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Alternative Farming Systems Information Center of the National Agricultural Library
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

ISSN: 1052-536X

Sustainable Agriculture in Print: Current Books

Updates Special Reference Briefs Series no. SRB 97-05
April 2003

Compiled By:
AFSIC Staff and Volunteer
Alternative Farming Systems Information Center
National Agricultural Library
Agricultural Research Service
U.S. Department of Agriculture
10301 Baltimore Avenue, Room 123
Beltsville, MD 20705-2351

Go to:
Updates Sustainable Agriculture in Print: Current Books. SRB 2007-05. August 2007

Updated by:
Recent Acquisitions of the National Agricultural Library. 2004 Addendum to Sustainable Agriculture in Print: Current Books. May 2004.

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Note: Books listed in this update include those found in the previous update of May 2001 and additional new entries. The latter are indicated by an asterisk *.

National Agricultural Library Cataloging Record for 1997 edition:
Alternative Farming Systems Information Center (U.S.)
Sustainable agriculture in print : current books.
(Special reference briefs ; 97-05)
1. Sustainable agriculture--Bibliography. I. Title.
AS21.D27S64 no.97-05


Sustainable Agriculture in Print: Current Books, prepared annually by the Alternative Farming Systems Information Center (AFSIC), first appeared in 1992 in response to requests for assistance in identifying the rapidly growing body of literature on sustainable or alternative agriculture.

This publication is by no means an exhaustive survey of the literature. Inclusion or omission of any work does not indicate approval or disapproval. When combined with our earlier publication, Tracing the Evolution of Organic/Sustainable Agriculture: A Selected and Annotated Bibliography (BLA 72) these titles provide bibliographic coverage of sustainable agriculture literature from 1580 to 1997.

AFSIC, part of the National Agricultural Library (NAL), focuses on providing in-depth coverage of alternative farming systems, e.g., sustainable, moderate or low-input, regenerative, biodynamic, and organic methods that maintain agricultural productivity and profitability while protecting or renewing natural resources. Support for AFSIC comes to NAL from the USDA's Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) program, which is under the jurisdiction of the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES).

For additional reference assistance on the many issues and techniques relevant to sustainable agriculture, please request AFSIC's List of Information Products.

Alternative Farming Systems Information Center
National Agricultural Library, Room 123
10301 Baltimore Ave.
Beltsville, MD 20705-2351
Telephone: (301) 504-6559


Title: Adding Values to Our Food System: An Economic Analysis of Sustainable Community Food Systems
Publisher: Everson, WA: Integrity Systems Cooperative, February 1997. 85 p.
NAL Number: HD9000.5.A33 1997
Annotation: This work is described as an early effort to study sustainable community food systems (defined as " grown, processed, distributed, and consumed locally as much as practical and with strong attention to social and environmental values...") and their economic viability and that it is largely anecdotal rather than statistical (which may be good news to many readers). The main purpose here is to determine if sustainable community food systems can be competitive with large industrial practices and to identify both obstacles and opportunities inherent in these community systems. While recognizing that local conditions vary in producing, processing, and distributing food the authors believe that there is enough evidence to support the concept of sustainable community food systems. Describes the research methods used in gathering data; characteristics of sustainable farmers and their farms; compares crop and livestock production with industrial operations; pricing and profit margins; methods of distribution. Concludes that a sustainable community food system may be somewhat more expensive in the short term or transition period than an industrial system, but this contrast tends to disappear within 3-5 years. Discusses the economic benefits of a community system in an environment of increasing consumer awareness and marketability of organic products. Barriers to implementing sustainable community food systems include lack of basic information or poor understanding among farmers of sustainable techniques and practices, poor access to markets, high start-up costs, inadequate financing, consumer habits, including resistance to paying premium prices. Recommends strategies for implementing sustainable systems, e.g., educating and organizing both farmers, processors, and consumers developing marketing and distribution programs.

Title: The Adoption of Sustainable Agricultural Technologies: A Case Study in the State of Espirito Santo, Brazil
Author: Souza Filho, Hildo M. de
Publisher: Brookfield, VT: Ashgate Publishing, 1997. 176 p.
NAL Number: S475.B62E877 1997
Annotation: A study describing the economic, social, and environmental aspects of the "green revolution" in Brazil in general and Espirito Santo in particular. Examines the characteristics, attitudes, and other factors that influenced farmers including farmers' and other nongovernmental organizations, environmental and health concerns, farm size and caliber, availability of labor, and the effects of economic stresses and stimuli.

Title: Advancing Sustainable Agriculture Through Small Group Discussions: A Guide for Group Leaders and Members
Editors: Dale, Duane and Deborah Cavanaugh-Grant
Publisher: Urbana, IL: University of Illinois, College of Agriculture, Consumer and Environmental Sciences, 1998. Various pagings.
NAL Number: S441.A38 1998
Annotation: Offers guidelines for establishing and conducting discussion groups and study circles concerned with sustainable agriculture. These groups may include farmers, researchers, environmentalists, business people, local government officials, and others interested in the subject. Discusses structure, methods, and materials for discussions. Provides a bibliography and other sources of information.

Title: Agri-environmental Policy in the European Union
Editors: Buller, Henry; Geoff A. Wilson; Andreas Höll
Publisher: Brookfield, VT: Ashgate Publishing, 2000. 291 p.
NAL Number: S589.76.E85A37 2000
Annotation: In 1992 the European Union introduced what became known as Regulation 2078, "...Introduction and Maintenance of Agricultural Production Methods Compatible with the Requirements of the Protection of the Environment and the Management of the Countryside." The editors describe this as a reform policy designed to promote environmental awareness in agriculture, reduce or stabilize certain agricultural production levels by promoting specific farming practices and reducing the number of new entrants into farming. Associated with this was the idea of financial aid to farmers to compensate for costs of compliance and possible loss of income. Several contributors assess the impact of this reform policy in diverse national settings, the measures taken and subsequent results in the United Kingdom, France, Denmark, Sweden, Austria, Switzerland, Germany, Greece, Portugal, and Spain. Concludes with a short commentary on what may be expected in the future for this agri-environmental agenda.

Title: Agriculture and Ecological Resilience: Striking a Balance in the Pacific Rim
Editor: Nagavajara, Suteera
Publisher: Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, [1999]. 287 p.
NAL Number: S470.A1A842 1998
Annotation: Papers from the 1st Asia-Pacific High Level Conference on Sustainable Agriculture held in Beijing in October 1998, that describe activities and experiences in sustainable agriculture throughout this wide and diverse region. Includes historical and contemporary perspectives on issues and problems that are special to China, Japan, India, Korea, Thailand, Malaysia, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Indonesia, and New Zealand and various experimental steps taken in those countries. What most of the area shares is a significant increase in population and loss of arable land that leads to excessive farming of the soil that remains. A major concern is that the area lags in using key technologies. Some of the general themes include integrating science and new technologies for managing pests and diseases, collaborative research, and environmental protection of agricultural production.

Title: Agriculture and Sustainable Land Use in Europe: Papers from Conferences of European Environmental Advisory Councils
Editors: Barron, Enid M. and Ilga Nielsen
Publisher: Boston: Kluwer Law International, Nijhoff Law Specials, vol. 38, 1998. 193 p.
NAL Number: TD195.A34A37 1998
Annotation: Discusses the concerns and issues associated with food and water quality, the changing nature of agriculture, the future of rural communities, and agricultural policy in the European Union. Papers examine land use, pollution of soil and water, effective management of land and water resources, the need for biodiversity, countering the environmental effects of intensive agriculture, calculating requirements for future land use, determining agricultural policy and reforms.

Title: Agriculture and the Environment: Perspectives on Sustainable Rural Development
Editors: Lutz, Ernst et al.
Publisher: Washington, DC: The World Bank, 1998. 383 p.
NAL Number: S589.76.D44A48 1998
Annotation: Focuses on research and practices related to agriculture and the environment in developing countries, particularly South America and Asia. Observes that future increases in environmentally sound productivity may be difficult to achieve because of political and social factors playing major roles in the success or failure of technological innovations, farmer education, and environmental conditions. Examines the effects of land reform policies; involving small farmers in decisionmaking; implementing integrated pest management, biodiversity and technological innovations; agricultural trade reforms; issues and options concerning livestock and the environment; adopting agroforestry and reducing deforestation; economic and environmental impacts of irrigation and drainage.

Title: Agriculture and the Environmental Imperative
Editors: Pratley, Jim and Alistar Robertson
Publisher: Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 1998. 263 p.
NAL Number: S589.76.A8A37 1998
Annotation: Although the focus here is Australia, the problems discussed are familiar throughout the world, e.g., acidic and saline soils, reversing the decline in soil structure, the need to integrate conservation and agricultural production, benefits and hazards from using pesticides, water quality and quantity. Also discusses natural resource policy for rural Australia.

Title: Agriculture, Fertilizers and the Environment
Authors: Lægreid, M.; O.C. Bøckman; O. Kaarstad
Publisher: New York: CABI Publishing, 1999. 294 p.
NAL Number: S633.L25 1999
Annotation: The book's stated purpose is to "...provide a balanced scientific review of the environmental and sustainability issues relating to fertilizer use and how its environmental impact can be minimized." Discusses the challenges and future prospects of producing sufficient food for a growing global population; the sources of plant nutrients, e.g., soil reserves, manures, mineral fertilizers, biofertilizers, nitrogen fixation; the principles of soil productivity; the effects of fertilizer use on food quality and the environment, e.g., wastes, energy use, soil degradation, water quality; opportunities for increasing cereal production. Offers a brief look at the agricultural characteristics and capacities in North and Latin America, Western and Central Europe, Africa, Oceania, South and Southeast Asia. Book is attractively illustrated with color graphics and photographs.

Title: Agroecology: Ecological Processes in Sustainable Agriculture**
Author: Gliessman, Stephen R.
Publisher: Chelsea, MI: Sleeping Bear Press, 1998. 357 p.
Publisher: Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers, 2000. 357 p.**
NAL Number: S589.7.G58 1998
NAL Number: S589.7.G58 2000**
Annotation: The author has over 25 years of teaching, researching, and farming with conventional and organic agricultural systems in tropical and temperate regions. The book is meant for a wide range of readers, from those with only a basic familiarity with ecology and biology to those with more extensive knowledge of both. Gliessman demonstrates how to use this text as a research tool and for school coursework. Describes how conventional agricultural is not sustainable and that time is running out for finding solutions to this dilemma. Provides an overview of the structure of natural ecosystems and how they function. Discusses the many environmental factors that affect plant growth, e.g., nutrition, light, heat, photosynthesis, ozone depletion, precipitation, wind, soil characteristics, and fires. Examines genetic diversity in plants and how this allows species to adapt, or establish a niche, often in very harsh environments; the benefits and risks of genetic engineering; interactions between plant species, particularly cover crops, and between agroecosytems and natural ecosystems. Offers views on converting to sustainable practices and achieving a sustainable food system. Provides case studies, from Mexico to China, to illustrate what has been learned and what can be achieved.

** Same title published by Lewis Publishers of Boca Raton, FL in 2000.

Title: Agroecosystem Health: Analysis and Assessment
Authors: Smit, Barry et al.
Publisher: Guelph, Ont: University of Guelph, 1998. 114 p.
NAL Number: S589.7.A383 1998
Annotation: A report on the University's 3-year (1993-1996) Agroecosystem Health Project, designed to evaluate and improve the welfare of agroecosystems. The Project evaluates the interrelationships between biological systems and the production systems of humans to determine the condition of agroecosystems and how to improve this condition. Involves a wide range of components from people, their communities, businesses and economies to plants, animals, rivers, and soils. Describes the methods, indicators, and models used to measure agroecosystem health and offers conclusions for decision making and research.

Title: Agroecosystem Sustainability: Developing Practical Strategies
Editor: Gliessman, Stephen R.
Publisher: Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2001. 210 p.
NAL Number: S589.7.G584 2001
Annotation: Several contributors report on experiences and research in the international venue of sustainable agriculture. Includes accounts of growing barley, wheat, maize, sunflower and other crops with reseeding annual legumes in the Mediterranean area; using plant biodiversity to enhance control of insect pests in a California organic vineyard; contributions of homegardens to agroecology in Nicaragua; effects of organic mulch for controlling erosion, increasing moisture retention, enhancing soil biodiversity, and suppressing weeds and diseases; use of nitrogen in village ecosystems in China; monitoring nematodes as indicators of agroecosystem health; nutrient cycling and flow analysis in comparing natural and agricultural ecosystems; using the six-pillar model (environmental soundness, economic viability, social acceptability, institutional manageability, agrotechnical adaptability, and political acceptibility) to assess sustainability in Iran; analyzing environmental and social factors affecting use of forest margins in Indonesia; methods and analyses used to characterize and evaluate agroecosystems.

Title: Agroforestry in Sustainable Agricultural Systems
Editors: Buck, Louise E.; James P. Lassoie; Erick C.M. Fernandes
Publisher: Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers of CRC Press, 1999. 416 p.
NAL Number: S494.5A45A375123 1999
Annotation: Another in the series, Advances in Agroecology. Looks at the "...environmental and social conditions that affect the roles and performance of trees in field- and forest-based agricultural production systems." Analyzes agrosystems in various ecological settings in temperate and tropical regions, particularly the roles of soil, water, light, nutrient, and pest management; and the economic and environmental benefits of agroforestry. Discusses scientific aspects of nutrient cycling; maintaining ground cover and shade for growing coffee; black walnut agroforestry; relationship between trees, grass-clover pastures, and livestock; propagation of fruit trees; social factors and historical experiences dealing with agroforestry; using trees in managing landscapes and mulch-based cropping systems.

Title: Alternatives to Insecticides for Managing Vegetable Insects: Proceedings of a Farmer/Scientist Conference
Editor: Stoner, Kimberly A.
Publisher: Ithaca, NY: Natural Resource, Agriculture, and Engineering Service, NRAES no. 138. December 1999. 80 p.
NAL Number: S675.N72 no. 138
Annotation: Observations and remarks from a conference held at New Haven, CT in December 1998. Includes discussions on the link between crop diversity and biological control of insects; control strategies and tactics used by organic farmers; controlling borers and earworms in corn; flea beetles in cabbages; potato leafhoppers and beetles; squash bugs; cucumber beetles; tomato fruitworms; tarnished plant bugs; Mexican bean beetles. Suggests aspects of insect control which require further study. Provides a directory of commercial sources for biological control agents.

Title: Animal Waste Utilization: Effect Use of Manure as a Soil Resource
Editors: Hatfield, J.L. and B.A. Stewart
Publisher: Chelsea, MI: Ann Arbor Press, 1998. 320 p.
NAL Number: S655.A57 1998
Annotation: It is not an exaggeration to say that manure has a bad name. There came a time when commercial fertilizers were considered cleaner, less offensive, more cost effective, and more practical on large farms. Manure was often viewed as little more than a nuisance, a waste that needed disposing, and, in large quantities, an environmental threat. Essentially, this book contains presentations from the National Soil Tilth Laboratory's 1994 workshop on the effective use of manure as a soil resource. The sense was that little attention had been given since the early 1970s to manure research, use, and methods of application while at the same time tillage practices had changed, often requiring crop residue cover that limits the use of manure. Includes commentary on farmers' attitudes, current problems, economic factors, manure management, processing and treating, differences in manure characteristics according to animal source, and application methods.

Title: The Apple Grower: A Guide for the Organic Orchardist
Author: Phillips, Michael
Publisher: White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 1998. 242 p.
NAL Number: SB363.2.U6P48 1998
Annotation: Provides information and advice on designing and preparing orchards; obtaining rootstock and planting; testing and preparing soil; cover cropping; composting and mulching; pruning and caring for orchards; identifying and dealing with pests; spraying techniques; picking, packing and marketing fruit; restoring neglected orchards. Furnishes an inventory of day-to-day tasks needed to ensure a successful orchard and a list of helpful information sources and organizations.

Title: Appropriate Use of Inputs for Sustainable Agriculture
Editor: Cruz, D.A.
Publisher: Tokyo: Asian Productivity Organization, 1997. 293 p.
NAL Number: S494.5.S86A67 1996
Annotation: Papers from a seminar held in Tokyo, August 27 - September 6, 1996. Focuses on the relationship between agricultural technologies and farming practices throughout Asia. The book suggests that "...Asian farming has suffered setbacks which in the long term affect its sustainable performance." There is a section of "country papers," offering perspectives on the particular and varied experiences with fertilizing and pest control inputs in Bangladesh, China (including Hong Kong), India, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. Another section offers general opinions on biological control of plant diseases and pests; appropriate use of chemicals and organic fertilizers; overviews of policy issues, concepts, and applications affecting sustainable agriculture in Asia and the Pacific region.

Title: Biodiversity in Agroecosystems
Authors: Collins, Wanda W. and Calvin O. Qualset
Publisher: Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1999. 334 p.
NAL Number: S589.7.B575 1999
Annotation: Another in the series, Advances in Agroecology. Looks at the complex relationship between plant and animal species and agricultural systems and the connection between biodiversity and the health and productivity of these systems. Discusses microbial diversity and function; beneficial insect diversity; the role of biodiversity in pest management; managing biodiversity for agroforestry, rangelands, livestock, wildlife, and traditional agroecosytems; conserving and using plant and animal genetic resources and policy and management strategies for implementing these resources; objectives that new technologies need to focus on.

Title: Biological Control of Weeds: A World Catalogue of Agents and Their Target Weeds
Editors: Julien, M.H. and M.W. Griffiths
Publisher: New York: CABI Publishing, 4th ed., 1998. 223 p.
NAL Number: SB611.5.B55 1998
Annotation: An updated compilation of exotic invertebrates and vertebrates (the latter consisting entirely of fish), fungi, and local organisms used to manage weeds. Weeds are listed alphabetically by plant family name and control agents are identified by scientific name (there is an index by common name for both weeds and control agents). Includes region of origin of the weed, documented areas and dates when biological agents were introduced (some accidently and as early as the 19th century). Each entry provides a brief description of experiences in using these agents (some with limited or temporary success) based on published sources which are cited. For instance, control of Canada or Californian thistle (Cirsium arvense) records the use of several Coleoptera and Diptera in the United States, Canada, Britain, and New Zealand.

*Title: Biological Control Programmes in Canada, 1981-2000
Editors: Mason, P.G. and J.T. Huber
Publisher: New York: CABI Publishing, 2002. 583 p.
NAL Number: SB933.32.C2B56 2002
Annotation: An extensive summary of programs used in Canada to biologically control pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, and nematodes, that serve not only as targets for control but also as biological control agents), insects and weeds in agriculture and forestry. This is not merely a review of the chronology of the work that has been done, but an attempt to retain the information and lessons that often are lost when principal researchers retire, die, or reassigned to something else. In the two decades covered here the editors observe that the use of insects as agents against insect pests has declined while the use of pathogens as agents has increased considerably. Factors that have contributed to the emphasis on biological control include, of course, the need to reduce the use of chemical pesticides and environmental considerations, but also the significant developments in molecular biology and genetic engineering where the emphasis " placed on tinkering with known organisms rather than studying the biology of new ones..." Included here is work done on a wide array of insect pests, e.g., webworms, budworms, pinworms, fireworms, tomato russet, spider and red mites, alfalfa plant bug, mosquitos, aphids, fungus gnats, leafrollers, leafminers, black, horn, horse and deer flies, sawflies, whiteflies, moths, apple, cabbage and spruce cone maggots, elm leaf, pine and potato beetles, pine weevil, thrips, wheat blossom midge. Weeds that are represented include ragweed, wild oat, marsh reed grass, knapweed, fireweed, Canada and sow thistles, bindweed, houndstongue, Scotch broom, leafy and cypress spurges, false cleavers, St. John's wort, toadflax, purple loosestrife, chamomile, milfoil, foxtail, tansy, dandelion, gorse. Diseases caused by pathogens include alternaria and botrytis blights, grey mould, brown, annosus and common root rots, pine blister rust, fire blight, verticillium, fusarium and tomato wilts, canola blackleg, apple blue mould, apple and potato scabs, turfgrass dollar spot, powdery mildews. A taxonmic index to the text is provided as well as a bibliography of publications on biological control, and a directory of Canadian suppliers of biological control organisms and products.

Title: The Biological Farmer: A Complete Guide to the Sustainable and Profitable Biological System of Farming
Author: Zimmer, Gary F.
Publisher: Austin, TX: Acres U.S.A., 2000. 352 p.
NAL Number: S605.5.Z56 2000
Annotation: Combines technical information with practical instruction on the objectives, benefits, and components of biological farming. Provides case studies of farms with illustrations and tables throughout the book to demonstrate points being discussed. Describes the growth cycle of plants and the interaction between plants and soil; the conditions necessary for healthy soil, e.g., natural balance, structure, minerals, organic matter, moisture, air, minimum tillage; the need for evaluating and testing soil to determine what is lacking and the means to provide it, including the need for accurate fertilization, avoiding excessive application and holding down costs. Offers guidance on achieving optimum results in producing selected crops, e.g., corn, soybeans, potatoes, small grains, alfalfa and other forages; using biological or chemical products such as enzymes, plant hormones, vitamins, humic acids, microbial inoculants, kelp, and fish; types of tillage; recycling organic matter; controlling weeds, pests, and diseases.

Title: Biological Pest Suppression
Author: Gautam, R.D.
Publisher: New Delhi, India: Westvill Publishing House, 1994. 221 p.
NAL Number: SB975.G38 1994
Annotation: Although the author focuses on the difficulties in dealing with pest and weed problems in India and what has been done there, the principles and techniques he discusses are applicable elsewhere. Describes techniques for mass rearing of natural predators (including designing and maintaining insectories), parasitoids, and laboratory hosts from which biological agents are derived.

Title: The BioPesticide Manual
Editor: Copping, L.G.
Publisher: Farnham, Surrey, United Kingdom: British Crop Protection Council, 1998. 333 p.
NAL Number: SB975.B585 1998
Annotation: This is a new title by the Council complementing an older series, The Pesticide Manual. Described as " authoritative world compendium of the diverse range of natural compounds, living systems and genes now commercially available for pest, disease and weed control." It provides information on the sources, properties, biological activities, production, and tradenames of several hundred biocontrol products that include naturally-occurring chemicals, gene products, pheromones, viruses, protozoa, bacteria, fungi, nematodes, and insect predators. Each entry gives an approved name and any other names associated with that product, how it is produced, what crops benefit from it, means of application, possible toxicity to humans and animals, and situations in which the agent may be incompatible. The editor stresses that most of these products are "...compatible with organic farming practices and appropriate for use in environmentally sensitive situations. The few exceptions include transgenic crops." Several helpful components include a glossary of commonly used botanical and zoological names and their Latin equivalents; a listing of standard abbreviations and codes; a directory of companies producing these biocontrol agents; indexes of Chemical Abstract Service registry numbers, common and trade names, and product code numbers.

Title: Biosafety for Sustainable Agriculture: Sharing Biotechnology Regulatory Experiences of the Western Hemisphere
Editors: Krattiger, Anatole F. and Arno Rosemarin
Publisher: Stockholm: International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications; Stockholm Environment Institute, 1994. 278 p.
NAL Number: S494.5.S86B56 1994
Annotation: The challenge presented here is that agriculture "...must provide adequate nutrition for between 10 and 15 billion people...and accomplish this without jeopardizing the capacity of the natural resource base to meet the needs of future generations. At present agriculture does not have the technologies needed to double or triple food production in developing countries, and there is a real threat...that farmers will irreparably damage the resource base as they seek to feed more and more people." Of primary importance is the ability to genetically manipulate and breed plants. The editors believe that biotechnology and genetic engineering have the potential to enable growers to produce greater quantities of food and at the same time cause less damage to the environment. There are risks associated with this technology and attention must be paid to guard against misuse and untoward, even unforseen, effects. This book is based on a workshop held in Costa Rica in 1992 to review and consider various biosafety systems and regulations based on experience and scientific evaluation. Presentations deal with the potential ecological problems of introducing transgenic crops into the environment; guidelines for testing and certifying genetically modified plants and biological pesticides; role of regulations and statutes in ensuring safety and uniformity in transfer of technology. Several corporate researchers (Asgrow, Monsanto, Pioneer Hi-Bred, Sandoz Seeds) describe how biotechnology products are developed and tested. Experiences are related for Canada, U.S., Mexico, the Caribbean, and Latin America.

Title: Biotechnology and Sustainable Crop Production in Zimbabwe
Author: Woodend, John J.
Publisher: Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Technical Paper no. 109, December 1995. 79 p.
NAL Number: S473.Z55W66 1995
Annotation:The primary objective here is to determine whether "biotechnology is likely to contribute to a more sustainable model of agricultural production in developing countries." The agricultural sector in Zimbabwe is characterized by dominant large-scale farmers using high levels of commercial chemical and technological inputs and small-scale, communal farmers using few such applications. Major crops are maize, tobacco, cotton, wheat, soybeans, sugar cane, millet, and sorghum. Describes crop research and development programs, plant genetic resources, pesticide use and control, and national programs for biotechnology. Assesses the economic and environmental incentives for biotechnology and factors that hinder biotechnolgical applications, e.g., lack of technical support staff, trained scientists, means of disseminating information, inadequate economic and financial resources, and farmer conservatism. The report concludes that there is little concern in the large-scale farming sector about the effects of chemical pesticides on the sustainability of crop production. Biotechnological innovations will succeed only if reduction in production costs can be realized.

Available from OECD, 2, rue André-Pascal, 75775 Paris CEDEX 16, France.

Title: Biotechnology for Crop Protection: Its Potential for Developing Countries
Editors: Richter, Jürgen; Jürg Huber; Bruno Schuler
Publisher: Feldafing, Germany: Deutsche Stiftung für Internationale Entwicklung, Zentralstelle für Ernährung und Landwirtschaft, 1998. 304 p.
NAL Number: SB950.A2B562 1998
Annotation: Proceedings of an international workshop held in Berlin in December 1996. Papers examine the role of biotechnological methods and genetic engineering in crop protection and issues that involve regulation, patent protection, technology transfer, safety, social and economic matters. Discusses techniques for enhancing resistance to pests by plant breeding, microbial and other biological and botanical agents. Case studies include using transgenic rice in the Philippines; using transgenes of protease inhibitors to develop in sweet potatoes a resistance to weevils; controlling coffee berry borer with fungal pesticides in Colombia; biological control of pests and weeds in sugarcane, soybean, and other crops in Brazil. Offers several recommendations for national governments and industry to follow in public policy, research priorities, and education.

Title: Bugs in the System: Redesigning the Pesticide Industry for Sustainable Agriculture
Editors: Vorley, William and Dennis Keeney
Publisher: London: Earthscan Publications, 1998. 222 p.
NAL Number: HD9660.P3B83 1998
Annotation: Examines the economic, social, and ecological consequences of dependence on chemical pesticides. Includes considerable discussion of the public relations, technological, business and financial considerations that influence corporate decision making in the pesticide industry and the various conflicts to be found there between means and objectives. The intent of this book is to consider profound changes needed in corporate attitudes and redesigning pesticide products, services, research and development.

Title: Building Soils for Better Crops
Authors: Magdoff, Fred and Harold van Es
Publisher: Beltsville, MD: Sustainable Agriculture Network, 2nd ed., 2000. 230 p.
NAL Number: S592.8.M34 2000
Annotation: A practical primer on the basics of healthy soil and how to achieve and maintain it. Covers the properties and dynamics of soil; how to use animal manures and composts; managing crops and nutrients; monitoring soil quality; reducing errosion, compaction, and tillage. Useful information for farmers, gardeners, ranchers, educators and students in a user-friendly format with helpful illustrations and graphics to support the text. Includes a glossary of terms and a directory of information sources.

Available for purchase from Sustainable Agriculture Publications, Hills Building, Room 10, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405-0082.

*Title: The Business of Sustainable Forestry: Case Studies
Publisher: Chicago: the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, 1998. Various pagings.
NAL Number: SD387.S87B77 1998
Annotation: An extensive examination of the technical, social, and economic factors crucial to the long-term viability of the world's forests. Discusses the complexities of sustainable forestry compared to "traditional" forestry and the evolution of the latter to the former. Focuses on the innovations and investment contributed by businesses, goverments, and interested organizations to ensure the success of forest enterprises that provide products and employment as well as provide for the health of ecosystems. The case studies are quite detailed and deal with the forest managing and product marketing strategies of commercial companies such as Weyerhauser, Woodmaster, Sainsbury, STORA, the Home Deport, Collins Pine, Colonial Craft, Parsons Pine, Precious Woods, Portico, and others, in North American, European, and tropical forests. One study examines the sustainable practices of the Tribal Enterprises of the Menominee in Wisconsin; another, forest management by nonindustrial private forest owners.

Title: The Challenge of Production System Sustainability: Long-Term Studies in Agronomic Research in Dry Areas
Editor: Jones, M.J.
Publisher: Aleppo, Syria: International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, 1998. 55 p.
NAL Number: SB612.2.C524 1998
Annotation: A collection of abstracts from a workshop held at Aleppo in December 1997. The station experiments recounted here include: "Tillage Systems and Stubble Management in a Mediterranean-Type Environment" (Syria); "Soil-Based Indices of Sustainability in a Long-Term Rainfed Cereal/Legume Rotation" (Syria); "Contribution of Pasture and Forage Legumes to the Sustainability of Farming Systems in West Asia/North Africa" (Syria); "Crop Yields and Soil Properties as Influenced by Long-Term Dryland Crop Rotations in Central Anatolia" (Turkey); "Sustainability Issues of a Vetch-Barley System" (Cyprus); "Rotation, Tillage and Fertilizer Effects on Wheat-Based Rainfed Crop Rotation in Semi-Arid Morocco;" "Long-Term Effects of Grain Legumes on Rainy Season Sorghum Productivity in a Semi-Arid Tropics Vertisol" (India); "Dynamics of Soil Structure Amelioration and Degradation of a Semi-Arid Tropical Alfisol Under Different Management Systems" (India); "Integrated Nutrient Use in a Pearl Millet-Based System in the Semi-Arid Tropics" (India); "Long-Term Effects of Tillage, P Fertilization and Crop Rotation on Pearl Millet/Cowpea Productivity in the West African Sahel;" "Salinity Build-Up and Changes in the Rice-Wheat System of the Indo-Gangetic Plains" (India); "Disease Occurrence in Long-Term Rotation Trials in Northern Syria." Also describes several village projects that include unsuccessful attempts to introduce ley farming, forage legume/barley and fallow/barley rotations in Syria, and the sustainability of a high production rice-wheat system in India. Several abstracts address the methodology of designing long-term experiments and models for sustainability research.

Title: Changing the Way America Farms: Knowledge and Community in the Sustainable Agriculture Movement
Author: Hassanein, Neva
Publisher: Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1999. 216 p.
NAL Number: S494.5.S86O97 v.12
Annotation: Volume 12 in the series "Our Sustainable Future." Focuses on two organizations, Ocooch Grazers Network and Wisconsin Women's Sustainable Farming Network, and the strategies and methods that these grass-roots groups use to advocate and disseminate alternative agricultural information and practices outside of the formal institutions of agricultural research and education. The author suggests that this exchange of personal experiences, knowledge, and ideas at the local level is a substantial factor in the sustainable agriculture movement. Describes the history, development, structure of the two organizations and what they have accomplished.

Title: Community Food Systems: Sustaining Farms and People in the Emerging Economy
Editors: Feenstra, Gail; David Campbell; David Chaney
Publisher: Davis, CA: Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program, University of California, September 1997. 104 p.
NAL Number: HD1491.U62C24 1996
Annotation: Proceedings of a conference held at Davis, October 2-3, 1996. Defines a community food system as "...a collaborative effort in a particular place, to build more locally-based, self-reliant food economies." The goals are community food security, farmland preservation, local economic development, a secure population of family farmers, policies and practices that encourage sustainable food systems. Participants describe an array of projects and efforts being done (mostly in California) to promote the community food system concept and sustainable agriculture. Topics include how to begin and develop community food systems, marketing strategies, organizations and coalitions that are involved, and working with local government.

Title: The Community Supported Agriculture Handbook: A Guide to Starting, Operating or Joining a Successful CSA
Publisher: Chambersburg, PA: Center for Sustainable Living, Wilson College, February 1998. 42 p.
NAL Number: S494.5.A67C65 1998
Annotation: A primer on Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) and its history with advice on what producers should consider in determining if this is a feasible course to follow. Offers guidance on starting a CSA, how to determine what to raise and when, and basic considerations such as capitalization, debt, prices, markets, and promotional material. Provides a listing of printed, audio/visual and alternative information resources and organizations.

Inquiries may be made to the Center for Sustainable Living, Wilson College, 1015 Philadelphia Ave., Chambersburg, PA 17201.

Title: The Complete Manual of Organic Gardening
Editor: Caplan, Basil
Publisher: London: Headline Book Publishing, 1992. 406 p.
NAL Number: SB453.5.C65 1992
Annotation: In his extensive introduction Mr. Caplan points out that chemical pesticides and herbicides appeared in the 1930s and the intensive use of chemicals much more recently. Organic methods are in fact not peripheral notions, but a reemphasis on using the natural balance in an ecosystem. This includes knowing which plants grow well together and which compete with one another; how to encourage natural pest predators; realizing that preventing plant diseases is more effective than trying to cure what is often incurable. Eighteen authors contribute sections on understanding and using climate and weather; preparing soil; employing composts and mulches; methods of cultivating; planting and growing vegetables, herbs, fruit, flowers, ornamentals, trees, and shrubs; design schemes for wildlife and water gardens; disease prevention and pest control; irrigating gardens; growing "undercover" in unheated greenhouses; tools and how to use them.

Title: Composting for Manure Management
Publisher: Emmaus, PA: JG Press, 1998. 77 p.
NAL Number: S655.C66 1998
Annotation: A guide assembled by the staff of the journal BioCycle to methods being used for manure composting. Consists largely of on-farm accounts and short articles selected from journals, newsletters, and other publications describing and evaluating several diverse systems. Emphasizes the profitable as well as the environmental aspects of compost that includes selling as well as making and applying it.

Title: Conservation Farming in the United States: The Methods and Accomplishments of the STEEP Program
Editors: Michalson, Edgar L.; Robert I. Papendick; John E. Carlson
Publisher: Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1999. 233 p.
NAL Number: S624.N68C65 1999
Annotation: Solutions to Economic and Environmental Problems in the Pacific Northwest (STEEP), a program begun in 1975, was designed to coordinate efforts of three universities and the U.S. Department of Agriculture for exploring erosion and water quality problems in the region. Includes an overview of conservation research in the Pacific Northwest; the objectives and accomplishments of STEEP; measuring and monitoring soil erosion and its consequences; managing crop residues in conservation tillage systems; integrated pest management; equipment for conservation farming; methods for transferring conservation farming technologies to producers; and conservation policy issues.

Title: Conservation of Genetic Resources: Costs and Implications for a Sustainable Utilization of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
Author: Virchow, Detlef
Publisher: New York: Springer-Verlag, 1999. 243 p.
NAL Number: SB123.3.V57 1999
Annotation: Points out that genetic diversity of crops in farming has been reduced. Modern varieties have replaced traditional types, and their wild relatives, often for attractive reasons, but it is important to conserve these traditional genetic elements for agriculture, pharmacology, environmental engineering, and biotechnology. It is his view that despite major efforts to collect and conserve plant genetic material there appears to be no pervasive system for breeding programs, collection inventories, survey and assessment methods, policies and objectives. Discusses why genetic loss is relevant to agriculture; the need to determine the causes and extent of these genetic losses; differences between general biodiversity and diversity in crops; conservation methods and measurements; incentives and constraints relevant to conservation policy. Examines specific examples of genetic conservation systems in India and Germany.

Title: Conservation Tillage and Ley Farming Systems for the Semi-arid Tropics
Editors: Carberry, P.S. et al.
Publisher: Collingwood, Victoria, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 1996. 165 p.
NAL Number: S604.C667 1996
Annotation: This is actually a reprint from the Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, vol. 36, no. 8, 1996, pages 915-1089. It consists of 15 papers presented at the 1995 Workshop on Conservation Farming for the Semi-Arid Tropics. Although the focus here is on Australian experiences much of the information is relevant to other parts of the world with similar climatic conditions. For those unfamiliar with the term, "ley farming," here are a few words from the South Australian Research and Development Institute's Web site. "Ley farming is a rotation system of crop and legume pastures. There is no fixed rotation sequence for different crops and pastures. Rotations can be varied according to what is the most suitable, profitable and sustainable option for the prevailing rainfall, soil type and economic conditions. The basic principle of ley farming is to rotate crop years (mainly wheat) (with) years of legume pasture 'leys' of annual medics or clovers. A typical rotation involves a crop year of wheat, followed by a pasture year of medic grazed by sheep, and the paddock is then returned to wheat in the ensuing year." The Institute goes on to say that this system requires less application of pesticides and fertilizers than conventional farming. The pasture phase inhibits diseases in crops, animal grazing controls weeds, and the legumes contribute nitrogen and organic matter to the soil. The Workshop papers offer a variety of practices that include using cattle (instead of sheep); cereals; the influence that soil type, mulch type, and the seasons have on nitrogen supply; comparing no-tillage and conventional tillage in the semi-arid tropics. Describes surface runoff and nutrient losses associated with various farming systems in Australia and the commercial and economic aspects of ley farming.

*Title: Conservation Tillage Systems and Management
Editor: Reeder, Randall
Publisher: Ames, IA: Iowa State University, MidWest Plan Service, 2000, 2nd ed. MWPS-45. 270 p.
NAL Number: S604.C675 2000
Annotation: A much expanded version of the original 1992 edition cited in SRB 97-05. Comprised of 29 short chapters by several authors dealing with crop residue management using no-till, ridge-till, mulch-till, and strip-till methods. Discusses the characteristics of these and conventional tillage systems; field implements used in each system; effects of tillage systems on soil characteristics and biota; controlling undesirable effects of machine traffic on soil; the benefit of residues in reducing wind and water erosion; methods for estimating residue cover; tillage considerations in irrigation systems, nutrient and water management; methods and equipment for weed, pest and disease control; using cover crops in cotton production; economic and cost considerations related to different tillage systems. The book is amply furnished with illustrations, photos, graphs and tables and is indexed.

Title: Co-operative Approaches to Sustainable Agriculture
Author: Steenblik, Ronald
Publisher: Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 1998. 107 p.
NAL Number: HD1483.C66 1998
Annotation: Looks at the growing number of community-based organizations organized by farmers to promote sustainable agriculture by examining experiences in Australia, Canada, Netherlands, and New Zealand. Considers motivations for creating these groups, their effectiveness in finding solutions to local environmental problems, and their relationships with government. The general perception is that farmers believe group activity is beneficial in protecting farm assets and detering government intervention. These groups offer government a source of assistance in formulating public policy and acting as agents in implementing policy. Describes models and agendas for organizations and suggests how such groups may be encouraged.

Title: Countrysides at Risk: The Political Geography of Sustainable Agriculture
Author: Paarlberg, Robert L.
Publisher: Washington, DC: Overseas Development Council, Policy Essay no. 16, 1994. 99 p.
NAL Number: S589.75.P33 1994
Annotation: Paarlberg looks at threats to the environment from farming in the developing regions of Africa, Asia, and Latin America, areas with high health risks and under pressure for greater productivity to provide for rapidly growing populations. Assesses environmental damage from farming, constraints on future food production, the connection between abuse of political power and abuse of resources. Discusses the need for assistance and support from international institutions and organizations.

Title: Cover Crops in West Africa Contributing to Sustainable Agriculture
Editors: Buckles, D. et al.
Publisher: Ottawa, Ont., Canada: International Development Research Centre, July 1998. 291 p.
NAL Number: SB284.3.A358C68 1998
Annotation: Papers and abstracts, in English or French, describe cropping systems used in sub-Saharan Africa. Much attention is give to Mucuna, used in combination with maize, cassava, and other crops, to suppress weeds, particularly spear grass, and the burned residue or mulch may be added to soil. Describes the various methods of using Macuna, the benefits that result from it, and also constraints for use by small landholders. Other studies include legume fallows used in rice production; Stylosanthes (a South American import); using Sesbania in depleted fields and fallow lands.

Title: Crop Ecology: Productivity and Management in Agricultural Systems
Authors: Loomis, R.S. and D.J. Connor
Publisher: New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992. 538 p.
NAL Number: S589.7.L66 1992
Annotation: Deals extensively with the chemical, physical, ecological, and meteorological processes involved in producing crops, including soil characteristics, photosynthesis, water and resource management, and energy use. The authors widen their scope to examine changes and stabilty in agricultural systems and communities; mixed farming systems; the future of technology in agriculture and the outlook for food supply.

*Title: Decision Tools for Sustainable Development
Editors: Grant, Ian F. and Chris Sear
Publisher: Chatham, Kent, United Kingdom: Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, 1999. 267 p.
NAL Number: HC79.E5D42 1999
Annotation: Discusses techniques for collecting and managing scientific data and using the knowledge of local farmers to increase food production and controlling pests while conserving the environment and wildlife. Applies modern information technologies in conjunction with both the importance and limitation of the knowledge of the local populace. Techniques include remote sensing, hazard analysis, risk management, needs assessment, drought early warning and other types of forecasting. Furnishes case studies from Africa that involve farmer participation in research and development.

Title: The Doubly Green Revolution: Food for All in the 21st Century
Author: Conway, Gordon
Publisher: Ithaca, NY: Comstock Publishing Associates (Cornell University Press), 1998. 335 p.
NAL Number: HD9018.D44C66
Annotation: Originally published in 1997 in the U.K., this edition includes a foreword by Vernon Ruttan. Focuses on the need for finding resources and improvements to feed a growing poor and hungry global population while dealing with the detrimental environmental effects of technology. Recounts the positive and negative accomplishments of the "green revolution" in the 1960s and what needs to be done in this century. Conway is conditionally optimistic, convinced that "Hunger and poverty can be eliminated through the application of modern science and technology provided they are used widely and are supported by appropriate economic and social policies, and a will to act." But he questions model predictions that rely on significant economic growth in developing countries and increased crop production based on past performance. There are signs of stagnating or even declining rates of yield growth. Discusses the achievements of biotechnology and genetic engineering in improving crop and animal breeding; technologies that favor agricultural sustainability by controlling pests, replacing nutrients in the soil, improving soil and water quality, and conserving natural resources; the distinctive characteristics of agroecosystems; cooperation and partnerships between farmers, researchers, and outreach workers.

Title: Drylands: Sustainable Use of Rangelands into the Twenty-first Century
Editors: Squires, Victor R. and Ahmed E. Sidahmed
Publisher: Rome: International Fund for Agricultural Development, 1998. 470 p.
NAL Number: SF84.84.D79 1998
Annotation: Papers presented at a workshop on sustainable use of rangelands and desertification control held in Saudi Arabia in November 1996. Dryland areas comprise about half of the earth's land surface. These are vulnerable regions, easily damaged, and many have seriously deteriorated. Most of the contributions found here concern the Middle East and the African Sahel. Assesses dryland degradation; methods for determining productivity and restoration; technology for monitoring progress; the needs and outlook of the pastoral people who inhabit these regions, living in a precarious situation with few options. Discusses the prospects for successful dryland use and recommendations for promoting sustainable systems.

Title: Eco-Farm: An Acres U.S.A. Primer
Authors: Walters, Charles and C.J. Fenzau
Publisher: [Metairie. LA]: Acres U.S.A., 2nd ed., rev., 1996. 447 p.
NAL Number: S605.5.W34 1996
Annotation: The authors emphasize that this is a book for the reader who may be encountering eco-agriculture for the first time. The tone is conversational and it covers a lot of ground including the effects of light and temperature on plants, the life and growth cycle of plants, soil chemistry, proper tillage, crop rotations, managing weeds and insects, animal health, and the need for a new agriculture. Includes an extensive glossary with terms ranging from "adventitious roots" and "mycorrhiza" to "Wien's Constant" and "xerophytes."

Title: Eco-Regional Approaches for Sustainable Land Use and Food Production
Editors: Bouma, J. et al.
Publisher: Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995. 505 p.
NAL Number: S589.7.S94 1994
Annotation: Volume 4 in the series, Systems Approaches for Sustainable Agricultural Development. Proceedings of a symposium held at The Hague, December 12-16, 1994. Focuses on the need to dramatically increase food production in the coming decades, particularly in developing countries. Looks at both the biophysical and socio-economic features of this challenge. Problems include use of unsuitable or marginal land, excessive use of inputs, poor crop rotations, loss of biodiversity, the need to enable populations in poverty to realize sufficient economic growth. The symposium largely tried to explore and integrate interdisciplinary approaches to regional agro-ecological systems and the natural limitations and differences in resources. Includes papers on sustainable management of natural resources in the Andes; wheat production in India; sustainable farming in the African Sahel; policies for land use in Costa Rica; natural resources and the limits of food production; world food security and disribution; collaboration among research institutes; designing crop management strategies; systems designs for specific environments.

*Title: Ecoforestry: The Art and Science of Sustainable Forest Use
Editors: Drengson, Alan Rike and Duncan MacDonald Taylor
Publisher: Gabriola Island, BC, Canada: New Society Publishers, 1997. 312 p.
NAL Number: SD387.S87E26 1997
Annotation: Contributions by 36 authors on the principles and practices of responsible ecological forestry. These authors bring a wide range of experience from Australia, Switzerland, Scotland, and North America. Deplores the industrial clearcutting of forests and subsequent replacement by single-species tree farms without biotic diversity and lacking any semblance to a true forest community. Stresses the negative effects from the loss of forests on a global scale as well as being locally detrimental. Some of the primary principles include replacing clearcutting with partial cutting that maintains the canopy, age and species mixture, leaving riparian zones intact, using low impact removal methods (including minimal road building and soil compaction), regenerating trees from seeds taken in the logged area, prohibiting slash burning and pesticides, and leaving ground debris to maintain topsoil quality. Naturally, much attention is given to sustaining the cultural, scenic, and recreational values of forests.

Title: Ecofriendly Pest Suppression
Editors: Gautam, R.D. and D. Prasad
Publisher: New Delhi, India: Westvill Publishing House, 1998. 414 p.
NAL Number: SB950.3.I4E26 1998
Annotation: This is a book on managing pests, weeds, viruses and other plant pathogens in Indian agriculture. However, it offers biological and genetic techniques that can be applied elsewhere, such as using pheromones and nematodes to manage insects, and (which only seems fair) methods for controlling nematodes.

Title: Ecological Agriculture and Sustainable Development
Editors: Dhaliwal, G.S. et al.
Publisher: Chandigarh, India: Centre for Research in Rural and Industrial Development, 2 vols., 1998. vol. 1 - 688 p.; vol. 2 - 716 p.
NAL Number: S471.I4I57 1997 v.1;v.2
Annotation: Proceedings of a conference held in Chandigarh, India in November 1997. Volume 1 consists of three general subjects: land and water resources, crop-environment interactions, and integrated nutrient management. Volume 2 is devoted to integrated pest management and policy and planning for sustainable agricultural and rural development. Although this was an international conference most of the papers here are by Indian researchers with a scattering of contributions by others from Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and North America. Consequently most of the case work and research concerns India, although much of the science involved has wider application outside of that country. Contributions include discussion of water and soil management; reclamation of waste and marginal lands; effects of technology and land use on environmental degradation; pond cultures for prawn, fish and ducks; using ecological factors for enhancing crop production and predicting performance; evaluating cropping systems of wheat rotating with corn and sugarbeet; selenium levels in plants; plant spacing and density; carbon accumulation in soils; microbial biomass and nitrogen mineralization in straw incorporated soils; influence of minerals on crop yields; relationship between sowing date and control of insect pests; developing insect resistant crop varieties; using allelochemicals, botanical and biocontrol agents for pest and weed management; regional approaches to managing environmental hazards and contamination; role of farmers' organizations in education and technology transfer; role of rural women in development programs.

Title: Ecological Diversity in Sustainable Development: The Vital and Forgotten Dimension
Author: Maser, Chris
Publisher: Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers of CRC Press, 1999. 401 p.
NAL Number: QH75.M357 1999
Annotation: Another in the Sustainable Community Development Series. This holistic approach emphasizes that the environmental dilemma in which the world finds itself results from "spiritual, emotional, and intellectual isolation." To heal the environment people must first reexamine how to think about ecological and cultural problems, to consider dimensions of time, i.e., what has near-term benefits often causes long-term harm, and of space -- what is done locally may have consequences far distant. In this context the author defines "community" as "...the primacy and quality of relationships among people sharing a particular place and between people and their environment." "Development" as "...personal and social transformation to a higher level of consciousness and a greater responsibility to one another's keepers..." "Sustainability" is the means "...whereby one generation saves options by passing them on to the next generation..." Discusses the role and dimension of diversity in culture and ecosystems; the creation, evolution, and extinction of species; concepts of land use, property rights, and wealth; effects of technology on the environment.

Title: Ecology and Integrated Farming Systems
Editors: Glen, D.M.; M.P. Greaves; H.M. Anderson
Publisher: New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1995. 329 p.
NAL Number: S589.7.L64 1993
Annotation: Proceedings of the 13th Long Ashton International Symposium held in England, September 14-16, 1993. Papers provide both principles and guidance in developing "environmentally integrated, yet economically viable arable farming." Includes views on agricultural and environmental policies in Europe; plant diversity; weed management; biological pest control; creating habitats and landscapes to encourage natural enemies of insect pests; ecological nutrient management; achieving the optimum benefits of integrated farming.

Title: Ecology in Agriculture
Editor: Jackson, Louise E.
Publisher: San Diego: Academic Press, 1997. 474 p.
NAL Number: S589.7.E255 1997
Annotation: Another volume in the series, Physiological Ecology. Demonstrates how ecological principles function in agriculture and " they can be applied to solve practical problems in crop production and environmental management." Looks at biological processes and interactions between organisms and the circulation of matter and energy. Compares genetic and other characteristics of "domesticated" crops and their wild relatives, including the ability, or lack of it, to adapt to diverse, often harsh, environments. Discusses the process of photosynthesis; use of water and nitrogen; root form and function; microbes and soil carbon; ecological principles for managing pests and restricting plant diseases; integrated modeling of global environmental change.

Title: The Economics of Organic Grain and Soybean Production in the Midwestern United States
Author: Welsh, Rick
Publisher: Greenbelt, MD: Henry A. Wallace Institute for Alternative Agriculture, Policy Studies Report no. 13, May 1999. 56 p.
NAL Number: SB189.W45 1999
Annotation: Examines the profitability for farmers of the production of orgranic grain and soybeans in the Midwest based on studies done by universities in Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Nebraska, and South Dakota. Not surprisingly evidence seems to suggest that as organic harvests increase the unit cost of production and distribution decreases; organic systems seem more drought resistant than conventional systems and do better in drier areas or during drier periods. Discusses programs that were introduced to encourage organic production; how the organic industry has developed; trends and variables that may positively or adversely affect profits and the likely choices organic producers will have to make.

Title: Economics of Sustainable Agriculture and the Linear Programming Method
Author: Kim, Jong Moo
Publisher: Seoul, Korea: Sung Kyun Kwan University Press, 1997. 510 p.
NAL Number: S471.K6K56 1997
Annotation: A collection of reports the author presented at international conferences between 1990-97 dealing with the application of the linear programming method in farm analysis, economics, agricultural planning and reform. Briefly, this method is used to study the optimal allocation of resources in achieving recognized goals by using models consisting of two sets of mathematically expressed relations. One set, or function, expresses in algebraic terms variables for each goal using priorities indicating the relative importance of one goal to another. The second set is a series of equations defining the resource constraints or limits on the supply or use of resources. Most of the author's observations are based on Korean experiences. Although there are, of course, plenty of equations and statistical data there are also discussions on organic farming methods and developments in that country, the role of women, farm size, peasant economy and income, trends and factors influencing sustainable farming.

*Title: Efficient Soil Water Use: The Key to Sustainable Crop Protection in Dry Areas of West Asia, and North and Sub-Saharan Africa
Editors: van Duivenbooden, N. et al.
Publisher: Aleppo, Syria: International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas; Andhra Pradesh, India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, 1999. 489 p.
NAL Number: S471.3.E33 1999
Annotation: Proceedings of workshops organized by the Optimizing Soil Water Use Consortium held in Niamey, Niger, April 26-30, 1998, and in Amman, Jordan, May 9-13, 1999. Provides an extensive profile of soil water use and resources, agricultural practices, and land use in Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Kenya, Mali, Morocco, Niger, South Africa, Syria, Turkey, and Zimbabwe. Papers include case studies of water management technologies; optimizing water use; determining profitable tillage systems and crops in dryland areas; research, analyses, and methods for monitoring successful production methods.

Title: Emerging Markets for Family Farms: Opportunities to Prosper Through Social and Environmental Responsibility
Author: O'Neill, Kelly
Publisher: Walthill, NE: Center for Rural Affairs, May 1997. 61 p.
NAL Number: HF5413.O54 1997
Annotation: In January 1997 the Center convened a group of people experienced in sustainable agriculture, food processing, establishing cooperatives and small businesses, and marketing organic and other sustainably grown products to determine strategies for developing new markets for these products. Suggests that consumers are becoming more aware of the importance of environmentally sound methods for growing food, the health benefits of wholesome food, and are willing to pay more for these products. This presents opportunities for strengthening family farms and developing small businesses in rural areas. Notes that traditional marketing and processing are designed for large argibusinesses and essentially excludes small producers. The shift from moderate-size family farms to large industrial operations and the concentration of buyers and processors has brought decline to rural communities and higher poverty rates in those areas. Included here are results of a survey the Center conducted in 1996 concerning people involved in the processing and marketing of agricultural products. This included door-to-door sales, roadside marketing, retail outlets, and cooperative marketing. What emerged was a picture of some of the elements that contributed to success, and in some cases, lack of it. These included management skills, public relations and communications, project development, production and processing methods, availability of credit or financing, outside support and assistance. Barriers that arose most often were lack of capital, affordable insurance, skilled labor, storage and processing facilities, marketing outlets, access to management tools. Suggests that products with the greatest market potential are organic grains, including both whole grain products and byproducts; meat (with certain reservations) and poultry; vegetable oils (cooking and therapeutic); and medicinal herbs. Offers advice on cooperative ventures, networking, marketing, research, education, and advocacy.

Inquiries may be made to Center for Rural Affairs, 101 S. Tallman St., Walthill, NE 68067; Web site:

Title: Entrepreneurial Community Gardens: Growing Food, Skills, Jobs and Communities
Authors: Feenstra, Gail; Sharyl McGrew; David Campbell
Publisher: Oakland, CA: University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, publication no. 21587, 1999. 106 p.
NAL Number: SB457.3.F44 1999
Annotation: A study that examines several factors that characterize entrepreneurial or market gardens and their economic effects on local communities. Topics include production and marketing strategies that have been successful and those that have failed; the amount of capital and land needed for a viable enterprise; sources for obtaining capital; operating costs and expenses; the number of jobs and income generated by these gardens; agricultural and business training provided; community support for or opposition to these projects; postive and negative consequences for the community. Based largely on the methods and experiences of 27 gardens (15 in California). Offers several recommendations for enhancing the success of entrepreneurial gardens.

*Title: Environmental Policies for Agricultural Pollution Control
Editors: Shortle, J.S. and D.G. Abler
Publisher: New York: CABI Publishing, 2001. 224 p.
NAL Number: TD428.A37E58 2001
Annotation: Examines the choices available for regulating agriculture's negative effects on water quality. The editors focus on the policy and economic aspects of this debate rather than the engineering elements. Major considerations include defining what needs to be achieved, the limited effect of past attempts (both voluntary and enforced) to deal with this problem, difficulty in finding a consensus for action, the costs and benefits of various approaches, competition for public funds in investigating and implementing technology, and marketing pressures from international trade. Includes discussions on agricultural polution control policies in the U.S. and Europe.

Title: Environmental Sustainability of Canadian Agriculture: Report of the Agri-Environmental Indicator Project
Editors: McRae, T.; C.A.S. Smith; L.J. Gregorich
Publisher: Ottawa, Ont.: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 2000. 224 p.
NAL Number: S589.76C3E58 2000
Annotation: A government report that examines the use of environmentally sound practices by Canadian farmers; environmental changes and trends that are occurring; and those areas and resources that are at significant environmental risk. Six major catagories are used, e.g., environmental farm management, soil quality, water quality, greenhouse gas emissions, agroecosystem biodiversity, and production intensity. Two primary indicators were developed for farm management, e.g., length of time soil is left exposed under various crop and land management plans and practices for handling pesticides, fertilizer, and manure. Indicators for soil quality include potential for soil loss from water and wind erosion and tillage damage; organic carbon levels; soil compaction and salinzation. Indicators for water quality include contamination by nitrogen and phosphorus. Greenhouse gas emission indicators include levels of nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide from agriculture. Agroecosystem biodiversity is evaluated by the increase, decrease, or constancy in wildlife habitat. Production intensity is assessed by energy used in inputs and outputs and the difference between the amount of nitrogen added to soil and the amount removed in harvesting. Describes methods of calculating data for these several indicators. Employing a classification system that divides Canada into ecozones the study provides a regional analysis in addition to an overall national perspective. Discusses the economic, social, government, and technology factors that influence the environmental effects of agriculture.

Title: Environmentally Sound Agriculture
Editors: Campbell, Kenneth L.; Wendy D. Graham; A.B. 'Del' Bottcher
Publisher: St. Joseph, MI: American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 1994. 578 p.
NAL Number: S589.7.E57 1994
Annotation: Proceedings of the second conference on this topic, held at Orlando, FL, April 20-22, 1994. Papers discuss controlling water pollution on farms; tax benefits and other incentives for habitat preservation; nutrient applications and contamination prevention; pest management and pesticide containment; methods and models for controlling erosion; dynamics of soil managements; nematode management; dairy operations; and citrus production, including the benefits of peanuts in citrus groves; water quality programs and databases; monitoring, managing, and using animal wastes.

Title: Facilitating Sustainable Agriculture: Partcipatory Learning and Adaptive Management in Times of Environmental Uncertainty
Editors: Röling, N.G. and M.A.E. Wagemakers
Publisher: Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998. 318 p.
NAL Number: S494.5.S86S635 1998
Annotation: The aim of the book is to examine "...the implications of adopting more ecologically sound agricultural practices, both at the level of individual farmers and at the level of larger-scale agro-ecosytems...The emphasis of the book is on human and social aspects, rather than on agronomic or economic considerations, focusing on the learning process necessary for change to be implemented..." Draws on examples from around the world concerned with finding solutions to problems, resolving conflicts of interest, and encouraging policies and practices that support sustainable agriculture and promote farmers' ability to innovate. Discusses environmental policies, farmers' attitudes, promoting education and distributing information about sustainable concepts using experiences in Switzerland, Greece, Netherlands, Germany, and Australia.

Title: Farm Appliances and How to Make Them
Author: Martin, George A.
Publisher: New York: Lyons Press, 1999. 192 p.
NAL Number: S675.M285 1999
Annotation: This is a reprint of a manual written in the late 19th century (Martin died in 1904). It contains a myriad of tools, machines, and assorted contraptions that may be looked upon today as energy saving because none of them requires the use of fossil fuels to operate. Because the horse was the primary source of power for agriculture much is devoted to the feeding, care, and enhanced use of that noble animal. Includes instructions on how to construct feed and salt boxes, troughs, and mangers; stable scraper and broom; stable ventilator; a cart for breaking colts; wagon lift; land rollers and levelers; revolving horse rake; assorted hay and corn forks and racks; vat for heating water; root pulpers, cutters, and washers; clod crusher; stump pullers; milking stools; butter worker; sheep shearing bench; much on digging and cleaning wells and cisterns and fashioning pipes and buckets. Features implements for preparing and handling fertilizers, converting straw into manure, burning lime, clay and sod, using bones and shells for fertilizer. Several items for orchard and garden include making bean poles, watering tubes, movable trellises, pruning and weed tools, using paper plant protectors, fending off rabbits and mice. There are illustrations for just about every appliance and technique described.

Title: Farms of Tomorrow Revisited: Community Supported Farms - Farm Supported Communities
Author: Groh, Trauger and Steven McFadden
Publisher: Kimberton, PA: Biodynamic Farming and Gardening Association, 1997. 294 p.
NAL Number: HD1491.U6G76 1997
Annotation: An update to the 1990 edition of Farms of Tomorrow: Community Supported Farms, Farm Supported Communities. Contains essays, both new and from the original edition, on the need for community farms and about the Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) movement. The authors focus on three main themes: " work out some fundamental questions and principles of land use...and our general ways of living with the land. present living examples of of a new approach to the use of land. offer readers a list of resources so that they may have ready access to information which will support them in the pursuit of new, healthier uses of the land." The concept of community farms offers an alternative to large industrial agricultural operations and seeks to create a new relationship between people and land while recognizing that modern society will not be returning to the rural forms of the past. Discusses basic ideas for community farms that include economic, legal, and spiritual. Offers suggestions on how to get started and looks at the operations and experiences of several CSA farms.

Title: Field and Laboratory Investigations in Agroecology
Author: Gliessman, Stephen R.
Publisher: Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers of CRC Press, 2000. 330 p.
NAL Number: S589.7.G59 2000
Annotation: A course manual for teaching students the principles and concepts of agroecology that includes hands-on experience and laboratory experimentation. A companion piece to Gliessman's Agroecology: Ecological Processes in Sustainable Agriculture listed in the May 2004 update to this Current Books series, The manual is divided into five sections, e.g., "Studies of Environmental Factors" discusses how particular environmental factors affect individual plants and how environmental factors are measured and characterized; "Studies of Population Dynamics in Crop Systems" concerns population dynamics in crop systems and how populations of organisms act in agroecosystems and how they react to changes; "Studies of Interspecific Interactions in Cropping Communities" looks at allelopathic and other interactions between species in cropping communities; "Studies of Farm and Field Systems" examines mapping agroecoystem diversity, effects of a weed border on insects, determining crop density to avoid adversely affecting yield, and the effects of trees in an agroecoystem; "Food System Studies" looks at on-farm energy use and how to understand aspects of local food marketing. Includes tables, datasheets, and advice on equipment, materials, and methods to use in planning and running field and laboratory course work.

Title: Field Guide to On-Farm Composting
Editor: Dougherty, Mark
Publisher: Ithaca, NY: Natural Resource, Agriculture, and Engineering Service, NRAES series no. 114, April 1999. 118 p.
NAL Number: S675.N72 no. 114
Annotation: A guide that can be taken to the field because its long, narrow shape was apparently designed for a hip pocket and the wire spine flips pages easily. Provides an overview of composting processes and methods with extensive directions for choosing a site, setting up a composting operation, environmental and safety considerations, the equipment required, selecting raw materials to use, recipe making, monitoring and controlling the process, and using compost on the farm. Includes an extensive array of illustrations, photographs, and tables.

Inquiries may be made to NRAES, Cooperative Extension, 152 Riley-Robb Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-5701. Web site:

Title: Fields of Change: A New Crop of American Farmers Finds Alternatives to Pesticides
Author: Curtis, Jennifer
Publisher: New York: Natural Resources Defense Council, July 1998. 230 p.
NAL Number: S494.5.A65 1998
Annotation: A report on farmer experiences with alternative pest management techniques throughout the U.S. for a variety of grain, nut, fruit, and vegetable crops as well as cotton and dairy. Includes a description of each farm, how the farmer adopted and developed alternative methods for managing pests, the economic and financial results from using such methods. Farming operations include Florida oranges and tomatoes; Michigan cherries; Mississippi rice; Missouri and Texas cotton; Texas citrus; Washington raspberries; New York and Washington apples; California walnuts, wine grapes, and tomatoes; Illinois and Iowa corn and soybeans; North Carolina tomatoes, vegetables, and tobacco; Georgia peanuts and cotton; Louisiana sugarcane; Montana wheat; Wisconsin potatoes; Vermont and Wisconsin dairy. Offers several recommendations to encourage the use of alternative pest control practices, e.g., provide an education and technical assistance program to promote alternatives to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides and triazine and acetanilide herbicides; increase investment in sustainable and organic farming systems research and extension programs; revitalize the Integrated Pest Management initiative; increase availability of technical and financial cost-share assistance and incentives; create rewards in the marketplace for products grown with alternative pest management methods.

Available for purchase from NRDC, Publications Dept., 40 W. 20th St., New York, NY 10011.

Title: Final Results of the Third Biennial National Organic Farmers' Survey
Author: Walz, Erica
Publisher: Santa, Cruz, CA: Organic Farming Research Foundation, 1999. 126 p.
NAL Number: S605.5.W35 1999
Annotation: The survey, conducted in December 1997-January 1998, provides a comprehensive picture of the state of organic farming in the U.S. Questions included farmers' views on the priority of research topics; how organic farmers experiment on their own farms; the availability of information resources, which are used most often, and what is lacking; types of products grown and marketed; marketing methods, outlets, and strategies; concerns dealing with soil fertility, pest management, weed control, crop diseases, constraints and barriers to production; organic standards and certification; and democraphic aspects, such as business structure, farm and family income, farm size, geographic location, level of education. Contains an extensive directory of favorite resources for organic production and marketing information indicated by respondents.

Title: Food in the 21st Century: From Science to Sustainable Agriculture
Authors: Shah, Mahendra and Maurice Strong
Publisher: Washington, DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Deveolopment/The World Bank, 2000. 72 p.
NAL Number: S540.A2S54 2000
This document is currently on line (as of March 2003) at
Annotation: A brief account of the objectives, activities, and achievements of CGIAR, an organization of public and private sector associates, including the World Bank and the United Nations. Describes the research centers and resources CGIAR uses to promote food security at affordable prices; stimulate economic growth and alleviate poverty in both rural and urban areas; enhance global trade and political stability. Defines the challenges facing this organization and what is being done to contend with world population growth, increasing poverty and malnourished peoples, limits on food productivity, water scarcity; the need for restoring degraded lands and forests, ensuring biodiversity and preserving plant genetic materials. Discusses the potential that biotechnology provides and the conflicts that often arise between science, culture, and public policy.

Title: Food Production and Environmental Stewardship: Examples of How Food Companies Work with Growers
Publisher: Washington, DC: Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, report no. EPA 231-R-98-001, January 1998. Various pagings.
NAL Number: S494.5.S86F66 1998
Annotation: The purpose of this report is to provide information on ways food companies encourage growers to be environmentally responsible. No attempt is made to " the relative environmental soundness of products, services, or practices...or to judge which are superior." Information is taken from published sources, reports and interviews with 40 food companies, ranging from Gerber Products and Del Monte Foods to McDonalds and Coors Brewing. Examines the motivation of companies to promote "stewardship" activities, e.g., agricultural efficiency, uniform food quality, market considerations, worker safety and health, and beneficial partnerships with growers. Relates the measures taken and achievements gained by each company and obstacles encountered in these programs.

Available from National Center for Environmental Publications and Information, 11029 Kenwood Rd., Bldg. 5, Cincinnati, OH 45242.

Title: For Hunger-Proof Cities: Sustainable Urban Food Systems
Editors: Koc, Mustafa et al.
Publisher: Ottawa, Ont., Canada: International Development Research Centre, 1999. 239 p.
NAL Number: HD9000.5.F67 1999
Annotation: Papers presented at the International Conference on Sustainable Urban Food Systems held in May 1997 at Ryerson Polytechnic University in Toronto. Examines food security for urban areas and ideas for improving the accessibility and distribution of healthy food, increasing cooperation between rural and urban areas, and promoting community-supported agriculture and local food networks. Provides a wide range of ideas and experiences in such diverse places as New Jersey, Havana, Toronto, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Turkey, Poland, and the U.K. Discusses food policy, the effects of global economic and ecological factors on food security, and gender roles in food production.

Title: The 4th JIRCAS International Symposium: Sustainable Agricultural Development Compatible with Environmental Conservation in Asia
Editors: Horiuchi, H. and K. Tsubota
Publisher: Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan: Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, JIRCAS International Symposium Series no. 6, March 1998. 225 p.
NAL Number: SB111.A2J57
Annotation: Papers delivered at this symposium discuss food security in Asia and the problems of food supply, particularly in China, India, and Thailand; environmental, conservation, and rural development issues; the development of sustainable production systems and technologies, particularly in rice farming.

Title: From Reclamation to Sustainability: Water, Agriculture, and the Environment in the American West
Author: MacDonnell, Lawrence J.
Publisher: Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado, 1999. 385 p.
NAL Number: HD1695.W4M33 1999
Annotation: An engrossing narrative that explores water supply, irrigation, the conflict between growth and the environment, and other features relevant to agriculture in the arid regions of Colorado's lower Arkansas and Grand Valleys, the Truckee and Carson Basins in Nevada and California, and Washington's Yakima Basin. Describes the way of life for people living and working on the land and the central role of water in these areas; conflicts between agriculture and the environment related to water and dams; changes in land use from agriculture because of residentual and commercial growth; and views on future development.

Title: Frontiers of Sustainability: Environmentally Sound Agriculture, Forestry, Transportation, and Power Production
Authors: Dower, Roger et al.
Publisher: Washington, DC: Island Press, 1997. 367 p.
NAL Number: HC110.E5F77 1997
Annotation: Examines the environmental condition of agriculture, forestry, ground transportation, and the electric power industry and what incentives, policies, corporate practices, and technological improvements are needed to promote sustainability in these areas. The major concerns are that the generation of electric power accounts for over a third of U.S. carbon emissions; ground transportation produces nearly a third of these emissions; and forestry and agricultural practices threaten the loss of biological diversity, release toxic chemicals into the environment and degrade the quality of soil and water. Analyzes progress and trends in environmental improvements and what needs to be done; global and domestic factors that influence public attitudes and prospects for future success; market conditions; consumption patterns; economic and social aspects of farming. Suggests that the two emerging threats to sustainability in agriculture are loss of genetic resources and global climate change. The chapter on forestry provides a view of the U.S. timber industry; demands for forest products and the capacity to meet them; threats to forest survival; concepts of sustainablity in forestry and maintaining forest health. Statistics and trends presented in well-designed tables and graphs.

Title: A Full Repairing Lease: Inquiry into Ecologically Sustainable Land Management
Publisher: Belconnen, ACT, Australia: Industry Commission, Report no. 60, January 1998. 524 p.
NAL Number: S599.7.A1F966 1998
Annotation: The Commission's final report on ecologically sustainable land management in Australia. Examines the use of agricultural land and associated natural resources, particularly surface and ground water and vegetation, to ensure sound management. Assesses the effects of agriculture and irrigation on soil structure, water quality, and biodiversity. Discusses recommendations for conservation, research, policy innovations and standards.

*Title: Gaia's Garden: A Guide to Home-Scale Permaculture
Author: Hemenway, Toby
Publisher: White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2001. 222 p.
NAL Number: SB439.H44 2001
Annotation: A basic and easy-to-follow book for designing, constructing, and maintaining a "backyard ecosystem" that the author considers "... meld(s) the best features of wildlife gardens, edible landscapes, and flower and vegetable gardens." Discusses methods for enhancing soil quality, using and conserving water in both temperate and desert settings, choosing plants and trees that will be site successful and encourage birds and beneficial insects. Provides an extensive array of tables of various plants and trees and their use in different climate zones; illustrations and photos that include a natural deer-deflecting food hedge, designs for various types of garden beds, laying out garden paths, drainage systems, and other design suggestions. Includes a directory of sources for seeds, live plants, garden supplies, permaculture information, and Internet-based plant data.

Title: Global Plan of Action for the Conservation and Sustainable Utilization of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
Publisher: Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1996. 63 p.
NAL Number: SB123.3.G47 1996
Annotation: A declaration adopted by the International Technical Conference on Plant Genetic Resources held in Leipzig in June 1996. Presents policies, strategies, and priorities for conservation, development, and use of plant genetic resources. Includes surveying and inventorying plant genetic resources; conserving existing plant and seed collections and their wild crop relatives; promoting diversification of crops, underutilized crops, seed production and distribution; developing systems for monitoring loss of plant genetic resources; building supportive programs at the national level; improving international networks and information systems to promote education, training, and public awareness.

Title: Grasp the Nettle: Making Biodynamic Farming and Gardening Work
Authors: Proctor, Peter and Gillian Cole
Publisher: Auckland, New Zealand: Random House, 1997. 176 p.
NAL Number: SB454.P76 1997
Annotation: The authors begin by describing the underlying principle of biodynamics as "... making lifegiving compost out of dead material." Biodynamic methods are based on the teachings of Rudolph Steiner that "...Matter is never without Spirit, and Spirit never without Matter." (See Spiritual Foundations for the Renewal of Agriculture in both the printed and Web editions of SRB 97-05.) Briefly, Steiner maintained that plants grew not only because of fertile soil but also from the influences, rhythms, and cosmic energy of the sun, moon, planets, and constellations. Using this philosophical basis the book deals with the practical methods of improving soil by preparing and using several types of biological applications identified by number, e.g., Preparation 500, 502, 507. Discusses how to prepare, store, and apply these preparations in different parts of the world. Also offers guidelines on converting from a conventional to a biodynamic system including commercial and home orchards, vineyards, and vegetable farms. Contains color photographs showing the effects of the methods the book describes. Offers tips on livestock health and some herbal remedies for common animal ailments. Contains a directory of biodynamic associations in the U.S., Canada, Germany, Britain, Ireland, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand.

Title: Green Technologies for a More Sustainable Agriculture
Authors: Hrubovcak, James; Utpal Vasavada; Joseph E. Aldy
Publisher: Washington, DC: Economic Research Service, USDA, Agriculture Information Bulletin no. 752, 1999. 38 p.
NAL Number: 1 Ag84Ab no. 752
Annotation: A brief reiteration of the need for a more sustainable agriculture that includes the recognizable problems of soil erosion, water quality, and agricultural productivity. Discusses how lack of markets, market prices, farm structure, risk perception, product and labor costs, weak incentives for research and development, and other obstacles can diminish the effectiveness of technologies that promote sustainability. These technologies include integrated pest management, conservation tillage, nutrient management, and a range of soil features, meteorological and environmental factors termed "precision agriculture."

Title: Greenbook '99: A Decade of Tools
Editor: Bergh, Prescott
Publisher: St. Paul, MN: Energy and Sustainable Agriculture Program, Minnesota Department of Agriculture, August 1999. 154 p.
NAL Number: S494.5.S86M56
Annotation: The Greenbook is an annual series that publishes the ideas, work, and experiences of Minnesota farmers, researchers, and educators in sustainable agriculture. The 1999 issue contains articles on producing and marketing medicinal plants, a variety of dry edible beans, pond-raised yellow perch, an buckwheat. Additional contributions include methods and designs for soil health, crop rotation, cover crops, composting, manure application, trees for living snow fences; applying soy oil to reduce chemical pesticide use; biological control of the alfalfa leafminer; managing and renovating pastures for livestock; planning whole farm systems.

*Title: The Growth and Sustainability of Agriculture in Asia
Authors: Kaosa-ard, Mingsarn Santikarn and Benjavan Rerkasem
Publisher: Hong Kong: Oxford University Press (China), 2000. 303 p.
NAL Number: S470.A1M56 2000
Annotation: Volume 2 in the series, A Study of Rural Asia, looks at the changes and growth in Asian agriculture since a survey was last undertaken by the Asian Development Bank more than twenty years ago. Discusses the sucesses that have been made in realizing sustainable agriculture, the challenges that remain, and agricultural growth tends in Asia and the factors that have contributed to them. The authors maintain that the impact of technology on food secuity will not continue without policy and institutional reforms in Asia. Environmental degradation, to a large degree, is viewed as the result of policy failures or mismanagement by governments. There is often a disposition to equate food security with keeping per capita food production above the population growth rate without regard to distribution and social factors. Additionally, there are signs that the rise in the rate of increased rice production is leveling off and the outlook for marine fisheries is considered "bleak." Examines the condition and availability of land, soil, water, and forest resources and the environmental health of the region. Offers several recommendations and strategies that are considered essential in fostering sustainable agriculture.

Title: Healing Harvest: Michio Kushi's Guide to Sustainable Home Gardening and Food Production
Authors: Kushi, Michio and Edward Esko
Publisher: Becket, MA: One Peaceful World Press, 1994. 112 p.
NAL Number: SB453.5.K87 1994
Annotation: This small book emphasizes the spiritual (such as classifying plants by their yin and yang characteristics) as well as the material components in food production and processing. Stresses the effect that celestial changes have on fertility as a consequence of the amount of energy reaching the earth. After 12,000 years of declining galactic energy, Michio suggests there will be an increase in such energy in about a century. The transition period between now and then is a critical time because of continuing physical scarcity until the cycle reverses. In discussing differences in diets between East and West Michio points out that Eastern peoples use whole grains, those in the West crush grains into flour for bread, pasta, and other products, a process that introduces oxidation, evaporation of water, and results in reduced quantity and quality of minerals, vitamins, and other nutrients. Another major difference is the use of dairy products and animal fats in the West as opposed to vegetable fat in the East. Describes methods of natural farming that includes non-tilling (allowing weeds to turn over the soil) and allowing crops to seed themselves. Focuses on cultivating rice, barley, and wheat and making and using traditional food. There is a section on the advantages of using charcoal instead of wood for energy and the methods for making it.

Title: Indicators of Land Quality and Sustainable Land Management: An Annotated Bibliography
Authors: Dumanski, Julian; Samuel Gameda; Christian Pieri
Publisher: Washington, DC: The World Bank, 1998, 124 p.
NAL Number: Z5074.L27D85 1998
Annotation: A collection of sources, both published and on the World Wide Web, that deal with evaluating sustainability, environmental impact, and land management in agriculture, forestry, and conservation. Indicators for evaluating sustainable land management include crop yield, soil and water quality, biological diversity, farm profitability, efficiency in using pesticides, fertilizers and nutrients, conservation practices, and farm decision making.

Title: IOIA Organic Inspection Manual
Authors: Riddle, James A. and Joyce E. Ford
Publisher: Broadus, MT: Independent Organic Inspectors Association, 2nd edition, December 1998. 209 p.
NAL Number: S605.5. R532 1998
Annotation: A guide to help explain organic inspection and certification processes to inspectors, processors, government regulators, retailers, and consumers. It offers an overview of the organic industry and industry standards; ethics, conduct, and qualifications for inspectors; what is involved in organic farm and processing inspection. e.g., soil assessment, livestock examination, records evaluation, surveying facilities, and detecting fraud or deception. Includes an index and a list of publications and other resources.

Inquiries may be made to IOIA, PO Box 6, Broadus, MT 59314.

Title: Korean Natural Farming: Indigenous Microorganisms and Vital Power of Crop/Livestock
Authors: Cho, Han Kyu and Atsushi Koyama
Publisher: Korea: Korean Natural Farming Association, 1997. 172 p.
NAL Number: S471.K6C56 1997
Annotation: Discusses alternative farming techniques recommended by the Association for its members, mostly small farm operators. Although focusing on South Korea with its particular outlook and thinking on agriculture, crop-livestock systems, and indigenous microbial flora this small book affords insight into experiences and methods likely to be of interest to others outside that country. Stresses the role of microorganisms and enzymes in farming, the need to maintain microbial diversity, how to make and use natural inputs and fertilizers such as fermented plant and fruit juices, fish amino acid, brown rice vinegar, herbal nutrients, mulches, and lactic acid bacteria serum. Describes how indigenous microorganisms, collected from leaf moulds in forests, is cultured with rice bran and applied to soil with compost. The Association considers the absence of mechanical tillage to be its principal soil management strategy, instead encouraging conditions that promote biological activities of earthworms, nematodes, and moles. Advocates treating seeds in a broth to strengthen them and managing growth of crops to conform to the different stages of plant life. Devotes attention to the breeding, feeding, and housing of swine and poultry and the role of livestock in mixed crop-livestock farming. Amply supplied with photographs and illustrations.

Title: Land Quality Indicators and Their Use in Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher: Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1997. 212 p.
NAL Number: TC401.F36
Annotation: Proceedings of a workshop held in Rome, January 25-26, 1996, to discuss land quality indicators and their use in monitoring changing conditions and formulating policy and development programs. A significant problem is that often there is no concensus on what features are considered strong or weak indicators, resulting in confusion. General indicators include positive and negative changes in land resources, types of land use, changes in farm management practices, changes in yields, soil and plant nutrients, water resources, fisheries and aquaculture, forest management, land tenure, and population density. Papers discuss classifying, structuring, and managing data; integrating the considerations of both natural and social sciences; constraints and limitations on using indicators.

Title: Land Tenure and Sustainable Land Use
Editor: Bakema, Reint J.
Publisher: Amsterdam: Royal Tropical Institute, Bulletin 332, 1994. 47 p.
NAL Number: S481.B85
Annotation: Focuses on the link between land tenure and environmental management in sub-Saharan Africa. Discusses traditional tenure systems and the attendant social and cultural factors. Examines a local situation in Cameroon that evolved from a traditional conservation heritage to one of abusive exploitation. Another in Mali that saw the central government as the sole authority for managing land and natural resources without sufficient regard to those actually working the land or involved at the local level. Also looks at the efficacy of agrarian legislation and environmental systems design in sub-Sahara.

Title: Land Use Regulations Supportive of Sustaining Agriculture and Natural Resources in Urbanizing Rural Communities: Evaluation Criteria and Municipal Officials' Perspective
Authors: Hammer, Janet and Kelleann Foster
Publisher: Kutztown, PA: Rodale Institute, 1996. 58 p.
NAL Number: S494.5.U72H36 1996
Annotation: The result of research that focused on land use regulations, helpful to sustaining agriculture, in rural areas undergoing urbanization in southeast and central Pennsylvania. Describes techniques and methods for defining sustainable criteria and accumulating and evaluating data for this project.

Inquiries may be made to the Rodale Institute, 611 Siegfreidale Rd., Kutztown, PA 19530-9749.

Title: Linking People, Purpose, and Place: An Ecological Approach to Agriculture
Editors: Carter, Heidi; Richard Olson; Charles A. Francis
Publisher: Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 1998. 266 p.
NAL Number: S589.7.L562 1998
Annotation: Material assembled from several workshops in 1997, to assist farmers in learning about farming management practices that are ecologically beneficial; what can be done and how to do it. Provides views on the principles of agroecology; using biological processes to ensure productivity and environmental quality; elements of whole farm planning; assessing soil health and quality; the role of agroforestry; grazing management; rotational systems; ecologically-based pest management. Provides information sources that include printed materials, organizations, and Internet sites.

Title: Livestock and Sustainable Nutrient Cycling in Mixed Farming Systems of sub-Saharan Africa
Editors: Powell, J.M. et al.
Publisher: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: International Livestock Centre for Africa. vol. I, Conference Summary, 1994. 50 p. vol. II, Technical Papers, 1995. 560 p.
NAL Number: S472.A357L58 1994 v.1, v.2
Annotation: Proceedings of a conference held in Addis Ababa, November 22-26, 1993. A look at an area of the world with very high human and animal densities and an often unforgiving climate. Objectives of the conference were to review knowledge on nutrient cycling in mixed crop-livestock systems; identify research methodologies for investigating nutrient cycles in the plant-animal-soil elements of mixed farming systems; consider research priorities and approaches for improving the role of livestock in the nutrient cycles of mixed farming systems. Papers include overviews of mixed farming systems in sub-Sahara, interactions between animals and plants, animals and soils, plants and soils, various nutrient cycling models and techniques, the role of livestock in sustainable agriculture and natural resource management, and methods of measuring sustainability of crop-livestock systems in sub-Sahara.

Title: The Living Land: Agriculture, Food and Community Regeneration in Rural Europe
Author: Pretty, Jules
Publisher: London: Earthscan Publications, 1998. 324 p.
NAL Number: HN49.C6P74 1998
Annotation: As the title indicates Living Land promotes the need to attain sustainable agriculture, food systems, and rural communities from a European perspective. Pretty begins with observations on the "dying land," the result of aggressive "modern" agriculture; the decline in genetic diversity, erosion and deterioration of soil, vanishing wildlife, disappearing rural communities, environmental and health hazards, and the social costs. Much of this is all too familiar to people regardless of their residence. "This book is about getting back something we have lost. It is also about creating something new we never had." Emphasizes that sustainable agriculture is not a return to low-technology or pre-industrial traditional farming systems, but a merger of scientific knowledge, innovations, and practices that have been proven successful over centuries. Discusses policies in Europe that have been introduced to reverse the damage done to agriculture and the environment, promote research and education, and to motivate producers to alter their methods of farming as well as policies that deter or hamper changes. Examines low-intensive and integrated farming systems throughout Europe; the globalization of the food system; the distribution, cost, and quality of food. Emphasizes the need for farmers and rural communities to retain more of the value of agricultural products and essential changes required in marketing. Contains extensive production, economic, and social statistical data.

Title: Maintaining Biodiversity in Forest Ecosystems
Editor: Hunter, Malcolm L. Jr.
Publisher: New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999. 698 p.
NAL Number: QH75.M32125 1999
Annotation: Focuses on ensuring biodiversity in forests, particularly those that are subject to timber harvesting. Examines the principles of ecological forestry, the diverse elements and dynamics in forests, e.g., resident plant and animal species, microscopic organisms, wetlands and riparian areas, islands and other fragments; restoring and managing forest stands; economic and social factors involved in successful forest planning.

Title: Management of Tropical Agroecosystems and the Beneficial Soil Biota
Editor: Reddy, Mallapureddi Vikram
Publisher: Enfield, NH: Science Publishers, 1999. 387 p.
NAL Number: S599.9.T76M36 1999
Annotation: One of main objectives of the book is to create "awareness regarding conservation and care of soil health while maintaining sustainable food and fibre production as well as improving the quality of the environment..." Emphasis is on human-induced environmental change and the effects on soil health and fertility. The book is composed of three sections. The first, "Soil Environmental Factors and Processes," deals with the chemical-physical aspects of tropical soil and sustainable methods of management. The second, "Beneficial Soil Microorganisms," examines tropical soil microflora and the effects of various cropping systems and management practices. The third, "Beneficial Soil Fauna," discusses the benefits of nematodes, arthropods, and other soil fauna and management practices that enhance these components. Reports on research and experiences in tropical areas that range from humid Amazonia to semi-arid northeastern Australia.

Title: Managing Cover Crops Profitably
Authors: Bowman, Greg; Christopher Shirley; Craig Cramer
Publisher: Beltsville, MD: Sustainable Agriculture Network, 2nd ed., 1998. 212 p.
NAL Number: aSB284.3.U6M36 1998
Annotation: A practical guide to the benefits of cover crops, e.g., cereals, grasses, legumes, and some novel species that readers may not have considered; how to select and use cover crops that are useful in diverse types of farming in different regions. Describes the advantages and disadvantages of various cover crop species in particular situations. The material is presented in a well-organized and easy to use format with charts and other graphic aids. Provides resource lists of educational information, seed suppliers, organizations and experts.

Title: Maria Rodale's Organic Gardening
Author: Rodale, Maria
Publisher: Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press, 1998. 368 p.
NAL Number: SB453.5.R6 1998
Annotation: A richly illustrated guide to designing, creating, and enjoying an organic garden and yard in all seasons. The author effectively and enthusiastically conveys her experiences and ideas on tools, techniques, what, where and when to plant, and recipes for preparing food. Includes a list of sources for obtaining seeds, herbs, trees, shrubs, and other supplies and a bibliography of useful material.

Title: Microbial Control Agents in Sustainable Agriculture: Field Experience, Industrial Production and Registration
Publisher: Turin, Italy: Villa Gualino, 1995. 222 p.
NAL Number: SB976.M55M52 1995
Annotation: Selected presentations from a congress held at St. Vincent, Aosta, Italy in October 1995. Discusses the ecological benefits of using microbial agents to control pests and weeds; developing and determining the risk of using genetically modified microorganisms. Includes experiences in using bacilli (particularly Bacillus thuringiensis) to control pests; controlling moths with viruses; combating insects with fungi; and using several agents against fungal diseases. Examines the need for standards for producing and marketing microbial control agents and nematodes.

Title: Montana's Sustainable Agriculture: Farming with Foresight
Author: Wall-MacLane, Kerry
Publisher: Helena, MT: Alternative Energy Resources Organization (AERO), 2nd edition, 1998. 111 p.
NAL Number: S451.M9W35 1998
Annotation: Designed as an "interdisciplinary curriculum for educators of 4th-6th grade students...on healthy ways to produce food and fiber." The main sections deal with how food is produced; defining sustainable agriculture; history and future of Montana's agriculture; the nature of soil and ensuring fertility; advantages and disadvantages of insects and weeds; the importance of genetic diversity; role of livestock in agriculture. Each section includes a vocabulary of terms, major questions that each subject raises; ideas for student activities and projects; suggests videos, publications, and other educational material. Provides lists of Montana ranchers and farmers who are using sustainable methods; organizations and educational resources promoting sustainable agriculture.

Available for purchase from AERO, 25 S. Ewing, Suite 214, Helena, MT 59601.

Title: The Myths and Realities of Pesticide Reduction: A Reader's Guide to Understanding the Full Economic Impacts
Author: Jaenicke, Edward C.
Publisher: Greenbelt, MD: Henry A. Wallace Institute for Alternative Agriculture, Policy Studies Report no. 8, May 1997. 35 p.
NAL Number: SB951.J34 1997
Annotation: While contributing to increased crop production there is little doubt that chemical pesticides have significant adverse effects on the environment. The author examines the issue of social costs vs. benefits in the continued use of these chemicals by analyzing research on the economic impact of regulating pesticide use. Studies dealing with this subject are often confusing, contradictory, and difficult to assess. Focuses on weaknesses in available research, e.g., not providing information on benefits resulting from reduced use of chemical pesticides; neglecting the adaptibility of farmers to use fewer pesticides; failing to expand the projected costs of pesticide reduction into a broader context; and not considering alternatives to controlling the use of pesticides. Looks at the role of international trade, regional cropping patterns, food quality, and environment-related effects associated with using fewer pesticides. Suggests a list of questions that researchers need to consider in analyzing pesticide reduction strategies. Provides a bibliography of sources dealing with the economic effects of decreased chemical use.

Title: The Natural Foods Market: A National Survey of Strategies for Growth
Author: Richman, Nessa J.
Publisher: Greenbelt, MD: Henry A. Wallace Institute of Alternative Agriculture, Policy Studies Report no. 12, April 1999. 87 p.
NAL Number: HD9000.5.R52 1999
Annotation: Suggests that while consumer demand for natural foods has risen strongly the adoption of alternative production methods to meet this demand has been slow. An important contribution of this report is the survey results from agricultural producers, manufacturers, processors, distributors, and retailers. Looks at the barriers that affect the development of both market and production potential of natural foods, e.g., doubts over product standards, lack of understanding the developing market, uncertainty in marketing and pricing, misinformation and misapprehension concerning the production of natural products. Offers several recommendations that involve government agencies and trade organizations. Examines business strategies that have successfully targeted markets, such as advertising, labeling, gaining consumer trust, partnerships, and diversifying operations.

Title: Nitrogen Leaching in Ecological Agriculture
Editors: Kristensen, Lars et al.
Publisher: Bicester, Oxfordshire, UK: Academic Publishers, 1995. 343 p.
NAL Number: S587.5.N5N55 1995
Annotation: Proceedings of a workshop held in Copenhagen in October 1993. Papers discuss nitrogen supply, flow, and loss; relationship of nitrogen uptake to application; nutrient management in organic farming; nitrogen cycling and nitrogen/nitrate leaching in various crop rotation methods; effect of animal residues on nitrogen release in soil. Presents field trial experiences comparing nitrogen utilization and loss in ecological and conventional cropping systems.

Title: The Non-Toxic Farming Handbook
Author: Wheeler, Philip A. and Ronald B. Ward
Publisher: Metairie, LA: Acres U.S.A., 1998. 238 p.
NAL Number: S605.5.W48 1998
Annotation: Reiterates the long list of problems caused by agricultural use of chemicals. Much of the information and guidance is derived from the theories and teachings of Dr. Carey A. Reams, but draws on a variety of effective methods and technologies. Discusses the elements of healthy soil; how to test soil and determine what needs to be done to recover healthy soil; evaluating appropriate tillage of fields; selecting fertilizers and how to use them; indentifying nutritional deficiencies in plants; the nature of weeds (they're not entirely bad), how they grow, and techniques for controlling them; providing proper nutrition for livestock.

Title: Novel Approaches to Integrated Pest Management
Editor: Reuveni, Reuven
Publisher: Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers of CRC Press, 1995. 369 p.
NAL Number: SB950.N68 1995
Annotation: Notes the decline in pesticide efficacy and the serious liabilities attached to continued large-scale use of them. Defines the primary features of integrated pest management and the challenges that must be overcome for IMP to be successful. Discusses technical and scientific methods promoting natural resistance of plants to pathogens and biological control of pests, e.g., biochemical and molecular modifications, somatic hybridization, isolation of disease resistance genes in plants, growth-promoting factors, using natural enemies in combination with pesticides, producing biopesticides from microorganisms and nematodes, using solar energy in soil and manipulating sunlight in greenhouses.

Title: Nutrient Management for Sustainable Crop Production in Asia
Editors: Johnston, A.E. and J.K. Syers
Publisher: New York: CAB International, 1998. 394 p.
NAL Number: S647.N88 1998
Annotation: Proceedings of a conference held in Bali, Indonesia in December 1996. Provides an overview of the issues of agricultural production, food security, and the influence of agricultural and economic policies in Asia creating sustainable conditions necessary to meet future requirements. Discusses nutrient requirements and management practices with emphasis on the role of phosphorus and phosphates in soil fertility and crop production. Several case studies are described for Indonesia, Brazil, Vietnam, India, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and North Africa that involve varying soil and climate conditions. Crops in these studies include oil palm, rice, coffee, cocoa, soybean, maize, wheat, sorghum, and rubber agroforestry.

Title: Nuturing the Soil - Feeding the People: An Introduction to Sustainable Organic Agriculture
Author: Scheewe, Winfried
Publisher: Davao City, Philippines: Crust Foundation, 1993. 106 p.
NAL Number: S471.P6S33 1993
Annotation: This small book was written to aid extension workers and those involved in rural development, prompted by the admittedly disappointing experience in implementing sustainable agriculture in Mindanao. Most sustainable practices were confined to demonstration farms. Few farmers seemed interested in adopting them and tribal people maintained their traditional methods.

Title: Organic Agriculture: The Credible Solution for the XXIst Century
Editors: Foguelman, Dina and Willie Lockeretz
Publisher: Tholey-Theley, Germany: International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), 1999. 267 p.
NAL Number: S605.5.I45 1998
Annotation: Proceedings of the 12th International IFOAM Scientific Conference held in November 1998 in Mar del Plata, Argentina. Covers a wide range of topics involving particpants from 60 countries. Contributions, most of which are brief, include lively and often controversial views on concerns of producers and consumers regarding genetically engineered organisms; organic certification as a marketing asset, its limitations, and factors that will affect or challenge certification in the future; connecting producers and consumers by means of Community Supported Agriculture in North America; Codex Alimentarius guidelines and the likely impact on organic food production; economic and biological impacts of long-term crop rotations and mixed cropping systems; experiences in ensuring soil and crop fertility; methods of measuring quality of organic apples; controlling weeds and plant diseases; ecological production of pigs; homeopathic medicine in treating bovine mastitis. Includes evaluating sustainable use of land, organic farming, marketing, and development in several countries that includes mango and cotton production in Africa and ornamental plants in Europe.

Title: Organic Agriculture in Australia: Proceedings of the National Symposium on Organic Agriculture: Research and Development
Editors: Dumaresq, David, Richard Greene, and Lorrae van Kerkhoff
Publisher: Barton, ACT, Australia: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, RIRDC Research Paper no. 97/14, 1997. 199 p.
NAL Number: S605.5.N372 1996
Annotation: A selection of commentaries and short papers given at a symposium held in Canberra, June 30 - July 3, 1996. This forum was organized to review issues in Australian organic agriculture, consider problems, and provide for future development. Attendees were farmers, processors, retailers, exporters, researchers, association representatives, and government officials. Gives brief descriptions of organic production systems and the organic industry in Australia.

Title: Organic Agriculture in Denmark: Economic Impacts of a Widespread Adoption of Organic Management
Author: Wynen, Els
Publisher: Copenhagen: Danish Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Economics, 1998, Report no. 99. 115 p.
NAL Number: HD2006.A1R3
Annotation: Assesses the possible economic effects of extensive use of organic practices in Danish agriculture, particularly the likely financial costs in crop, dairy, and swine production. Uses statistical data for both conventional and organic farms to examine variable costs, yields, prices, and manner of land use. Contains numerous tables and graphs.

Title: Organic Apple Production Manual
Authors: Swezey, Sean L. et al.
Publisher: Oakland, CA: University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3403, 2000. 72 p.
NAL Number: SB363.2.U6O75 2000
Annotation: Examines trends, regulations, and other factors in producing and marketing organic apples. Offers advice on the many aspects of orchard management including selecting orchard sites and apple varieties (both principal and novelty), land preparation, planting, disease and pest control, harvesting, packing, storing, sanitary measures, marketing, and determining the economic performance of an orchard. Includes color photographs and a brief bibliography of publications and Internet resources.

Title: Organic Farming: Theory and Practice
Authors: Palaniappan, S.P. and K. Annadurai
Publisher: Jodhpur, India: Scientific Publishers (India), 1999. 257 p.
NAL Number: S605.5.P34 1999
Annotation: Although the focus here is on India, discussing the status of agriculture, climatic and local factors that affect farming, land tenure, and the impact of the green revolution, much of the book presents an overview of the general principles and aspects of organic farming. This includes an extensive account of the importance and application of green manures; composting industrial and agricultural wastes; controlling weeds and pests by tillage, seeding selection, cropping systems, flooding, mulching, fire, biological, and other methods; managing crop residues; ensuring healthy soil and nutrients for plant growth. Discusses cropping systems based on rice, cotton, wheat, coconut, and sugarcane and the particular requirements for each. Stresses the importance of integrating several farming components, e.g., aquaculture, mushroom cultivation, agroforestry, sericulture, animal husbandry, various pastural systems, and methods for establishing them. Offers an assortment of brief case studies on organic rice and grape production in California, coffee in Mexico, bananas in the Dominican Republic, basmathi rice and tea in India.

*Title: The Organic Foods Sourcebook
Author: Lipson, Elaine Marie
Publisher: New York: Contemporary Books, 2001. 221 p.
NAL Number: TX369.L57 2001
Annotation: A basic discussion of the principles of organic farming and the many benefits of organic products (both food and clothing) that is helpful in wading through the often confusing array of choices and claims related to organics (including ambiguous labeling). Emphasizes the concept of biodiversity and the importance of preserving heirloom fruits and vegetables, and the potential for a wide range of products that include dairy, poultry, meat, cotton, coffee, wine, and beer. Describes results of the Organic Foods Production Act in formulating a national organic program that sets uniform standards for organic products. Deplores the plight of small farms in America and sees organic agriculture as a boon to them. For the consumer there are tips on where to buy organic foods at stores, farms, and cooperatives. Provides a directory of organic organizations and producers that may be contacted and a bibliography of written sources on food safety, nutrition, receipes, organic certification, marketing, organic education and research, genetic engineering, and other related topics.

Title: Organic Poultry Production
Editor: Lampkin, Nicolas
Publisher: Aberystwyth, Wales: Welsh Institute of Rural Studies, University of Wales, 1997. 77 p.
NAL Number: HD9437.G72074 1997
Annotation: This report was largely prompted by proposed and anticipated action being considered by the European Union. Assesses the potential for organic poultry production in Wales and England by identifying the technical, financial, marketing, and regulatory factors involved. Examines production and building standards, management issues, and marketing considerations in selecting poultry stock, housing, feeding, health and welfare, transport and slaughter.

Title: Organic Tree Fruit Management
Author: Edwards, Linda
Publisher: Keremeos, BC: Certified Organic Associations of British Columbia, 1998. 240 p.
NAL Number: SB357.24.E38 1998
Annotation: A guide especially designed for those interested in converting from conventional to organic tree fruit production. Outlines the differences between the two systems, the conditions necessary for a transition from conventional to organic, and circumstances that may not be favorable to such a transition. Describes the techniques of integrated crop management, orchard design, selecting trees and rootstock for planting, and equipment for producing tree fruit. Identifies pests and diseases that threaten fruit trees with biological, mechanical, and natural methods for controlling them. Instructs on pollination, fertilization, soil conditioning, nutrition, fruit thinning, harvesting and handling fruit. Provides sources for obtaining equipment, materials, biological agents, and information; describes grading standards for apples and pears in Canada. Contains several pages of color photographs showing fruit at different stages of development, fruit damaged by pests and diseases, and pests at various phases of development. Index is included.

*Title: The Origins of the Organic Movement
Author: Conford, Philip
Publisher: Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom: Floris Books, 2001. 287 p.
NAL Number: GE195.C66 2001
Annotation: A look at the historical antecedents of the organic movement in Britain that included a diverse lot of writers, poets, intellecturals, farmers, political and religious activists. Although the author focuses on the period beginning with World War II, he discusses earlier political and economic forces that contributed to the development of the organic movement as well as earlier writers such as Rudolph Steiner. There is a short chapter on the organic movement in the U.S. which pays special attention to Jerome Rodale, Louis Bromfield, Edward Faulkner, and Paul Sears.

*Title: Participatory Monitoring and Impact Assessment of Sustainable Agriculture Initiatives: An Introduction to the Key Elements
Author: Guijt, Irene
Publisher: London: International Institute for Environment and Development, July 1998, SARL Discussion Paper no. 1. 112 p.
NAL Number: S494.5.S86G855 1998
Annotation: A guide to monitoring and evaluating the effects of natural resource management efforts based on the author's experiences in Brazil. Discusses the need "to know if environmental regeneration efforts are worthwhile" and whether funding and investments have the desired effect. Defines the indicators to be considered in making assessments and methods for collecting information. Cautions about pitfalls and misinterpretations that may occur in this process. Participants in monitoring included Brazilian community associations, rural workers' unions, farmers' groups, and university and specialty organizations. Provides an extensive look at the participation of Brazilian farmers and regional organizations in activities promoting sustainable agriculture.

Title: People-Based Sustainable Agricultural Development for a Global World
Editors: Maksum, Mochammad; Agus Setyarso; Dyah Ismoyowati
Publisher: Yogyakarta, Indonesia: Research Center for Rural and Regional Development, Gadjah Mada University, 1997. 250 p.
NAL Number: S494.5.S86P46 1997
Annotation: Papers presented at a seminar held at Gadjah Mada University in October 1995. Most of the contributions are by Indonesian participants, two are from Malaysia, and one from the Philippines. The main considerations are making agricultural development sustainable in the several countries of Southeast Asia and being competitive in a global economy. Describes government agriculture and trade policy; community involvement in developing forest and water resources; using videos to teach farmers; the role of biotechnology in sustainable agriculture; sustainable livestock and poultry production; small enterprise development and rural investment.

*Title: Permaculture: Principles & Pathways Beyond Sustainability
Author: Holmgren, David
Publisher: Hepburn, Vic., Australia: Holmgren Design Services, 2002. 286 p.
NAL Number: S494.5.P47H65 2002
Annotation: A straightforward account of the precepts and aims of permaculture, both an ethical and practical concept designed to deal with the universal environmental crisis and the threat to biodiversity and natural resources stemming from the use of fossil fuels and the negative impacts of industrial society including industrialized agriculture. There are permaculture design courses taught worldwide by an extensive network of organizations and farming communities. As the title implies this work is largely a discussion of principles and not a demonstration manual of farming techniques.

Title: Perspectives on New Crops and New Uses
Editor: Janick, Jules
Publisher: Alexandria, VA: ASHS Press, 1999. 528 p.
NAL Number: SB160.N38 1998
Annotation: Proceedings of a symposium, New Crops and New Uses: Biodiversity and Agricultural Sustainability, held in Phoenix in November 1998. Contains a wide range of contributions dealing with the relationship of new crops to global biodiversity, sustainable agriculture, and new uses of specialty and conventional or existing crops. Examines trends in agricultural biodiversity; promoting the use of neglected and underutilized crops; the impact of new crops on the agricultural economy; funding sources for crop diversification research; measures for conserving endangered plants. Discusses the development and uses of an extensive array of crops and herbs that include cereals, legumes, oilseeds, fibers, fruits, vegetables, medicinal, aromatic, floral and landscape. Several papers address the relevant and sometimes opposing elements of public policy that may be inimical to new crop development, such as "Legal and Technological Measures to Prevent Farmers from Saving Seed and Breeding Their Own Plant Varieties."

Title: Perspectives on Sustainable Farming Systems in Upland Areas
Publisher: Tokyo: Asian Productivity Organization (APO), 1998. 322 p.
NAL Number: S604.3.P48 1997
Annotation: Proceedings of an APO/Food and Fertilizer Technology Center (FFTC) meeting held in Japan in October-November 1997. Discusses the particular challenges and problems associated with cultivating steep or sloping land and the sustainable technologies and practices developed to manage these difficulties. Papers provide insight on national policy, research, and experiences with varying biophysical environments and a variety of crops in several Asian countries, e.g., Bangladesh, Taiwan, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam.

Title: Pest Management at the Crossroads
Authors: Benbrook, Charles M.
Publisher: Yonkers, NY: Consumers Union, 1996. 272 p.
NAL Number: SB950.2.A1B45 1996
Annotation: The published result of a Consumers Union project to determine new policies for protecting "...society from the adverse health, environmental and economic effects of pesticides..." A major objective is to document the benefits of integrated pest management and to offer strategies for adopting intensive IPM. Describes the uses of pesticides, the increasing reliance on them, and the attendant risks. Presents a general history of the often half-hearted attempts to regulate pesticides earlier this century and the trends that seem to be taking place now. Looks at government and educational policies that affect IPM. Defines the nature of IPM, why it is important, and offers recommendations for setting practical goals in implementing IPM. Includes an extensive bibliography of related items including over 40 Web sites.

Title: Pest Management in the Subtropics: Biological Control - a Florida Perspective
Editors: Rosen, David; Fred D. Bennett; John L. Capinera
Publisher: Andover, UK: Intercept, 1994. 737 p.
NAL Number: SB974.P47 1994 v.1
Annotation: This is the first of two volumes on the extensive work being done on pest management in Florida. Vol. 2, published two years later, is discussed separately in the entry following this one. The editors observe that "...more biological control and IPM work is currently carried out in Florida than perhaps anywhere else in the world." The book's 31 chapters examine the role of biological control and integrated pest management in Florida's agriculture; historical accounts of early biological control in Florida; classical biological control of citrus scale insects, whiteflies, bean beetles, armyworms, melonworms, pickleworms, mealybugs, tea scales; conserving and encouraging natural predators; insect pathology that includes biological and molecular characteristics of insect viruses and the role of nematodes in biological control; controlling pests such as mites, root weevils, mole crickets, fire ants, termites, and mosquitoes; controlling aquatic, wetland, and terrestrial weeds; and studies being done to strengthen biological control agents.

Title: Pest Management in the Subtropics: Integrated Pest Management - a Florida Perspective
Editors: Rosen, David; Fred D. Bennett; John L. Capinera
Publisher: Andover, UK: Intercept, 1996. 578 p.
NAL Number: SB974.P47 1994 v.2
Annotation: The second of two volumes on pest management in Florida. Vol. 1 dealt with biological control. IPM uses chemical as well as biological agents to control pests in what the editors call a "holistic approach." Contains 33 chapters that consider the principles of IPM; early beginnings of IPM in Florida; regulatory control, e.g., quarantine, certification, sanitation; host plant resistance; the use of semiochemicals that modify behavior of pests; alternatives to chemicals such as acoustic methods, genetic control, habitat management; IPM research projects that include work on tomatoes, tropical fruit trees, woody landscape plants, root and tuber crops, cockroach and termite control; facilities and resources available in Florida for IPM work; and the role of the Extension Service IPM programs.

Title: Pesticide Chemistry and Bioscience: The Food-Environment Challenge
Editors: Brooks, Gerald T. and Terry R. Roberts
Publisher: Cambridge, UK: Royal Society of Chemistry, 1999. 438 p.
NAL Number: SB950.93.P472 1999
Annotation: Proceedings of the 9th International Congress on Pesticide Chemistry held in London in August 1998. The opening address at this congress asks "How Can Technology Feed the World Safely and Sustainably?" Dealing with this question poses another from David A. Evans, "Even if we assume that advances in technology will enable us to meet food demands, there must be a question as to whether political forces will permit this to happen." Evans quotes Nobelist Norman Borlaug's 1997 statement questioning "...whether farmers and ranchers will be permitted to use this new technology. Extremists in the environmental movement from the rich nations seem to be doing everything they can to stop scientific progress in its tracks." Discusses the criteria for sustainable food technology and what has been done to contribute to effective agronomic systems, conserving the natural balance of the environment, providing rewards and benefits to communities and the food production industry. Papers discuss pesticide research and development in overcoming insect resistance, using natural products in pesticide delivery systems, evaluating residues in food and water, risk assessment, and reflections on what the future holds for herbicide and pesticide science.

Title: Plant Physiology for Sustainable Agriculture
Editors: Srivastava, G.C.; Karan Singh; Madan Pal
Publisher: Jaipur, India: Pointer Publishers, 1999. 478 p.
NAL Number: QK711.2.P582 1999
Annotation: Selected papers, from a seminar held at New Delhi in March 1997, that focus on research in Indian agriculture. Topics include post-harvest handling of Asiatic lilium, growth and oil yield of Ocimum basilicum, clonal propagation, rice genotypes, post-harvest changes in sugarcane, flowering behavior and reproductive efficiency of groundnuts, responses of sweet potato plants under varying irrigation plans, biochemical and physiological resistance to bollworm in cotton, effect of phosphorus and sulphur application on leaf chlorophyll contents in soybeans, effect of Rhizobium japonicum and nitrogen on growth and yield of soybeans, contribution of algae to deep water rice, relation of genetic variations and mineral uptake to tea yield, drought resistant strains in several crops, saline tolerant sunflowers, and other studies on nutrition and environmental stresses affecting local crops.

Title: Precision Agriculture '97
Editor: Stafford, John V.
Publisher: Oxford, UK: BIOS Scientific Publishers, 2 vols., 1997. 997 p.
NAL Number: S494.5.P73E97 1997 v.1, v.2
Annotation: Papers presented at the first European Conference on Precision Agriculture held in England in September 1997. Vol. I is subtitled, Spatial Variability in Soil and Crop and Vol. II is Technology, IT and Management. Contributions deal with variation in soil conditions; crop quality and yields; application methods of seeds, fertilizers, and water; sensing and mapping technology; strategies for managing variability; research being done by agronomists, technologists, economists, and other scientists in technology and analysis.

Title: Procedures for Evaluating Alternative Farming Systems: A Case Study for Eastern Nebraska
Author: Olson, Richard K.
Publisher: Lincoln, NE: Center for Sustainable Agricultural Systems, Extension and Education Materials for Sustainable Agriculture, vol. 8, July 1998. 310 p.
NAL Number: S494.5.A65O47 1998
Annotation: A report that demonstrates methods for assessing economic, environmental, and energy factors in determining "relative" sustainability using alternative farming operations in eastern Nebraska that include conventional corn/soybean, modified conventional, agroforestry, organic, and pasture-based beef. Major factors in this evaluation include net income, income variability, production costs and yield per acre, labor requirements, soil erosion, and energy and nutrient expenditures. Includes descriptions of these farms with single-year and long-term economic variability comparisons. Contains a substantial amount of statistical data for comparing and analyzing significant components.

Inquiries may be made to the Center for Sustainable Agricultural Systems, University of Nebraska, 225 Keim Hall, Lincoln, NE 68583-0949.

Title: Proceedings: Promoting Sustainable Agriculture Through a Systems Approach to Consensus Building and Public Policy Education: The Workshop
Editors: Tavernier, Edmund M. and Maurice P. Hartley
Publisher: New Brunswick, NJ: Cook College; NJAES Office of Communications and Public Affairs, January 1997. 44 p.
NAL Number: S443.P75 1997
Annotation: Comments and panel discussions designed to prepare extension professionals for dealing with contentious issues and conflict situations. These include environmental issues that often divide farmers and environmentalists, strained relationships between farmers and their nonfarm neighbors, government policy and regulations. Much of this has to do with mediation as well as education, reconciling diverse views, resolving conflicts, and building trust and credibility.

Title: Proceedings of the European Seminar on Organic Farming in the European Union
Publisher: Brussels, Belgium: European Training and Development Centre for Farming and Rural Life, 1996. 181 p.
NAL Number: S605.2.E86E97 1996
Annotation: The seminar was held June 6-8, 1996, in Vignola, Italy. Includes an overview of the development of organic farming in Europe and details provided by growers on the conversion of their farms in Italy, Denmark, Germany, and Portugal. Describes the factors that have determined the market situation for organic products in Europe and provides case studies of marketing concepts that have been used there.

Title: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Composting and Use of Composted Materials for Horticulture
Editor: Szmidt, R.A.K.
Publisher: Leuven, Belgium: International Society for Horticultural Science, Acta Horticulturae series no. 469, 1998. 480 p.
NAL Number: 80.Ac82
Annotation: Symposium was held in Scotland, April 5-11, 1997. One of the primary efforts of this forum was to acquaint the waste management industry with the needs of horticulturists so that better products could be developed. Papers include processes and methods for recycling wastes into compost; various waste sources that may be used; effects of using compost materials on particular crops; blending composts and fertilizers; controlling pests, fungi, and diseases by using organic composts. Considerable attention is given to the special requirements for producing mushrooms.

Title: Proceedings of the National Seminar on Sustainable Agricultural Development
Editor: Sengupta, Sanjoy
Publisher: New Delhi, India: Voluntary Health Association of India, 1992. 137 p.
NAL Number: S471.I4N356
Annotation: Proceedings of a conference held in Pondicherry, India, September 12-13, 1991. Based on experiences and research in India, these proceedings offer an overview of the economic and social aspects in that country that must be considered if sustainable agriculture is to be successful. Provides insight on marketing organic products and avoiding significant increases in costs that might price such products out of reach for a signifcant portion of the local population. Describes health hazards of insect pests as well as the agro-chemicals that are used to control them. Suggests alternatives to chemical farming using integrated pest management and botanical pesticides in growing rice, coconuts, and other crops important to India and much of Asia.

*Title: Proceedings of the Second National Small Farm Conference
Author: Ebodaghe, Denis et al.
Publisher: Sedalia, MO: Inter-State Printing, October 2000. 182 p.
NAL Number: HD1476.U6N37 1999
Annotation: The conference took place in St. Louis in October 1999. Consists of brief presentations on several topics including marketing strategies, e.g., linking farmers and domestic and international consumers, organizing community supported agriculture and cooperatives, considering value-added products; technical and financial assistance to small farmers; environmental issues in agriculture; alternative and organic crops that contribute to sustainability and diversity in farming; the role of agroforestry and forestland grazing; farmer participation in research and outreach activities; developing skills in gathering information and using networks for discovering services and promoting products.

Copies may be obtained from Denis Ebodaghe, USDA-CSREES, Stop 2220, Washington, DC 20250-2220 or by e-mail:

Title: Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds
Editor: Spencer, Neal R.
Publisher: Bozeman, MT: Montana State University, 2000. 1030 p.
NAL Number: SB611.5.I58 1999
Annotation: Papers from a July 1999 symposium held at Bozeman. Presents a wide range of experiments and experiences in successfully (and sometimes unsuccessfully) controlling specific weed species and the biological agents and methods used. Some of the vast international array of weeds described include ragwort, Canada thistle, St. John's wort, bindweed, weed hemp, purple loosestrife, and water hyacinth. Reports include efforts at biological control on U.S. Army installations, vegetation management in forestry, plant-insect interactions, host specificity and selection, safety and application practices, legal issues, and an extensive variety of research. Failures are not neglected here and analyses include political and social factors, environmental influences, biological agents that declined to live up to expectations, risks from unexpected effects, and genetic diversity in weeds that contribute to resistance.

Title: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Precision Agriculture
Editors: Robert, P.C.; R.H. Rust; W.E. Larson
Publisher: Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy; Crop Science Society of America; Soil Science Society of America, 1996. 1222 p.
NAL Number: S494.5.P73I58 1996
Annotation: Papers and abstracts from a conference held in Minneapolis in June 1996. Provides an extensive look at the research and applications in the field of precision agriculture that include soil resources (nitrogen assessment and management is a primary topic), managing variability (considering natural resources and topography), technology (remote sensing tools, modeling, mapping, engineering techniques), technology transfer (educating and interacting with farmers and farm managers), environment (assessing groundwater quality, soil contamination, effects of mechanization), and economics (calculating profitability from costs analyses, production yields, and investment considerations).

Title: Publicly Funded Models Supporting Sustainable Agriculture: Twenty Model Profiles
Author: Blobaum, Roger
Publisher: West Hollywood, CA: World Sustainable Agriculture Association, Occasional Paper no. 3, June 1997. 29 p.
NAL Number: S494.5S86B59 1997
Annotation: A brief look at programs in several countries designed to assist sustainable agriculture and rural development. Programs include urban farming, organic food marketing, conserving plant genetic resources, integrated pest management, information and technology transfer, groundwater protection, and environmental protection. Countries mentioned are Australia, China, Cuba, Denmark, Ethiopia, Finland, Indonesia, Ireland, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, South Korea, Sweden, Thailand, and U.S.

Title: The Quest for Sustainable Agriculture and Land Use
Author: Roberts, Brian
Publisher: Sydney, Australia: University of New South Wales Press, 1995. 245 p.
NAL Number: S478.A1R63
Annotation: Deals with the concept of sustainability and the "...principles and practices which can make it work, particularly for agriculture and related rural industries, and for mining and tourism." Although Australia is the locis in mind global problems and strategies are also examined for land use planning, water allocation and quality control. Discusses integrated agricultural systems, cropping practices, agroforestry, animal husbandry, energy requirements, indicators for monitoring sustainable practices, and how synonymous is organic with sustainable farming.

Title: Readings in Sustainable Forest Management
Publisher: Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, FAO Forestry Paper no. 122, 1994. 266 p.
NAL Number: SD1.F36 no. 122
Annotation: A collection of technical papers originating from the 10th World Forestry Congress in 1991. The international scope of the material can be seen in topics that include managing wood and nonwood products in tropical and subtropical forests; woodlands management in the African Sahel; the role of soil and water conservation in forest management; wildlife resources; responding to climate change; protection from fire, insects, and diseases; conserving genetic resources in forest ecosystems; getting people, institutions, and governments involved in sustainable forestry; national policies and programs for forest development and research in Chile, Indonesia, Sweden, France, and U.S.

Title: Recycling Organic Waste: From Urban Pollutant to Farm Resource
Author: Gardner, Gary
Publisher: Washington, DC: Worldwatch Institute, August 1997. Worldwatch Paper no. 135. 59 p.
NAL Number: TD804.G37 1997
Annotation: Observes that organic garbage and sewage is often dumped into landfills, rivers, bays, and oceans while manure is disposed of by dumping or overappling to farmland. These methods pollute air, water, and soil. Emphasizes the need to view organic matter as a resource that can be used to everyone's economic and environmental advantage. Outlines uses for urban recycled or composed material from food scraps, yard trimmings, and paper wastes as soil nutrients.

Available for purchase from Worldwatch Institute, 1776 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20036-1904.

Title: Return to Resistance: Breeding Crops to Reduce Pesticide Dependence
Author: Robinson, Raoul A.
Publisher: Davis, CA: agAccess, 1996. 480 p.
NAL Number: SB123.R653 1996
Annotation: The author poses a dilemma - - 20% of the world's crop production is being destroyed by pests and diseases in spite of lavish use of insecticides, fungicides, and any number of other "cides." Crop losses due to parasites has increased in association with increased crop production in spite of the enormous amounts of money spent on chemicals. A major objective of the book is to present a rather "complicated and technical topic" in language that can be understood by readers who are not scientists. Focuses on "the carrying capacity of the environment" and the concept that in nature every species tends to reproduce beyond this carrying capacity. Humans have been able to expand this capacity, but can this be continued as population increases at a phenomenal rate? Suggests that it is a "real possibility that we can have both adequate food and freedom from crop protection chemicals, but few people seem to be aware of this." The book offers a general description of crop science and crop parasites, providing several examples that include blight and diseases of potatoes and breeding to increase resistance; tropical rust, the primary disease of African maize, and the work done to combat it; loss of genetic resistance in coffee and sugarcane and attempts to recover hardier varieties from ancient genetic stock. Discusses the importance of breeding clubs and techniques that are critical to ensuring viable crop stocks.

*Title: Rodale's Illustrated Encyclopedia of Organic Gardening
Editor: Pears, Pauline
Publisher: New York: DK Publishing, 2002. 416 p.
NAL Number: SB453.5.R644 2002
Annotation: As the title indicates this volume contains an extensive number of color photographs, sketches of garden designs, and tabular material. Begins with the basics of what constitutes "organic", how the organic movement developed, and the advantages of organic production. Covers the necessary subjects of soil quality and how to improve and maintain it; conserving and effectively using water; choosing and propagating plants for both outdoor and indoor use; controlling weeds and pests naturally; ensuring plant health; advice on designing and landscaping garden sites; organic lawn care. Includes easy-to-use alphabetic guides for seeding, tending, and harvesting plants from artichokes to zucchini; identifying and dealing with pests, diseases, and other plant problems. Contains a directory of seed, plant, and resource suppliers.

Title: The Role of Education and Research for Economic and Sustainable Agriculture and Forestry
Author: Nordic Joint Committee for Agricultural Research,
Publisher: Tartu, Estonia: Estonian Agricultural University, Institute of Rural Development, 1997. 169 p.
NAL Number: S542.B29I58 1996
Annotation: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Agricultural Scientists from the Nordic and Baltic countries held at Jelgava, Latvia, October 11-12, 1996. Largely a sampling of short scientific papers from Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Iceland portraying aspects of sustainable agriculture research, education, extension, cooperation, and transition under way in the Nordic and Baltic regions. Offers insights into local problems and responses.

Title: Root Demographics and Their Efficiencies in Sustainable Agriculture, Grasslands and Forest Ecosystems
Editor: Box, James E. Jr.
Publisher: Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998. 793 p.
NAL Number: S596.7.D4 v.82
Annotation: This is volume 82 in the series, Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences. Contains the proceedings of the 5th Symposium of the International Society of Root Research, held July 14-18, 1996, at Clemson University, and is divided into six sections: "Global Patterns of Carbon Allocation," "Managed and Unmanaged Ecosystems," "Sustainable Agroecosystems," "Ground Water Quality," "Genetics, Physiology and Molecular Biology," and "Contemporary Methods for Measuring Root Dynamics." A sampling of the 68 scientific papers includes studies on the effects of carbon dioxide and nitrogen on tissue chemistry and carbon allocation in pine seedlings; the comparative performance of root systems in tropical native savannahs and pastures used for grazing; the role of plant root exudates in accelerating carbon and nitrogen transformation in soil; development of loblolly pine roots in response to stand density and fertilization; root-shoot relationships in plant adaptation to nitrogen deficiency; turfgrass rooting characteristics; root penetration into and chemical properties of claypan soils; effects of water supply in deep soil on root characteristics of winter wheat; soil compaction and soybean root growth; carrot root responses to irrigation and compaction of sandy and organic soils; tillage and phosphorus effects on silage corn; root activity and acquistion of soil phosphorus and potassium; variation in fine-root biomass and productivity resulting from converting tropical forests into cropland; impact of roots on ground water quality; root responses to banded nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers; effect of salinity on potassium influx by rice cultivars; atrazine suppression of fine root growth in corn; the relationship between shoot and root growth in rice; changes in lipid composition of wheat roots caused by mechanical stress; methods for estimating root biomass and forest production in an ecosystem; separating plant roots from soil debris in core samples by using automated image analysis; color scanner system for monitoring root development; soil temperature effects from minirhizotron lighting systems; monitoring water molecules and intercellular transport in roots by nuclear magnetic resonance.

Title: Rural Women and Food Security: Current Situation and Perspectives
Publisher: Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1998. 137 p.
NAL Number: HD6077.R87 1998
Annotation: Looks at women's contributions to agricultural production in Africa, Asia, the Pacific, the Near East, Latin America, the Caribbean, and Europe. In doing so close attention is given to the social, cultural, and economic status of women in these areas, barriers that confront them, and their access to land and financial resources. As one would expect such situations vary widely by region and much has to do with government policy. Of particular interest is the role of women in sustainable and organic agriculture and the quest for food security in their communities.

Title: Saving Our Soil: Solutions for Sustaining Earth's Vital Resource
Author: Glanz, James
Publisher: Boulder, CO: Johnson Books, 1995. 182 p.
NAL Number: S624.A1G58 1995
Annotation: A book written in an easy to read literary style. Includes chapters titled The Furrows of History; Fear in a Handful of Dust; The Prairie According to Beck; Earthworms, Charles Darwin, and Soil Evolution Theory; Ever Since, I've Hated Cultivators; The Erosion Wars; Doctor Doran's Black Bag. Includes interviews with farmers and research workers about soil degradation, theories of soil formation and erosion, practices to be followed, and what needs to be done in saving soil. Includes a bibliography of sources for additional reading.

Title: The Small Dairy Resource Book: Information Sources for Farmstead Producers and Processors
Author: Dunaway, Vicki H.
Publisher: Beltsville, MD: Sustainable Agriculture Network, January 2000. 56 p.
NAL Number: aZ5706.A1D86 2000
Annotation: A product of Hometown Creamery Revival, a project designed to assist those interested or involved in small-scale dairy production and processing using sustainable methods. A directory of publications, videos, educational courses, organizations, suppliers, consultants, web sites and other helpful resources for making cheese, butter, yogurt, ice cream and other dairy products, business and marketing management, sanitation and safety, and nutrition and care of dairy animals. The latter includes sources on raising goats and cows, veterinary care, providing a healthy environment, grazing and pasture management, and fencing. Entries are accompanied by notes explaining the particular value and scope of the item or organization.

Title: The Small Farmers' Guide to Alternative Farming Techniques
Author: Williams, Allan N. and Neville Graham
Publisher: Roseau, Dominica: ACT Press, 1998. 62 p.
NAL Number: S605.5.W53 1998
Annotation: This is a small book with an interesting history. In 1979 a hurricane seriously damaged, along with most everything else, the predominately banana agriculture of the Caribbean island of Dominica. Small farmers there needed short-term crops to survive before new banana plantings could be viable. Many used alternative practices gained from past experience and knowledge. The authors interviewed 35 of these farmers and followed their development in the ensuing years. The resurgence of banana production, with its dependence on chemical and imported inputs, caused many farmers to drop these alternative practices. The purpose of this book is to share methods and technologies of raising traditional crops thereby encouraging diversification. Demonstrates how small farmers can improve soil by increasing the use of organic materials and encouraging beneficial worms and microorganisms. Discusses preparing fertilizer and compost, weed and pest control, farm design, getting the most out of farm resources, planting with regard to phases of the moon. Includes photographs and illustrations.

Title: Soil Amendments and Environmental Quality
Editor: Rechcigl, Jack E.
Publisher: Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers of CRC Press, 1995. 504 p.
NAL Number: TD196.F47R43 1995
Annotation: Discusses the positive and negative aspects of the effects on the environment from chemical fertilizers that include nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, lime, trace metals, micronutrients, organic wastes (manure, sewage sludge, compost), and industrial byproducts (fly ash, gypsum). Examines alternative agronomic practices (e.g., tillage, cropping methods, irrigation, livestock management) that may modify the adverse effects of fertilizers and using microbial additives to assist in breaking down organic materials.

Title: Soil Ecology in Sustainable Agricultural Systems
Editors: Brussaard, Lijbert and Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald
Publisher: Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers of CRC Press, 1997. 168 p.
NAL Number: S589.7.S637 1997
Annotation: Another in the series, Advances in Agroecology. Contains several papers from a symposium, part of the 15th International Congress of Soil Science, held in Mexico in July 1994. Discusses the need to "...match the supply of soil nutrients with the demands of the crops...and to develop soil physical properties that optimize air and water transport at levels that minimize the losses of nutrients by leaching and gas transport." Examines the interaction between plants and soil structure, organic matter, and soil organisms. Relates experiences of biological management of soil fertility in tropical regions.

Title: Soil Management: Experimental Basis for Sustainability and Environmental Quality
Editors: Lal, R. And B.A. Stewart
Publisher: Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers of CRC Press, 1995. 555 p.
NAL Number: S590.2.S88 1995
Annotation: Another volume in the series, Advances in Soil Science. The book is based on papers delivered at a workshop on long-term soil management experiments in 1993 at Ohio State University. The objectives of the workshop were to identify changes in soil properties caused by management practices; options for sustainable use of soil resources in different agroecoystems; consider the value of existing long-term experimentation and discuss needs for additional trials. The book is divided into three main climatic areas -- humid tropics, sub-humid and semiarid tropics, temperate and Mediterranean. Includes reports on soil types; traditional and changing agricultural practices; land clearing and reclamation in the Amazon; effects of fertilizer and crop residues in west Africa; irrigated rice cropping in the Philippines; livestock-crop strategies for soil management in tropical Africa; soil fertility experiments in east Africa; application trials of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer on soil organic matter. Discusses integrated approaches

Title: Soil Organic Matter and Organic Residue Management for Sustainable Productivity
Editors: Biswas, T.D. and G. Narayanasamy
Publisher: New Delhi: Indian Society of Soil Science, Bulletin no. 19, 1998. 164 p.
NAL Number: S592.8.S67 1998
Annotation: Contributions to a symposium held in October 1996 in Anand, India. Gives an overview of the relationship between organic matter, soil biological quality and sustainability; interaction of soil organic matter with nutrients and pesticides; and devotes special attention to the nature and composition of organic matter in several regions in India and managing organic wastes and materials from agriculture, agro-industries, and urban areas.

Title: Soil Quality and Agricultural Sustainability
Editor: Rattan, Lal
Publisher: Chelsea, MI: Ann Arbor Press, 1998. 378 p.
NAL Number: S590.2.S6286 1998
Annotation: Largely consists of papers from a July 1996 workshop with several contributions from other sources. Much of the material focuses on semiarid and tropical areas in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Affords a general overview of the elements of soil degradation, assessing soil quality, managing land and water resources, fertilizer and nutrient research, determining research priorities. Presents a wide range of results from experiments and experiences in soil conservation and management that include biological management of soil fertility in Africa; improving yields of rice and wheat in Asia; restoration of soil in East Africa; role of livestock in soil fertility in sub-Saharan Africa; maintaining soil organic matter and nitrogen in the savanna areas of West Africa; key factors to sustainability in Brazil; measuring environmental impact of farming in South America.

Title: The Soul of Soil: A Guide to Ecological Soil Management
Authors: Gershuny, Grace and Joseph Smillie
Publisher: Davis, CA: agAccess, 3rd edition, 1995. 174 p.
NAL Number: S623.G47 1995
Annotation: A manual that explains " soil organisms supply plants with the necessary nutrients at the right time, in the right form, and in the right amount." The objective is to enhance conditions for microbes living in healthy soil without relying on purchased inputs. Offers techniques for soil building that include managing organic matter; evaluating and monitoring soil and maintaining records; composting; using mineral fertilizers and green manures; cultivating; weed control; maintaining humus; using off-farm nutrient sources. Provides a brief discussion of the market for organic products and programs for organic certification. Includes an index, a glossary of scientific terms, and a listing of organizations, periodicals and other publications helpful to those interested in ecological and organic agriculture.

Title: Southeastern Sustainable Animal Waste Management Workshop Proceedings
Editor: Risse, Lawrence Mark
Publisher: Athens, GA: University of Georgia, 1997. 325 p.
NAL Number: TD930.2.S68 1997
Annotation: Proceedings of a workshop held February 11-13, 1997, in Tifton, GA. Papers discuss environmental regulations and issues concerning animal waste that include methods for handling and storing manure; insect and odor control; water and air quality; managing and using nutrients (for composting, feed, and energy); the particular problems of handling waste in wetlands and riparian zones; results of rotational grazing; effects of waste management on the health and mortality of animals; disposal of diseased or dead animals.

Title: Southern Futures: Opportunities for Sustainable Agricultural Systems
Author: Worstell, Jim
Publisher: Almyra, AR: Delta Land and Community, 1995. 164 p.
NAL Number: S445.W67 1995
Annotation: Results of a three-year study in the American South to determine the direction of agricultural education, research, and farming practices in that region. Includes survey questions and results taken from farmers, Extension workers, and researchers. Presents data at a county level on maps of the states involved. A significant finding is that rural development and marketing issues are underemphasized. The lack of marketing alternatives is a major deterrent to increasing sustainable agriculture in the South. Suggests that overcoming this constraint must be a leading priority and discusses how this can be accomplished by locally-owned enterprises and organizations. Focuses on the features of Southern agriculture and the forces that influence it.

Inquiries may be made to Delta Land and Community, Inc., Rte. 1, Box 57A, Almyra AR 72003.

Title: Step by Step Organic Flower Gardening
Author: Ogden, Shepherd
Publisher: New York: HarperCollins, 1995. 302 p.
NAL Number: SB405.O48 1995
Annotation: The author began raising organic vegetables commercially and later expanded into flowers. He sets out the basics for good gardening, e.g., choosing a site, designing and preparing a garden, how to provide and apply compost and mulch, caring for flowers, preventing and controlling diseases and pests, climate considerations, selecting tools and equipment, buying and propagating plants. Describes characteristics of over 120 flowering plants from Achillea to Zinnia and the best means for growing them. Includes list of common and Latin plant names, glossary of terms, and commercial seed and plant sources.

Title: Straight-Ahead Organic: A Step-by-Step Guide to Growing Great Vegetables in a Less-than-Perfect World
Author: Ogden, Shepherd
Publisher: White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 1999. 266 p.
NAL Number: SB324.3.O44 1999
Annotation: A revised edition of the 1992 publication. A manual that covers the basics of raising organic vegetables for both the casual and commercial grower. Includes selecting and designing garden sites, tools and equipment, preparing and maintaining healthy soil, selecting seeds, growing seedlings, planting and cultivating. Offers advice on the specific requirements and methods for growing many familiar vegetables. Contains helpful illustrations, a directory of seed sales outlets, and a bibliography of source material.

Title: Strategies for Sustainable Development: Experiences from the Pacific
Editors: Overton, John and Regina Scheyvens
Publisher: New York: Zed Books, 1999. 306 p.
NAL Number: HC681.3.E5S72 1999
Annotation: "Sustainable development" is a broad term that this book reflects. It considers mining, logging, ecotourism, and marine resources as well as sustainable agriculture and forestry in the Pacific islands of Polynesia, Micronesia and Melanesia. Examines the struggles and experiences to maintain sustainable growth and development in these small places, policies and strategies that have been developed in this diverse cultural region, and what conclusions may made for the future. Text is well supported with tables and figures.

Title: Sustainability, Growth, and Poverty Alleviation: A Policy and Agroecological Perspective
Editors: Vosti, Stephen A. and Thomas Reardon
Publisher: Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997. 407 p.
NAL Number: S482.S87 1997
Annotation: Focuses on the depletion of soils, forests, and water sources in developing countries and the need to set and implement environmental goals. Discusses ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural difficulties policymakers face in defining realistic sustainable targets, including the basic definition of what constitutes sustainability..."What are we supposed to sustain? How...When...(and) Where do we measure it?" Any such policy must allow for economic growth and curtail the spread of poverty in addition to supporting the environment. Looks at the concepts and links that involve agricultural and commercial growth, climate changes, environmental degradation, and quality of life. Provides local perspectives on these links with observations on conditions in the Amazon, Central America, semi-arid and tropical areas of Africa, and the Indian subcontinent.

Title: Sustainability in Agricultural and Rural Development
Editors: D'Souza, Gerard E. and Tesfa G. Gebremedhim
Publisher: Brookfield, VT: Ashgate Publishing, 1998. 245 p.
NAL Number: S494.5.S86S85 1998
Annotation:A comprehensive look at the issues, concepts, and objectives related to the sustainable growth of agriculture and rural communities. Generally, these considerations include economic, social, environmental, and human health. Chapters deal with farm size, role of markets, industrialization, production technology, government regulation, public policy, land use, population growth, gender role, information gathering and distribution, interdisciplinary cooperation in research, and methods for analyzing sustainability. The 24 contributors represent academic institutions, organizations, and government. Although there is, by necessity, a good deal of technical material included, the editors emphasize that this is a book designed for a general audience.

Title: The Sustainability of Rice Farming
Author: Greenland, D.J.
Publisher: New York: CAB International, 1997. 273 p.
NAL Number: SB191.R5G724 1997
Annotation: A look at the staple that most of the world has depended upon for about 10,000 years. The author provides an historical account of rice, its origins, how it was first domesticated from wild species and then cultivated. The primary objective of the book is to discuss how to responsibly increase the production of rice. Greenland observes that "If a farming system cannot be sustained the people supported by it will either discover a new and more sustainable system or perish." He adds that there are two main dimensions to sustainability, time and spatial. The latter includes land management that must combine technologies, policies, and activities that will enhance production, reduce the level of risk, protect natural resources, and prevent degradation of soil and water. It must also be economically viable and socially acceptable. Describes the physical and organic processes of growing rice; diseases and pests; nutrient requirements; social and economic factors that affect the sustainability of rice farming; the future of sustainable rice production.

Title: Sustainable Agriculture
Author: Mason, John
Publisher: East Roseville, NSW, Australia: Kangaroo Press, 1997. 121 p.
NAL Number: S494.5S86M37 1997
Annotation: Explains the various ideas associated with sustainability, e.g., permaculture, biodynamics, organic farming, conservation tillage, hydroculture, agroforestry, etc. Although based on the Australian environment and experience, the book contains much that is relevant to other parts of the world (including the U.S.) with similar climates and facing the common problems of drought, acid rain, soil salinity, chemical contamination of water and soil. Describes techniques and methods for sustainable production, with emphasis on soil problems and how to improve soil, managing water, natural control of weeds and pests, how to select and rotate plants, and guidelines for using livestock in a sustainable manner. Contains color photos illustrating many of the designs and concepts described.

Title: Sustainable Agriculture: Assessing Australia's Recent Performance
Publisher: Collingwood, Vic., Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 1998, SCARM Technical Report 70. 150 p.
NAL Number: S478.A1S87 1998
Annotation: Evaluates the major components of sustainability, e.g., economic, ecological, and social impact of agricultural activity in Australia. Includes data on farm income, debt servicing, farmer education and training, introduction of sustainable practices, productivity, soil and rangeland conditions, plant diversity, chemical residues in products, water quality, wind erosion (using a dust storm index), effects of agriculture on native vegetation, and some views on future assessments.

Title: Sustainable Agriculture: Taking Stock, Moving Forward
Editor: Adams, Mary
Publisher: Ames, IA: Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture, Iowa State University, 1997. 135 p.
NAL Number: S494.5.S86S83 1997
Annotation: Proceedings of a conference held at Iowa State University in July 1997. Speakers' presentations include views on conservation policy; diversity of use on agricultural lands; public relations and reaching out to a broader audience to gain support for sustainable agriculture; water quality programs in Iowa; the work of Aldo Leopold and Henry A. Wallace in conservation and agriculture. Offers brief summaries of panel discussions on riperian management; integrated pest management; grazing systems and pasture management; cropping systems; weed research; alternative swine production systems; manure management; the future of organic and community supported agriculture in Iowa; impact of global markets and social change on agriculture.

Title: Sustainable Agriculture: Towards an Evergreen Revolution
Author: Swaminathan, M.S.
Publisher: Delhi, India: Konark Publishers, 1996. 219 p.
NAL Number: S494.5S86S985 1996
Annotation: The book comprises articles and lectures the author has produced in the last 30 years. Emphasizes that future "...development that is not equitable will also not be sustainable in the long term.", a consideration too often overlooked in measuring sustainability. The author is referring to increased violence and social disintegration that will result from inequitable development. Points out that the social and ecological value of the green revolution is often obsured by both the "green" and "greed" parts of it. The latter is characterized by the exploitation of resources and excessive use of pesticides and mineral fertilizers. Discusses the impact of crop genetic research and the need to conserve seed diversity; agricultural progress as the key to prosperity in the Third World; the empowerment of women is necessary to the ultimate success of sustainability.

Title: Sustainable Agriculture: Tracking the Indicators for Australia and New Zealand
Author: Australian Agricultural Council; Standing Committee on Agriculture and Resource Management (SCARM)
Publisher: East Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO Publications, 1993. SCARM Report no. 51. 62 p.
NAL Number: S478.SA1S97 1993
Annotation: This is a short paper by a group with the sizable task of "defining, promoting and monitoring progress towards sustainable agriculture." The term, sustainable agriculture, often is not easy to define, meaning different things to different people in diverse circumstances. The goal here is to designate attributes of sustainable agricultural systems and then determine if progress is being made in implementing them. The group settled on four key indicators: on-site financial (which evaluates long-term net farm income); on-site environmental (examines changes in land and water quality which affect crop and animal production); on-site social (surveys changes in "...managerial skills of farmers, landowners and land managers, in finance, farming practice and environmental stewardship."); off-site (measures "changes to food quality, landscape hydrology and native ecosystems attributable to agricultural practice."). All this, of course, centers on New Zealand and Australia, but the concept of using scientifically sound indicators for reviewing and evaluating the impact of sustainable agriculture is relevant anywhere.

Title: Sustainable Agriculture and Environment: Globalisation and the Impact of Trade Liberalisation
Editors: Dragun, Andrew K. and Clem Tisdell
Publisher: Northhampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 1999. 308 p.
NAL Number: S589.76.D44S88 1999
Annotation: Examines opposing views of the proposition that "...globalisation will generate positive consequences for global agriculture and environment..." Suggests that the positive benefits from trade liberalization are likely to differ significantly in developed and developing countries. Discusses the major economic and financial factors necessary for sustainable development; social, environmental, and health effects of industrialized agriculture; research for determining strategies and policies for promoting sustainable agricultural practices and analyzing results. Describes regional experiences such as conservation measures in Germany; evolution of markets in Asia and environmental impact of livestock industries in that part of the world; linking small farmers to markets in Latin America; future of family farming in Brazil. Includes extensive economic and comparative data in tables and figures.

Title: Sustainable Agriculture for Food, Energy and Industry: Strategies Towards Achievement
Editors: El Bassam, N.; R.K. Behl; B. Prochnow
Publisher: London: James & James, 1998. 1308 p.
NAL Number: S494.5.S86S883 1998 v.1, v.2
Annotation: A two-volume collection of the proceedings and papers of an international conference held in Braunschweig, Germany in June 1997. The major objectives were to "...define sustainability in agriculture, to identify possibilities of practical transformation locally and globally, and to advance international cooperation in these areas." Includes discussions on promoting food security in the 21st century and the key issues and elements of sustainability (including one author, probably with widespread support, who pleads for "no more definitions, please"). Offers a wide range of international experiences in resource management that include the implications of rising carbon dioxide concentrations and strategies to reduce them and atmospheric pollants; effects of ozone on spider mite infestation; computer models, new technologies and genetic engineering for plant breeding that focus on biodiversity, drought and pest resistance, and increased yields; methods to enhance soil and water conservation; means of contaminated soil recovery; managing marginal lands and fragile environments; plant-soil-microbe interactions; biological, ecological, and organic farming techniques; sustainable energy sources, biomass fuels and methods for using them both in farming and industry; and the cultural, social, and economic factors that can often hinder or emasculate the most constructive ideas and best laid plans.

Title: Sustainable Agriculture in Brazil: Economic Development and Deforestation
Author: Caviglia, Jill L.
Publisher: Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 1999. 160 p.
NAL Number: S475.B72O933 1999
Annotation: Examines the role of sustainable agriculture in the tropics and the particular circumstances existing in Brazil. The deforestation of the Amazon has been a major concern for some time and the author explores the primary cause for this, the "slash-and-burn" methods by small-scale farmers. Sustainable farming methods were introduced into the region over a decade ago, but have not been widely adopted. Discusses the economic, social, and educational factors that influence the acceptance of sustainable agriculture and policies that could best promote the adoption of alternative farming.

Title: Sustainable Agriculture in Central America
Editors: de Groot, Jan P. and Ruerd Ruben
Publisher: New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997. 234 p.
NAL Number: HD1797.S87 1997
Annotation: Includes contributions by 14 researchers and specialists in earth sciences, economics, rural sociology and development. Examines the causes and extent of deforestation (particularly for raising cattle), land tenure, and regional characteristics that have affected agrarian and economic development in Central America. Discusses alternative production systems and methods being tried in the area, approaches to forest management and conservation, the role of farmer cooperatives, land reform and other agrarian policies.

Title: Sustainable Beef Production
Author: Fanatico, Anne; Ron Morrow; Ann Wells
Publisher: Fayetteville, AR: Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas (ATTRA), August 1999. Various pagings.
NAL Number: (not at NAL)
Annotation: A brief overview of the necessary components, e.g., controlled grazing; pasture management; alternative feeds, breed selection; animal health; and environmental concerns. Provides a list of references for further information and assistance.

Available on line from the ATTRA web site at or from ATTRA, PO Box 3657, Fayetteville, AR 72702.

Title: Sustainable Chicken Production
Author: Fanatico, Anne
Publisher: Fayetteville, AR: Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas (ATTRA), February 1998. Various pagings.
NAL Number: SF487.F35 1998
Annotation: A brief outline of the alternative methods of production, e.g., free range, pasture-based, semi-intensive, yard and coop; breeds that produce well in a pasture-based environment; maintaining flock health; and general management issues. Provides a directory of references for information and assistance and a reprint of a journal article on pasture poultry production. Sustainable Egg Production and Feeding Chickens are separate ATTRA bulletins relevant to this topic.

Inquiries may be made to ATTRA, PO Box 3657, Fayetteville, AR 72702. Web address is

Title: Sustainable Crop Production in the Sub-Tropics: An Australian Perspective
Editors: Clarke, A.L. and Wylie, P.B.
Publisher: Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Dept. of Primary Industries, 1997. 376 p.
NAL Number: S478.Q4S87 1997
Annotation: Assesses data from scientific research and farmer experience of soil degradation, nutrient depletion, and water contamination. Examines farming systems in terms of sustainability that includes controlling runoff, managing crop residues, tillage practices, using fertilizers and manures, irrigation, methods of crop protection and rotation, designing integrated farming systems, and the socio-economic impact of sustainability on communities. The focus is on the Australian regions of Queensland and northern New South Wales, but the experiences and sustainable principles are applicable elsewhere. The text is amply supported by tables, graphs, and photographs.

Title: Sustainable Farming Systems: A Guide to the Transition
Author: Mayse, Ann D.
Publisher: Davis, CA: Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program, 1997. 81 p.
NAL Number: S451.C2M39 1997
Annotation: The author has assembled interviews and discussions with California farmers, researchers, and specialists about changes in farm management. The growers chosen for this survey indicated interest in or had some experience with alternative farming methods. Subjects include soil quality, pest and disease control, enhancing agricultural diversity, farm design, marketing, and the economic effects of changing to sustainable practices. Gives a broad view of the reasons farmers provided for converting to alternative farming, e.g., increased regulation of pesticides, higher operating expenses, difficulty in obtaining farm financing, environmental and health concerns, benefits from agricultural diversity, consumer preferences.

Inquiries may be made to Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program, University of California, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616-8716. Web site:

Title: Sustainable Management of Non-Wood Forest Products: Proceedings of an International Workshop held at Universiti Putra Malaysia
Editors: Nair, M.N.B.; Mohd. Hamami Sahri; Zaidon Ashaari
Publisher: Serdang, Malaysia: Universiti Putra Malaysia Press, 1998. 327 p.
NAL Number: SD543.S87 1998
Annotation: Selected papers from a workshop held in October 1997. Non-wood forest products, e.g., bamboo, rattan, fruits, nuts, oil seeds, gums, resins, bark, medicinal plants, mushrooms, wildlife, and microorganisms are significant elements in the subsistance and livelihood of rural people in developing countries. Discusses the biodiversity, conservation, development and management of these resources in Southeast Asia. Examines the cultural and economic factors, problems and experiences involved in shifting from timber production to sustainable wildlife harvesting; using wild vegetables and fruits as new crops; harvesting bamboo and rattan; tapping gums and resins with improved techniques; potential for medicinal plants and essential oils; developing an integrated approach to research and development; the sustainable capacity of forests to provide a livelihood for indigenous people of the area.

Title: Sustainable Management of Soil Resources in the Humid Tropics
Author: Lal, Rattan
Publisher: New York: United Nations University Press, 1995. 146 p.
NAL Number: S481.L35 1995
Annotation: The author looks at special problems associated with sustainable use of soil and water in the tropical areas of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Discusses "ecologically compatible methods of deforestation...", and techniques for land and crop management that will improve production, reducing demand for more cleared land thereby saving forested tracts. Describes methods for improving farming and cropping systems by managing soil, water, erosion, nutrients, and other components necessary for a sustainable system.

*Title: The Sustainable Management of Vertisols
Editors: Syers, J. Keith; Frits W.T. Penning de Vries; Phibion Nyamudeza
Publisher: New York: CABI Publishing, 2001. 304 p.
NAL Number: S599.5.A1S86 2001
Annotation: The physical properties of Vertisols, black cracking clay soils in tropical and subtropical areas, make cultivation difficult because of low infiltration rates, waterlogging, high erodibility, and other factors that affect fertility. Papers from a workshop held in May 1999, in Harare, Zimbabwe, discuss research and methods for improving soil surface, water conservation, and increased crop yields that largely focus on Africa and India, but there is a paper on Vertisols in Texas and another dealing with Australia. These papers consider social and economic aspects (particularly involving small holdings and using animal-powered implements) as well as biological and physical features. Gives an overview of the morphological features, minerology, and distribution of Vertisols and the special nutrition needs for growing crops in such soils.

Title: Sustainable Management of Water in Agriculture: Issues and Policies
Publisher: Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Publications, 1998. 206 p.
NAL Number: S494.5.W3W674 1998
Annotation: Proceedings of an OECD workshop held November 3-6, 1997, in Athens. Presents international case studies and views on the use of water in agriculture and the effect of agriculture on water quality. Discusses water management, allocation, and marketing. Includes summaries on policies and practices in Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Greece, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, and U.S.

Title: Sustainable Sheep Production
Author: Wells, Ann; Lance E. Gegner; Richard Earles
Publisher: Fayetteville, AR: Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas (ATTRA), May 2000. Various pagings.
NAL Number: SF375.G35 1997
Annotation: A brief guide to the considerations in raising sheep, e.g., breeds; grazing and nutrition; animal health; and marketing. Provides reprints of journal articles and a directory of reference sources for information and assistance.

Available on line from ATTRA's web site: or from ATTRA, PO Box 3657, Fayetteville, AR 72702.

Title: Sustainable Soil Productivity Under Rice-Wheat System
Editors: Biswas, T.D. and G. Narayanasamy
Publisher: New Delhi: Indian Society of Soil Science, Bulletin no. 18, 1997. 83 p.
NAL Number: S599.6.I42S87 1997
Annotation: Contributions from a symposium held in November 1995 at the Punjab Agricultural University in India. Discusses the rice-wheat cropping system that has become popular in the plains between Punjab and West Bengal. The system is unsustainable because of excessive exploitation of the soil, declining crop productivity, falling water tables in irrigated areas, salinization, nutrient deficiencies, and an increase in pests and diseases. Discusses changes in the chemical, physical, and microbial composition of the environment resulting from rice-wheat cropping and the effects of soil and nutrient management practices to counteract these changes.

*Title: Sustaining Agriculture in the 21st Century: Proceedings of the 4th Biennial Meeting North American Chapter, International Farming Systems Association
Editors: Ogilvie, John; John Smithers; Ellen Wall
Publisher: Guelph, Ont., Canada: University of Guelph, 2000. 342 p.
NAL Number: S494.5.S86I58 1999
Annotation: Papers from a meeting held in at the University of Guelph in October 1999 that cover a wide range of topics and experiences concerning the future of sustaining agriculture and rural communities. Included are papers on pesticide policies, rural water quality, factors that influence farmers' adoption of soil and water conservation, challenges and opportunities for organic dairy farming and the dairy industry, evaluating the profitability of best management practices, using computer programs for nutrient management, indicators for determining the ecological soundness of farming systems, development of diversified crops. There is an extensive section on farm family roles and the effect of new generation farming on rural communities and the quality of life. Although most of these reports focus on North America (particularly Canada), several reach to more distant places, e.g., developing a curriculum for sustainable agriculture in Colombia, reorganizing and developing "another" agriculture in Brazil. Many additional papers with interesting titles are not complete but represented only by abstracts.

*Title: Swine Source Book: Alternatives for Pork Producers
Developers: Ault, Dwight et al.
Publisher: St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota Extension Service, 1999. Various pagings.
NAL Number: SF395.S87 1999
Annotation: A publication from Minnesota's Alternative Swine Production Systems Program provided in a loose-leaf binder. Contains material on pork production from several sources that discuss sustainability issues, use of hoop structures, grazing and farrowing systems, health, housing, Swedish methods in raising swine, and results from experience and research. Includes a reprint from The New Farm magazine, "Profitable Hog Systems: Sustainable Ways to Raise Low-Cost, High-Quality Hogs."

Title: Technological Change in Agriculture: Locking in to Genetic Uniformity
Author: Hogg, Dominic
Publisher: New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000. 296 p.
NAL Number: S494.5.I5H625 2000
Annotation: The author might also have subtitled this book "The Rise and Fall of Genetic Diversity in Agriculture" (he reserves this for a chapter heading). He poses the question, "Why, when the intellectual arguments in favour of sustainability appear to have been won, is agriculture still practised in what seems to be a manifestly unsustainable manner?" The argument commonly offered is the pressing need for global food supplies and what are seen as requisites for industrial agriculture that include, among other elements, uniformity in the genetic make-up of crops without which, "...the synchronisation of tasks and their mechanisation over large areas would not be possible. With it, the use of pesticides becomes more or less inevitable." Not only are genetic resources lost but genetic uniformity assures vulnerability to crop losses. The author is interested in how technologies are developed and the circumstances that lead to acceptance resulting in alternatives being discarded and believes too little attention has been given to the role of history in shaping technological change. Biotechniques could be used to promote diversity, but the trend has been to achieve genetic uniformity and is "closing the door" on diversity. This is a book that searches for ways and means to make agriculture more sustainable and less genetically uniform, although this implies a "...claim...that the growing population of the world could be fed through agricultural techniques which are more sustainable. Evidently, this is a somewhat speculative position which cannot be grounded in hard evidence. Furthermore, industrial agriculture has received in excess of fifty years head start (in terms of continuous research support) that makes any comparison somewhat unfair." Examines how genetic diversity in agriculture developed, how and why it is in decline, and the risks that attend genetic uniformity. Analyzes the factors that have favored high external input methods; compares farming systems and discusses how alternative methods have performed. Uses the development of hybrid corn in the U.S. from 1900-1935 and maize research in Mexico from 1940-1955 to explore the economic, social, and historical forces that affected genetic variability in these crops.

Title: Technology for Sustainable Agricultural Development
Author: Lin, Chien-Yih
Publisher: Washington, DC: World Sustainable Agriculture Association, WSSA Occasional Paper no. 2, 1997. 26 p.
NAL Number: S471.T28L55 1997
Annotation: The author discusses experiences and research involving sustainable agricultural systems in Taiwan that include managing soil nutrients, adding organic matter to soil, rotating and interplanting crops, managing weeds, using nonchemical pest control, and minimum tillage. Discusses methods of organic farming used in Taiwan and government policy to promote these methods.

Title: Toward Organic Integrity: A Guide to the Development of U.S. Organic Standards
Author: Sligh, Michael
Publisher: Pittsboro, NC: Rural Advancement Foundation International, 1997. 243 p.
NAL Number: S605.5.S54 1997
Annotation: Looks at the issues involved in arriving at acceptable and effective standards and regulations for growing, handling, and marketing organic products and the accreditation of organizations and producers. Provides recommendations for imports, food labeling, livestock health and handling, crop and greenhouse production, adding nutrient supplements and flavors to organic foods. Discusses legislation such as the Federal Organic Foods Production Act.

Title: Towards Sustainable Agricultural Production: Cleaner Technologies
Publisher: Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 1994. 99 p.
NAL Number: S589.75.T68 1994
Annotation: The Organisation consists of several countries in Europe, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Mexico, and U.S. and is concerned with sustainable economic growth and employment based on financial stability and expansion of world trade. This publication is based on the premise that "Sustainable agriculture means neither a return to low-technology agriculture nor a radical shift to sophisticated equipment and computer-guided decision making." Looks at research and on-farm experiences that contribute to environmentally friendly practices and technologies for three production sectors: grains and cereals; fruits, vines, and vegetables; and animal husbandry. These brief reports include reversing soil degradation; combatting soil erosion; improving water quality and availability; reducing pesticide use; reducing the environmental effects of animal waste; improving animal welfare; plant and animal biotechnology; measuring progress towards sustainability. Attention is given to barriers that hinder the spread of sustainable technologies and practices, e.g., marketing influences, government policies, on-farm resistance, and inadequate dissemination of information and promotion.

*Title: Towards Sustainable Land Use: Furthering Cooperation Between People and Institutions
Editors: Blume, H.-P. et al.
Publisher: Reiskirchen, Germany: Catena Verlag, 1998. 1560 p. in 2 vols. No. 31 in the International Society of Soil Science series, Advances in Geoecology.
NAL Number: S622.2.T68 1998 v.1; v.2
Annotation: Papers presented at the 9th Conference of the International Soil Conservation Organisation held in Bonn, Germany in August 1996. Includes an extensive array of topics related to policies and practices ensuring land preservation and development. The first volume deals with soil function, assessing its quality, protecting soil and reversing its degradation. Discusses indicators for evaluating soil and land use management using experiences from around the world; developing soil information systems to aid in international technical cooperation; recognizing and monitoring the impact on soil from climate changes; assessing the causes and effects on soil and crop production from water and wind erosion and measures used to mitigate these effects; stabilizing organic matter and enhancing the availability of nutrients in soils; coping with soil salinity and desertification in parts of Africa and South America. Considerable attention is given to the impact of industrial agriculture, mining, and urbanization on soils caused by chemicals, heavy metals, organic wastes, polluted air and water, resource exploration and exploitation. These negative effects include soil compaction, surfacing sealing, erosion, and nitrogen loss. The second volume is concerned with developing strategies and policies leading to sustainable land, natural resources and watershed management. Discusses case studies involving tillage, grazing and water conservation practices, technological innovations, and measures that have been taken in Australia, Europe, Asia, and Africa with participation of farmers, villages, government and private organizations. Examines the demographic and socio-economic factors, land tenure, and the role of incentives, education and training in implementing programs.

*Title: Urban Fringe Agriculture
Editor: Oliver, Robert A.R.
Publisher: Tokyo: Asian Productivity Organization, 2002. 246 p.
NAL Number: SB16.A47A66 2000
Annotation: A report from a seminar held in Tokyo in May 2000. The term used in the title refers to "...the use of intensive methods to produce mainly vegetable and other horticultural and livestock products..." in proximity to urban centers. The rapid growth of cities in Asia and the desire of farmers to be close to their markets and processors (ensuring fresher products, fewer postharvest losses, and lower transportation costs) has contributed to this situation. However, the well known health and environmental problems that agriculture brings to rural areas can be aggrevated in urban areas. The seminar, focusing on ensuring the sustainability of agriculture in urban areas, presents the issues and challenges that must be addressed and policies to be considered in what one contributor refers to as the "new urban agriculture." There are reports for each of the Asian countries from Bangladesh to Vietnam that recount circumstances, experiences, and policies relating to agriculture in urban environments.

Title: Winning the Organics Game: The Compost Marketer's Handbook
Author: Tyler, Rodney W.
Publisher: Alexandria, VA: ASHS Press, 1996. 269 p.
NAL Number: TD796.5.T76 1996
Annotation: Deals with the business and sales aspects of recycling wastes into compost. Describes how to establish a compost factory, distribute the product, and assess markets, e.g., landscapers, nurseries, sports turf, reclamation, roadside, silviculture, agricultural, and specialty consumers. Examines the economic and financial factors involved in operating a compost facility. Text is supported by illustrations, photographs, tables, charts, and graphs.

Title: Women and IPM: Crop Protection Practices and Strategies
Editors: Fliert, Elske van de and Jet Proost
Publisher: Amsterdam: Royal Tropical Institute, 1999. 107 p.
NAL Number: SB950.3.T76W66 1999
Annotation: The concept for this book originated at the 13th International Plant Protection Congress held in the Netherlands in 1995. A symposium on gender issues ensued to look at women's roles in supporting crop protection and integrated pest management and how their influence and decisions affect agricultural economies. Describes agricultural training, education programs, and experiences in Russia, Zanzibar, Ghana, Costa Rica, Honduras, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Bhutan. Offers insight into areas where women have long had an important but often subliminal role in decision making both on the farm and in society.

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April 2003