2659
FAX: 519-271-7548

Canadian Ostrich Association
Site 1, Box 34, R.R. 6
Calgary, Alberta, Canada, T2M 4L5
Phone: 403-285-1624
Provincial Associations:

Maryland Emu Association
910 Western Chapel Road
Westminster, MD 21157
Phone: 301-854-3915

North Carolina Emu Association
Twin Creek Farm
4262 Hwy. 49 South
Asheboro, NC 27205
Phone: 336-857-2789
FAX: 336-859-2790

North Carolina Ostrich Breeders Association
2 W. Edenton Street, Room 402
Raleigh, NC 27699-1020
Phone: 919-733-9887
FAX: 919-733-0999

Ostrich Industry Council
4203 Weiland Rd.
Weatherford, TX 76086
Phone: 817-599-5593


Electronic Resources


Ratite Database
Last updated 1996 by Ken Ladd

Web Sites

  1. American Emu Association,
  2. American Ostrich Association,
  3. Agricultural Alternatives: Ostrich Production,
  4. Agricultural Alternatives: Rhea Production,
  5. Avian Influenza Prevention in Gamebird and Ratite Facilities (Kansas State University),

  6. Birds: Ostrich (San Diego Zoo, (Califoria)),
  7. British Domesticated Ostrich Association,

  8. Canadian Ostrich Association,
  9. Capture, Restraint and Handling of Ostriches,
  10. Commercial Emu Industry (Canada),$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agdex3460/$file/484_830-2.pdf?OpenElement
  11. Commercial Emu Production (University of North Carolina),
  12. Commercial Ostrich Industry (Canada),$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agdex3462/$file/484_830-1.pdf?OpenElement
  13. Commercial Rhea Industry (Canada),$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agdex3463/$file/484_830-3.pdf?OpenElement
  14. Commercial Ostrich Production (University of North Carolina),

  15. The Davis World Wide Emu Page,

  16. "Emu Bibliography," by Ken Ladd, 172 references, August 1996,
  17. "Emu Production," by Dr. Joan S. Jeffrey, Texas Agricultural Extension Service, Texas A&M University System.
  18. Emu Today and Tomorrow,
    The web site for this monthly magazine includes selected articles, general information on emu farming, and emu facts and resources.
  19. Emu (DigiMorph, part of the National Science Foundation Digital Libraries Initiative),
  20. Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) videos and photos, The Internet Bird Collection,
  21. Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) (includes bibliography)
  22. Emus: Catching and Handling,
  23. Emus: Nutritional Requirements for Breeding,
  24. Emus: Starting and Emu Farm,

  25. Food Safety and Inspection Service. USDA.
  26. The Fundamentals of Ratite Incubation (Texas A&M University),

  27. Hatching Ostrich Chicks (Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service),
  28. "Housing, Husbandry, and Welfare of Selected Birds (Quail, Pheasant, Finches, Ostrich, Dove, Parrot)," by Michael D. Kreger, USDA, National Agricultural Library, Quick Bibliography Series no. QB 94-26.

  29. Kansas Emu Association

  30. Import Procedures for Importing Ratites and Hatching Eggs of Ratites (USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service),
  31. Incubation and Hatching of Ratites (University of Florida),
  32. Incubation of Ratite Eggs, by Joan S. Jeffrey, Gregory P. Martin, and Roy C. Fanguy.

  33. Maryland Emu Association,

  34. Nutrition Guidelines for Ostriches and Emus
  35. Nutritional Comparison of Meats

  36. The Oklahoma State Ostrich Book,
  37. Ostrich (DigiMorph, part of the National Science Foundation Digital Libraries Initiative),
  38. Ostrich (Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Initiatives),
  39. "Ostrich," Alternative Agriculture Series no. 11,
  40. "Ostrich Bibliography," by Ken Ladd, 505 references, August 1996.
  41. Ostrich, Emu, and Rhea Production (Rutgers University),
  42. Ostrich and Emu Links (news and Web sites),
  43. Ostrich Farming: A Review and Feasibility Study of Opportunities in the EU
  44. The Ostrich Handbook,
  45. Ostrich Meat and Marketing,
  46. Ostrich Meat Production (Purdue University),
  47. Ostrich on the Net,
  48. Ostrich (Struthio camelus) videos and photos, Internet Bird Collection,
  49. Ostrich (Struthio camelus) (includes bibliography)
  50. Ostrich Production (Kansas State University),
  51. Ostrich Production (Oklahoma State University),
  52. Ostrich Production (Pennsylvania State University),
  53. Ostrich Production, by Dr. Joan S. Jeffrey, Texas Agricultural Extension Service, Texas A&M University System. or
  54. Ostriches Online - Farming Database and Reference Library Index,

  55. Poultry: Game Birds and Ratites,

  56. Raising Ostriches
  57. Raising ratites: Ostriches, emu, and rheas (Oregon State University),
  58. Ratite Management (University of Minnesota)
  59. Ratite Nutrition and Feeding (Virginia Tech),
  60. Ratite Nutritional Articles,
  61. Ratite Production: Ostrich, Emu and Rhea, by Lance E. Gegner, October 2001.
  62. "Ratites Bibliography," by Ken Ladd, August 1996, 706 references.
  63. Rhea Production,
  64. Rhea (Rhea americana) videos and photos. The Internet Bird Collection,

  65. Snapshot of the Canadian Ostrich, Emu, and Rhea Industries (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada),
  66. South African Ostrich Business Chamber,
  67. Struthio camelus: ostrich, University of Michigan. Museum of Zoology.

  68. Texas Emu Association,

  69. Virtual Farm Tour: Ratites,

  70. What is a Commercial Ostrich? By Danna Cogburn.

Mailing Lists

  1. "Ostrich and Ratite Industry Mailing lists." Information from Ostriches On Line,
  2. Emu Chat List
    For information, see
  3. Ostrich Chat List
    For information:

A. Database, B. Web sites, C. Mailing Lists, D. Message Forums

Message Forums

  1. Ostrich Discussion Forums
    The Reference Forum provides answers to questions about ostrich farming and husbandry. Discussions about ratite feeding and nutrition is covered in the Nutrition Forum.


  1. Ostrich Farmer (Version 5)
    "Ostrich Farmer provides comprehensive recording and reporting on Birds, Eggs, Incubation, Growth, Breeding group performance, family trees, Agistment, Automatic Invoicing, General ledger, interfaces to microchip readers, barcode readers, remote data entry and weighing equipment and much much more." "Flock management software for the operation of ostrich and emu farms. Includes breeding, growth, incubation, accounting, statistics, reports."

    Information Management of WA
    P.O. Box 36
    Armadale, W.A 6112
    Phone: AUS (08) 9399 6974
    FAX: AUS (09) 399 6974
    Also available through Ostriches OnLine at

  2. Ratite Business Plan Software
    "The Ratite Business Plan Software consists of over 150 pre-printed and pre-formatted pages and spread-sheets covering every conceivable aspect of your new farm. The Ratite Business Plan Software will help you take the guesswork out of all your business concerns by providing a step by step program from beginning to end." Software revised April 1997.

    Ostriches OnLine
    119 N 10th Avenue
    Melrose Park, IL 60160
    Phone: 708-345-7989
    1-800-RING-OOL (in U.S. only)



  1. American Ostrich Association meetings.
    Contact AOA to receive titles, cost, and ordering information for audiocassettes and videocassettes of AOA conventions and meetings. Address: P. O. Box 166, Ranger, TX 76470. Phone: 254-647-1645 . E-mail: aoa @

  2. ...And On This Farm: Ostriches and Emus. 30 min.
    Athens, GA: University of Georgia Center for Continuing Education, 1996. Videocassette no. V-F8-002.
    This segment on ostriches and emus is one in a series of videos in which professionals discuss how to care for large farm animals.
    Contact: Georgia Center Collection: Books & Videos, Georgia Center for Continuing Education, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-3603. Phone: 1-800-359-4040. FAX: 706-542-6720. Cost: $19.95.

  3. The Complete Guide to Emu Farming.
    Contact: James McDonald, McDonald Bird Farm, R.R. #1, Box 2140-C, Corsicana, TX 75110. Phone: 903-872-4188.

  4. Emu Farming: A Guide to Hatching and Raising Emu
    Contact: Janice Castleberry, Rte. 2, Box 234 B-1, Lampasas, TX 76550. Phone: 512-556-5910.

  5. "How to Handle an Emu," 2000. Demonstrates several handling techniques.
    Contact: American Emu Association, 208-983-7928.
    Cost: $15.00.

  6. Handling, Tattooing and Sexing Emu.
    Contact: Janice Castleberry, Rte. 2, Box 234 B-1, Lampasas, TX 76550. Phone: 512-556-5910.

  7. Hatching and Raising Emus. 40 min.
    Contact: Triple C Ranch, Inc. Route 2, Box 234-B1, Lampasas, TX 76550. Phone: 512-556-5910.

  8. Livestock Diversification. 60 min.
    Prairie Farm Report. Exotic animals discussed include ostriches.
    Contact: AG-COM Productions Ltd., Box 3069, Bismarck, ND 58502. Phone: 306-781-2424 or 1-800-667-8888. FAX: 306-781-2849.

  9. Livestock Diversification #2. 60 min.
    Prairie Farm Report. "Features 14 livestock operators raising exotic or alternative livestock" including emus.
    Contact: AG-COM Productions Ltd., Box 3069, Bismarck, ND 58502. Phone: 306-781-2424 or 1-800-667-8888. FAX: 306-781-2849.

  10. Ostrich Farm Training Videos.
    Four videotapes of an international seminar cosponsored by Blackwing Ostrich Farms, Inc. and Ostriches On Line, Spring 1997. Contact: Ostriches OnLine. 119 N 10th Avenue. Melrose Park, IL 60160. Phone: 708-345-7989. 1-800-RING-OOL (in U.S. only) For information, see

  11. Ostrich Farming Video. 40 min.
    Contact: Ostriches OnLine. 119 N 10th Avenue. Melrose Park, IL 60160. Phone: 708-345-7989. 1-800-RING-OOL (in U.S. only). For information, see

  12. Ostrich Meat Processing Video. 50 min.
    Developed by Texas A&M University researchers with funding from the American Ostrich Research Foundation. Number P4-MV.
    Contact: AOA, P. O. Box 166, Ranger, TX 76470. Phone: 254-647-1645 . E-mail: aoa @

  13. Ostriches: Still Your Great Opportunity, 1991. 36 min.
    Contact: Dale Coody, R.R.#1 BOX 71A, Lawton, Oklahoma 73501. Phone: 405-353-3078 Cost: $59.95

  14. Processing your Emus for Profit. 60 min.
    Contact: Misty Mountain Emu Ranch, P.O Box 367, Gaston, OR 97119. Phone: 1-800-558-2450. FAX: 503-537-9144




Acceptability of processed ostrich meat products.
Morris, C. A.; Keeton, J. T.; Miller, R. K.; Hale, D. S.; Harris, S. D.; Savell, J. W. Journal Of Dairy Science v.77(Suppl. 1): p.328. (1994).
Descriptors: Meeting abstract; poultry industry; food industry; processing

AEA News
Note: No longer available

Air transport of adult ostriches.
Hancock, R. State Veterinary Journal (United Kingdom) v.4(2): p.1-3. (1994). 1 ref.
Descriptors: ostriches; animal welfare; lesions; cages; air transport; legislation; transport of animals; animal housing; birds; struthioniformes; transport; trauma

NAL Call No.: S494.5.A65S44--1993
Alternative Agriculture Series: Ostrich.
Sell, R. S.; Aakre, D. G. Fargo, ND : NDSU Extension Service, North Dakota State University, 1993. 18 v. : illus., map. Includes bibliographical references. Series no. 11.: Ostrich.
Descriptors: alternative-agriculture-North-Dakota

NAL Call No.: SF399.A48--1995
Alternative Livestock Conference : July 27-29, 1995, University of Minnesota, St. Paul Campus.
Alternative Livestock Conference 1995 : University of Minnesota, St. P. C. [St. Paul, Minn.? : s.n., 1995?] 1 v. (ca. 350 p.) : illus., maps, Title from cover. Bison -- Elk -- Emu -- Ostrich -- Red deer -- Other animals -- Miscellaneous topics.
Descriptors: livestock-congresses; bison-industry-congresses; ratite-farming-congresses

NAL Call No.: SF511.O88
American Ostrich : Official Publication of the American Ostrich Association. Ft. Worth, TX : The American Ostrich Association, [1994- v. : illus.]. Previously titled The Ostrich Report.
Descriptors: ostriches-United-States-periodicals; ostriches-periodicals; ostrich-farms-and-farming-United-States-periodicals; animal-husbandry-periodicals; birds-periodicals

NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Anesthetic management of ostriches.
Cornick, J. L.; Jensen, J. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v.200(11): p.1661-1666. (June 1992). Includes references.
Descriptors: ostriches; anesthesia; anesthetics; heartrate; respiration-rate; blood-pressure; blood; gases; complications

Animals Exotic & Small Magazine.
Contact: 1320 Mountain Ave., Norco, CA
91760-2852. Phone: 909-371-4307; FAX: 909-371-4307

Are we ready for superbird?
Cole, M. Food Manufacture International v.10(3): p.16-17. (1993)
Descriptors: meat-specific; birds; ostrich-meat; Europe; UK

[Artificial incubation of ostrich eggs - Around the hatching egg]. Kunstbrut bei Strausseneiern - Rund ums Brutei.
Jost, R. Deutsche Gefluegelwirtschaft und Schweineproduktion (Germany) [German Poultry Management and Swine Production] v.46(6): p.14-16. (1994). 3 illus.
Descriptors: ostriches; egg-incubation; veterinary-hygiene; cleaning; fumigation; disinfection; animal-husbandry-methods; application-methods; birds; hygiene; struthioniformes

NAL Call No.: 41.8-Av5
Assessment of the ability of ratite-origin influenza viruses to infect and produce disease in rheas and chickens.
Swayne D.E.; Beck J.R.; Perdue M.L.; Brugh M; Slemons R.D. Avian Diseases v.40(2): p.438-447. (1996). 47 refs.
Descriptors: experimental-infection; pathogenicity; host-range; viral-diseases; poultry; rheas

Abstract: Pathobiological characteristics were determined for 3 mildly pathogenic (MP) ratite-origin avian influenzaviruses (AIVs). Ratite-origin AIVs produced respiratory disease in rheas, and virus was reisolated from oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs on days 2-6 after inoculation. Inoculation of 2 ratite-origin AIVs in the upper respiratory tract of chickens resulted in viral infection, but the mean chicken infectious dose (CID50) for A/emu/Texas/39924/93 (H5N2) (Emu/Texas) virus was 500-fold lower than the CID50 for the A/rhea/NorthCarolina/39482/93 (H7N1) virus. In ovo and in vivo passage of the MP parent Emu/Texas isolate resulted in emergence of a highly pathogenic (HP) variant that had high plaquing efficiency in chicken embryo fibroblast cultures and was highly lethal in chicken pathotyping tests. This variant virus produced gross lesions in chickens similar to those reported for other HP AIVs. These findings show that ratite-origin AIVs can produce significant clinical disease in rheas and have a potential for interspecies transmission to domestic poultry. HP variants can emerge from MP H5 ratite-origin AIVs if introduced and allowed to circulate in chicken populations.

[At last a legal basis for ostrich breeding]. Endlich rechtliche Basis fuer die Straussenzucht.
Kistner, C. Deutsche Gefluegelwirtschaft und Schweineproduktion (Germany) [German Poultry Management and Swine Production] v.46(32): p.13-14. (1994). 1 illus.
Descriptors: ostriches; animal-husbandry; regulations; Germany; extension-activities; free-range-husbandry; animal-needs; microclimate-; poultry-housing; training-courses; animal-housing; animal-husbandry-methods; birds; climate; education; Europe; extensive-farming; extensive-husbandry; farming-systems; professional-services; services; struthioniformes; training; western-Europe

NAL Call No.: 41.8-So8
Avian pox in ostriches.
Allwright, D. M.; Burger, W. P.; Geyer, A.; Wessels, J. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association v.65(1): p.23-25. (March 1994). Includes references.
Descriptors: ostriches; chicks; avipoxvirus; histopathology; outbreaks; cytoplasmic-inclusions; vaccination; South-Africa

NAL Call No.: 41.8-R3224
Behavioral problems of farmed ostriches in Canada.
Samson, J. Canadian Veterinary Journal v.37(7): p.412-414. (1996). 6 refs.
Descriptors: animal-behaviour; aggressive-behaviour; anorexia; abnormal-behaviour; adipsia

(Behaviour of ostriches: get to know your ostriches better). Verhalten von Straussen: Lernen Sie Ihre Strausse noch besser kennen.
Reiner, G. Deutsche Gefluegelwirtschaft und Schweineproduktion (Germany) [German Poultry Management and Swine Production] v.47(4): p.35-38. (1995). 3 illus.
Descriptors: ostriches; social-behaviour; sexual-behaviour; feeding-habits; maternal-behaviour; behaviour; birds; struthioniformes

(Behaviour of ostriches: in this way you feed them correctly). Verhalten von Straussen: So fuettern Sie richtig.
Reiner, G. Deutsche Gefluegelwirtschaft und Schweineproduktion (Germany) [German Poultry Management and Swine Production] v.47(9): p.51-53. (1995). 2 illus.
Descriptors: ostriches; abnormal-behaviour; feed-intake; feathers; feeding-level; animal-learning; young-animals; animal-morphology; behaviour; birds; feeding; feeding-habits; integument; struthioniformes

NAL Call No.: 41.8 B45
Behavioural disorders in the food intake of ostriches.
Sambraus, H. H. Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift v.108(9): p.344-346. 2 refs. (1995).
Descriptors: food-intake; disorders; animal-behaviour; animal-welfare; feather-pecking; feeding-behaviour; abnormal-behaviour

Abstract: Results are given from observation of 3 groups of male and female ostriches 19-46 months of age on an ostrich farm in Namibia. The individual groups were kept in a paddock of about 1.4 ha, which contained no vegetation, and the ostriches were fed ad lib. with feed pellets 3 times a week. The pellets contained 12% protein, 30% crude fibre, 2.5% fat and 1.5% Ca. The behaviour of the ostriches was observed over a total of 96 h. The most striking behavioural disorder was feather pecking. The animals showed 4 other behaviour patterns, which were regarded as behaviour disorders: pecking sand, pecking wire, pecking their own feathers and pecking into the air; these occurred in a random succession. This behaviour was attributed to the nutrition, which differs from the natural feeding situation, as the animals are fed exclusively on pellets so that the food consumption is completed within a very short time. This results in an accumulation of action specific energy within the functional circle of nutrition. Therefore in the husbandry of ostriches in Central Europe not only the necessary energy and sufficient composition of nutrition should be considered. It is necessary as well, that the food be of a consistency which guarantees food intake of appropriate satisfactory duration.

The blood chemistry of ostriches feding in an artificial environment.
Lien, TuFa; Lu, JinJenn; Lien, T. F.; Lu, J. J. Taiwan Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry. 1994, (no. 63): p.25-29. (1994). 6 refs.
Descriptors: normal-values; alanine-aminotransferase; aspartate-aminotransferase; blood-chemistry

Botulism in an ostrich farm (France). Des cas de botulisme dans un elevage d' autruches (France).
Bouisset, S. Point Veterinaire (France) [Veterinary Viewpoint] v.27(170): p.75-78 (August 1995 - September 1995). 14 illus.
Descriptors: ostriches; animal-husbandry; botulism; paralysis; clostridium-botulinum; disease-control; vaccination; poitou-charentes; bacillaceae; bacteria; bacterioses; birds; clostridium; disease-control; Europe; france; immunization; immunostimulation; immunotherapy; infectious-diseases; mediterranean-countries; nervous-system-diseases; organic-diseases; struthioniformes; therapy; western-Europe

NAL Call No.: SF995.A1A9
Botulism in ostriches (Struthio camelus).
Allwright, D. M.; Wilson, M.; van Rensburg, W. J. J. Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A. v.23(1): p.183-186. (1994). Includes references.
Descriptors: ostriches; clostridium-botulinum; botulism; outbreaks; symptoms; bacterial-toxins; antitoxins; treatment

Botulism on an ostrich farm.
Bouisset, S. Summa v.13(1): p.87-90. (1996). 1 ref.
Descriptors: case-reports; botulism

NAL Call No.: QL671.A9
Bow leg syndrome in ratite birds.
Guittin, P. Avicultural magazine v.92(2): p.70-79. illus. (1986)
Descriptors: domaius novaehollandiae; rhea Americana; struthio camelus; diet-in-captivity; hand-rearing; bow leg syndrome relations with nutrition, growth & survival; survival-in-captivity; hindlimb-skeleton; growth-rate; bow leg syndrome relationships in hand rearing; developmental-disorders; bow leg syndrome; relations with nutrition, environment, growth & survival in hand rearing

Breeding and Production of Ratites. [Les ratites. Elevage et Productions.]
Campodonico, P.; Masson, C. Departement Elevage et Medecine Veterinaire, 10 rue Pierre Curie, 94704 Maisons-Alfort, France, 1992. 98 p. 117 refs.
Descriptors: plumage; body-weight; reproduction; meat-production; behaviour; management; tropics; breeding; animal-production; production; cassowaries; rheas

Breeding of ostriches and their reproduction, slaughter and meat nutritional value.
Paleari, M. A.; Corsico, P.; Beretta, G. Fleischwirtschaft v.75(9): p.1100-1105, 1120-1123. (1995). 17 refs.
Descriptors: animal-nutrition; meat; meat-characteristics; organoleptic-traits; hides-and-skins; feathers; slaughter; nutritive-value; meat-production; meat-quality; carcass-composition; incubation

Breeding ostriches.
Bertram, B. Proceedings of Symposium of the Association of British Wild Animal Keepers 9. Bristol, U.K. : the Association, 1984. p.28-32. illus.
Descriptors: struthio camelus australis; care-in-captivity; farming methods; Cape-Province; oudtshoorn; farming techniques

Breeding ostriches at the Cotswold Wildlife Park.
Fountain, C. Proceedings of Symposium of the Association of British Wild Animal Keepers 9. Bristol, U.K. : the Association, 1984. p.37-43. illus.
Descriptors: struthio camelus massaicus; captive-breeding-records; wildlife park; England; Oxfordshire, Burford, Cotswold Wildlife Park; breeding records

[Breeding planning in ostrich husbandry]. Zuchtplanung in der Straussenhaltung.
Reiner, G. Deutsche Gefluegelwirtschaft und Schweineproduktion (Germany) [German Poultry Management and Swine Production] v.46(2): p.13-15. (1994). 3 illus.
Descriptors: ostriches; animal-breeding; planning; Germany; selection-criteria; performance-testing; marking; identification; animal-husbandry-methods; birds; Europe; evaluation; struthioniformes; testing; western-Europe

Breeding seasons and laying patterns of the southern African ostrich Struthio camelus.
Jarvis, M. J. F.; Jarvis, C.; Keffen, R. H. IBIS 127(4) p.442-449. (1985). illus.
Descriptors: Struthio camelus; size; eggs; egg; breeding-season; egg-laying; patterns & season, rainfall effect; clutches; seasonal-activity; south Africa & Zimbabwe; climate-and-weather; rainfall effect on laying season & patterns, wild & captive, africa; South-Africa; Bophuthatswana, sun city; comparison to wild; Zimbabwe; central; laying season & patterns, effect of rainfall, egg & clutch sizes

Breeding system and strategies of ostriches.
Bertram, B. C. R. Acta Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici 2(1980). p.890-894. (1980).
Descriptors: struthio camelus massaicus; size; body, influence on communal nesting system evolution, Africa; food-availability; colonial-breeding; nesting system & adaptive strategies; nesting; communal system & adaptive strategies; evolutionary-adaptation; communal nesting system & strategies; population-sex-ratio; predators; temperature; communal nesting system evolution, relationships, East Africa; Kenya; Tsavo West National Park; Tanzania; Serengeti National park; communal nesting system evolution & adaptive strategies

Breeding the emus, Dromaius novaehollandiae, in captivity.
Fukuda, T.; Kanemitsu, H.; Matsuo, Y.; Nakaoka, M.; Yonezawa, A. Journal of Japanese Association of Zoological Gardens and Aquariums v.31(4):108-111. (1989). illus.
Descriptors: dromaius novaehollandiae; reproductive-behaviour; hatching-success; failure causes; growth-rate; chicks, zoo; Japan; Kobe Oji Zoo; breeding, hatching success & chick growth

[Breedings of ostrichs in South-Africa]. Allevamenti di struzzi in Sud Africa.
Luttitz, H. v. Selezione Veterinaria (Italy) v.31(7): p.988-989. (July 1990)
Descriptors: ostriches; animal-production; animal-feeding; South-Africa; Africa; Africa-South-of-Sahara; anglophone-Africa; birds; production; southern-Africa; struthioniformes

NAL Call No.: 47.8 Am33P
A buyer's guide for ostrich meat.
Stadelman, W. J.; Schmieder, H.; Grant, A. L.; Ghiselli, R. F.; Adams, R. L.; Mcmillin, K. W. Poultry Science v.74(suppl. 1): p.120. (1995).
Descriptors: poultry industry; flavor; food products

California Ostrich.
California Ostrich Association. Official publication of the California Ostrich Association, 945 12th St., Ste. G., Paso Robles, CA 93446. Phone: 805-227-4436.
Descriptors: ostriches-United-States-periodicals

Canadian Ostrich Magazine.
Contact: Canadian Ostrich Magazine, Suite 204, 2915 19 St. N.W., Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2E 7A2. Phone: 403-250-1128. 403-250-1194. Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Descriptors: ostrich-farms-and-farming-periodicals

NAL Call No.: 41.8-Av5
Causes of losses including a Borna disease paralytic syndrome affecting young ostriches of one breeding organization over a five-year period (1989-1993).
Ashash, E.; Malkinson, M.; Meir, R.; Perl, S.; Weisman, Y. Avian Diseases v.40(1): p.240-245. (January 1996 - March 1996). Includes references.
Descriptors: ostriches; mortality; etiology; young-animals; paresis; borna-disease-virus; flocks; animal-diseases; case-reports; Israel

Abstract: Necropsy records and causes of mortality of ostriches up to 3 months old over a 5-year period (1989-1993) are presented. The data relate to one ostrich enterprise that comprises 10 breeding flocks, five rearing farms, and one hatchery. Causes of mortality are classified into nine major categories. The annual mortality percentages of all hatched ostriches over the 5-year period were 61%, 58%, 30%, 29%, and 16.6%, and the most significant cause of death was a paresis syndrome that accounted for 20%, 11%, 16%, 10.1%, and 2% mortality, respectively. Limb deformities and gastroenteritis were the other principal specific causes of mortality. The paresis syndrome was caused by an agent serologically related to Borna disease virus. Brain extracts from paralyzed ostriches, when given orally or intramuscularly to 5-week-old birds, reproduced the clinical signs and microscopic lesions. The mean time to death was less than 3 weeks for the intramuscularly infected group and was almost twice as long for the orally infected group.

NAL Call No.: 47.8 Am33P
Characterization of embryonic development in the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae).
Kinder, L. L.; Anthony, N. B.; Bailey, C. F. Poultry Science v.75(suppl. 1): p.49. (1996).
Descriptors: Dromaius Novaehollandiae; bird; poultry industry; growth

NAL Call No.: 47.8 Am33P
Chemiluminescent DNA fingerprinting of ratites using a PCR-labeled M13 probe.
Petitte, J. N.; Scheideler, S. E. Poultry Science v.74(suppl. 1): p.211. (1995).
Descriptors: bird; phage; virus; microorganism; polymerase chain reaction; analytical method; genomic DNA; genetics; electrophoresis; purification method; breeding programs

NAL Call No.: 47.8 Ar2
Cholesterol content, nutrients and fatty acid profiles of ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggs.
Reiner, G.; Dorau, H. P.; Dzapo, V. Archiv fuer Gefluegelkunde v.59(1): p.65-68. (1995). 23 refs.
Descriptors: eggs; poultry

Abstract: A total of 9 non-fertile ostrich eggs from 3 herds in Germany were analysed. Mean values and ranges are given for egg dimensions, vol., wt., sp. gr., albumen, yolk and shell % and wt., the moisture, crude protein, crude fat and ash contents of the albumen and yolk, and cholesterol content and fatty acid composition of yolk lipids. Yolk % was lower than in domestic poultry eggs. Cholesterol content of the yolk lipids was at the upper end of the normal range for poultry eggs; fatty acid composition showed higher % saturated and polyunsaturated but lower % monounsaturated fatty acids than hens' eggs. Apart from these differences, composition was similar to that of hens' eggs.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 B45
Circadian rhythm in the behaviour of ostriches kept in pens.
Sambraus, H.H. Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift v.107(10): p.339-341. (1994). 8 refs.
Descriptors: biological-rhythms; movement; feeding-behaviour; drinking; animal-welfare; circadian-rhythm; behaviour; animal-behaviour

Abstract: 120 ostriches, kept as domestic animals on a farm in Israel, were observed. Three behaviour categories were recorded: standing/walking, sitting/lying and eating/drinking. The animals spent more than 60% of the day standing and walking; activities with a non-life preserving function. The need to determine the behavioural needs of ostriches before any sort of husbandry is envisaged in central Europe in order to determine whether the welfare of ostriches is compatible with husbandry in central Europe.

NAL Call No.: SF966 Z66 1993
Clinical anatomy of ratites.
Fowler, M. E. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1993, ed. 3, p.194-198. (1993). 1 ref.
Descriptors: zoo-animals; respiratory-system; cardiovascular-system; reproductive-organs; digestive-system; anatomy; skeletomuscular-system

Comfort behaviour of the African ostrich (Struthio camelus).
Sambraus, H. H. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift v.101(8): p.307-308. (1994). 4 refs.
Descriptors: plumage; production; diurnal-activity; behaviour; reviews; animal-behaviour; sand-bathing

Abstract: Comfort behaviour of ostriches consists of caring of plumage and sand bathing. From studies of 120 ostriches in relation to the possibilities for ostrich production in central Europe it is concluded that care of plumage will be possible, but special devices must be constructed to allow sand bathing in every season.

NAL Call No.: 47.8 B77
Commercial incubation of ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggs in the UK with particular reference to the hatching process.
Deeming, D. C. British Poultry Science v.35(5): p.818. (1994).
Descriptors: struthio camelus; bird; poultry industry

NAL Call No.: 47.8 W89
Comparative physical and nutritive characteristics of ostrich eggs.
Sales, J.; Poggenpoel, D. G.; Cilliers, S.C. World's Poultry Science Journal v.52(1): p.45-52, 85, 87-88, 91, 94. (1996). 36 refs.
Descriptors: eggs; poultry; ostriches

Abstract: Physical and compositional properties of ostrich eggs are discussed and compared with those of other avian species, with a view to determining the suitability of ostrich eggs for table consumption. The physical appearance of ostrich eggs make them attractive to consumers, while the high shell strength provides resistance to breakage during handling and transportation. The limited data available indicate that composition is similar to that of eggs from other avian species; content of fat tends to be lower and contents of leucine and threonine tend to be higher than in chicken eggs. Market potential for fresh ostrich eggs is currently regarded as limited, however, there appears to be no reason why they cannot be utilized for table consumption. With this in mind, further research into sensory properties, storage stability, processing, etc. is recommended. [From En summ.]

NAL Call No.: 47.8 Am33P
Comparison of consumer acceptability of ostrich meat versus beef top loin steak.
Harris, S. D.; Miller, R. K.; Morris, C. A.; Hale, D. S.; Keeton, J. T.; May, S. G.; Savell, J. W. Poultry Science v.73(suppl. 1): p.138. (1994).
Descriptors: meeting abstract; meat industry; poultry industry; food industry; palatability

NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Conjunctivitis caused by eye flukes in captive-reared ostriches.
Greve, J. H.; Harrison, G. J. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v.177(9): p.909-910. (1980). illus.
Descriptors: struthio camelus; digenean-parasites; philophthalmus gralli; associated conjunctivitis & new host record for struthioniformes; disorders; Florida; Digenean Parasite Associated Conjunctivitis; new digenean parasite record for struthioniformes

NAL Call No.: SF511.V36--1995
The Dasana Ostrich Guide : a Practical Handbook.
Vandervoodt, C. Devonport : Nova Creative Pub., 1995. 224 p. illus.
Descriptors: ostrich-farming; ostriches-reproduction; ostriches-diseases-and-pests

NAL Call No.: 47.8 Am33P
Development of a PCR based diagnosis of sex in the ostrich.
Ding, Y.; Anthony, N.; Kinder, L.; Rhoads, D. Poultry Science v.74(suppl. 1): p.91. (1995).
Descriptors: bird; poultry industry; breeding; genetics; polymerase chain reaction; analytical method

NAL Call No.: SF994 A87
Diet effect on egg nutrients in a high producing ostrich.
Angel, R. Proceedings Annual Conference Association of Avian Veterinarians 1994. Orlando, FL: Association of Avian Veterinarians,1994. p.121-125. illus.
Descriptors: struthio camelus; inorganic-substances; mineral content of egg, variation & maternal die relationships; vitamins; egg content; diet; maternal diet composition effects on egg mineral & vitamin content; egg; mineral & vitamin content, variation & maternal diet relationships; breeding-season; egg-laying; season, egg mineral & vitamin content variation relationships

NAL Call No.: HE199.5.L5L58
Dinosaurs to ratites in only 250 million years.
Wiley, C. B. Live Animal Trade and Transport Magazine v.5(2): p.5-16. (June 1993). Includes references.
Descriptors: ostriches; rhea; emus; evolution; farming; history

NAL Call No.: SF995.W4
Disease and reproductive losses in emus.
Shane, S. M.; Tully, T. N. Jr. Proceedings - Western Poultry Disease Conference (43rd): p.22-24. (1994). Meeting held on February 27-March 1, 1994, Sacramento, California.
Descriptors: emus; mortality

Diseases and pathological conditions of ostriches.
Catelli, E; Piazza, V. Rivista di Avicoltura v.64(9): p.18-34. (1995). refs.
Descriptors: poultry; trauma; lesions; pathology; disease-transmission; aetiology; viral-diseases; bacterial-diseases; nutritional-disorders; reproductive-disorders; constipation; foreign-bodies; stomach-ulcers; spongiform-encephalopathy; neoplasms; heart-diseases; digestive-system-diseases; reviews; diseases; parasites; helminths; poultry-diseases; streptococcus-gallinarum; isospora-struthionis; leucocytozoon-struthionis; balantidium-struthionis; libyostrongylus-douglassii; houttuynia-struthionis; codiostomum-struthionis; dicheloinema-spicularia; struthiofilaria-megalocephala; philophtalmus-gralli; struthiolipeurus; esthiopterum-struthionis

Diseases of farmed ostriches.
Burlini, F. Informatore Agrario v.50(30): p.39-44. (1994)
Descriptors: bacterial-diseases; omphalitis; viral-diseases; foot-diseases; nutrient-deficiencies; tuberculosis; treatment; drug-therapy; prophylaxis; disease-prevention; diagnosis; disease-control; anaesthesia; animal-diseases; diseases; parasites; helminths; houttaymia-struthionis; libyostrongylus-douglassii; coeliostomum-struthionis

Do emus have to be legless too?
Ullrey, D. E. Proceedings of the Annual Dr Scholl Conference on the Nutrition of Captive Wild Animals 2 (1983)
Descriptors: dromaius novaehollandiae; diet-in-captivity; leg disorder relationship; hindlimbs; hindlimb-skeleton; developmental-disorders; legs, relationship with diet in captivity

(Does it pay to pluck an ostrich?). Lohnt es sich, den Strauss zu "rupfen"? Presserummel um Straussenhaltung.
dlz. Die landwirtschaftliche Zeitschrift fuer Produktion Technik Management (Germany) v.45(5): p.138-139. (1994). 5 illus.
Descriptors: ostriches; meat; markets; imports; eggs; chicks; animal-welfare; extensive-husbandry; Germany; animal-husbandry-methods; animal-products; birds; chickens; domestic-animals; domesticated-birds; Europe; extensive-farming; farming-systems; foreign-trade; galliformes; livestock; poultry; struthioniformes; trade; useful-animals; western-Europe; young-animals

[Don't give the feeds for the turkeys to the ostriches]. Non date agli struzzi il mangime per tacchini.
Rivista di Avicoltura (Italy) v.62(2): p.21-24 (February 1993)
Descriptors: ostriches; animal-feeding; rations; nutritive-value; nutritional-requirements; essential-amino-acids; ingredients; turkeys; amino-acids; birds; feeding; galliformes; nutrition-physiology; physiological-functions; physiological-requirements; quality; struthioniformes

NAL Call No.: S960.I5
Down on the ostrich farm.
Younghusband, P. International Wildlife 14(5) 1984: 52-59. (September-October 1984). illus.
Descriptors: struthio camelus; farming-and-agriculture; history & importance for conservation; conservation; importance of domestication & farming; Cape-Province; Oudtshoorn area; history of domestication & farming, conservation relationship

NAL Call No.: SF1.S6
The effect of diet protein and energy levels on the growth performance and feather production of slaughter ostriches under feedlot conditions. Die invloed van dieetproteien-en energiepeil op die groeiprestasie en veerproduksie van slagvolstruise onder voerkraaltoestande. Die invloed van dieetproteien-en energiepeil op die groeiprestasie en veerproduksie van slagvolstruise onder voerkraaltoestande.
Swart, D.; Kemm, E. H. South African Journal of Animal Science. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Veekunde v.15(4): p.146-150. (Decemer 1985)
Includes references.
Descriptors: ostriches; concentrates; diets; growth-rate; feed-intake; feather-production; feed-conversion; South-Africa

NAL Call No.: 47.8 Am33P
Effect of egg storage on hatchability and weight loss of ostrich eggs.
Wilson, H. R.; Eldred, A. R. Poultry Science v.75(suppl. 1): p.80. (1996).
Descriptors: bird; poultry industry; ostrich; eggs

NAL Call No.: 47.8 Am33P
The effects of shell quality on embryonic mortality and hatchability in ostriches (Struthio camelus).
Kinder, L. L.; Anthony, N. B.; Balog, J. M. Poultry Science v.73(suppl. 1): p.144. (1994).
Descriptors: meeting abstract; struthio camelus; bird; poultry industry; breeding; ash; calcium; magnesium

[Efficiency of ostrich husbandry now and in the future]. Wirtschaftlichkeit der Straussenhaltung jetzt und in Zukunft.
Goebbel, T. Deutsche Gefluegelwirtschaft und Schweineproduktion (Germany) [German Poultry Management and Swine Production] v.45(25): p.7-9. (1993). 2 illus., 4 tables.
Descriptors: ostriches; animal-husbandry; efficiency; poultry-rearing; profitability; production-costs; market-prices; poultry-meat; eggs; young-animals; producer-prices; meat-yield; feathers; leather; skin; animal-husbandry; animal-morphology; animal-products; birds; costs; integument; meat; meat-performance; performance; prices; processed-animal-products; processed-products; struthioniformes; yields

[The egg incubation of ostriches]. L' incubazione delle uova di struzzo.
Anderloni, G. Rivista di Avicoltura (Italy) v.62(5): p.51-55 (May 1993). 2 tables; 3 graphs.
Descriptors: ostriches; poultry-rearing; egg-incubation; incubators; eggs; egg-hatchability; temperature; humidity; weight-losses; animal-husbandry; animal-husbandry-equipment; animal-husbandry-methods; animal-products; birds; chemicophysical-properties; equipment; losses; poultry-equipment; struthioniformes

NAL Call No.: S1.M57
Elk and ostrich are our specialty--a visit to Hostetler Wildlife Farm.
Berg, P. Small Farm Today v.12(4): p.25-26. (August 1995)
Descriptors: cervus-elaphus-canadensis; ostriches; exotics; livestock; livestock-farming; family-farms; alternative-livestock

The Emu Cook Book.
Saver, M. 3rd ed. Potlatch, ID: Aussey Products, Inc.

[Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) meat.].
Berge, P.; Lepetit, J.; Renerre, M.; Touraille, C. Viandes et Produits Carnes v.16(3): p.93-96. (1995). 12 refs.
Descriptors: poultry; poultry-meat; emu-meat; meat-specific

NAL Call No.: SF510.5.M55-1992
The Emu Farmer's Handbook.
Minnaar, P.; Minnaar, M. Groveton, TX: Nyoni Publishing Co. (Phone: 1-800-722-9353 or 1-800-325-8414). Volume 1, 1994; Volume 2, 1998. Includes bibliographical references.
Descriptors: emu-farming-handbooks,-manuals,-etc

Abstract: Topics include: Introduction to commercial emu farming; Farm management; Handling and moving emus; Anatomy of the emu; Sexing the emu; Nutrition; Breeding season; Path of the egg; Care of eggs, pre-incubation; Incubation and hatching; Chick care; Artificial insemination; Problems in the laying hen; Treatment of diseases and injuries; Processing. [Note: NAL owns 1992 edition.]

NAL Call No.: 49.9-AU72
Emu farming in Australia.
Smetana, P. Animal Production in Australia: Proceedings of the Australian Sociey of Aminal Production. Sydney : Pergamon Press, 1990. v.18 p.107-109. Meeting held on July 8-12, 1990 in Adelaide, South Australia.
Descriptors: emus; animal-production; game-farming; australia

NAL Call No.: S397 M57 no. 94/37
Emu farming [in Western Australia] - background information.
Smetana, P. Perth, W.A.: (Australia): Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, June 1994. 157 p. illus.
Descriptors: emus; production-possibilities; western-australia; australia; birds; casuariiformes; oceania

Emu goes on the menu.
Williams, M. Food Manufacture International v.11(2): p.25. (1994)
Descriptors: meat-specific; birds; emu-meat; Australia

Emu husbandry.
Padget, D. Journal of the Association of Avian Veterinarians v.5(1): p.48-49. (1991).
Descriptors: dromaius novaehollandiae; care-in-captivity; sexing-techniques

An emu in every pot? Australian bird's making inroads as specialty food, oil has therapeutic potential.
Salerno, Heather. The Washington Post. May 27, 1997, p. E1, E6
Descriptors: emus; market; nutrition-information; oils.

NAL Call No.: HE199.5.L5L58
Emu producers offer red meat.
Live Animal Trade and Transportation Magazine v.7(2): p.25-30. (June 1995).
Descriptors: emus; meat-production; meat-and-livestock-industry; marketing; nutrition-information; food-processing

NAL Call No.: SF511.5.E46E482
Emu Today & Tomorrow . Annual Edition.
Nardin, OK: Emu today & tomorrow, 1992-. v. : illus. Contact: Emu Today & Tomorrow, P.O. Box 7, Nardin, OK 74646-0007. Phone: 405-628-2933. FAX: 405-628-2011.
Descriptors: emu-farming-United-States-periodicals; emus-United-States-periodicals

NAL Call No.: SF511.5.E468
Emu Today & Tomorrow (monthly periodical).
Nardin, OK. Contact: Emu Today & Tomorrow, P.O. Box 7, Nardin, OK 74646-0007. Phone: 405-628-2933. FAX: 405-628-2011.
Descriptors: emu-farming-United-States-periodicals; emus-United-States-periodicals

Abstract: Includes Emu Breeder Directory. August 1996 issue (p.60) lists state Emu Assocation chapter presidents.

NAL Call No.: HD9437.D4D3
[Emus in Danish agriculture]. Strudse i dansk landbrug.
Soerensen, L. Y. Dansk Erhvervsfjerkrae (Denmark) [Danish Poultry Industry] v.24(8): p.214-215. (August 1995).
Descriptors: ostriches; emus; animal-husbandry; denmark; birds; casuariiformes; Europe; scandinavia; struthioniformes; western-Europe

[Emus Rearing]. L' Elevage Des Emeus.
Licour, H.; Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes (France). Nantes (France). September 1993. 109 p., Docteur Veterinaire (These).
Descriptors: emus; animal-morphology; biology; reproduction; sexual-behaviour; animal-husbandry; animal-husbandry-methods; animal-feeding; feeds; chemical-composition; poultry-meat; hides-and-skins; eggs; oils; feathers; animal-morphology; animal-products; behaviour; birds; casuariiformes; integument; meat; physiological-functions; processed-animal-products; processed-products

Erosion problems in ostrich farming.
Marx, E. Dohne Bulletin (South Africa) v.4(2): p.4-6. (1995)
Contact: Directorate: Communication, National Department of Agriculture, Priv. Bag X388, Pretoria 0001 - South Africa. ZA (South-Africa)
Descriptors: South-Africa; grassland-management; erosion; ostriches; Africa; Africa-South-of-Sahara; anglophone-Africa; birds; southern-Africa; struthioniformes

Estimation of the size and value of the B.C. exotic bird farm industry.
Performer: British Columbia. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Food. Statistical Services Unit, Victoria.

NAL Call No.: SF55.A8E96-1992
Exotic Alternatives : an Insight into Other Farming Ventures : Deer Farming, Sheep Dairying, Yabby Farming, Ostrich Farming, Alpaca Farming.
Knox, I. Melbourne, Vic. : Agmedia : Dept. of Agriculture ; [Geelong] : GOTEC, 1992. 71 p. illus. "Produced jointly by Agmedia and the Farm & Garden Library"--T.p. verso.
Descriptors: animal-culture-Australia-congresses; exotic-animals-Australia-congresses; deer-farming-Australia-congresses; sheep-Australia-milk-production-congresses; crayfish-culture-Australia-congresses; ostrich-farms-and-farming-Australia-congresses

NAL Call No.: SF105.27 I57
Exotic Livestock and Wildlife.
Lowry, M. ed. Manhattan, KS: International Exotic Livestock and Wildlife, Inc., 1991-. Contact: 714 Poyntz, Ste. B, Manhattan, KS 66502
Descriptors: exotic-animals

Exotic Market Review.
Bowie, TX: Exotic Market Review, 1994. Monthly. Contact: P.O. Box 1613, Bowie, TX 76230. Phone: 800-972-7730. FAX: 817-872-3559.
Descriptors: exotic-animals; markets; ostriches-marketing; emus-marketing

The Exotic News.
Johnson, J. ed. Contact: P.O. Box 902, Lampasas, TX 76550. Phone: 515-556-3145
Descriptors: exotic-animals

NAL Call No.: aHD1751.A42
The "exotic" sector: ostriches & emus.
Duewer, L.; Madison, M.; Christensen, L. Agricultural Outlook (AO-208): p.15-17. (June 1994)
Descriptors: exotics; ostriches; emus; livestock-farming; market-prices; products; uses; USA

NAL Call No.: 47.8 B77
Factors affecting growth of ostrich (Struthio camelus) chicks.
Deeming, D. C. British Poultry Science v.36(5): p.838-839. (1995).
Descriptors: struthio camelus; bird; poultry industry

NAL Call No.: 47.8 B77
Factors affecting hatchability during commercial incubation of ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggs.
Deeming, D. C. British Poultry Science v.36(1): p.51-65. (March 1995). Includes references.
Descriptors: ostriches; egg-hatchability; incubation; environmental-temperature; relative-humidity; embryo-mortality; weight-losses; egg-mass; water-vapor-movement; microbial-contamination; egg-fertility

Abstract: 1. A batch of 320 ostrich eggs from 9 different farms in Zimbabwe were incubated in a single stage operation and the fate of each was recorded. 2. Hatchability was only 37.2% and the result of high rates of infertility and contamination (22.2% and 22.8% respectively); it varied between eggs from different farms. 3. Embryonic mortality was high at the start and end of incubation, a pattern similar to that of other domestic birds. 4. Mortality of late stage embryos was related to percentage water loss and mass specific water vapour conductance of the shell, with extremes of the ranges causing the highest mortality. 5. Microbial contamination of the eggs was a significant problem and varied in eggs from different farms indicating that more attention is needed in both breeder bird and nest management.

NAL Call No.: 47.8 Am33P
Factors affecting hatchability of ostrich eggs.
Satteneni, G.; Satterlee, D. G. Poultry Science v.73(suppl. 1): p.38. (1994).
Descriptors: meeting abstract; bird; poultry industry; breeding

NAL Call No.: 41.8-V641
Factors affecting the rate of growth of ostrich (Struthio camelus) chicks in captivity.
Deeming, D. C.; Ayres, L. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association v.135(26): p.617-622. (December 1994). Includes references.
Descriptors: ostriches; chicks; growth-rate; body-weight; environmental-factors; hatching

NAL Call No.: TP368.F662
Farming of emus and processing of emu meat.
Tuckwell, C. Food Australia - Official Journal of the CAFTA and AIFST v.45(12): p.574-575. (December 1993) [North Sydney, Australia : Council of Australian Food Technology Associations, 1988-. December 1993.]. Includes references.
Descriptors: emus; poultry-farming; food-processing; eggs; poultry-meat; food-composition; nutritive-value; food-storage; food-industry; trends

[Farming of ostriches]. Wie Strausse gehalten werden.
Goebbel, T. Deutsche Gefluegelwirtschaft und Schweineproduktion (Germany) [German Poultry Management and Swine Production] v.45(13): p.7-8. (1993). 3 illus.
Descriptors: ostriches; animal-husbandry; poultry-rearing; Germany; poultry-housing; equipment; eggs; egg-incubation; temperature; mortality; animal-feeding; stocking-density; climatic-requirements; nutritional-requirements; animal-housing; animal-husbandry; animal-husbandry-methods; animal-products; birds; Europe; livestock-management; nutrition-physiology; physiological-functions; physiological-requirements; struthioniformes; western-Europe

NAL Call No.: TX501.J68
Fat content, caloric value, cholesterol content, and fatty acid composition of raw and cooked ostrich meat.
Sales, J.; Marais, D.; Kruger, M. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis v.9(1): p.85-89. (March 1996). Includes references.
Descriptors: ostriches; poultry; poultry-meat; dietary-fat; energy-content; cholesterol; fatty-acids; lipids; nutrient-content; ostrich meat; food-composition; raw-foods; cooking; processing-thermal; species-differences; beef; chicken-meat

Abstract: The influence of cooking on the ether-extractable fat content, caloric value, lipid content, cholesterol content, and fatty acid composition of the iliofibularis muscle from the ostrich carcass has been studied. A comparison was also made between values obtained for ostrich and those of beef and chicken. The ether-extractable fat content, caloric value, lipid content, and cholesterol content of ostrich meat were increased (P < 0.05) by cooking due to a decrease (P < 0.05) in moisture content. Cooking did not influence (P > 0.05) the w3/w6 fatty acid ratio (approximately 0.35) of ostrich meat. Although ostrich meat is relatively low in ether-extractable fat content (0.91 g/100 g), cholesterol content (57 mg/100 g) does not differ from that of beef or chicken.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 T445
Feather pecking among ostriches kept in captivity.
Sambraus, H. H. Tierarztliche Umschau v.50(2): p.108-111. (1995). 8 refs.
Descriptors: vices; cannibalism; nutritional-disorders; feather-pecking

Abstract: In a flock of 536 ostriches on a farm in Israel, moderate or severe feather loss was observed in 43 of 278 females and 19 of 258 males. The pecked bird did not offer any resistance to pecking. Unsuitable feeding was blamed.

NAL Call No.: 47.8 Ar2
Features of ostrich keeping.
Reiner, G. Archiv fuer Gefluegelkunde v.59(1): p.94-98. (1995).
Descriptors: journal article; struthio camelus; anatomy; habitat; feeding; breeding; systematics; meat; leather; slaughtering; Europe; South Africa; Australia; USA; Israel; Germany

Abstract: This review deals with agricultural keeping of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). With the beginning of the 1990s, following Australia, the USA and Israel, ostrich keeping has started in Europe too. Beginning with the history of ostrich keeping in South Africa, the article gives some insight into systematic and anatomical specialities and shows some biological traits. Then it describes the habitate and the way of life of the ostrich, ostrich keeping in South Africa, linking up to features of enclosures, feeding, breeding and rising of the chickens. Following some statements on slaughtering, meat and leather quality, the article ends with some remarks on the situation of ostrich keeping in Germany.

Feed intake and feather pecking in African ostriches (Struthio camelus) in Israel.
Sambraus, H. H . KTBL Schrift (361): p.120-129. (1994). 5 refs.
Descriptors: animal-welfare; feathers; quality; feeding-behaviour; sex-differences; pelleted-feeds; International-workshop-on-applied-ethology-in-livestock

NAL Call No.: SF740.A54
Feeding big birds.
Scheideler, S.; Angel, R. Large Animal Veterinarian v.49(2): p.28, 30. (1994). 5 refs.
Descriptors: vitamin-E; selenium; nutrient-requirements

Abstract: Digestion and nutrient requirements of ratites, such as ostriches, emus, kiwis, rheas and cassowaries, are discussed. Vitamin E and selenium are of primary concern in ratite diets.

NAL Call No.: SF1.S6
Fermentative digestion in the ostrich (Struthio camelus var. domesticus), a large avian species that utilizes cellulose.
Swart, D.; Mackie, R. I.; Hayes, J. P. South African Journal of Animal Science [Pretoria : South African Society of Animal Science.] v.23 (5/6): p.127-135. December 1993. Includes references.
Descriptors: ostriches; chicks; volatile-fatty-acids; fermentation; cellulose-digestion. metabolizable-energy; acetic-acid; metabolism. radioactive-tracers; carbon; gas-production; carbon-dioxide; intestinal-microorganisms; lactic-acid; ammonium.

NAL Call No.: SF487.8.A1P68
A few answers to frequently asked questions about ostriches.
Bradley, F. A. Poultry Fact Sheet. Cooperative Extension Service, University of California. Oakland, CA : The Service. August 1989. (7) 2 p.
Descriptors: ostriches; poultry-farming; exotics; california

NAL Call No.: SF55.A8E96-1992
Financial considerations.
Lanigan, B. Exotic Alternatives an Insight into Other Farming Ventures Deer Farming, Sheep Dairying, Yabby Farming, Ostrich Farming, Alpaca Farming. p.59-68. Melbourne, Vic. : Agmedia : Department of Agriculture, GOTEC, 1992.
Descriptors: primary-sector; income-tax; production-costs; farm-accounting; profitability; australia

NAL Call No.: 166.2-N47
The flight of the emu: growers look to cooperatives to build market for "avian cattle".
Campbell, D. Farmer Cooperatives v.62(2): p.14-17. (May 1995)
Descriptors: emus; cooperative-marketing; meat-and-livestock-industry

Focus on - ostrich farming. A new enterprise in the United Kingdom.
Moody, R. State Veterinary Journal v.2(1): p.7-10. (1992). 3 refs.
Descriptors: animal-husbandry; physiology; housing; nutrition; animal-welfare; viral-diseases; food-animals; artifical-incubation; general-account

NAL Call No.: Q1.A3A53
The good oil on the emu.
Low, T. Australian Natural History (Australia) v.24(Autumn 1994): p.20-21. illus., 3 refs.
Descriptors: emus; animal-husbandry; animal-oils; australia; birds; casuariiformes; oceania; oils

Growing popularity of ostrich meat is a concern for inspectors.
Pettit, J. A. Iowa State University Veterinarian v.58: p.1, 5-6. 1996.
Descriptors: ostriches;meat hygiene; meat inspection; meat products; food hygiene

NAL Call No.: SF1.A56
Growth curves of ostriches (Struthio camelus) from Oudtshoorn in South Africa.
Cilliers, S. C.; duPreez, J. J.; Maritz, J. S.; Hayes, J. P. Animal Science v.61(pt.1): p.161-164. (August 1995). Includes references.
Descriptors: ostriches; growth-curve; sex-differences; diet; hatching-weight; body-weight; South-Africa

NAL Call No.: SF1.S6
Growth, feed intake and body composition of ostriches (Struthio camelus) between 10 and 30 kg live mass.
Swart, D.; Siebrits, F. K.; Hayes, J. P. South African Journal of Animal Science v.23(5/6): p.142-150. (December 1993). Includes references.
Descriptors: ostriches; chicks; growth-rate; body-composition; feed-intake; liveweight; growth-models; metabolizable-energy; protein-content; energy-intake; protein-composition; body-fat; maize-meal; alfalfa-meal

NAL Call No.: 49-AN55
Growth rate, total body water volume, dry-matter intake and water consumption of domesticated ostriches (Struthio camelus).
Degen, A. A.; Kam, M.; Rosenstrauch, A.; Plavnik, I. Animal Production v.52(pt.1): p.225-232. (February 1991). Includes references.
Descriptors: ostriches; body-condition; body-water; growth-rate; energy-intake; water-intake; growth-curve; israel

A Guide to Hatching and Raising Emu.
Castleberry, J. Contact: Rte 2, Box 234 B-1. Lampasas, TX 76550. Phone: 512-556-5910
Descriptors: emu-farming; hatching; rearing-techniques

NAL Call No.: SF511.F56-1992
A Guide to the Theory and Practice of Ostrich Incubation. 2nd ed. Ostrich incubation.
Finger, J. Victoria, Australia: Bell South Pty. Ltd., 1992. 63 p. illus.
Descriptors: ostriches; eggs-incubation

Guidelines for Successful Ostrich Farming.
Department of Agriculture, O. S. A. L. K. A. D. C. Pretoria (South Africa). National Department of Agriculture. 1996. 44 p.
Descriptors: ostriches; farming-systems; egg-incubation; rearing-techniques; livestock-management; animal-feeding; vaccination; parasites; South-Africa; Africa; Africa-South-of-Sahara; anglophone-Africa; animal-husbandry-methods; birds; disease-control; immunization; immunostimulation; immunotherapy; southern-Africa; struthioniformes; therapy

NAL Call No.: QL671.A9
Hand-rearing ostriches Struthio camelus at the Phoenix Zoo (Arizona, USA).
Spreckels, M. Avicultural magazine v.89(4): p.229-233. (1983). illus.
Descriptors: struthio camelus; captive-rearing-records; hand-rearing; Arizona; Phoenix Zoo; captive rearing record

Hatchery management in ostrich production.
Stewart, J. S.; Fowler, M.E. [ed.]. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy. 3rd edition. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, London etc., (1993).
Descriptors: struthio camelus; rearing-techniques; hatchery management; reproductive-techniques; artificial incubation; diseases-and-disorders; egg incubation & hatching problems, review

NAL Call No.: SF511.5.E46C37--1997
Hatching & Raising Emu Economically. Book II.
Castleberry, Janice. Available from Triple C Ranch, Inc., Route 2, Box 234-B1, Lampasas, TX 76550. Phone: 512-556-5910
Descriptors: emu-farming; hatching; rearing-techniques

NAL Call No.: 47.8 B77
The hatching sequence of ostrich (Struthio camelus) embryos with notes on development as observed by candling.
Deeming, D. C. British Poultry Science v.36(1): p.67-78. (1995). Includes references.
Descriptors: ostriches; hatching; egg-hatchability; embryo-mortality; embryonic-development; pipping

Abstract: 1. The hatching sequence of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) was determined by observing embryos during candling, those in the process of hatching and in dead-in-shell eggs. 2. Candling showed that there was a progressive increase in dark shadowing within the egg but fine details were not easily seen. Nevertheless candling is considered to be an important method of assessing development of ostrich eggs during incubation. 3. The ostrich embryo adopts a hatching position and follows a hatching sequence different from that of the fowl. During internal pipping, the air space is pulled towards the beak in the former but the beak moves to the air space in the latter. The right foot has an important role in breaking the shell during hatching. 4. The hatching process is considered to reflect an adaptation to the egg having a hard, brittle shell. 5. Malpositions in the ostrich may have been misinterpreted in the past because of the unusual hatching position. The commonest malposition described here was head-in-the-small-end.

NAL Call No.: SF601.A47
Heavy metal poisoning in ostriches from proventricular foreign bodies.
Edwards, W. C.; Gregory, D. G.; Vanhooser, S. L. Veterinary and Human Toxicology v.34(3): p.254-255. (June 1992). Includes references.
Descriptors: ostriches; heavy-metals; poisoning

High mortality in ostrich eggs and hatchlings due to egg-washing.
Huchzermeyer, F. W. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association v.67(1): p.3. (1996). 1 ref.
Descriptors: eggs; washing; disinfection; potassium-permanganate; yolk-sac; bacterial-diseases; embryos; mortality

NAL Call No.: SF995.W4
High mortality in young ostriches.
Singh Dhillon, A. Proceedings - Western Poultry Disease Conference (42nd): p.15-16. (1993). Meeting held February 28-March 2, 1993, Sacramento, California.
Descriptors: ostriches; mortality

NAL Call No.: 382 So12
Histological, biophysical, physical and chemical characteristics of different ostrich muscles.
Sales, J. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture v.70(1): p.109-114. (1996). 35 refs.
Descriptors: poultry; physical-properties; poultry-meat; physicochemical-properties; ostrich-meat; meat-specific

Abstract: Meat quality characteristics were evaluated in different leg muscles taken from the left leg of 39 ostriches aged 8-14 months. Ostrich meat had a high ultimate pH ( greater than 6.2) and low intramuscular fat content. Although slaughtering procedures involved removal of legs from the carcass within 30 min post mortem, long sarcomere lengths and lack of a linear relationship (P greater than 0.05) between sarcomere length and Warner-Bratzler shear measurements (WBS) showed that no cold shortening occurred in muscles. Means obtained for the iliotibialis lateralis were representative of the mean values of all the individual muscles combined with regard to muscle fibre diam., WBS and pigment content. Overall means for sarcomere length, ultimate pH and collagen content of individual muscles combined could be deduced from determination of these characteristics in the femorotibialis medius. No single muscle was representative of the mean characteristics of all carcass muscles. [From En summ.]

The history and current status of ostrich breeding.
Burlini, F. Informatore Agrario v.50(28): p.36-38. (1994).
Descriptors: breeding

Abstract: This article gives a brief account of ostrich breeding in South Africa, Australia, the USA, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Israel and Europe.

NAL Call No.: aZ5071.N3
Housing, husbandry, and welfare of selected birds (quail, pheasant, fincehs, ostrich, dove, parrot): December 1980 - December 1993.
Kreger, M. D. Quick Bibliography Series. Beltsville, Md., National Agricultural Library. April 1994. (QB no. 94-26) 39 p. Updates QB 91-72.
Descriptors: quails; pheasants; fringillidae; ostriches; parrots; colinus-virginianus; animal-husbandry; animal-housing; animal-welfare

[How to breed the ostrich in the United States]. Come si alleva lo struzzo negli Stati Uniti.
Anderloni, G. Informatore Zootecnico (Italy) v.40(10): p.49-50 (May 1993)
Descriptors: ostriches; animal-husbandry-methods; farm-management; animal-housing; Texas; Oklahoma; America; birds; business-management; North-America; southern-plains-states-USA; southern-states-USA; struthioniformes; USA

NAL Call No.: SF994 A87
How to evaluate a ratite facility to aid in diagnosing chick mortality.
Raines, A. M. Proceedings Annual Conference Association of Avian Veterinarians 1994. Orlando, FL: Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1994. p.97-102. illus.
Descriptors: ratitae; farming-and-agriculture; care-in-captivity; improper management as cause of chick disease & mortality, evaluation; diseases-and-disorders; causes of chick mortality in production facilities, evaluation protocols; mortality; eggs & chicks in production facilities, evaluation of management causes

How to manage and market the "Italian" Ostrich.
Mengozzi, B. Terra e Sole v.50(640): p.540-546. (1995).
Descriptors: feeding; nutrient-requirements

NAL Call No.: SF994.J45-1992
Husbandry and Medical Management of Ostriches, Emus and Rheas.
Jensen, J. M.; Johnson, J. H.; Weiner, S. T. College Station, TX (P.O. Box 10541, College Station, TX 77842) : Wildlife and Exotic Animal Teleconsultants, 1992. 129 p. illus. Includes bibliographical references.
Descriptors: ostriches-diseases-treatment-handbooks,- manuals,-etc; emus-diseases-treatment-handbooks,-manuals,-etc

Husbandry practices as related to infectious and parasitic diseases of farmed ratites.
Tully, T. N.; Shane, S. M. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties v.15(1): p.73-89. (1996).
Descriptors: emus; rhea; ostrich; prevention

NAL Call No.: 47.8 Am33P
Identification of a female specific DNA sequence in ratites.
Chouljenko, V.; Moreau, J. D.; Satteneni, G.; Satterlee, D. G.; Kousoulas, K. G.; Fioretti, W. C. Poultry Science v.74(suppl. 1): p.183. (1995).
Descriptors: bird genetics; gender prediction; polymerase chain reaction; analytical method; blood; DNA; ostrich; emu; chicken; turkey; quail

Incubation of ostrich eggs.
Anderioni, G. Rivista di Avicoltura v.62(5): p.51-55. (1993). 2 refs.
Descriptors: incubation; eggs

[Incubation of ostriche eggs. What is the best environment?]. Kunstbrut von Strausseneiern. Welche Umwelt ist die beste?
Jost, R. Deutsche Gefluegelwirtschaft und Schweineproduktion (Germany) [German Poultry Management and Swine Production] v.46(19): p.13-14 (1994). 3 illus.
Descriptors: ostriches; egg-incubation; eggs; temperature; air; humidity; gas-exchange; carbon-dioxide; weight-losses; animal-husbandry-methods; animal-products; birds; chemicophysical-properties; losses; oxides; physiological-functions; struthioniformes

NAL Call No.: SF996 Z66 1993
Infectious and parasitic diseases of ratites.
Jensen, J. M.; Fowler, M. E. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1993, p.200-203. (1993). 10 refs.
Descriptors: bacterial-diseases; viral-diseases; parasitoses

NAL Call No.: 286.81-F322
Information on ostrich nutritional needs still limited.
Vohra, P. Feedstuffs v.64(28): p.16-17, 21. (July 1992). Includes references.
Descriptors: ostriches; poultry-feeding; nutrient-requirements; diet-planning; information

NAL Call No.: S544.3.A2C47
Information resources for ostrich, emu, and rhea producers.
Blake, J. P.; Hess, H. B. Circular ANR - Alabama Cooperative Extension Service, Auburn University. [Auburn] AL : Alabama Cooperative Extension Service, Auburn University,. August 1995. (924, rev.) 6 p.
Descriptors: ostriches; emus; rhea; production-possibilities; information-services; interest-groups; publications; videotapes

NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Ingestion of metal objects by ostriches (Struthio camelus).
Deeming, D. C.; Dick, A. C. K. Veterinary Record v.137(4): p.99-100. (1995). 6 refs.
Descriptors: ingestion; poultry; gizzard; proventriculus; transport-of-animals; international-trade; foreign-bodies; digestive-system; poultry-diseases

Abstract: In 1994, several ostriches which had been imported into the UK from Namibia and Zimbabwe were found to have metal foreign objects in their foregut. The objects which had been detected in some birds using a metal detector were found during PM examination of 8 of the birds who died. Up to 200 nails and pieces of metal together with large stones and pieces of wood were found in the proventriculus and gizzard of individual birds. Four birds had nails embedded in their gizzard wall and in one, peritonitis had followed a nail puncture of the proventriculus. Metal was detected in the body of one adult bird which had lost condition rapidly; this bird, whose heterophil count was normal, recovered after 3 months of force-feeding. Details of a treatment protocol to be used on any bird which loses condition after transportation, especially if it has been imported, is provided. Although some of the ingested metal appeared to be of African origin, it is suggested that pasture for ostriches should be checked to ensure all foreign objects are removed.

[Instead of speculative shares ostriches breeding?]. Statt hochspekulativer Aktien Straussenzucht?
Goebbel, T. Landwirtschaftliches Wochenblatt Westfalen Lippe, Ausgabe A (Germany) v.150(15): p.32-33. (1993). 2 illus.
Descriptors: ostriches; animal-breeding; marketing-channels; production-data; microeconomic-analysis; birds; economic-analysis; marketing; struthioniformes

NAL Call No.: 41.8 C87
Introduction to health problems in the farming of ostriches (Struthio camelus).
Migliorati, G.; Capua, I.; Fico, R.; Pezzotti, G. Veterinaria Italiana v.28(4): p.47-52. (1992). 13 refs.
Descriptors: animal-diseases

Investigations on different factors affecting natural and induced hatching in the African ostrich (Struthio camelus) and on other data on ostriches.
Krawinkel, P. Germany: Justus Liebig Universitat Giessen, 1994. 165 pp. 74 refs. Summary in English.
Descriptors: incubators; egg-fertility; egg-hatchability; egg-weight; incubation

[Lack of room causes leg damages]. Platzmangel provoziert Beinschaeden.
Kistner, C. Deutsche Gefluegelwirtschaft und Schweineproduktion (Germany) [German Poultry Management and Swine Production] v.46(36): p.17-18. (1994). 1 illus.
Descriptors: ostriches; limbs; poultry-rearing; stabling; movement-disorders; physical-activity; animal-husbandry; animal-husbandry-methods; animal-morphology; birds; body-regions; disorders; functional-disorders; struthioniformes

[Legal questions concerning farming of ostriches]. Rechtliche Fragen bei der Straussenhaltung.
Goebbel, T. Deutsche Gefluegelwirtschaft und Schweineproduktion (Germany) [German Poultry Management and Swine Production] v.45(13): p.8-9. (1993). 2 illus.
Descriptors: ostriches; animal-husbandry; law; legislation; Germany; free-range-husbandry; slaughtering; legal-liability; animal-welfare; animal-health; animal-husbandry- methods; birds; Europe; extensive-farming; extensive-husbandry; farming-systems; law; processing; struthioniformes; western-Europe

NAL Call No.: 41.8 V64
Locomotor diseases in captive young ostriches.
Cooper, J. E.; Gimbi, A. A. Veterinary Record v.134(13): p.336. (1994). 3 refs.
Descriptors: nutritional-disorders; metabolic-disorders; bone-diseases; fractures; deficiency-diseases; calcium

Abstract: An outbreak of disease in captive ostriches on a farm in Tanzania is reported. In January 1992, 2- to 8-week old ostriches hatched from eggs collected in the wild showed a staggering gait or were found recumbent. Affected birds were unwilling or unable to lift their heads and movement of the neck was sometimes accompanied by tremors. anorexia was a common feature and, in the early stages, diarrhoea was sometimes seen. Dehydration often followed. Spoon feeding was carried out and physiotherapy was applied. A few birds appeared to respond but within 24 to 48 hours relapsed and continued to deteriorate. Of 90 ostriches on the farm, nearly 50 showed clinical signs of disease over a 3-month period. Clinical examination showed the affected birds to be in reasonable condition apart from those individuals that had been recumbent and anorexic for more than 48 hours. Two birds had fractures of the legs. Soft, pliable bones were a feature in the majority of cases. Radiographs of live and dead birds showed poor bone density, thin cortices and fractures. PM findings included soft bones, pressure sores, subcutaneous bruising and impacted stomachs. Histopathological examination revealed minor changes including mononuclear cell infiltration of the kidneys of 2 birds. Analysis of the diet of broiler mash gave the following results: crude protein 16.8%, ether extract 7.12%, dry matter 89.9%, calcium 0.88% and phosphorus 0.39%. The condition was diagnosed as a nutritional and metabolic disorder, primarily attributable to a calcium deficiency. After the diet was supplemented with bonemeal, no new cases occurred. Of the birds already affected, only those with minor clinical signs recovered while the remainder became progressively worse and died. A calcium deficiency appears to have been the prime cause of the problem but this may have been exacerbated by the relatively high protein content of the diet.

[The Main Diseases in Emus]. Principales Maladies Rencontrees Chez L' Emeu.
Locatelli, V.; Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes (France). Nantes (France). September 1993. 105 p., Docteur Veterinaire (These).
Descriptors: emus; biology; animal-husbandry; pathology; animal-diseases; pathogens; parasites; bacteria; animal-viruses; birds; casuariiformes

[Making profits with ostrichs?]. Mit Straussen an das grosse Geld?
Goebbel, T. Deutsche-Gefluegelwirtschaft und Schweineproduktion (Germany) v.45(11): p.7-9. (1993). 1 illus.
Descriptors: ostriches; animal-husbandry; profitability; efficiency; netherlands; producer-prices; eggs; animal-products; birds; Europe; prices; struthioniformes; western-Europe

NAL Call No.: 41.8 Av5
Malaria in a captive emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) from Florida.
Fox, J. H.; Greiner, E. C.; Bain, P.; Jones, R. Avian Diseases v.40(2): p.477-479. (1996). 4 refs.
Descriptors: malaria; zoo-animals; morphology; taxonomy; case-reports; protozoal-infections; host-parasite-relationship

Abstract: Severe anaemia and intraerythrocytic stages of an unusual Plasmodium sp. were identified in the blood of a 5-month-old female emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) that had a 4-week history of malaise. Examination of blood taken 3 days before death of the bird showed a packed cell volume of 10%. Erythrocytes showed a marked regenerative response. Approximately 4% of erythrocytes had intracytoplasmic inclusions, mainly within immature cells, resembling malarial parasites. The schizonts were a combination of the Haemamoeba and Huffia subgenera type with 8-16 merozoites in mature forms. The gametocytes were elongate. The abnormal morphology was probably a reflection of a new host-parasite relationship. Exoerythrocytic parasite stages were not identified PM. The anaemia was attributed to the Plasmodium infection.

Management of ostrich breeder flocks.
Sharp, G. J. Journal of the Zimbabwe Society for Animal Production. v.5: p.79-82. (1993)
Descriptors: breeding; management; tropics

NAL Call No.: QL696.C34M5
A Manual on Emu Farming.
Minnaar, P. [Brenham, TX : Emu World, Inc.], 1989. 44 p. : illus., Cover title.
Descriptors: emus

[The market for breeding ostriches and ostrich products]. Der Markt fuer Zuchtstrausse und Straussenprodukte.
Deutsche Gefluegelwirtschaft und Schweineproduktion (Germany) v.45(14): p.7. (1993). 1 illus.
Descriptors: ostriches; market-prices; eggs; feathers; skin; young-animals; animal-morphology; animal-products; birds; integument; prices; struthioniformes

NAL Call No.: 47.8 Am33P
Meat yields from market age ostriches.
Stadelman, W. J.; Schmieder, H.; Adams, R. L. Poultry Science v.74(suppl. 1): p.218. (1995).
Descriptors: poultry industry; bird; muscles; yield; mechanical deboning equipment; comminuted meat products; food processing; food products; food industry

NAL Call No.: HD9000.1 F646
`Meating' a healthy demand.
Vrzal, A. Prepared Foods v.163(5): p.97-98. (1994).
Descriptors: meat-products; egg-products

Abstract: New product introductions in the meat products category in the US in 1993 are discussed. 454 new products were introduced in 1993, a decrease on the 1992 figure of 785. Aspects considered include: reasons for the significant decrease in this sector; line extensions; new poultry products; emu meat products; healthy frankfurter alternatives; breakfast meats and egg products; and meat alternatives for vegetarians.

Metabolic scaling of ketamine in ostriches and emus.
Jensen, J. M.; Matthews, N. S.; Hartsfield, S. M.; Junge, R. E. Proceedings : American Association of Zoo Veterinarians and Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians Annual Conference Pittsburgh, USA, 22-27, October, 1994. p.134-137. (1994). 10 refs.
Descriptors: dosage; injectable-anaesthetics; ketamine

NAL Call No.: T223 A21
Method for preferential production of ratites of a desired sex.
Crews, D.; Wibbels, T. Official Gazette Of The United States Patent And Trademark Office Patents v.1170(1 Jan. 3): p.102. (1995).
Descriptors: poultry industry; ostrich; sex differentiating material; methods

NAL Call No.: T223 A21
Method for slaughtering and removing the hide from ratites, including ostrich and emu.
Schumann, B. R.; Stickler, H. M.; Stickler, D. E.; Stickler, P. J.; Stickler, H. B. Official Gazette Of The United States Patent And Trademark Office Patents v.1173(2 April 11): p.1026. (1995).
Descriptors: food processing; poultry; methods

Method for the humane slaughter and processing of ratites, including ostrich and emu.
Schumann, B. R.; Stickler, H. M.; Stickler, D. E.; Stickler, P. J.; Stickler, H. B. Official Gazette Of The United States Patent And Trademark Office Patents v.1172(2 March 14): p.973. (1995).
Descriptors: livestock industry; poultry industry; de-feathering process; methods

NAL Call No.: 47.8 B77
Microbial spoilage of ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggs.
Deeming, D. C. British Poultry Science v.37(3): p.689-693. (1996). 14 refs.
Descriptors: spoilage; egg-hatchability; infertility; storage; hygiene; microbial-contamination; contamination; eggs; Hyphomycetes; mitosporic-fungi

Abstract: The incidence of microbial spoilage was investigated in 3 batches of ostrich eggs, 1 from South Africa (250 eggs) and 2 from Europe (209 and 244 eggs). 18 to 21% of eggs in each batch were contaminated with bacteria (including Aeromonas, Escherichia, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas) and fungi (including Aspergillus, Mucor, and Scedosporium), with the latter being found more often in eggs which contained more advanced embryos. Although infertility and prolonged storage reduced hatchability the high incidence of microbial contamination in ostrich eggs is deemed to be a significant problem. Improving nest hygiene was considered to be the simplest way to reduce microbial spoilage.

NAL Call No.: SF61.G5--1995
Modern Livestock and Poultry Production.
Gillespie, J. R. Albany, NY : Delmar Publishers, 1995, 5th ed., xii + 1026 p., illus.
Descriptors: animal-production; livestock; production

Abstract: This book is designed as a comprehensive text for vocational-technical students of livestock production in the USA. The previous edition was published in 1992. Major updates and additions to the previous edition include material on bison, animal rights, animal welfare, food safety, endangered species, safety on the farm, the use of bovine somatotropin, balancing of rations, crossbreeding, animal health, livestock promotion, pig feeding and ostrich rearing. There are 11 sections to the book. Section 1 is a general introduction to the livestock industry, and this is followed by a section on feeding and nutrition. Section 3 deals with animal breeding, and sections 4-11 cover the production of beef cattle, pigs, sheep/goats, horses, poultry, dairy cattle, rabbits and bison. Each of the sections 4-11 presents information on selection of stock, feeding, management, housing, diseases, parasites and marketing. The section on horses includes material on training and horsemanship.

NAL Call No.: QP98.A1A5
Molecular sexing of ostrich by suppression hybridization.
Mann, B. R.; Kraay, G. J.; Plante, Y. Animal Genetics v.25(suppl. 2): p.37. [Proceedings of the 24th Conference of the International Society of Animal Genetics, July 23-29, 1994.] (1994).
Descriptors: breeding; DNA

NAL Call No.: QL696.59B47 1992
Monographs in Behavior and Ecology: the Ostrich Communal Nesting System.
Bertram, B. C. R. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992. vii + 196 p., illus.
Descriptors: struthio camelus; breeding; incubation; farming

NAL Call No.: 47.8 G144
More on ratite breeding.
Cutler, B. Game Bird Breeders Aviculturists Zoologists and Conservationists Gazette v.28(8) 1979: p. 23-24. (1979).
Descriptors: rheidae; rearing-techniques; diet & cage flooring

NAL Call No.: SF487.8.A1P68
More ostrich facts and resources--a supplement to PFS no. 7.
Bradley, F. A. Poultry Fact Sheet. Cooperative Extension Service University of California. Oakland, CA : The Service. August 1990. (12) 2 p.
Descriptors: ostriches; poultry-farming; exotics; trade-associations; California

NAL Call No.: 47.8 B77
Mortality in near-term ostrich embryos during artificial incubation.
Brown, C. R.; Peinke, D.; Loveridge, A. British Poultry Science v.37(1): p.73-85. (1996).
Descriptors: research article; poultry production

Abstract: 1. The ostrich industry in South Africa (and elsewhere) experiences a high rate of embryo mortality during artificial incubation of eggs. Most of this mortality takes place in the last 10-14 d of incubation. 2. We carried out postmortem examinations on 111 embryos that died within this period to assess the causes of this mortality. 3. Malpositioning and severe oedema were the predominant symptoms of dead-inshell embryos with 55% being malpositioned and 41% showing severe oedema. Of these, 22 embryos (24%) showed both symptoms. Malpositioning generally results from incorrect setting of the eggs or inadequate turning and oedema was significantly correlated with the amount of water lost from the eggs which in turn was correlated with egg size. 4. Myopathy, gross lesions of internal organs, haemorrhage, bacterial infections and congenital deformities were found in less than 10% of chicks examined for these symptoms.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Mortality of chicks and decreased fertility and hatchability of eggs from a captive breeding pair of ostriches.
Ley, D. H.; Morris, R. E.; Smallwood, J. E.; Loomis, M. R. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v.189(9) 1986: p.1124-1126. (1986). illus.
Descriptors: struthio camelus; hatching-success; developmental disorders relationship in captivity; developmental-disorders; hatching success relationship in captivity

NAL Call No.: SF511.N38
The National Ostrich/Ratite Directory.
Lawton, OK : Ostrich News, Inc. Annual.
Descriptors: ostrich-farms-United-States-directories; ratite-farms-United-States-directories

NAL Call No.: SF994 A87
Neonatal mortality in ostriches: an overview of possible causes.
Shivaprasad, H. L. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of Avian Veterinarians, Nashville, 31 August-4 September 1993. Lake Worth, FL: Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1993. p.282-293. 26 refs.
Descriptors: young-animals; mortality; diseases; chicks

Abstract: Mortality of ostrich chicks was sometimes as high as 60-100% as a result of gastro-intestinal diseases, yolk sac infections, liver diseases, haemopoietic disorders and respiratory diseases. Tables show the frequency of conditions encountered in 414 ostrich chicks submitted to a diagnostic laboratory in California.

New food sources, conservation of biodiversity and sustainable development: can unconventional animal species contribute to feeding the world?
Feron, E. M. Biodiversity and Conservation v.4(3): p.233-240. (1995). 23 refs.
Descriptors: sustainability; animal-production; wildlife; species; unconventional

NAL Call No.: 10 J822
New species for meat production.
Kyle, R. Journal of Agricultural Science v.123(1): p.1-8. (1994). 47 refs.
Descriptors: tropics; meat-production; game-farming; wild-animals

Abstract: This review covers (1) the use of deer, nilgai, bison, wild boars, ostriches and camelids in the developed world, (2) herding and cropping of wild ungulates in developing countries, (3) multiple land use by game and domestic species, (4) the use of wild species in extreme environments (e.g the saiga antelope in Russia and the moose in the boreal zone below the arctic circle), and (5) the use of rodents (e.g. the guineapig and capybara) and other species, such as turtles, reptiles, frogs, snails and insects.

Niche production of small and wild animals.
Seeland, G. Neue Landwirtschaft (5): p.58-61. (1995).
Descriptors: game-farming; game-animals; economics; profitability; management; meat-production

[No breeding without herdbook [ostriches]]. Keine Zucht ohne Zuchtbuch.
Reiner, G. Deutsche Gefluegelwirtschaft und Schweineproduktion (Germany) [German Poultry Management and Swine Production] v.46(15): p.15-17. (1994). 4 illus.
Descriptors: ostriches; registration; animal-breeding; ancestry; combines; age; marking; performance-testing; phenotypes; birds; enterprises; evaluation; methods; struthioniformes; testing

[No chance for adventurers [ostrich rearing]]. Keine Chance fuer Gluecksritter.
Moebius, C. Deutsche Gefluegelwirtschaft und Schweineproduktion (Germany) [German Poultry Management and Swine Production] v.45(21): p.7-9. (1993). 8 illus.
Descriptors: ostriches; poultry-rearing; fattening; Germany; fencing; free-range-husbandry; dressing-percentage; prices; eggs; feathers; skin; leather; animal-husbandry-methods; animal-feeding; animal-husbandry; animal-husbandry-methods; animal-morphology; animal-products; birds; boundaries; carcass-composition; carcasses; Europe; extensive-farming; extensive-husbandry; farming-systems; integument; meat; processed-animal-products; processed-products; struthioniformes; western-Europe

NAL Call No.: 284.28-W15
No chickens or geese for this farm; here, birds have character.
Swasy, A. Wall Street Journal (East ed.) p.A1, A7. (June 1993).
Descriptors: emus; animal-husbandry; Pennsylvania

NAL Call No.: 49-AN55
A note on growth curves for the ostrich (Struthio camelus).
Du Preez, J. J.; Jarvis, M. J. F.; Capatos, D.; De Kock, J. Animal Production v.54(pt.1): p.150-152. (February 1992). Includes references.
Descriptors: ostriches; growth-curve; hatching-weight; growth-rate; age-differences; sex-differences; southern-Africa

NAL Call No.: 49-AN55
A note on the growth of body parts of the ostrich (Struthio camelus).
Mellett, F. D.; Randall, J. H. Animal Production v.58(2): p.291-293. (1994). 19 refs.
Descriptors: carcasses; growth-curve

NAL Call No.: SF511 088
Nutrient composition of ostrich meat.
Sales, J. American Ostrich [Official Publication of the American Ostrich Association] p.30-31. (October 1995).
Descriptors: ostrich meat; nutrient-content.

Nutrient requirements and feedstuff values in ostrich production.
Smith W.A.; Cilliers S.C.; Mellett F.D.; Van Schalkwyk, S. J. Feed Compounder v.15(8): p.22-29. (1995). 32 refs.
Descriptors: nutrient-requirements; reviews

NAL Call No.: SF95 A55
Nutrition and feeding of ostriches.
Ullrey, D. E.; Allen, M. E. Animal Feed Science and Technology v.59(1-3): p.27-36. (1996)
Descriptors: journal article; struthio camelus; bird; nutrition; poultry industry; feeding; gastrointestinal anatomy; nutrient requirements; feeding; growth; liveweight-gain; health; egg production; calcium

Abstract: Dietary habits in the wild and gastrointestinal anatomy and function have established that the ostrich is an herbivore. Ostriches are not turkeys, but turkeys may be the best avian model we have from which to predict the ostrich's nutrient needs. To minimize leg abnormalities in ostrich chicks, it may be helpful to restrict weight gain by limiting dietary protein concentrations below those recommended for starting turkeys and by using higher fiber diets. Non-slip surfaces and exercise also are very important. Egg production by ostriches laying a normal annual clutch does not significantly increase the dietary calcium requirement. When ego production is forced by continually removing eggs, calcium requirements should be met by dietary concentrations of 16 g kg-1. Alternatively, ad libitum access to granulated calcium carbonate or oyster shell could be provided. Until the nutrient requirements of ostriches are better understood, zoos and ostrich farmers with small flocks may find a single life-cycle diet is a rational means to meet nutrient needs and keep feed fresh.

NAL Call No.: SF994 A87
Nutrition of ratites and psittacines.
Scheideler, S. E. Proceedings Annual Conference Association of Avian Veterinarians 1994. Orlando, FL: Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1994. p.319-324. illus.
Descriptors: psittaciformes; ratitae; diet-in-captivity; requirements & recommended nutrient level ranges, review; dietary-requirements; review & implications for diet formulation & health problems in captivity; diseases-and-disorders; nutrition associated health problems in captivity, review & discussion

NAL Call No.: 47.8 Am33P
Nutritional analyses of cooked ostrich meat.
Harris, S. D.; Miller, R. K.; Hale, D. S.; Morris, C. A.; Keeton, J. T.; Savell, J. W. Poultry Science v.73(suppl. 1): p.138. (1994).
Descriptors: meeting abstract; bird; poultry industry; food industry

NAL Call No.: SF601.R5
Observations on the artificial incubation of ostrich (Struthio camelus var. domesticus) eggs with special reference to water loss.
Foggin, C. M.; Honywill, J. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal v.23(2): p.81-89. (June 1992). Includes references.
Descriptors: ostriches; incubation; relative-humidity; weight-losses; egg-hatchability

NAL Call No.: 41.8-V641
Observations on the commercial production of ostrich (Struthio camelus) in the United Kingdom: incubation.
Deeming, D. C.; Ayres, L.; Ayres, F. J. The Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association v.132(24): p.602-607. ( June 1993). Includes references.
Descriptors: ostriches; incubation; egg-hatchability; UK

NAL Call No.: 41.8-V641
Observations on the commercial production of ostrich (Struthio camelus) in the United Kingdom: rearing of chicks.
Deeming, D. C.; Ayres, L.; Ayres, F. J. The Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association v.132(25): p.627-631. (June 1993). Includes references.
Descriptors: ostriches; eggs; incubation; chicks; chick-production; growth-rate; survival; sex-ratio; UK.

NAL Call No.: S1.M57
The oldest birds, the newest agribusiness.
Crawford, M. Small Farm Today v.9(4): p.36. (August 1992)
Descriptors: ostriches; emus; rhea; livestock-enterprises; agribusiness

NAL Call No.: S41.E93
Siegfried, W. R. Evolution of domesticated animals. Mason, Ian L., ed. London : Longman, 1984. p. 364-366. Includes 4 references.
Descriptors: ostriches; domesticated-birds; feathers

NAL Call No.: S494.5.A65S44--1993
Sell, R. S.; Aakre, D.G. Alternative Agriculture Series no. 11. Fargo, ND : NDSU Extension Service, North Dakota State University, 1993. 18 v. : illus., map. Available electronically from:
Descriptors: ostrich-farming; alternative-farming; alternative-livestock

NAL Call No.: 41.8 M463
Ostrich: A breeding animal. A review.
Prost, E. K. Medycyna Weterynaryjna v.52(3): p.144-146. (1996).
Descriptors: journal article; struthio camelus; rhea dromaeus; behavior; meat productivity; egg incubation; health management

The ostrich - a new agricultural animal? Der Strauss - ein neues landwirtschaftliches Nutztier?
Gerlach, H. Tieraerztliche Umschau (Germany) v.50(2): p.111-115. (1995). 2 tables; 11 refs. Summaries in English.
Descriptors: ostriches; animal-breeding; Germany; animal-morphology; bacterioses; viroses; anaesthesia; restraint-of-animals; animal-husbandry-methods; birds; Europe; infectious-diseases; struthioniformes; western-Europe

The ostrich - a new non-conventional poultry in Malaysia.
Engku Azahan, E. A.; The 17th Malaysian Society of Animal Production (MSAP) Annual Conference. Penang (Malaysia). 28-30 May 1995. Sharif, H.; Liang, J. B.; Ariff, O. M.; Saadiah, J. (eds.). Towards Corporatising the Animal and Feed Industries: Proceedings of the 17th Malaysian Society of Animal Production (Msap) Annual Conference. Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia): Malaysian Society of Animal Production (MSAP): p.174-175. (1995). 1 table; 4 refs.
Descriptors: ostriches; poultry-rearing; behaviour; poultry; plumage-birds; malaysia; animal-husbandry; Asia; birds; domestic-animals; domesticated-birds; livestock; South-East-Asia; struthioniformes; useful-animals

NAL Call No.: 41.8-Au72
Ostrich anaesthesia: xylazine premedication followed by alphaxalone/alphadolone and isoflurane.
Cullen, L. K.; Goerke, M. A.; Swan, R. A.; Clark, W. T.; Nandapi, D.; Colbourne, C. Australian Veterinary Journal v.72(4): p.153-154. (April 1995). Includes references.
Descriptors: ostriches; anesthesia; preanesthetic-medication; xylazine; injectable-anesthetics; inhaled-anesthetics; drug-combinations; complications

[The ostrich and its environment]. Lo struzzo ed il suo ambiente.
Anderloni, G.; Martinelli, A. Rivista di Avicoltura (Italy) v.62(4): p.15-19 (April 1993). 1 table; 4 graphs.
Descriptors: ostriches; poultry-rearing; animal-husbandry-methods; livestock-management; fencing; farm-structure; soil-types; physiographic-features; agricultural-structure; animal-husbandry; birds; boundaries; struthioniformes

NAL Call No.: SF994 A87
Ostrich behavior and behavioral problems.
Stewart, J. S.; Kornelsen, M. J. Main Conference Proceedings Association of Avian Veterinarians, Reno, Nevada, USA, 28-30, September, 1994. Orlando, FL: Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1994. p.103-109. 7 refs.
Descriptors: animal-behaviour; abnormal-behaviour

NAL Call No.: Z5333.O8O88--1993
Ostrich Bibliography.
Van der Westhuizen, E.; Earle, A. [Onderstepoort, South Africa] : University of Pretoria, Academic Information Service, Veterinary Science Library, 1993. 316 p.
Descriptors: ostriches-bibliography; ostrich-farming-bibliography

NAL Call No.: Z5333.O8O88--1995
Ostrich Bibliography (update).
Van der Westhuizen, E.; University of Pretoria. Veterinary Science Library. [Onderstepoort, South Africa] : University of Pretoria, Academic Information Service, Veterinary Science Library, June 1995. 71 p.
Descriptors: ostriches-bibliography; ostrich-farming-bibliography

[Ostrich breeders present own guidelines for husbandry]. Straussenzuechter legen eigene Haltungsrichtlinien vor.
Kistner, C. Deutsche Gefluegelwirtschaft und Schweineproduktion (Germany) [German Poultry Management and Swine Production] v.46(6): p.19. (1994). 1 table.
Descriptors: ostriches; animal-husbandry; regulations; breeding-stock; interest-groups; Germany; poultry-housing; animal-needs; fencing; animal-housing; birds; boundaries; Europe; struthioniformes; useful-animals; western-Europe

(Ostrich breeding and research in Israel. No longer a child?). Straussenzucht und forschung in Israel. Aus den Kinderschuhen heraus?
Yagil, R. Deutsche Gefluegelwirtschaft und Schweineproduktion (Germany) [German Poultry Management and Swine Production] v.46(49): p.13-14. (1994). 2 illus.
Descriptors: ostriches; excreta; excretion; egg-incubation; israel; drinking-water; colour; uric-acid; urea; blood-composition; fertilization; electrolytes; hormones; acids; amides; animal-husbandry-methods; birds; blood; chemicophysical-properties; heterocyclic-compounds; mediterranean-countries; Middle-East; optical-properties; organic-acids; physiological-functions; purines; reproduction; sexual-reproduction; struthioniformes; water; xanthines

Ostrich breeding. Chick rearing is not difficult.
Burlini, F. Informatore Agrario v.51(38): p.75-78. (1995).
Descriptors: feeding; health; management; housing

The ostrich: breeding, reproduction, slaughtering and nutritional value of the meat. Der Strauss: Zucht, Reproduktion, Schlachtung und Naehrwert des Fleisches.
Paleari, M. A.; Corsico P; Beretta G. Fleischwirtschaft v.75(9): p.1100-1102, 1104-1105, 1116. (1995). 17 refs.
Descriptors: poultry-meat; poultry; ostrich-meat; meat-specific

NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Ostrich chick survival presents challenge.
Smith, C. A. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v.203(5): p.637-643. (September 1993).
Descriptors: ostriches; chicks; survival; chick-production; incubation; hatching; animal-disorders; young-animal-diseases; animal-nutrition

NAL Call No.: QL696.S9B47-1992
The Ostrich Communal Nesting System.
Bertram, B. C. R. Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, 1992. viii, 196 p. illus. Includes bibliographical references (p. [188]-192) and index.
Descriptors: ostriches-behavior; sexual-behavior-in-animals; ostriches-nests; social-behavior-in-animals

NAL Call No.: SF995.H83--1994
Ostrich Diseases.
Huchzermeyer, F. W.; Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute. Onderstepoort, Republic of South Africa : Agricultural Research Council, Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, 1994. 121 p., [10] p. of plates : illus. (some col.). Includes bibliographical references (p.82-103) and index.
Descriptors: ostriches-diseases

Ostrich Diseases.
Huchzermeyer, F. W. Ondestepoort, Republic of South Africa, Agricultural Research Council, 1994. xiii + 120 pp. 19 fig. 264 refs.
Descriptors: monographs; diseases

NAL Call No.: 515 S084
Ostrich eggs in artificial incubators: could their hatching success be improved?
Burger, A. E.; Bertram, B. C. R. South African Journal of Science v.77(4): p.188-189. (1981). illus.
Descriptors: struthio camelus; rearing-techniques; hatching-success; artificial incubation evaluation

NAL Call No.: 41.8 D482
Ostrich - farm animals? Strausse - landwirtschaftliche Nutztiere?
Goebbel, T. Deutsche Tieraerztliche Wochenschrift (Germany) v.101(3): p.88-91. (1994). 5 refs.
Descriptors: ostriches; useful-animals; animal-husbandry-methods; meat-production; leather; animal-production; birds; processed-animal-products; processed-products; production; struthioniformes

NAL Call No.: SF511.3.S6B38--1994
Ostrich Farming.
Batty, Joseph. Midhurst : Beech Publishing House, 1994. 110 p. illus. Includes bibliographical references (p.109) and index.
Descriptors: ostrich-farming-South-Africa; ostriches

NAL Call No.: SF511.H37
Ostrich Farming.
Hastings, M. Y. Winchelsea, Vic. : M.Y. Hastings, 1991. xiv, 94 p. illus. Includes bibliographical references (p.83-87).
Descriptors: ostrich-farms-and-farming; ostrich-farms-and-farming-Australia; ostriches; ostriches-Australia

NAL Call No.: SF55.A8E96-1992
Ostrich farming.
Durieux, J. Exotic Alternatives an Insight into Other Farming Ventures Deer Farming, Sheep Dairying, Yabby Farming, Ostrich Farming, Alpaca Farming p.41-47. Melbourne, Victoria : Agmedia: Department of Agriculture; [Geelong] : GOTEC (1992).
Descriptors: ostriches; plumage-birds; skin-producing-animals; meat-animals; animal-husbandry; Australia

Ostrich farming.
Krzeminski, B.; Radomska, M. J. Magazyn Weterynaryjny v.3(5): p.47-48. (1994).
Descriptors: animal-husbandry

Ostrich farming in Europe.
Van Niekerk, B. D. H. AFMA Matrix (South Africa) v.5(1): p.5-6, 21 (March 1996). 1 table.
Descriptors: ostriches; farms; meat; animal-housing; Europe; animal-products; birds; enterprises; struthioniformes

[Ostrich farming in Germany: a touch of Africa.] Straussenzucht in Deutschland: Eine Hauch von Afrika.
Abeln, G. Fleischerei v.44(10): p.772, 774. (1993).
Descriptors: meat-specific; birds; ostrich-meat

NAL Call No.: 298.8 M89
Ostrich farming in the Netherlands.
de Jong, B. Muhle + Mischfuttertechnik [The mill and mixed fodder technology] v.131(44): p.617. (1994).
Descriptors: intensive-husbandry; production

Abstract: In the Netherlands, ostrich farming is a recent, rapidly growing part of intensive livestock production, initiated by high prices paid for eggs and young birds exported to the USA. Therefore ostrich production in the Netherlands has concentrated on ostrich breeding. The Dutch ostrich farmers' association (NSO), affiliated to the European ostrich farmers' organization, has more than 100 members. It is intended to develop a market for ostrich meat, leather and feathers in the Netherlands. Ostriches are ready for slaughter at 14 months old and weigh 100 kg, i.e. 35-50 kg meat, mainly the upper legs. Ostrich meat is low in fat and cholesterol and is already available in some Dutch restaurants. Adult hens start laying at 2-3 years old and remain fertile for about 40 years. During this time annual egg production can vary between 20 and 70 eggs. The eggs weigh about 1.5 kg and hatch after 40-42 days in an incubator. The chicks are kept in heated housing with a minimum temperature of 32 C. Adult ostriches tolerate extreme weather conditions and need only a shelter in an outside run. Feed formulations are being developed by the feed industry in cooperation with the NSO. Mixed feed is given together with green feed and grit for efficient digestion. Adult ostriches consume about 2 kg of a special mixed feed daily. Ostrich farms and individual ostriches are subject to registration, administered by the Dutch trade association for poultry and eggs. Health and welfare of ostriches are monitored by veterinarians specializing in ostrich care.

NAL Call No.: S1.M57
Ostrich farming: lessons learned.
Des Voigue, M. Small Farm Today v.11(4): p.33-34. (August 1994)
Descriptors: ostriches; exotics; livestock-farming; small-farms

Ostrich farming under scrutiny.
Anderloni, G. Rivista di Avicoltura v.64(10): p.55-56. (1995).
Descriptors: breeding

NAL Call No.: SF481.D48
[Ostrich farms - another kind of poultry farming]. Straussenfarmen - Gefluegelhaltung einmal anders.
Hertrampf, J. W. Deutsche Gefluegelwirtschaft und Schweineproduktion (Germany) [German Poultry Management and Swine Production] v.40(46): p.1320-1321. (1988). 5 illus.
Descriptors: ostriches; animal-production; feathers; israel; South-Africa; animal-husbandry-methods; producer-prices; laying-performance; Africa; Africa-South-of-Sahara; agriculture; anglophone-Africa; animal-production; Asia; birds; costs; egg-production; integument; methods; Middle-East; prices; production; southern-Africa; struthioniformes; tissues; vertebrates; zootechny

NAL Call No.: SF481.D48
[Ostrich farms in South Africa]. Straussenfarmen in Suedafrika.
Luttitz, H. V. Deutsche Gefluegelwirtschaft und Schweineproduktion (Germany) v.41(36): p.1113-1116. (1989). 5 illus.
Descriptors: ostriches; animal-husbandry; animal-breeding; South-Africa; body-measurements; weight; feathers; producer-prices; behaviour; eggs; meat; marketing; Africa; Africa-South-of-Sahara; anglophone-Africa; animal-morphology; animal-products; birds; integument; prices; southern-Africa; struthioniformes

The ostrich has a problem? Here is the solution.
Anderloni, G. Rivista di Avicoltura v.62(11): p.43-46. (1993).
Descriptors: poultry; trauma; digestive-disorders; bacterial-diseases; viral-diseases; diseases; poultry-diseases

[Ostrich husbandry in France]. La parisienne et les autruches.
Bulletin d'Information du Ministere de l'Agriculture (France) (no 1405): p.15-17 (October 1993)

Descriptors: France; ostriches; animal-husbandry; meat-production; markets; animal-production; birds; Europe; Mediterranean-countries; production; struthioniformes; western-Europe

[Ostrich keeping merits a chance]. Straussenhaltung verdient eine Chance.
Sambraus, H. H. Deutsche Gefluegelwirtschaft und Schweineproduktion (Germany) [German Poultry Management and Swine Production] v.46(32): p.11-13. (1994). 2 illus.
Descriptors: ostriches; behaviour; animal-husbandry; animal-ecology; Germany; efficiency; birds; ecology; Europe; struthioniformes; western-Europe

NAL Call No.: SF511.B87--1995
The Ostrich. [Lo Struzzo : Allevamento E Commercializzazione.]
Burlini, F. Verona : L'informatore Agrario, 1995. 62, [2] p. illus. Includes bibliographical references (p. [64].
Descriptors: ostrich-farming; ostrich-farming-Italy; ostriches-marketing

NAL Call No.: 275.29 G29B
Ostrich management guide.
Bastien, R. W. Bulletin - Cooperative Extension Service, University of Georgia, College of Agriculture. Athens, GA: The Service, February 1991. (1048) 8 p. illus. Includes references.
Descriptors: ostriches; animal-breeding; animal-feeding; birds; incubation

NAL Call No.: 281.9 N814A-no.336
The ostrich market.
Leitch, R. L. Agricultural Economics Report (North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station (Fargo)) ; no. 336. Fargo, ND : Dept. of Agricultural Economics, Northern Plains International Research Program, North Dakota State University, [1995]. 22 p. illus. Includes bibliography.
Descriptors: markets; ostriches; ostriches-marketing

NAL Call No.: HD9438.R452U638
Ostrich Marketplace.
Bowie, TX : Montague County Shopper, -1995. Contact: Ratite Marketplace P.O. Box 1613, Bowie, TX 76230. Phone: 817-872-2933. Note: merged in 1995 with the Emu Marketplace and Rhea Marketplace to form Ratite Marketplace.
Descriptors: ratite-industry-United-States-periodicals

NAL Call No.: TS1950 F5
[Ostrich meat from German sources - exotic meat or cruelty to animals?] Straussenfleisch aus deutschen Landen - Exotik oder Tierquaelerei?
Bopp Herbold, J. Fleischerei v.46(11): p.29-31. (1995).
Descriptors: poultry; poultry-meat; ostrich-meat; meat-specific

Abstract: Ostrich meat is discussed with reference to: ostrich meat as an alternative meat; production of ostrich meat in Germany; composition and properties of ostrich meat; animal welfare aspects; and the possible market in Germany.

NAL Call No.: TP369 S6F66
Ostrich meat gains acceptance internationally.
Mullins, A. Food Industries v.47(6): p.15, 17. (1994).
Descriptors: birds; meat-specific; ostrich-meat

Abstract: The worldwide increase in demand and acceptance of ostrich meat is discussed. Deregulation of the ostrich market in 1993 in South Africa has led to an upsurge in the demand for ostrich meat. Aspects considered include: uses for ostrich hide and feathers; slaughter of ostriches (primary plucking, stunning, bleeding, and secondary plucking); slaughter control by The Abattoir Hygiene Act no. 121 of 1992; demand for ostrich products in Europe (vacuum packaged products, frozen trimmings); nutritional values of ostrich meat (low calorie, low cholesterol, low fat); modifications to existing plant and equipment to facilitate slaughtering of ostriches; and export of ostrich meat from South Africa to the EEC.

Ostrich News.
Cache, OK: Ostrich News, Inc. Published monthly.
Contact: Ostrich News, Inc., 5th and C Streets, P.O. Box 860, Cache, OK 73527-0860. Phone: 405-429-3765. 1-800-242-7222. FAX: 405-429-3935.
E-mail: URL:
Descriptors: ostriches-farming-periodicals; emu-farming-periodicals; rheas-farming-periodicals

NAL Call No.: SF511 N38
Ostrich News Ratite Directory.
Cache OK: Ostrich News, Inc., annual 1992-
Contact: Ostrich News, Inc., Cache, OK. P.O. Box 860, Cache, OK 73527. Phone: 405-429-3765. E-mail:
Descriptors: ratite-industry-directories,-handbooks; emu-farming-handbooks,-manuals,-etc; ostrich-farms-and-farming-directories

NAL Call No.: S1.M57
The ostrich place.
Belcher, S. Small Farm Today v.12(5): p.37-38. (October 1995).
Descriptors: ostriches; alternative-farming; small-farms

NAL Call No.: S544.3.O5O5
Ostrich production.
Berry, J. OSU Extension Facts - Cooperative Extension Service, Oklahoma State University. Stillwater, OK: The Service. July 1989. (3988) 4 p.
Descriptors: ostriches; livestock-enterprises; Oklahoma

NAL Call No.: 275.29-K13LE
Ostrich production.
Adams, A. W. L - Cooperative Extension Service, Kansas State University. Manhattan, KS : The Service. October 1989. (799) 2 p. illus.
Descriptors: struthio-camelus; animal-breeding; incubation; animal-feeding; disease-prevention

NAL Call No.: SF511.O775--1993
Ostrich Production and Economics.
Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food. Regina, Sask. : Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food, [1993] 14 p., Cover title.
Descriptors: ostrich-farming; ostrich-farming-economic-aspects

[Ostrich rearing: 40% losses are quite normal]. Straussenaufzucht: 40% Verluste gelten als normal. Deutsche Gefluegelwirtschaft und Schweineproduktion (Germany) [German Poultry Management and Swine Production] v.45(25): p.6. (1993). 1 illus.
Descriptors: ostriches; poultry-rearing; mortality; animal-needs; climatic-requirements; nutritional-requirements; microclimate; weaning-feeds; animal-husbandry; birds; climate; feeds; nutrition-physiology; physiological-functions; physiological-requirements; struthioniformes

[Ostrich : Rearing and Productions]. Les Ratites : Elevage et Productions.
Campodonico, P.; Masson, C.; Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Developpement, M. A. F. I. I. d. E. e. d. M. V. d. P. T. Maisons-Alfort (France). CIRAD-IEMVT. 1988. 159 p., Synthese Bibliographique (DESS Productions Animales en Regions Chaudes).
Descriptors: ostriches; emus; cassowaries; rheas; zootechny; pathology; animal-feeding; reproduction; artificial-insemination; meat-production; hides-and-skins; animal-products; agriculture; animal-husbandry-methods; animal-production; animal-products; birds; casuariiformes; feeding; mating-systems; methods; nutrition; physiological-functions; production; products; rheiformes; struthioniformes; vertebrates; zootechny

Ostrich Rearing as a New Industry of Poultry Keeping (Review). Chov Pstrosu Jako Nove Odvetvi Drubeznictvi.
Snizek, J. Prague (Czech Republic). Ustav Zemedelskych a Potravinarskych Informaci. 1995. 36 p. 12 illus., 12 tables; 19 refs. Summary in English.
Descriptors: ostriches; poultry-rearing; mortality; poultry-housing; compound-feeds; feed-additives; weight-gain; feed-conversion-efficiency; poultry-meat; egg-hatchability; hatching; feathers; skin; additives; animal-developmental-stages; animal-housing; animal-husbandry; animal-products; biological-development; birds; body-parts; developmental-stages; feeds; integument; meat; physiological-functions; reproduction; sexual-reproduction; struthioniformes

Ostrich rearing as a novelty in aviculture.
Snizek, J. Studijni Informace Zivocisna Vyroba (No. 2): p.36 (1995). 16 refs.
Descriptors: animal-production; reviews

NAL Call No.: SF511.O88
Ostrich Report : Official Publication of the American Ostrich Association.
Ft. Worth, TX : American Ostrich Association, monthly, 1992-. illus.
Descriptors: ostriches-periodicals; ostrich-farms-and-farming-periodicals; ostrich-farms-and-farming-United-States-periodicals

Abstract: This monthly periodical covers the ostrich industry. The January issue includes the AOA directory. In 1994, this publication was renamed American Ostrich : Official Publication of the American Ostrich Association.

NAL Call No.: SF996 Z66--1993
Ostrich reproduction.
Hicks, K. D.; Fowler, M. E. [Ed.]. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy. 3rd edition. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, (1993)
Descriptors: struthio camelus; age; sexual maturation relations; reproduction; overview; oogenesis; spermatogenesis; fertility; infertility causes; egg; abnormal egg occurrence & causes; sexual-maturation; age relations; reproductive-system; male & female; breeding-season; environmental influences & associated physiological changes; reproductive-productivity; infertility significance; diseases-and-disorders; reproductive disorders; reproductive diseases & disorders; bacterial-diseases; viral-diseases; reproductive diseases, review

NAL Call No.: 47.8-Am33P
Ostrich slaughter and fabrication. 1. Slaughter yields of carcasses and effects of electrical stimulation on post-mortem pH.
Morris, C. A.; Harris, S. D.; May, S. G.; Jackson, T. C.; Hale, D. S.; Miller, R. K.; Keeton, J. T.; Acuff, G. R.; Lucia, L. M.; Savell, J. W. Poultry Science v.74(10): p.1683-1687. (October 1995). Includes references.
Descriptors: ostriches; slaughter; carcass-yield; sex-differences; chilling; postmortem-changes; electrical-stimulation; ph; muscles; temperature; body-parts; weight; carcass-weight; Texas

Abstract: A commercial ostrich slaughter protocol was developed. Ostriches (n = 7 males and n = 7 females) averaged 95.54 kg live weight and yielded 55.91-kg carcasses. By-product yields were measured. The most significant by-products by weight were full viscera (8.29 kg), hide (6.71 kg), full gizzard and crop (5.80 kg), and abdominal fat (4.11 kg). Sex had no effect on slaughter yields. Post-mortem temperature declines were measured on five separate muscles and showed that chilling for 24 h was sufficient to adequately chill the deep muscle temperature to under 4 C. The effect of electrical stimulation on post-mortem pH decline also was investigated and had no effect.

NAL Call No.: 47.8-Am33P
Ostrich slaughter and fabrication. 2. Carcass weights, fabrication yields, and muscle color evaluation.
Morris, C. A.; Harris, S. D.; May, S. G.; Hale, D. S.; Jackson, T. C.; Lucia, L. M.; Miller, R. K.; Keeton, J. T.; Acuff, G. R.; Savell, J. W. Poultry Science v.74(10): p.1688-1692. (October 1995). Includes references.
Descriptors: ostriches; carcass-weight; carcass-yield; bone-weight; fat-percentage; meat-yield; body-parts; weight; muscle-weight; muscles; dressing-percentage; sex-differences; color; Texas

Abstract: Seven male and seven female ostrich carcasses were fabricated to determine the effect of sex on the yield of bone, fat, and lean on a weight and carcass percentage basis. The 10 heaviest muscles of the ostrich carcass were removed, weighed, and reported on a carcass percentage basis. Muscle color differences also were determined for 10 selected muscles. Sex did not affect carcass composition or muscle color. Across sexes, ostrich carcasses contained 26.9% bone, 9.2% fat, and 62.5% lean. Of the lean portion, 66.2% was found in the 10 major muscles of leg and thigh. The Gastrocnemius, Iliofibularis, and Fibularis longus were the three largest muscles from the carcass. There were differences (P < .05) in color between ostrich muscles. Muscles of the inside thigh region were the darkest in color and the Iliotibialis cranialis was the brightest, cherry red in color.

Ostrich (Struthio camelus) breeding in Malaysia: prospects and constraints [Malaysia].
Vellayan, S.; 17th Malaysian Society of Animal Production (MSAP) Annual Conference. Penang (Malaysia). May 28-30, 1995. Sharif, H.; Liang, J.B.; Ariff, O.M.; Saadiah, J. (eds.). Towards Corporatising the Animal and Feed Industries: Proceedings of the 17th Malaysian Society of Animal Production (Msap) Annual Conference. Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia): Malaysia Society of Animal Production (MSAP), 1995. p.25-29. 6 tables; 3 refs.
Descriptors: ostriches; breeding-methods; farming-systems; Malaysia; Asia; birds; South-East-Asia; struthioniformes; struthio-camelus

NAL Call No.: SF481 M54
Ostrich tastes almost like beef.
Anon. Misset World Poultry v.10(8): p.19. (1944).
Descriptors: carcasses; poultry-meat; sensory-properties; poultry; palatability; ostrich-meat; meat; meat-specific

Abstract: A study is described in which 18 ostriches were slaughtered and carcasses were evaluated in terms of microbiological quality, yield, nutritional profile and further processing quality. Approx. 58.6% of the live wt. was carcass (lean/fat/bone), of which 62.5% was lean and 9.2% fat. From each carcass, 10 major muscles were identified as potential meat cuts because of their size (representing 41.3% of carcass and 23.6% of live wt.). 4 ostrich meat cuts were compared with a Choice beef top loin steak in a blind taste test. Panellists tended to score palatability of beef somewhat better, but differences were not significant.

NAL Call No.: SF511.O885--1992
Ostrich Workshop for Veterinarians : Proceedings of a Workshop Held at the University of Zimbabwe, Veterinary Faculty, April, 1992.
TOPAZ (Organization). Harare, [Zimbabwe] : TOPAZ ; Portland, OR: Island Ostrich Ranch, [1992] 1 v. (various pagings) : illus., Cover title.
Descriptors: ostriches-congresses; veterinary-medicine-congresses

[Ostriches and emus on triumphant progress in Europe]. Strausse und Emus auf Siegeszug durch Europa. Deutsche Gefluegelwirtschaft und Schweineproduktion (Germany) [German Poultry Management and Swine Production] v.44(47): p.1372. (1992). 1 illus.
Descriptors: ostriches; emus; animal-husbandry; Europe; poultry-rearing; dressing-percentage; skin; producer-prices; meat-performance; animal-needs; feed-conversion-efficiency; animal-husbandry; animal-morphology; animal-products; birds; carcass-composition; carcasses; casuariiformes; digestibility; integument; meat; nutritive-value; performance; prices; quality; struthioniformes

NAL Call No.: S1.M57
Ostriches and rhea on a small farm in Ohio.
Carter, S. T. Small Farm Today v.11(4): p.36-38. (August 1994)
Descriptors: ostriches; rhea; livestock-farming; small-farms; Ohio

Ostriches and Their Commercial Use. Investigations at an Ostrich Farm in Namibia.
Jost, R. 1993, 220 pp. 236 refs.
Descriptors: management; infectious-diseases; nutrition; egg-production; egg-hatchability; incubation; diseases

NAL Call No.: 41.8 M463
Ostriches as breeding animals.
Prost, E. K. Medycyna Weterynaryjna v.52(3): p.144-146. (1996). 6 refs.
Descriptors: animal-husbandry; animal-breeding; animal-products; animal-behaviour

Ostriches do not eat everything.
Anderloni, G. Rivista di Avicoltura v.62(9): p.21-26. (1993).
Descriptors: nutrient-requirements; feeding-habits

NAL Call No.: 41.8 D482
Ostriches - farm animals?
Gobbel, T. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift v.101(3): p.88-91. (1994). 2 refs. Summary in English.
Descriptors: feathers; meat-production; egg-production; breeding-programmes; animal-breeding; management; cost-benefit-analysis; farming; animal-production; production

Abstract: For more than 100 years ostriches have been used as farm animals in South Africa. At present there are about 200 000 ostriches in 350 farms. They are also farmed in other countries of the world, mainly in hot areas e.g. Australia, USA, Israel and Italy. Since 1993 about 30 ostrich farms (with about 500 animals) have started in Germany and there are a further 100 ostrich breeders in neighbouring countries. However, not all are farmers, some are collectors or hobby-farmers who are speculating with these exotic birds. Currently the prices of breeding stock is high and there is a great demand. South Africa has prohibited the export and there are few other sources. A mature breeding ostrich at the age of 2-3 years costs about 10 000 DM. A small family unit (one cock and 2 hens) costs about 30 000 DM. Housing and management including nutrition, rearing and diseases are discussed.

[Ostriches: hobby or branch of a farm]. Strausse: Hobby oder Betriebszweig.
Sundermann, F. Deutsche Gefluegelwirtschaft und Schweineproduktion (Germany) [German Poultry Management and Swine Production] v.46(27): p.12-14. (1994). 10 illus.
Descriptors: ostriches; animal-husbandry; animal-feeding; egg-incubation; poultry-rearing; poultry-housing; grazing-systems; breeds; animal-housing; animal-husbandry; animal-husbandry-methods; birds; feeding-systems; struthioniformes; taxa

NAL Call No.: SF481.M54
Ostriches in Europe as important as turkeys?!
Dunn, N. Misset World Poultry v.10(8): p.20. (1944).
Descriptors: mrkets; poultry-meat; poultry; Europe; ostrich-meat; economics; meat-specific

Abstract: The potential of ostrich meat in Europe is considered, in the light of the experience of a top French breeder. Using various expert French chefs, several recipes for the meat have been developed, aimed at the luxury end of the market. The need for greater numbers of birds to support commercialization in Europe is highlighted. Intensive rearing is not deemed suitable for the birds, which withstand free range conditions well at stocking rates of around 8 adults/ha.

[Ostriches on pastures of the Mark Brandenburg [Germany]]. Strausse auf maerkischen Weiden.
Grittner, W. Deutsche Gefluegelwirtschaft und Schweineproduktion (Germany) [German Poultry Management and Swine Production] v.45(49): p.10-11. (1993). 2 illus.
Descriptors: ostriches; pastures; animal-husbandry; brandenburg; birds; Europe; Germany; grazing-lands; land-resources; natural-resources; new-laender; struthioniformes; western-Europe

[Ostriches, pay attention to costs and proceeds]. Struzzi, attenti a costi e ricavi.
Anderloni, G. Rivista di Avicoltura (Italy) v.61(12): p.15-19 (December 1992). 5 tables.
Descriptors: ostriches; poultry-rearing; farm-management; international-trade; investment; profitability; animal-husbandry; birds; business-management; struthioniformes; trade

NAL Call No.: SF511.C6
Ostriches : Your Great Opportunity.
Coody, D. Lawton, OK: D. Coody, 1987. 36 p. : illus. Available from: R.R. #1, Box 71A, Lawton, OK 73501. Phone: 405-353-3078.
Descriptors: ostriches; ostrich-farms-and-farming

NAL Call No.: SF994 A87
Overview of the ratite industry: past, present & future.
Stewart, J. S. Proceedings Annual Conference Association of Avian Veterinarians September 1-5, 1992. Lake Worth, FL: The Association, 1992. p.304-306.
Descriptors: dromaius novaehollandiae; struthio camelus; animals-and-man; commercial farming, overview

NAL Call No.: S1.M57
Pate Emu Farm.
Small Farm Today v.12(4): p.28-29. (August 1995)
Descriptors: emus; livestock-farming; family-farms

NAL Call No.: SF994 A87
Pediatric disorders of ostriches.
Blue McLendon, A. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of Avian Veterinarians, Nashville, 31 August-4 September 1993. Lake Worth, FL: The Association, 1993. p.269-271. 8 refs.
Descriptors: young-animals; diseases; chicks

Abstract: During the first three months of life, ostrich chicks were at risk of developing yolk sacculitis, yolk sac retention, diarrhoea, leg deformities and gastric impaction. Improper handling often resulted in injuries.

NAL Call No.: S1.M57
Poultry researchers turn attention to ratites.
Carter, S. T. Small Farm Today v.11(4): p.42-44. (August 1994)
Descriptors: ostriches; rhea; emus; animal-husbandry; animal-breeding; agricultural-research

NAL Call No.: 41.8-Au72
Pox in ostrich chicks.
Raidal, S. R.; Gill, J. H.; Cross, G. M. Australian Veterinary Journal v.73(1): p.32-33. (January 1996). Includes references.
Descriptors: ostriches; chicks; avipoxvirus; symptoms; treatment; case-reports

Practical Guide for Ostrich Management and Ostrich Production.
Smith, W.A., ed. Nicholasville, KY: Alltech, 1995.
Descriptors: ostriches; livestock-management; rearing-techniques; production

Preliminary investigation into the nutrition of ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus) under intensive conditions.
Gandini, G. C. M.; Burroughs, R. E. J.; Ebedes, H. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association v.57(1): p.39-42. (1986). illus.
Descriptors: Struthio camelus; diet-in-captivity; Protein formulation suitable for young under intensive conditions

NAL Call No.: SF995 D43--1994
Problems of ostrich farming from the veterinary aspect.
Jost, R.; Siegmann, O. DVG-46.-Fachgesprach der Fachgruppe "Geflugelkrankheiten" Hannover. Germany, im May 1994. Germany: Deutsche Veterinarmedizinische Gesellschaft; Giessen/Lahn, 1994. p.86-93. 11 refs.
Descriptors: epidemiological-surveys; Newcastle-disease; diseases

Abstract: There were at present some 2000 farmed ostriches on over 100 premises in Germany. Problems included low hatchability, chick deaths from yolk sac inflammation and diarrhoea, and the risk of Newcastle disease (for which vaccination was recommended) and avian influenza.

NAL Call No.: TX501.F6
Proximate, amino acid and mineral composition of ostrich meat.
Sales, J.; Hayes, J. P. Food Chemistry v.56(2): p.167-170. (1996).
Descriptors: research article; biobusiness; foods; food products; food chemistry; meat industry; proximate composition; amino acids; minerals; leg muscles; chicken comparison; beef comparison; poultry industry

Abstract: The proximate composition, amino acid composition and mineral composition of three different muscles from the legs of seven ostriches were determined. Results indicated that components analyzed remained relatively constant between different muscles. Ostrich meat is characterized by an extremely low intramuscular fat content. Values for water, protein, ash, amino acid and mineral contents are in agreement with values obtained for beef and chicken.

[Public health rules for the import of the ostriches [in Italy]]. Norme sanitarie per l' importazione dello struzzo [in Italia].
Piazza, V.; Catelli, E. Rivista di Avicoltura (Italy) v.62(1): p.27-30. (January 1993). 13 refs.
Descriptors: Italy; ostriches; public-health-legislation; imports; European-communities; animal-diseases; veterinary-hygiene; birds; Europe; foreign-trade; hygiene; international-organizations; legislation; Mediterranean-countries; struthioniformes; trade; western-Europe

NAL Call No.: SF510.5.R34--1992
Raising Emus: The Proud Bird That Lays the Emerald Egg.
Ridlen, C.; Ballard, B.; Baxter, M. Houston, TX: Legend Graphics, 1992, 100 p., illus.
Descriptors: emu-farming

NAL Call No.: aZ5071.N3
Raising quail, partridge, pheasant, bobwhites, and ostriches: January 1987 - January 1992.
Larson, J. A. Quick Bibliographies Series. U.S. Department of Agriculture. National Agricultural Library. Beltsville, MD : The Library. January 1992. (QB no. 92-20) 65 p. Updates QB 91-72.
Descriptors: quails; partridges; pheasants; ostriches; colinus-virginianus; animal-husbandry; bibliographies

NAL Call No.: 47.8 G144
Raising ratites.
Allen, G. A. I. Game bird breeders aviculturists zoologists and conservationists gazette v.28(5): p.18-21, 24-25. (1979). illus.
Descriptors: dromaiidae; rheidae; struthionidae; breeding-techniques

NAL Call No.: SF511.R23--1995
The Ratite Encyclopedia: Ostrich, Emu, Rhea.
Galloway, B.; Smith, P. C.; Raines, A.; Sigler, D. H.; Drenowatz, C. San Antonio, TX: Ratite Records, 1995, ix, 488 pp : illus. Includes glossary, color photographs, bibliography and index.
Descriptors: ostrich-farms; ostriches; animal-husbandry; genetics; reproduction; nutrition; diseases; production

Abstract: This resource guide "was written by 45 university instructors and researchers, veterinarians, and industry leaders on five continents." Chapters include:
Barron, Sharon. "Ostrich Breeder Management." pp.31-62.
Brackett, Vern. "Emu Breeder Management." pp.139-148.
Dunn, Susan. "Ostrich Chick Rearing." pp.139-148.
Hopkins, Brett A. and Gheorghe M. Constantinescu. "Anatomy of Ostriches, Emus & Rheas." pp.31-62.
Jodoin, Pat. "Emu Chick Rearing." pp.191-200.
Morris, Craig. "Ostrich Meat." pp.159-166.
Robinson, Kent. "Working Emus." pp.201-208.
Sutton, William C. "Ostrich Chick Rearing." pp.149-158.
Thompson, Leslie. "Emu Meat." pp.209-216.

Ratite Feeds and Feeding.
Holle, D. Berthoud, CO: Blue Mountain Feeds, Inc., 1995.
Available from: Blue Mountain Feeds, Inc., 2001 Blue Mountain Ave., Berthoud, CO 80513. Phone: 303-678-7343. E-mail: URL:
Descriptors: feeding-systems; feeds; feeding; ratite-farming

The Ratite Journal.
Contact: P.O. Box 161, Prineville, OR 97754.
Phone: 541-447-4902 or 541-447-2578. 1-500-Ratite
Descriptors: ratite-industry-United-States-periodicals

NAL Call No.: SF995.5.R37--1996
Ratite Management, Medicine, and Surgery.
Tully, T. N.; Shane, S. M. (plus 20 contributors). Malabar, FL: Krieger Publishing Co., 1996. 188 pp. illus. (some col.). Includes bibliograpnical references and index.
Descriptors: ratites-diseases; ratites-surgery; ratite-farming

NAL Call No.: HD9438.R452U638
Ratite Marketplace.
Bowie, TX: Morgan Publishing and Communications, [1995]. (Bimonthly magazine.)
Contact: 114 N. Mason, P.O. Box 1613, Bowie, TX 76230. Phone: 1-800-972-7730.
Descriptors: ratite-industry-United-States-periodicals
Note: The Guide to Raising Ratites is a publication compiled from previously published articles in the Ratite Marketplace. Guide no. 1 covers 1990-1992, no. 2 covers January 1993-May 1993, no 3. covers June 1993 to December 1993, no. 4 covers January 1994 to May 1994, no. 5 covers June 1994 to December 1994, and no. 6 covers January 1995 to December 1995. For information, contact: Ratite Marketplace, P.O. Box 1613, Bowie, Texas 76230.

NAL Call No.: SF995.W4
Ratite (ostrich and emu) industry and management practices.
Stewart, J. S. Proceedings - West Poultry Disease Conference (43rd): p.15-19. (1994). Meeting held on February 27-March 1, 1994, Sacramento, California.
Descriptors: ostriches; emus; animal-husbandry; poultry-industry

NAL Call No.: SF994 A87
Ratite pediatric medicine and surgery.
Wade, J. R. Proceedings Annual Conference Association of Avian Veterinarians 1992. Lake Worth, FL: The Association, 1992. p.340-353. illus.
Descriptors: ratitae; care-in-captivity; general husbandry & veterinary care; treatment-techniques; veterinary care of young, guidelines; parasites-diseases-and-disorders; young, health problems in captivity & treatment guidelines

Ratite Research Bibliography.
Lawton, OK: Ostrich/Ratite Research Foundation (ORRF). Available from the Ostrich/Ratite Research Foundation (ORRF), 611 Southwest "E" Ave., Lawton, OK 73501-4511.
Descriptors: ratite-industry; ostrich-industry; research; bibliographies

NAL Call No.: SF966 Z66 1993
Ratite restraint and handling.
Jensen, J. M; Fowler, M. E. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1993, p.198-200. (1993). 2 refs.
Descriptors: restraint; immobilization; zoo-animals; restraint-of-animals

NAL Call No.: SF966 Z66
Ratites (Struthioniformes, Rheiformes, and Casuariiformes).
Dolensek, E.; Bruning, D. Fowler, M.E. [Ed.]. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1978: i-xvi, 1-951. Chapter (1978)
Descriptors: casuariiformes; rheiformes; care-in-captivity; rearing-and-breeding-techniques; anaesthesia; methods & agents; reproductive-behaviour; parasites; bacterial-diseases; rhinitis; fungal-diseases; candida albicans, pathology & treatment; metabolic-disorders; straddled leg syndrome, treatment, captivity; injuries; trauma & fracture agents; parasites; bacterial-diseases; rhinitis; fungal-diseases; candida albicans, pathology & treatment; metabolic-disorders; straddled leg syndrome, treatment, captivity; injuries; trauma & fracture

[Rearing of "unusual" species in France. Present status and problems, with five species: bisons, ostriches, llamas, crocodiles and deers]. L' elevage d' especes "insolites" en France. Situation actuelle et problemes, au travers de cinq especes: bison, autruche, lama, crocodile et cerf.
Lefay, H.; Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes (France). Nantes (France). November 1993. 131 p., Docteur Veterinaire (These).
Descriptors: bison; ostriches; llamas; crocodiles; red-deer; animal-husbandry; diversification; meat-animals; skin-producing-animals; animal-husbandry-methods; livestock-management; regulations; France; artiodactyla; birds; bovidae; bovinae; camelidae; cervidae; Europe; guanacos; mammals; mediterranean-countries; reptiles; ruminants; socioeconomic-organization; struthioniformes; useful-animals; western-Europe

NAL Call No.: SF511.A52--1995
Rearing Ostriches. L'allevamento Dello Struzzo.
Anderloni, G. Bologna : Edagricole, 1995. viii, 162 p. illus. Includes bibliographical references (p.161-162).
Descriptors: ostriches; rearing-techniques.

NAL Call No.: 280.9 Ox2B
Recent developments in ostrich farming.
Shanaway, M. M. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 57(4): p.3-8. 1995. 18 refs.
Descriptors: sexual-behaviour; egg-production; animal-husbandry; farming; meat-animals; breeding-season; profitability; animal-behaviour; management; reproduction; meat-production; hides-and-skins; feathers; behaviour

Abstract: Covers ostrich breeding. Topics include behaviour, economic aspects, reproduction, management, and the production of meat, feathers and skins.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
The relationship between pecking behaviour and growth rate of ostrich (Struthio camelus) chicks in captivity.
Lambert, M. S.; Deeming, D. C.; Sibly, R. M.; Ayres, L. L. Applied Animal Behavior Science v.46(1/2): p.93-101. (December 1995). Includes references.
Descriptors: ostriches; chicks; aggressive-behavior; growth-rate; head; feet

Abstract: captive ostrich (Struthio camelus) chicks kept in 'mixed weight' groups grow more slowly than chicks kept in 'similar weight' groups. It has been suggested that this was a result of aggressive pecking of smaller chicks by larger birds, reducing the growth rates of the former by prevention of feeding. Here we test the hypothesis that position in a peck order correlates with growth rate in chicks. Two groups of 12 chicks, one group of birds of a similar weight and one group where chick weight was mixed, were kept under quarantine conditions for 5 weeks. Pecking behaviour and growth rate of individual birds were recorded. Chicks pecked the toes and heads of their companions although the rate of pecking varied between birds. At the end of the study period chicks in the mixed weight group were larger than birds in the similar weight group. The correlations between pecking rate (of both heads and toes) and growth rate were negative for both groups of birds. Pecking at companions in ostrich chicks was limited to individual birds who may be less successful at feeding and so grow more slowly. The hypothesis that growth of some ostrich chicks was reduced because of harassment by larger birds was not supported by the data and the study leaves unexplained the finding that chicks in mixed weight groups grow more slowly than chicks in equal weight groups.

Reproduction of ostriches.
Burlini, F. Informatore Agrario v.50(41): p.52-58. (1994).
Descriptors: reproduction; incubation; hatching

NAL Call No.: QP251 R47
Reproductive research on farm animals for Australia - some long-distance goals.
Martin, G. B. Reproduction, Fertility and Development. v.7(5): p.967-982. (1995). 84 refs.
Descriptors: objectives; population-control; research; reproduction; livestock

Abstract: In Australia most of the animal production is still based on sheep and beef cattle enterprises that are managed under extensive systems. Therefore, managers need technologies that can be easily and cheaply implemented on a large scale, and that are aimed at extensive control rather than intensive manipulation. For example, for oestrus synchronization in wool flocks the 'ram effect' has, and probably always will have, far more impact on extensive grazing systems than technologies based on exogenous PGs or progestogens. This can also apply to new animal industries such as emu farming, and to environmental problems (such as control of feral animals). Moreover, under the pressure of public opinion, the industries that are currently intensive are going 'free range'. In addition, surgical managerial tools (such as castration) will probably have to be abandoned or replaced. To cope with such profound influences, new types of reproductive management systems will be needed. This paper attempts to broaden the research horizons in this area by developing the concept of 'control systems technologies', aimed at controlling reproductive performance rather than simply improving it. Ideas for such technologies already exist and are evident in the responses to environmental factors that farm animals have developed under the pressure of natural selection (before domestication). Stress, nutrition, photoperiod, lactation and sociosexual cues (e.g. pheromones) can all exert profound effects on reproductive activity. The final common pathway (hypothalamic system that generates GnRH pulses) through which the brain responses to these factors affect gonadal activity. What is needed is to learn how the major environmental cues exert their impact on the systems that control the final common pathway, and understanding of these would enable us to manipulate them. Several technologies take advantage of this approach, including the 'ram effect', a vaccine-based antifertility treatment for rangeland cattle, and the melatonin formulation used to control seasonal breeding in sheep. It is argued that these and the other pathways linking environmental inputs to reproductive output are waiting to be explored, explained and exploited.

NAL Call No.: SF994 A87
Research on growth rates of ostrich chicks.
Blue McLendon, A.; Bailey, C. A.; Kornelsen, M. J. Main Conference Proceedings Association of Avian Veterinarians, Reno, Nevada, USA, September 28-30, 1994. Orlando, FL: Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1994. p.131-132.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Research roundup: ostrich chick survival presents challenge.
Smith, C. A. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v.203(5): p.637-643. (1993).
Descriptors: poultry; mortality; poultry-diseases

Abstract: Diseases, nutrition, and genetics of young ostriches, and problems during incubation and hatching are discussed.

(Respiratory diseases in ostriches: when you realize it, it's already too late). Atemwegserkrankungen bei Straussen: Wenn man' s merkt, ist es fast zu spaet.
Jost, R. Deutsche Gefluegelwirtschaft und Schweineproduktion (Germany) [German Poultry Management and Swine Production] v.47(1): p.49-51. (1995). 6 illus.
Descriptors: ostriches; respiratory-diseases; symptoms; disease-control; air-sacs; lungs; aspergillus; mycoses; animal-morphology; birds; deuteromycotina; fungi; infectious-diseases; moulds; organic-diseases; respiratory-system; struthioniformes

NAL Call No.: HD9438.R4522
A review of ratite nutrition
Angel, C. R.; Blair, R. 15th Western Nutrition Conference and the Canola Pre-Conference Seminar, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, 13-14, September 1994. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 1996, v. 60: p.3-4, 241-246. 23 refs.
Descriptors: ostrich; emus; rhea; performance; nutrient requirements; digestibility; nutrition;

Abstract: Ostrich, emu and rhea nutrition are reviewed. Information on the unique characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract and general biological information about these flightless birds is presented. Also discussed are nutrient digestibility in ostriches and emus, nutrient requirements of ratites, lysine requirements of growing emus, and ostrich and emu performance.

Selected aspects of feeding ostriches under farming conditions.
Horbanczuk, J. Instytut Zootechniki Biuletyn Informacyjny v.34(1): p.27-36. (1996).
Descriptors: research article; animal nutrition

Sexual behaviour of the African ostrich (Struthio camelus).
Sambraus, H. H. Tierarztliche Praxis v.22(6): p.538-541. (1994). 9 refs.
Descriptors: sexual-behaviour

NAL Call No.: HD9437 D4D3
[Some facts about emus]. Nogle fakta om strudsefugle.
Nordholm, J. Dansk Erhvervsfjerkrae (Denmark) v.24(8): p.209-210 (August 1995). 2 tables.
Descriptors: emus; animal-husbandry; costs; agricultural-budgets; feeds; animal-feeding; animal-breeding; marketing; meat; skin; feathers; eggs; animal-health; animal-diseases; legislation; denmark; animal-products; birds; body-parts; casuariiformes; Europe; integument; national-budgets; public-finance; Scandinavia; western-Europe

Some physical requirements for ostrich egg incubation.
Jarvis, M. J. F.; Keffen, R. H.; Jarvis, C. Ostrich 56(1-3): p.42-51. (1985). illus.
Descriptors: struthio camelus australis; rearing-techniques; care-of-eggs; incubation requirements; humidity; temperature; Zimbabwe; Mazowe; egg incubation requirements, natural & artificial regimes

Special challenges of maintaining wild animals in captivity: A Southern African perspective.
Colly, L. P.; Bengis, R.; Bruckner, G. K. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties v.15(1): p.237-249. (1996).
Descriptors: journal article; ostriches; crocodile; cheetah; game legislation; regulatory control; game ranching; veterinary public health

[Struthioniforms: Husbandry and Production]. Les Ratites: Elevage et Productions.
Campodonico, P.; Masson, C.; Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Developpement, M. A. F. D. E. e. M. V. Maison Alfort (France). CIRAD. 1992. 98 p. 10 illus., 116 refs., 34 tables.
Descriptors: ostriches; classification; habitats; behaviour; adaptation; animal-diseases; animal-feeding; reproduction; animal-husbandry; feathers; meat; leather; animal-morphology; animal-products; birds; environments; integument; physiological-functions; processed-animal-products; processed-products; struthioniformes

NAL Call No.: SF511.E37--1994
Successful Ostrich Farming in Southern Africa and Australia.
Earle, R. [Australia : Australian Ostrich Association], 1994. 67, [1] p. illus. Cover title. (1994 ed., updated & extended foreword by Chas Dale.)
Descriptors: ostrich-farming-Australia; ostrich-farming-Africa,-southern

NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Surgical repair of traumatically induced collapsing trachea in an ostrich.
McClure, S. R.; Taylor, T. S.; Johnson, J. H.; Heisterkamp, K. B.; Sanders, E. A. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v.207(4): p.479-480. (August 1995). Includes references.
Descriptors: ostriches; trachea; wounds; collapse; surgery; prostheses; case-reports

NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Surgical treatment of egg retention in emus.
Honnas, C. M.; Jensen, J. M.; Blue McLendon, A.; Zamos, D. T.; Light, G. S. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v.203(10): p.1445-1447. (November 1993). Includes references.
Descriptors: emus; ova; reproductive-disorders; surgical-operations; birds; casuariiformes; cells; disorders; functional-disorders; gametes

[Syndicate for ostrich farming was founded]. Interessengemeinschaft fuer Straussenhaltung gegruendet.
Moebius, C. Deutsche Gefluegelwirtschaft und Schweineproduktion (Germany) [German Poultry Management and Swine Production] v.45(10): p.4. (1993). 1 illus.
Descriptors: ostriches; interest-groups; animal-husbandry; poultry-rearing; Germany; animal-husbandry; birds; Europe; struthioniformes; western-Europe

NAL Call No.: 23-W52J
Taking the emu to market.
Frapple, P.; Hagan, R. Journal of Agriculture v.33(3): p.91-94. (1992). illus.
Descriptors: emus; hides-and-skins; meat; marketing; blacks; poultry-farming; carcass-composition; food-processing; meat-quality; western-Australia

NAL Call No.: 47.8 Am33P
Tenderness studies with ostrich meat.
Marks, J.; Linton, R.; Schmieder, H.; Adams, R.; Stadelman, W. Poultry Science v.75(suppl. 1): p.127. (1996).
Descriptors: bird; poultry industry; meat quality

NAL Call No.: S1.M57
Thunderbird ranch emus.
Thibohdeau, J. S. Small Farm Today v.11(2): p.47-50. (April 1994)
Descriptors: emus; animal-husbandry; livestock-enterprises; animal-breeding; small-farms

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Time-activity budget of ostriches (Struthio camelus) offered concentrate feed and maintained in outdoor pens.
Degen, A. A.; Kam, M.; Rosenstrauch, A. Applied Animal Behavior Science v.22(3/4): p.347-358. (April 1989). Includes references.
Descriptors: ostriches; struthio-camelus; pens; time-and-motion-studies; animal-behavior; concentrates; feed-intake; water-intake

NAL Call No.: SF511.H35--1992
The TOPAZ Introduction to Practical Ostrich Farming.
Hallam, M. G.; TOPAZ (Organization). Harare, Zimbabwe : M.G. Hallam, June 1992. 149 p. illus. Chapters include: History of the ostrich; General information on the ostrich; Reproduction and management; Egg storage; Incubation and hatching; Nutrition; Veterinary problems of ostriches; Management systems; Handling facilities; Ostrich handling techniques; Sexing ostriches; Flaying, curing and grading of ostrich skins; Feathers and plucking; Record keeping; Marketing and market information.
Descriptors: ostrich-farming; ostriches

NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3
Tourniquet-induced hypertension in an ostrich.
Cornick Seahorn, J. L.; Martin, G. S.; Tully, T. N.; Morris, J. M. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v.207(3): p.344-346. (August 1995). Includes references.
Descriptors: ostriches; hypertension; surgical-operations; anesthesia; surgical-equipment; blood-pressure; case-reports; intraoperative-hypertension; pneumatic-tournaquet

NAL Call No.: 41.8 Av5
Tuberculosis in commercial emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae).
Shane, S. M.; Camus, A.; Strain, M. G.; Thoen, C. O.; Tully, T. N. Avian Diseases v.37(4): p.1172-1176. (1993). 12 refs.
Descriptors: tuberculosis; case-reports

Abstract: Extensive granuloma formation typical of tuberculosis was observed in a mature female emu. The diagnosis was confirmed by demonstration of acid-fast bacilli in lesions and culture of a Mycobacterium with growth characteristics resembling M. avium from liver tissue. Individual emus on the affected farm and an epidemiologically related unit gave a positive skin reaction to intradermal M. avium tuberculin. The implication of tuberculosis in commercial emus was discussed in relation to the growth of the industry in North America and to management and commercial practices that encourage dissemination of infection within the species and to other exotic and domestic animals.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 Av5
Tuberculosis in farmed rheas (Rhea Americana).
Sanford, S. E.; Rehmtulla, A. J.; Josephson, G. K. A. Avian Diseases v.38(1): p.193-196. (January 1994 - March 1994). Includes references.
Descriptors: Ontario; rheas; mycobacterium; tuberculosis; symptoms; histopathology; immunological-diseases; liver; spleen; lungs; animal-tissues; case-studies; actinomycetales; America; animal-morphology; bacteria; bacterioses; birds; canada; cardiovascular-system; digestive-system; infectious-diseases; North-America; pathology; respiratory-system; rheiformes; zoonoses; sucutis; mycobacterium-avium; granuloma

Abstract: Avian tuberculosis was diagnosed in two mature rheas on different ratite farms over a 2-year period. Both birds had died after progressively losing body condition. Caseonecrotic granulomas were scattered throughout the liver and spleen in both birds. Similar granulomas were in the lung of one bird and bilaterally in the subcutis cranial to the shoulder in the other bird. Smears of several granulomas from both rheas revealed large numbers of acid-fast bacilli. Histologically, the granulomas had caseonecrotic, non-mineralized centers surrounded by giant cells. Large numbers of acid-fast bacilli were seen free in the necrotic material and within inflammatory cells. Amyloidosis of the liver and spleen occurred in one rhea. Mycobacterium avium complex was isolated at a reference laboratory from hepatic granulomas submitted from one rhea.

NAL Call No.: 100-Al1H
Unlocking the emu oil mystery: findings could boost alternative agriculture industry.
Craig Schmidt, M.; Brown, A.; Smith, P. Highlights of Agricultural Research, Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station v.41(4): p.12-13. (1994).
Descriptors: oils; animal-production

Abstract: A discussion of emu production in USA and the quality of emu meat, with emphasis on fat composition. There are about 500 000 emus on about 10 000 ranches in the USA. Oil from the emu has cosmetic uses and there are potential therapeutic/pharmaceutical applications.

An unusual high mortality in young ostriches.
Singh Dhillon, A.; Fazzari, S. Western Poultry Disease Conference (no. 43rd): p.19-21. (1994). Meeting held on February 27-March 1, 1994, Sacramento, California.
Descriptors: ostriches; mortality; birds; struthioniformes

NAL Call No.: 47.8 Am33P
Use of the Inner-Vision Pro-850 for candling of ratite eggs.
Bradley, F. A.; Fuqua, C. L. Poultry Science v.74(suppl. 1): p.49. (1995).
Descriptors: bird; photostimulation; incubation; poultry industry

NAL Call No.: 48.1 D482
Veterinarian aspects of ostrich farming.
Koesters, J.; Hornung, B.; Korbel, R. DTW (Deutsche Tieraerztliche Wochenschrift)[DTW: German Veterinary Weekly] v.103(3): p.100-104. (1996).
Descriptors: research article; diagnosis

Abstract: The present paper is an attempt to relate the etiology of 54 cases with diseased/deceased ostriches to criterions of keeping, feeding, climate and infectious diseases. Despite the fact that some of the damages diagnosed seem to be avoidable the criterions of the law for the prevention of cruelty to animals are not to be fulfilled since the adverse climatic circumstances in Germany.

Vitamin E status of exotic animals compared with livestock and domestics.
Dierenfeld, E. S.; Traber, M. G.; Packer, L. (ed.); Fuchs, J. Vitamin E in Health and Disease. New York: Dekker, 1993. p.345-370. 157 refs.
Descriptors: vitamin-deficiencies; poultry; vitamin-E; nutritional-state; zoo-animals; reviews; livestock; domestic-animals

Welfare of ostriches and other ratites during transport.
Payne, H. State Veterinary Journal (United Kingdom) v.3(4): p.8-12. (1993). 7 refs.
Descriptors: birds; stress; air-transport; road-transport; microclimate; containers; transport-of-animals; ostriches; animal-welfare; birds; climate; struthioniformes; transport; crates

The West Texas Ratite Rancher.
Contact: The West Coast Ratite Rancher. Route 8, Box 47 D-4, Lubbock, TX 79407. Phone: 806-793-7102.

NAL Call No.: 41.8-Am3
Will ratites fly?
Herrick, J. B. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v.205(8): p.1116. (October 1994)
Descriptors: ostriches; emus; rhea; animal-production; livestock-farming

NAL Call No.: HD9438.R452U64-1994
Rawls, L. T.; Wingmasters (Firm). Eastover, SC : Wingmasters, 1994. 1 v. (unpaged) : illus. (some col.), Cover title.
Descriptors: ratite-industry-United-States; ostrich-farming-United-States

NAL Call No.: SF511.M33-1991
The Wonderful World of Ostriches.
McKean, B. Nevada, MO : McKean, 2nd ed., 1991. 32 p. : illus. Other title: How to Raise Ostriches for Fun and Profit.
Descriptors: ostrich-farms-and-farming; ostriches

The World's Largest Ostrich Newsletter.
Elmwood Park, IL: Ostriches On Line. Published biweekly. Available electronically and in print versions.
Contact: Ostriches On Line, 2218 N. 75th Ave., Elmwood Park, IL 60707. Phone: 708-452-7596 or 1-888-RING-00L. FAX: 708-452-7510.
Descriptors: ostriches-farming-periodicals

Author Index

17th Malaysian Society of Animal Production (MSAP) Annual Conference. Penang (Malaysia). May 28-30, 1995. 178, 228

Aakre, D. G. 4, 175
Abeln, G. 199
Acuff, G. R. 226, 227
Adams, A. W. 218
Adams, R. 286
Adams, R. L. 32, 141
Allen, G. A. III 254
Allen, M. E. 167
Allwright, D. M. 13, 20
Alternative Livestock Conference (1995 : University of Minnesota, St. Paul Campus) 5
American Emu Association 2
American Ostrich Association 6, 224
Anderloni, G. 61, 117, 123, 180, 202, 205, 226, 235, 240
Angel, C. R. 274
Angel, R. 48, 94
Anon, 229
Anthony, N. 47
Anthony, N. B. 36, 59
Ashash, E. 35
Ayres, F. J. 171, 172
Ayres, L. 86, 171, 172
Ayres, L. L. 268

Bailey, C. F. 36
Bailey, C. A. 271
Bain, P. 137
Ballard, Brenda 252
Balog, J. M. 59
Barron, S. 255
Bastien, R. W. 209
Batty, J. (Joseph), 194
Baxter, Mike 252
Beck, J. R. 11
Belcher, S. 216
Bengis, R. 279
Beretta, G. 24, 187
Berg, P. 62
Berge, P. 64, 70
Berry, J. 217
Bertram, B. 25
Bertram, B. C. R. 29, 150, 189, 192
Blair, R. 274
Blake, J. P. 127
Blue McLendon, A. 244, 271, 283
Bopp Herbold, J. 212
Bouisset, S. 19, 21
Brackett, V. 255
Bradley, F. A. 95, 152, 295
Brown, A. 293
Brown, C. R. 153
Bruckner, G. K. 279
Brugh, M. 11
Bruning, D. 264
Burger, A. E. 192
Burger, W. P. 13
Burlini, F. 52, 115, 186, 208, 269
Burroughs, R. E. J. 248

California Ostrich Association 33
Campbell, D. 97
Campodonico, P. 23, 221, 280
Camus, A. 291
Capatos, D. 163
Capua, I. 130
Carter, S. T. 232, 245
Castleberry, Janice 104, 109
Catelli, E. 51, 251
Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Developpement, Maisons Alfort (France). Departement Elevage et Medecine Veterinaire 280
Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Developpement, Maisons Alfort (France). IEMVT. Institut d' Elevage et de Medecine Veterinaire des Pays Tropicaux 221
Chouljenko, V. 122
Christensen, L. 82
Cilliers, S. C. 43, 101, 166
Clark, W. T. 179
Colbourne, C. 179
Cole, M. 9
Colly, L. P. 279
Coody, Dale 241
Cooper, J. E. 134
Cornick, J. L. 7
Cornick Seahorn, J. L. 290
Corsico, P. 24, 187
Craig, Schmidt M. 293
Crawford, M. 173
Crews, D. 144
Cross, G. M. 246
Cullen, L. K. 179
Cutler, B. 151

De Jong, B. 200
De Kock, J. 163
Deeming, D. C. 42, 83, 84, 86, 110, 128, 147, 171, 172, 268
Degen, A. A. 103, 288
Department of Agriculture, Oudtshoorn (South Africa). Little Karoo Agricultural Development Centre 106
Des Voigue, M.. 201
Dick, A. C. K. 128
Dierenfeld, E. S. 297
Ding, Y. 47
Dolensek, E. 264
Dorau, H. P. 38
Drenowatz, C. 255
Du Preez, J. J. 101, 163
Duewer, L. 82
Dunn, N. 238
Dunn, S. 255
Durieux, J. 196
Dzapo, V. 38

Earle, Ansie 182
Earle, Richard 281
Ebedes, H. 248
Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes (France) 75, 135, 265
Edwards, W. C. 111
Eldred, A. R. 58
Engku Azahan, E. A. 178

Fazzari, S. 294
Feron, E. M. 157
Fico, R. 130
Finger, James 105
Fioretti, W. C. 122
Foggin, C. M. 170
Fountain, C. 26
Fowler, M. E. 40, 125, 263
Fox, J. H. 137
Frapple, P. 285
Fuchs, J. 297
Fukuda, T. 30
Fuqua, C. L. 295

Galloway, B. 255
Gandini, G. C. M. 248
Gerlach, H. 177
Geyer, A. 13
Gheorghe, M. 255
Ghiselli, R. F. 32
Gill, J. H. 246
Gillespie, J. R. 148
Gimbi, A. A. 134
Gobbel, T. 236
Goebbel, T. 60, 88, 129, 133, 136, 193
Goerke, M. A. 179
Grant, A. L. 32
Gregory, D. G. 111
Greiner, E. C. 137
Greve, J. H. 45
Grittner, W. 239
Guittin, P. 22

Hagan, R. 285
Hale, D. S. 1, 44, 169, 226, 227
Hallam, M. G. 289
Hancock, R. 3
Harris, S. D. 1, 44, 169, 226, 227
Harrison, G. J. 45
Hartsfield, S. M. 143
Hastings, Michael Y. 195
Hayes, J. P. 94, 101, 102, 250
Hayton, Shirley (ed.) 257
Heisterkamp, K. B. 282
Herrick, J. B. 300
Hertrampf, J. W. 203
Hess, H. B. 127
Hicks, K. D. 225
Holle, Daryl 256
Honnas, C. M. 283
Honywill, J. 170
Hopkins, B. 255
Horbanczuk, J. 275
Hornung, B. 296
Huchzermeyer, F. W. 112, 190, 191

Jackson, T. C. 226, 227
Jarvis, C. 28, 278
Jarvis, M. J. F. 28, 163, 278
Jensen, J. 7
Jensen, J. M. 120, 125, 143, 263, 283
Jodoin, P. 255
Johnson, J. H. 282
Johnson, James Harvey 120
Johnson, Jani (ed.) 81
Jones, R. 137
Jong, B. de 200
Josephson, G. K. A. 292
Jost, R. 10, 124, 233, 249, 273
Junge, R. E. 143

Kam, M. 103, 288
Kanemitsu, H. 30
Keeton, J. T. 1, 44, 169, 226, 227
Keffen, R. H. 28, 278
Kemm, E. H. 57
Kinder, L. 47
Kinder, L. L. 36, 59
Kistner, C. 12, 132, 184
Knox, Ian 78
Kock, J. de 163
Koesters, J. 296
Korbel, R. 296
Kornelsen, M. J. 181, 271
Kousoulas, K. G. 122
Kraay, G. J. 149
Krawinkel, P. 131
Kreger, M. D. 116
Kruger, M.. 89
Krzeminski, B. 197
Kyle, R. 158

Lambert, M. S. 268
Lanigan, B. 96
Larson, J. A. 253
Lefay, H. 265
Leitch, Rebecca Lynn 210
Lepetit, J. 64, 70
Ley, D. H. 154
Licour, H. 75
Lien, TuFa 18
Light, G. S. 283
Linton, R 286
Locatelli, V. 135
Loomis, M. R. 154
Loveridge, A. 153
Low, T. 99
Lowry, Mike (ed.) 79
Lu, JinJenn 18
Lucia, L. M. 226, 227
Luttitz, H. von 31, 204

Mackie, R. I. 94
Madison, M. 82
Malkinson, M. 35
Mann, B. R. 149
Marais, D. 89
Maritz, J. S. 101
Marks, J. 286
Martin, G. S. 270, 290
Martinelli, A. 180
Marx, E. 76
Masson, C. 23, 221, 280
Matsuo, Y. 30
Matthews, N. S. 143
May, S. G. 44, 226, 227
McClure, S. R. 282
McKean, Bob 302
Mcmillin, K. W. 32
Meir, R. 35
Mellett, F. D. 164, 166
Mengozzi, B. 119
Migliorati G 130
Miller, R. K. 1, 44, 169, 226, 227
Minnaar, Maria 65
Minnaar, Phillip 65, 139
Moebius, C. 161, 284
Moody, R. 98
Moreau, J. D. 122
Morris, C. 255
Morris, C. A. 1, 44, 169, 226, 227
Morris, J. M. 290
Morris, R. E. 154
Mullins, A. 213

Nakaoka, M 30
Nandapi, D. 179
NDSU Extension Service 4
Nordholm, J. 277

Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute 190
Ostrich News 215
Ostrich/Ratite Research Foundation (ORRF) 262

Packer, L. (ed.) 297
Padget, D 69
Paleari, M. A. 24, 187
Payne, H. 298
Peinke, D 153
Perdue, M. L. 11
Perl, S. 35
Petitte, J. N. 37
Pettit, J. A. 100
Pezzotti, G. 130
Piazza, V. 51, 251
Plante, Y. 149
Plavnik, I. 103
Poggenpoel, D. G. 43
Prost, E. K. 176, 234

Radomska, M. J. 197
Raidal, S. R. 246
Raines, A. 255
Raines, A. M. 118
Randall, J. H. 164
Rawls, Louie Townes 301
Rehmtulla, A. J. 292
Reiner, G. 15, 16, 27, 38, 91, 160
Renerre, M. 64, 70
Rensburg, W. J. J. van. 20
Rhoads, D. 47
Ridlen, Carrol 252
Robinson, K. 255
Rosenstrauch, A. 103, 288

Salerno, H. 70
Sales, J. 43, 89, 114, 250
Sales, James 165
Sambraus, H. H. 17, 41, 39, 90, 92, 207, 276
Samson, J. 14
Sanders, E. A. 282
Sanford, S. E. 292
Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food 219
Satteneni, G. 85, 122
Satterlee, D. G. 85, 122
Savell, J. W. 1, 44, 169, 226, 227
Saver, M. 63
Schalkwyk, S. J. van 166
Scheideler, S. 94
Scheideler, S. E. 37, 168
Schmieder, H. 32, 141, 286
Schumann, B. R. 145, 146
Seeland, G. 159
Sell, Randall S. 4, 175
Shanawy, M. M. 267
Shane, S. M. 50, 121, 258
Shane, Simon M. 258
Sharp, G.J. 138
Shivaprasad, H. L. 156
Sibly, R. M. 268
Siebrits, F. K. 102
Siegfried, W. R. 174
Siegmann, O. 249
Sigler, D. H. 255
Singh Dhillon, A. 113, 294
Slemons, R. D. 11
Smallwood, J. E. 154
Smetana, P. 66, 67
Smith, C. A. 188, 272
Smith, P. 293
Smith, P. C. 255
Smith, W. A. 166, 247
Snizek, J. 222, 223
Soerensen, L. Y. 74
Spreckels, M. 107
Stadelman, W. 286
Stadelman, W. J. 32, 141
Stewart, J. S. 108, 181, 242, 260
Stickler, D. E. 145, 146
Stickler, H. B. 145, 146
Stickler, H. M. 145, 146
Stickler, P. J. 145, 146
Strain, M. G. 291
Sundermann, F. 237
Sutton, W. C. 255
Swan, R. A. 179
Swart, D. 57, 94, 102
Swasy, A. 162
Swayne, D. E. 11

Taylor, T. S. 282
Thibohdeau, J. S. 287
Thoen, C. O. 291
Thompson, L. 255
TOPAZ (Organization) 230, 289
Touraille, C. 64, 70
Traber, M. G. 297
Tuckwell, C. 87
Tully, T. N. 121, 258, 290, 291
Tully, T. N. Jr. 50

Ullrey, D. E. 53, 167
University of Pretoria. Veterinary Science Library 183

Van der Westhuizen, Erica. 182, 183
Van Niekerk, B. D. H. 198
Van Rensburg, W. J. J. 20
Van Schalkwyk, S. J. 166
Vandervoodt, Claire 46
Vanhooser, S. L. 111
Vellayan, S. 228
Vohra, P. 126
Vrzal, A. 142

Wade, J. R. 261
Weiner, Stanley T. 120
Weisman, Y. 35
Wessels, J. 13
Wibbels, T. 144
Wiley, C. B. 49
Williams, M. 68
Wilson, H. R. 58
Wilson, M. 20
Wingmasters (Firm) 301

Yagil, R. 185
Yonezawa, A. 30
Younghusband, P. 56

Zamos, D.T. 283

Subject Index

abnormal behaviour 14, 16, 17, 181
abnormal egg occurrence & causes 225
acetic-acid 94
acids 185
actinomycetales 292
adaptation 280
additives 222
adipsia 14
aetiology 51
Africa 31, 76, 106, 203, 204
Africa-South-of-Sahara 31, 76, 106, 203, 204
age 160, 225
age differences 163
Age relations 225
aggressive behavior 268
aggressive behaviour 14
agribusiness 173
agricultural budgets 277
agricultural research 245
agricultural structure 180
agriculture 203, 221
air 124
air sacs 273
air transport 3, 298
alanine aminotransferase 18
alfalfa meal 102
alternative agriculture North Dakota 4
alternative farming 175, 216
alternative livestock 62, 175
America 117, 292
amides 185
amino acids 55, 250
ammonium 94
anaesthesia 52, 177, 264
analytical method 37, 47, 122
anatomy 40, 91, 255
ancestry 160
anesthesia 7, 179, 290
anesthetics 7
anglophone Africa 31, 76, 106, 203, 204
animal behavior 288
animal behaviour 14, 17, 39, 41, 181, 234, 267
animal breeding 27, 129, 160, 177, 204, 209, 218, 234, 236, 245, 277, 287
animal-culture-Australia-Congresses 78
animal developmental stages 222
animal diseases 35, 52, 130, 135, 251, 277, 280
animal disorders 188
animal ecology 207
animal feeding 31, 55, 75, 88, 106, 109, 161, 209, 218, 221, 237, 277, 280
animal health 133, 277
animal housing 3, 12, 88, 116, 117, 184, 198, 222, 237
animal husbandry 12, 19, 60, 61, 74, 75, 88, 98, 99, 116, 132, 133, 135, 136, 161, 162, 178, 180, 184, 196, 197, 204, 206, 207, 220, 222, 231, 234, 237, 239, 240, 245, 253, 255, 260, 265, 267, 277, 280, 284, 287
animal husbandry equipment 61
animal husbandry methods 10, 12, 27, 54, 61, 75, 88, 106, 117, 124, 132, 133, 161, 177, 180, 185, 193, 203, 221, 237, 265
animal husbandry periodicals 6
animal learning 16
animal morphology 16, 60, 75, 132, 140, 161, 177, 204, 231, 273, 280, 292
animal needs 12, 184, 220, 231
animal nutrition 24, 188, 275
animal oils 99
animal production 23, 31, 66, 148, 157, 193, 203, 206, 221, 223, 236, 293, 300
animal products 54, 60, 61, 75, 88, 124, 136, 140, 161, 198, 204, 221, 222, 231, 234, 277, 280
animal tissues 292
animal viruses 135
animal welfare 3, 17, 39, 54, 92, 98, 116, 133, 298
animals and man 242
anorexia 14
antitoxins 20
application methods 10
Arizona 107
artificial incubation 108
artificial incubation evaluation 192
artificial insemination 221
artiodactyla 265
ash 59
Asia 178, 203, 228
aspartate aminotransferase 18
aspergillus 273
associated conjunctivitis & new host record for Struthioniformes 45
Australia 66, 67, 68, 91, 96, 99, 196
avipoxvirus 13, 246

bacillaceae 19
bacteria 19, 135, 292
bacterial diseases 51, 52, 112, 125, 205, 225, 264
bacterial toxins 20
bacterioses 19, 177, 292
beef 90
beef comparison 250
behaviour 15, 16, 23, 39, 41, 75, 176, 178, 204, 207, 267, 280
bibliographies 253, 262
biobusiness 250
biological development 222
biological rhythms 39
biology 75, 135
bird 36, 37, 42, 47, 58, 59, 83, 85, 141, 167, 169, 286, 295
bird genetics 122
birds 3, 9, 10, 12, 15, 16, 19, 27, 31, 54, 55, 60, 61, 67, 68, 74, 75, 76, 88, 99, 100, 106, 109, 117, 124, 129, 132, 133, 135, 136, 140, 160, 161, 177, 178, 180, 184, 185, 193, 198, 199, 203, 204, 206, 207, 209, 213, 220, 221, 222, 228, 231, 237, 239, 240, 251, 265, 273, 277, 280, 283, 284, 292, 294, 298
birds-periodicals 6
bison 265
bison-industry-Congresses 5
blacks 285
blood 7, 122, 185
blood chemistry 18
blood composition 185
blood pressure 7, 290
body composition 102
body condition 103
body fat 102
body, influence on communal nesting system evolution, Africa 29
body measurements 204
body parts 222, 226, 227, 277
body regions 132
body water 103
body weight 23, 86, 101
bone diseases 134
bone weight 227
Bophuthatswana, Sun City 28
borna disease virus 35
botulism 19, 20, 21
boundaries 161, 180, 184
bovidae 265
bovinae 265
bow leg syndrome 22
bow leg syndrome relations with nutrition, growth & survival 22
bow leg syndrome relationships in hand rearing 22
brandenburg 239
breeding 23, 47, 59, 85, 91, 115, 138, 149, 150, 202, 255
breeding, hatching success & chick growth 30
breeding methods 228
breeding programmes 236
breeding programs 37
breeding records 26
breeding season 28, 48, 225, 267
breeding stock 184
breeding techniques 254
breeds 237
business management 117, 240

cages 3
calcium 59, 134, 167
California 95, 152
camelidae 265
canada 292
candida albicans, pathology & treatment 264
cannibalism 91
Cape province 25, 56
captive breeding record 26
captive rearing record 107
carbon 94
carbon dioxide 94, 124
carcass composition 24, 161, 231, 285
carcass weight 226, 227
carcass yield 226, 227
carcasses 161, 164, 229, 231
cardiovascular system 40, 292
care in captivity 25, 69, 118, 261, 264
care of eggs 278
case reports 21, 35, 137, 246, 282, 290, 291
case studies 292
cassowaries 23, 221
casuariiformes 67, 74, 75, 99, 135, 221, 231, 264, 277, 283
causes of chick mortality in production facilities, evaluation protocols 118
cells 283
cellulose-digestion 94
cervidae 265
cervus elaphus canadensis 62
cheetah 279
chemical composition 75
chemicophysical properties 61, 124, 185
chick production 172, 188
chick rearing 255
chicken 122
chicken comparison 250
chicken meat 90
chickens 54
chicks 13, 54, 86, 94, 102, 109, 156, 172, 188, 244, 246, 268
chicks, zoo 30
chilling 226
cholesterol 90
circadian rhythm 39
classification 280
cleaning 10
climate 12, 220, 298
climate and weather 28
climatic requirements 88, 220
clostridium 19
clostridium botulinum 19, 20
clutches 28
colinus virginianus 116, 253
collapse 282
colonial breeding 29
color 227
colour 185
combines 160
commercial farming, overview 242
comminuted meat products 141
communal nesting system evolution & adaptive strategies 29
communal nesting system evolution, relationships, East Africa 29
communal nesting system & strategies 29
communal system & adaptive strategies 29
comparison to wild 28
complications 7, 179
compound feeds 222
concentrates 57, 288
conservation 56
constipation 51
containers 298
contamination 147
cooking 89
cooperative marketing 97
cost benefit analysis 236
costs 60, 203, 277
crates 298
crayfish-culture-Australia-Congresses 78
crocodile 279
crocodiles 265
cytoplasmic inclusions 13

de-feathering process 146
deer-farming-Australia-Congresses 78
deficiency diseases 134
denmark 74, 277
deuteromycotina 273
developmental disorders 22, 53, 154
developmental disorders relationship in captivity 154
developmental stages 222
diagnosis 52, 296
diet 48, 101
diet & cage flooring 151
diet in captivity 22, 53, 168, 248
diet planning 126
dietary fat 90
dietary requirements 168
diets 57
digenean parasite associated conjunctivitis 45
digenean parasites 45
digestibility 231, 274
digestive disorders 205
digestive system 40, 128, 292
digestive system diseases 51
disease control 19, 52, 106, 273
disease prevention 52, 218
disease transmission 51
diseases 51, 52, 156, 191, 205, 233, 244, 249, 255
diseases-and-disorders 108, 118, 168, 225
disinfection 10, 112
disorders 17, 45, 132, 283
diurnal activity 41
diversification 265
DNA 122, 149
domestic animals 54, 178, 297
domesticated birds 54, 174, 178
dosage 143
dressing percentage 161, 227, 231
drinking 39
drinking water 185
dromaiidae 254
Dromaius Novaehollandiae 22, 30, 36, 53, 69, 242
drug combinations 179
drug therapy 52

ecology 207
economic analysis 129
economics 159, 238
education 12
efficiency 60, 136, 207
egg 28, 48, 225
egg content 48
egg fertility 84, 131
egg hatchability 61, 84, 110, 131, 147, 170, 171, 222, 233
egg incubation 10, 61, 88, 106, 109, 124, 176, 185, 237
egg incubation & hatching problems, review 108
egg incubation requirements, natural & artificial regimes 278
egg laying 28, 48
egg mass 84
egg production 167, 203, 233, 236, 267
egg products 142
egg storage 58, 289
egg weight 131
eggs 28, 38, 43, 54, 58, 60, 61, 75, 87, 88, 112, 123, 124, 136, 140, 147, 161, 172, 204, 277
eggs & chicks in production facilities, evaluation of management causes 118
eggs incubation 105
electrical stimulation 226
electrolytes 185
electrophoresis 37
embryo mortality 84, 110
embryonic development 110
embryos 112
emu 2, 122
emu farming 104, 109, 252
emu-farming-handbooks,-manuals,-etc 65, 215
emu-farming-periodicals 214
emu-farming-United-States-periodicals 2, 72, 73
emu meat 64, 68
emus 49, 50, 66, 67, 70, 71, 74, 75, 82, 87, 97, 99, 109, 121, 127, 135, 139, 162, 173, 221, 231, 243, 245, 255, 260, 274, 277, 283, 285, 287, 300
emus-diseases-Treatment-Handbooks,-manuals,-etc 120
emus-marketing 80
emus-United-States-periodicals 72, 73
energy content 90
energy intake 102, 103
England 26
enterprises 160, 198
environmental factors 86
environmental influences & associated physiological changes 225
environmental temperature 84
environments 280
epidemiological surveys 249
equipment 61, 88
erosion 76
essential amino acids 55
etiology 35
Europe 9, 12, 19, 27, 54, 74, 88, 91, 133, 136, 161, 177, 184, 198, 206, 207, 231, 238, 239, 251, 265, 277, 284
European communities 251
evaluation 27, 160
evolution 49
evolutionary adaptation 29
excreta 185
excretion 185
exotic animals 79, 80, 81
exotic-animals-Australia-congresses 78
exotics 62, 82, 95, 152, 201
experimental infection 11
extension activities 12
extensive farming 12, 54, 133, 161
extensive husbandry 12, 54, 133, 161

failure causes 30
family farms 62, 243
farm accounting 96
farm management 117, 240
farm structure 180
farming 49, 150, 236, 267
farming and agriculture 56, 118
farming methods 25
farming systems 12, 54, 106, 133, 161, 228
farming techniques 25
farms 198
fat percentage 227
fattening 161
fatty acids 90
feather pecking 17, 90
feather production 57
feathers 16, 24, 60, 75, 92, 140, 161, 174, 203, 204, 222, 236, 267, 277, 280, 289
feed additives 222
feed conversion 57
feed conversion efficiency 222, 231
feed intake 16, 57, 102, 288
feeding 16, 55, 91, 119, 167, 186, 221, 256
feeding behaviour 17, 39, 92
feeding habits 15, 16, 235
feeding level 16
feeding systems 237, 256
feeds 75, 220, 222, 256, 277
feet 268
fencing 161, 180, 184
fermentation 94
fertility 225
fertilization 185
flavor 32
flocks 35
Florida 45
food-animals; artifical-incubation; general-account 98
food availability 29
food chemistry 250
food composition 87
food industry 1, 44, 87, 141, 169
food hygiene 100
food intake 17
food processing 71, 87, 141, 145, 285
food products 32, 141, 250
food storage 87
foods 250
foot diseases 52
foreign bodies 51, 128
foreign trade 54, 251
fractures 134
France 19, 206, 265
free range husbandry 12, 133, 161
fringillidae 116
fumigation 10
functional disorders 132, 283
fungal diseases 264
fungi 273

galliformes 54, 55
game animals 159
game farming 66, 158, 159
game legislation 279
game ranching 279
gametes 283
gas exchange 124
gas-production 94
gases 7
gastrointestinal anatomy 167
gender prediction 122
general husbandry & veterinary care 261
genetics 37, 47, 255
genomic DNA 37
Germany 12, 27, 54, 88, 91, 133, 161, 177, 184, 207, 239, 284
gizzard 128
granuloma 292
grassland management 76
grazing lands 239
grazing systems 237
growth 36, 167
growth curve 101, 103, 163, 164
growth models 102
growth rate 22, 30, 57, 86, 102, 103, 163, 172, 268
guanacos 265

habitat 92
habitats 280
hand rearing 22, 107
handling facilities 289
handling techniques 289
hatchery management 108
hatching 86, 104, 109, 110, 188, 222, 269, 289
hatching success 30, 154, 192
hatching success relationship in captivity 154
hatching weight 101, 163
head 268
health 167, 186
health management 176
heart diseases 51
heart rate 7
heavy metals 111
helminths 51, 52
heterocyclic compounds 185
hides and skins 24, 75, 221, 267, 285
hindlimb skeleton 22, 53
hindlimbs 53
histopathology 13, 292
history 49
history & importance for conservation 56
history of domestication & farming, conservation relationship 56
hormones 185
host parasite relationship 137
host range 11
housing 98, 186
houttaymia struthionis; libyostrongylus douglassii; coeliostomum struthionis 52
humidity 61, 124, 278
hygiene 10, 147, 251
hypertension 290
hyphomycetes; mitosporic fungi 147

identification 27
immobilization 263
immunization 19, 106
immunological diseases 292
immunostimulation 19, 106
immunotherapy 19, 106
importance of domestication & farming 56
imports 54, 251
improper management as cause of chick disease & mortality, evaluation 118
income tax 96
incubation 24, 84, 123, 131, 150, 170, 171, 172, 188, 209, 218, 233, 269, 289, 295
incubation requirements 278
incubators 61, 131
infectious diseases 19, 177, 233, 273, 292
infertility 147
infertility causes 225
infertility significance 225
information 126
information services 127
ingestion 128
ingredients 55
inhaled anesthetics 179
injectable anaesthetics 143
injectable anesthetics 179
injuries 264
inorganic substances 48
integument 16, 60, 75, 140, 161, 203, 204, 222, 231, 277, 280
intensive husbandry 200
interest groups 127, 184, 284
international organizations 251
international trade 128, 240
international workshop on applied ethology in livestock 93
intestinal-microorganisms 94
intraoperative hypertension 290
investment 240
Israel 35, 91, 103, 185, 203
Italy 251

Japan 30
journal article 92, 121, 167, 176, 279

Kenya 29
ketamine 143
Kobe Oji Zoo 30

lactic-acid 94
land resources 239
law 133
laying performance 203
laying season & patterns, effect of rainfall, egg & clutch sizes 28
leather 60, 91, 161, 193, 280
leg disorder relationship 53
leg muscles 250
legal liability 133
legislation 3, 133, 251, 277
legs, relationship with diet in captivity 53
lesions 3, 51
limbs 132
lipids 89
liver 292
livestock 54, 62, 148, 178, 270, 297
livestock-congresses 5
livestock enterprises 173, 217, 287
livestock farming 62, 82, 201, 232, 243, 300
livestock industry 146
livestock management 88, 106, 180, 247, 265
liveweight 102
liveweight gain 167
llamas 265
losses 61, 124
lungs 273, 292

magnesium 59
maize meal 102
malaria 137
Malaysia 178, 228
male & female 225
mammals 265
management 23, 138, 159, 186, 233, 236, 255, 267, 289
market prices 60, 82, 140
marketing 70, 71, 129, 204, 277, 285
marketing channels 129
markets 54, 80, 206, 210, 238
marking 27, 160
maternal behaviour 15
maternal diet composition effects on egg mineral & vitamin content 48
mating systems 221
Mazowe 278
meat 24, 54, 60, 70, 75, 91, 100, 161, 198, 204, 222, 229, 231, 255, 277, 280, 285
meat and livestock industry 71, 97
meat-animals 196, 265, 267
meat characteristics 24
meat hygiene 100
meat industry 44, 250
meat inspection 100
meat performance 60, 231
meat production 23, 24, 71, 158, 159, 193, 206, 221, 236, 267
meat productivity 176
meat products 100, 142
meat quality 24, 285, 286
meat-specific 9, 64, 68, 89, 114, 187, 199, 212, 213, 229, 238
meat yield 60, 227
mechanical deboning equipment 141
mechanical properties 70
Mediterranean countries 19, 185, 206, 251, 265
meeting abstract 1, 44, 59, 85, 169
metabolic disorders 134, 264
metabolism 94
metabolizable energy 94, 102
methods 144, 145, 146, 160, 203, 221
methods & agents 264
microbial contamination 84, 147
microclimate 12, 220, 298
microeconomic analysis 129
microorganism 37
Middle East 185, 203
mineral content of egg, variation & maternal die relationships 48
mineral & vitamin content, variation & maternal diet relationships 48
minerals 250
monographs 191
morphology 137
mortality 35, 50, 88, 112, 113, 118, 156, 220, 222, 272, 294
moulds 273
movement 39
movement disorders 132
muscle weight 227
muscles 141, 226, 227
musculoskeletal system 70
mycobacterium 292
mycobacterium avium 292
mycoses 273

national budgets 277
natural resources 239
neoplasms 51
nervous system diseases 19
nesting 29
nesting system & adaptive strategies 29
netherlands 136
new digenean parasite record for Struthioniformes 45
new laender 239
newcastle disease 249
normal values 18
North America 117, 292
nutrient content 70, 89, 165
nutrient deficiencies 52
nutrient requirements 94, 119, 126, 166, 167, 235, 274
nutrition 98, 167, 221, 233, 255, 274, 289
nutrition associated health problems in captivity, review & discussion 168
nutrition information 70, 71
nutrition physiology 55, 88, 220
nutritional disorders 51, 90, 134
nutritional requirements 55, 88, 220
nutritional state 297
nutritive value 24, 55, 87, 231

objectives 270
oceania 67, 99
Ohio 232
oils 70, 75, 99, 293
Oklahoma 117, 217
omphalitis 52
Ontario 292
oogenesis 225
optical properties 185
organic acids 185
organic diseases 19, 273
organoleptic properties 70
organoleptic traits 24
ostrich 58, 121, 122, 144, 255, 274
ostrich farming 46, 175, 208, 219, 289
ostrich-farming-Africa,-Southern 281
ostrich-farming-Australia 281
ostrich-farming-bibliography 182, 183
ostrich-farming-economic-aspects 219
ostrich-farming-Italy 208
ostrich-farming-South-Africa 194
ostrich-farming-United-States 301
ostrich farms 255
ostrich farms and farming 195, 241, 302
ostrich-farms-and-farming-Australia 195
ostrich-farms-and-farming-Australia-Congresses 78
ostrich-farms-and-farming-directories 215
ostrich-farms-and-farming-periodicals 34, 224, 303
ostrich-farms-and-farming-United-States-Periodicals 6, 224
ostrich-farms-United-States-directories 155
ostrich industry 262
ostrich meat 9, 89, 114, 165, 187, 199, 212, 213, 229, 238
ostriches 3, 7, 10, 12, 13, 15, 16, 19, 20, 27, 31, 35, 43, 49, 54, 55, 57, 60, 61, 62, 74, 76, 82, 84, 86, 88, 89, 94, 95, 100, 101, 102, 103, 105, 106, 110, 111, 113, 116, 117, 124, 126, 127, 129, 132, 133, 136, 140, 152, 160, 161, 163, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 177, 178, 179, 180, 184, 185, 188, 193, 194, 195, 196, 198, 201, 203, 204, 206, 207, 209, 210, 216, 217, 220, 221, 222, 226, 227, 228, 231, 232, 237, 239, 240, 241, 245, 246, 247, 251, 253, 255, 260, 265, 266, 268, 273, 279, 280, 282, 284, 288, 289, 290, 294, 298, 300, 302
ostriches-Australia 195
ostriches-behavior 189
ostriches-bibliography 182, 183
ostriches-congresses 230
ostriches-diseases 190
ostriches-diseases-and-pests 46
ostriches-diseases-treatment-handbooks,-manuals,-etc 120
ostriches-farming-periodicals 214
ostriches-marketing 80, 208, 210
ostriches-nests 189
ostriches-periodicals 6, 224
ostriches-reproduction 46
ostriches-United-States-periodicals 6, 33
Oudtshoorn 25
Oudtshoorn area 56
outbreaks 13, 20
ova 283
overview 225
Oxfordshire, Burford, Cotswold Wildlife Park 26
oxides 124

palatability 44, 229
paralysis 19
parasites 51, 52, 106, 135, 264
parasites-diseases-and-disorders 261
parasitoses 125
paresis 35
parrots 116
partridges 253
pastures 239
pathogenicity 11
pathogens 135
pathology 51, 135, 221, 292
patterns & season, rainfall effect 28
pelleted feeds 93
pennsylvania 162
pens 288
performance 60, 231, 274
performance testing 27, 160
ph 226
phage 37
pheasants 116, 253
phenotypes 160
philophthalmus gralli 45
Phoenix Zoo 107
photostimulation 295
physical activity 132
physical properties 114
physicochemical properties 114
physiographic features 180
physiological functions 55, 75, 88, 124, 185, 220, 221, 222, 280
physiological requirements 55, 88, 220
physiology 98
pipping 110
planning 27
plumage 23, 41
plumage birds 178, 196
pneumatic tournaquet 290
poisoning 111
poitou charentes 19
polymerase chain reaction 37, 47, 122
population control 270
population sex ratio 29
postmortem changes 226
potassium permanganate 112
poultry 11, 38, 43, 51, 54, 64, 89, 114, 128, 145, 178, 187, 205, 212, 229, 238, 272, 297
poultry diseases 51, 128, 205, 272
poultry equipment 61
poultry farming 87, 95, 152, 285
poultry feeding 126
poultry housing 12, 88, 184, 222, 237
poultry industry 1, 32, 36, 42, 44, 47, 58, 59, 83, 85, 141, 144, 146, 167, 169, 250, 260, 286, 295
poultry meat 60, 64, 70, 75, 87, 89, 114, 187, 212, 222, 229, 238
poultry production 153
poultry rearing 60, 61, 88, 132, 161, 178, 180, 220, 222, 231, 237, 240, 284
preanesthetic medication 179
predators 29
prevention 121
prices 60, 136, 140, 161, 203, 204, 231
primary sector 96
processed animal products 60, 75, 161, 193, 280
processed products 60, 75, 161, 193, 280
processing 1, 133
processing thermal 89
producer prices 60, 136, 203, 204, 231
production 23, 31, 41, 148, 193, 200, 203, 206, 221, 236, 255
production costs 60, 96
production data 129
production possibilities 67, 127
products 82, 221
professional services 12
profitability 60, 96, 136, 159, 240, 267
prophylaxis 52
prostheses 282
protein composition 102
protein content 102
protein formulation suitable for young under intensive conditions 248
protozoal infections 137
proventriculus 128
proximate composition 250
psittaciformes 168
public finance 277
public health legislation 251
publications 127
purification method 37
purines 185

quality 55, 70, 92, 231

radioactive tracers 94
rainfall effect on laying season & patterns, wild & captive, Africa 28
rations 55
Ratitae 118, 168, 261
ratite farming 256, 258
ratite-farming-congresses 5
ratite-farms-United-States-directories 155
ratite industry 262
ratite-industry-directories,-handbooks 215
ratite-industry-United-States 301
ratite-industry-United-States-periodicals 211, 257, 259
ratites-diseases 258
ratites-surgery 258
raw foods 90
rearing and breeding techniques 264
rearing techniques 104, 106, 108, 109, 151, 192, 247, 266, 278
red deer 265
registration 160
regulations 12, 184, 265
regulatory control 279
relations with nutrition, environment, growth & survival in hand rearing 22
relative humidity 84, 170
reproduction 23, 75, 185, 221, 222, 225, 255, 267, 269, 270, 280, 289
reproductive behaviour 30, 264
reproductive diseases & disorders 225
reproductive diseases, review 225
reproductive disorders 51, 225, 283
reproductive organs 40
reproductive productivity 225
reproductive system 225
reproductive techniques 108
reptiles 265
requirements & recommended nutrient level ranges, review 168
research 262, 270
research article 153, 250, 275, 296
respiration rate 7
respiratory diseases 273
respiratory system 40, 273, 292
restraint 263
restraint of animals 177, 263
review & implications for diet formulation & health problems in captivity 168
reviews 41, 51, 166, 223, 297
rhea 11, 22, 23, 49, 93, 120, 121, 127, 173, 176, 211, 214, 221, 232, 245, 255, 274, 292, 300
Rhea Americana 22
Rhea Dromaeus 176
rheas 11, 22, 23, 49, 93, 120, 121, 127, 173, 176, 211, 214, 221, 232, 245, 255, 274, 292, 300
rheas farming periodicals 214
Rheidae 151, 254
Rheidae-diseases-treatment-handbooks,-manuals,-etc 120
rheiformes 221, 264, 292
rhinitis 264
ripening 70
road transport 298
ruminants 265

sand bathing 41
scandinavia 74, 277
season, egg mineral & vitamin content variation relationships 48
seasonal activity 28
selection criteria 27
selenium 94
sensory properties 229
Serengeti National Park 29
services 12
sex differences 93, 101, 163, 226, 227
sex differentiating material 144
sex ratio 172
sexing techniques 69, 289
sexual behavior in animals 189
sexual behaviour 15, 75, 267, 276
sexual maturation 225
sexual maturation relations 225
sexual reproduction 185, 222
sheep-Australia-milk-production-congresses 78
size 28, 29
skeletomuscular system 40
skin 60, 140, 161, 222, 231, 277
skin producing animals 196, 265
slaughter 24, 226
slaughtering 92, 133
small farms 201, 216, 232, 287
social behavior in animals 189
social behaviour 15
socioeconomic organization 265
soil types 180
South Africa 13, 28, 31, 57, 76, 91, 101, 106, 203, 204
South Africa & Zimbabwe 28
South East Asia 178, 228
southern Africa 31, 76, 106, 163, 203, 204
southern plains states USA 117
southern states USA 117
species 157
species differences 90
spermatogenesis 225
spleen 292
spoilage 147
spongiform encephalopathy 51
stabling 132
stocking density 88
stomach ulcers 51
storage 147
straddled leg syndrome, treatment, captivity 264
strength 70
streptococcus gallinarum; isospora struthionis; leucocytozoon struthionis; balantidium struthionis; libyostrongylus douglassii; houttuynia struthionis; codiostomum struthionis; dicheloinema spicularia; struthiofilaria megalocephala; philophtalmus gralli; 51
stress 298
struthio camelus 22, 28, 42, 45, 48, 56, 59, 83, 91, 107, 108, 150, 154, 167, 176, 192, 218, 225, 228, 242, 248, 288
struthio camelus australis 25, 278
struthio camelus massaicus 26, 29
Struthionidae 254
struthioniformes 3, 10, 12, 15, 16, 19, 27, 31, 54, 55, 60, 61, 74, 76, 88, 100, 106, 117, 124, 129, 132, 133, 136, 140, 160, 161, 177, 178, 180, 184, 185, 193, 198, 203, 204, 206, 207, 220, 221, 222, 228, 231, 237, 239, 240, 251, 265, 273, 280, 284, 294, 298
sucutis 292
surgery 282
surgical equipment 290
surgical operations 283, 290
survival 172, 188
survival in captivity 22
sustainability 157
symptoms 20, 246, 273, 292
systematics 92

Tanzania 29
taxa 237
taxonomy 137
temperature 29, 61, 88, 124, 226, 278
testing 27, 160
Texas 117, 226, 227
therapy 19, 106
time and motion studies 288
tissues 203
trachea 282
trade 54, 240, 251
trade associations 152
training 12
training courses 12
transport 3, 298
transport of animals 3, 128, 298
trauma 3, 51, 205
trauma & fracture 264
trauma & fracture agents 264
treatment 20, 52, 246
treatment techniques 261
trends 87
tropics 23, 138, 158
Tsavo West National Park 29
tuberculosis 52, 291, 292
Turkey 122
turkeys 55

UK 9, 171, 172
unconventional 157
urea 185
uric acid 185
USA 82, 91, 100, 117
useful animals 54, 178, 184, 193, 265
uses 82

vaccination 13, 19, 106
vertebrates 203, 221
veterinary care of young, guidelines 261
veterinary hygiene 10, 251
veterinary-medicine-congresses 230
veterinary problems 289
veterinary public health 279
vices 91
videotapes 127
viral diseases 11, 51, 52, 98, 125, 205, 225
viroses 177
virus 37
vitamin deficiencies 297
vitamin E 94, 297
vitamins 48
volatile-fatty-acids 94

washing 112
water 185
water intake 103, 288
water vapor movement 84
weaning feeds 220
weight 204, 226, 227
weight gain 222
weight losses 61, 84, 124, 170
western Australia 67, 285
western Europe 12, 19, 27, 54, 74, 88, 133, 136, 161, 177, 184, 206, 207, 239, 251, 265, 277, 284
wild animals 158
wildlife 157
wildlife park 26
wounds 282

xanthines 185
xylazine 179

yield 141
yields 60
yolk sac 112
young animal diseases 188
young animals 16, 35, 54, 60, 140, 156, 244
young, health problems in captivity & treatment guidelines 261

Zimbabwe 28, 278
zoo animals 40, 137, 263, 297
zoonoses 292
zootechny 203, 221


Resources published between September 1997 and February 2001

Antibody production in ostriches in response to vaccination with La Sota strain Newcastle Disease Virus vaccines.
Blignaut, A.; Burger, W.P.; Morley, A.J.; Bellstedt, D.U. Proceedings of the Second International Ratite Congress. Ratites in a competitive world. Oudtshoorn, South Africa. 21-25 September 1998. South Africa: Dept. of Agriculture Western Cape. September 1998. p. 199-200.

A circular awaited for a long time. [Guidelines for the production and commercialization of ratites.] [Una circolare attesa da tempo.]
Minardi, M. Rivista di Avicoltura. 1998. v.67(6): p.16-22.

Cooking temperature, bird type, and muscle origin effects on sensory properties of broiled emu steaks.
Fitzgerald, D.R.; Thompson, L.D.; Miller, M.F.; Hoover, L.C. Journal of Food Science. January/February, 1999. v.64(1): p.167-170.

Costs and returns estimates for ostrich production.
Taylor, G.; J.M. Gillespie; A.R. Schupp. Journal of the American Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers. v.19(1997): p.34-42.

Courtship behaviour of ostriches (Struthio camelus) towards humans under farming conditions in Britain.
Bubier, N.E.; Paxton, C.G.M.; Bowers, P.; Deeming, D.C. British Poultry Science (September 1998). v.39(4): p.477-481.

NAL Call No.: 47.8-W89
Critical factors in ostrich (Struthio camelus australis) production: a focus on southern Africa.
Cooper, R.G. World's Poultry Science Journal September 2000. v. 56 (3):p.247-265. Beekbergen, The Netherlands : World's Poultry Science Association.

Current ratite therapy.
Jensen, J.M. The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice. (Special Issue). November 1998. v.14(3): p.486-502

Disease entities of farmed ratites in New Zealand.
Cooke, M. Surveillance Wellington. 1998, 25(4): p.10-12

The effect of dietary fibre level on the production of growing ostriches.
Salih, M.E; Brand, T.S.; van Schalkwyk, S.J.; Blood, J.; Pfister, B.; Brand, Z.; Akbay, R.; van Schalkwyk, S.J.; Huchzermeyer, F.W. Proceedings of the Second International Scientific Ratite Congress, Oudtshoorn, South Africa, 21-25 September 1998. South Africa: Dept. of Agriculture Western Cape, 1998, 31-37

NAL Call No.: HV4701.A557
Effect of winter climatic conditions on the behaviour of adult ostriches (Struthio camelus) on a British farm.
Deeming, D.C. Animal Welfare. Wheathampstead, U.K. : Universities Federation for Animal Welfare. August 1998. v.7(3): p.307-315.

NAL Call No.: SF510.5.M55--1998
The Emu Farmer's Handbook: Commercial Farming, Methods for Emus, Ostriches and Rheas.
Minnaar, Maria. Groveton, TX: Nyoni Pub., March 1998. 320 p.

Entering the Industry of the Emu.
In: AgVentures. June/July 1998. Published by Schatz Publishing Group.

NAL Call No.: HD101.S6
Factors affecting production efficiency in a new alternative enterprise: the case of the ratite industry.
Gillespie, J.M.; A.R. Schupp; G. Taylor. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. December 1997. v.29(2): p.409-418.

Federal regulations relating to ratite and food products.
Spenser, E.L. The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice. (Special Issue). November 1998. v.14(3): 533-544

NAL Call No.: 47.8-B77
Feeding and vigilance behaviour of breeding ostriches (Strutio camelus) in a farming environmental in Britain.
Ross, E.J.; Deeming, D.C. British Poultry Science. May 1998. v.39(2): p.173-177.

The future of ostrich farming.
van Zyl, P.L.; Huchzermeyer, F.W. Proceedings of the Second International Scientific Ratite Congress. Ratites in a competitive world. Oudtshoorn, South Africa, 21-25 September 1998. South Africa: Dept. of Agriculture Western Cape, September 1998, p.137-138

Hatching an Industry: Virginia Emu Ranchers Look to Co-op for Market Development.
O'Hearn, D.H. Rural Cooperatives. 1997. v.64(4): p.14-17.

Health examinations and clinical diagnostic procedures (Ratites).
Tully, T.N. The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice. (Special Issue: Ratites). November 1998. v.14(3): p.401-420

Health hazards for the ostrich handler.
Samson, J. Canadian Ostrich. 1995. v.4(2): p.24-25

How do ratite meats compare with beef? Implications for the ratite industry.
Taylor, G.; L. Andrews; J.M. Gillespie; A. Schupp; W. Prinyawiwatkul. Journal of Agribusiness. v.16(Spring 1998): p.97-114.

NAL Call No.: SF511.5.E46-A35-1999
Husbandry of captive-bred emus.
Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand. SCARM Report: Model Code of Practice for the Welfare of Animals. Report no. 69. Collingwood, Vic. : Standing Committee on Agriculture and Resource Management, 1999. 12 p.

Infectious and parasitic conditions of ratites.
Shane, S.M. The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice. (Special Issue). November 1998. v.14(3): 455-484

Integrating ostrich behaviour in commercial farming systems.
Lambrechts, H.; Huchzermeyer, F.W.; Swart, D. Proceedings of the Second International Scientific Ratite Congress. Ratites in a competitive world. Oudtshoorn, South Africa, 21-25 September 1998. South Africa: Dept. of Agriculture Western Cape, 1998, p.167-169

Jurisprudence for ratite practitioners.
Shane, S.M. The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice. (Special Issue). November 1998. v.14(3): 525-532

Live weight as an indicator of egg and chick production in commercial ostrich (Struthio camelus) breeding systems.
Lambrechts, H.; Cloete, S.W.P.; Brand, Z. Animal Production. Focus on the Industry. Proceedings of the 37th National Congress of the South African Society of Animal Science. July 27-29, 1999. Pretoria (South Africa). South African Society of Animal Science. July 1999. p. 41-42.

The management challenge facing the Ontario ratite industry.
Turvey, C; Sparling, D; Sarker, R; Lovshin, S. Working Paper No. WP99-02. Canada: University of Guelph, Department of Economics, Ontario Agricultural College, 1998. 35 pp.

NAL Call No.: 47.8-W89
Management of ostrich (Struthio camelus) chicks.
Cooper, R.C. World's Poultry Science Journal. Beekbergen, The Netherlands: World's Poultry Science Association. March 2000. v. 56 (1) p. 33-44.

NAL Call No.: 41.8-Au72
Monitoring the health and productivity of farmed ostrich flocks.
More, S.J. Australian Veterinary Journal. Brunswick, Vic. : Australian Veterinary Association, August 1997. v.75(8): p.583-587.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
A note on effects of gender and time of day on the winter time-activity budget of adult ostriches (Struthio camelus) in a farming environment.
Deeming, D.C. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. September 1998. v.59(4): p.363-371.

Nutrition and feeding of ostriches.
Ullrey, D.; En Allen, M. Animal Feed Science an Technology. 1996. v.142(59): p.27-36.

Opinions of professional buyers toward a new alternative meat: ostrich.
Gillespie, J.M.; G. Taylor; A.R. Schupp; F.F. Wirth. Agribusiness: An International Journal. v.14(October 1998): p.247-256.

NAL Call No.: SF1.F64-no.-144
Ostrich production systems.
Shanawany, M.M.; Dingle, John H. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper. no. 144. Rome : Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1999. 256 p.

The Ostrich : Biology, Production and Health
Deeming, D.C. CABI Publishing, CAB International, 1999.

Physical examination of ratites.
Tully, Thomas N. Jr; Shane, Simon M. Large Animal Practice. Nov.-Dec., 1998. v.19(6): p.26-28.

Proceedings of the Second International Scientific Ratite Congress, Oudtshoorn, South Africa, 21-25 September 1998.
Huchzermeyer, F.W. South Africa: Dept. of Agriculture Western Cape, 1998. 231 pp. (64 papers presented)

Ratite anesthesia and surgical techniques.
Gilsleider, E.F. The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice. (Special Issue). November 1998. v.14(3): 503-524

Ratite and squab mandatory inspection.
Derfler, Philip S. Attachment to the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) Constituent Update, April 2001. 2 pp.

Ratite diagnostic imaging.
Williams, J. The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice. (Special Issue). November 1998. v.14(3): 421-436

Ratite production as an agricultural enterprise.
Gillespie, J.M.; A.R. Schupp. The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice. (Special Issue: Ratites). November 1998. v.14(3): p.373-386. ISSN 0749-0720.

Ratite reproduction.
Hicks-Alldredge, K. The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice. (Special Issue). November 1998. v.14(3): 437-454

NAL Call No.: SF601-.V535
Shane, S.M.; Tully, T.N. Jr. The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice. (Special Issue/10 papers). November 1998. v.14(3): p.373-550. ISSN 0749-0720.

Ratites: Reproduction is a crucial problem in ostrich breeding.
World Poultry: Production, Processing, Marketing. [Doetinchem: Elsevier International Business Information]. 1999. v.15(5): p.28-32. ISSN 1388-3119.

Restraint and Housing of ratites.
Raines, A.M.The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice. (Special Issue: Ratites). November 1998. v.14(3): p.387-400

NAL Call No.: 47.8-Am33P
Semen production by the emu (Dormaius novaehollandiae). 1. Methods for collection of semen.
Malecki, A.; Martin, G.B.; Lindsay, D.R. Poultry Science. Savoy, IL : Poultry Science Association, Inc. April 1997. v.76(4): p.615-621.

Time-activity budgets of emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) under different farming conditions.
Sales, J.; Horbanczuk, J. Animal Science Papers and Reports. Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Genetics and Animal Breeding Jastrzebiec. 1998. v.16(4): p.265-270

Transportation of ostriches: a review.
Wotton, S.B.; Hewitt, L. Veterinary Rrecord. 1999. v.145(25): p.725-730. ISSN 0042-4900.

Veterinary problems of farmed ostriches up to 12 weeks of age: a review. Part 1: incubation and hatching problems.
Dzoma, B.M.; Dorrestein, G.M. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal. 1999. v.30(2): p.55-64

The Alternative Farming Systems Information Center, September 26, 1997 (Web links updated November 2000, February 2009; supplement to citations added February 2001)