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Raising Snails

Special Reference Briefs Series no. SRB 96-05
Updates SRB 88-04
ISSN: 1052-536X

Compiled by:
Rebecca Thompson, Information Centers Branch
and
Sheldon Cheney, Reference Section
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Service
National Agricultural Library
Beltsville, Maryland 20705-2351

Compiled for: The Alternative Farming Systems Information Center, National Agricultural Library
July 1996
Web sites revised May 2008


Acknowledgement

Mary Gold, Alternative Farming Systems Information Center, NAL/ARS, and Karl Schneider, Reference and User Services Branch, NAL/ARS, assisted with database searching. Ray Stevens, Alternative Farming Systems Information Center, reviewed this publication. The authors appreciate their valuable input and assistance.

For additional reference sources on the many issues and techniques involved in sustainable agriculture, you may request AFSIC's List of Information Products. For a copy of this list, or for answers to questions, please contact:

Alternative Farming Systems Information Center
National Agricultural Library
10301 Baltimore Ave., Room 132
Beltsville MD 20705-2351
Telephone: (301) 504-6559, FAX: (301) 504-6409


Contents


National Agricultural Library Cataloging Record

Thompson, Rebecca
Raising snails.
(Special reference briefs ; 96-05)
1. Snail farming. 2. Edible snails. 3. Snails Computer network resources. 4. Snail farming Bibliography. I. Cheney, Sheldon.
II. Title.
aS21.D27S64 no.96-05

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Raising Snails

Introduction

Heliciculture is the process of farming or raising snails. Snail farming on a large-scale basis requires a considerable investment in time, equipment, and resources. Prospective snail farmers should carefully consider these factors, especially if their goal is to supply large quantities to commercial businesses. Anyone who wishes to raise snails should expect to experiment until he finds what works best in his specific situation. Expect a few problems.

Roasted snail shells have been found in archaeological excavations, an indication that snails have been eaten since prehistoric times. In ancient Rome, snails were fattened up in "cochlear" gardens before they were eaten. "A Virginia Farmer" (1) described keeping snails in a cool, moist and shady environment, supplying artificial dew if necessary, containing them on an "island" surrounded by water to prevent escape, supplying vegetation as feed, and fattening them on corn meal. Pliny described the snail garden of Fulvius Hirpinus 2,000 years ago as having separate sections for different species of snails. Hirpinus allegedly fed his snails on meal and wine. (2) [But note, stale beer placed in a shallow dish is a way of killing them. Snails are attracted to the yeast in beer and will crawl into the dish and drown.] The Romans selected the best snails for breeding. "Wall fish" were often eaten in Britain, but were never as popular as on the continent. There, people often ate snails during Lent, and in a few places, they consumed large quantities of snails at Mardi Gras or Carnival, as a foretaste of Lent.

According to some sources, the French imported brown garden snails to California in the 1850's, raising them as the delicacy escargot. Other sources claim that Italian immigrants were the first to bring the snail to the U.S..

U.S. imports of snails were worth more than $4.5 million in 1995 and came from 24 countries. This includes preserved or prepared snails and snails that are live, fresh, chilled, or frozen. Major exporters to the U.S. are France, Indonesia, Greece and China. The U.S. exported live, fresh, chilled, or frozen snails worth $55,000 to 13 countries; most were shipped to Japan, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. [See U.S. Imports and Exports. Source: U.S. Department of Commerce. Individual statistics are not available for U.S. exports of prepared or processed snails.

This publication provides a general overview of farming edible terrestrial snails. The authors have used many sources believed to be reliable. Information supplied by some farmers or researchers may conflict with information supplied by others. The information applies to several different species of snails, and not all of it necessarily applies to one particular species.

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Edible Species

Edible land snails range in size from about one millimeter long to the giant African snails, which occasionally grow up to 312mm (1 foot) in length. "Escargot" most commonly refers to either Helix aspersa or to Helix pomatia, although other varieties of snails are eaten. Achatina fulica, a giant African snail, is sliced and canned and passed off on some consumers as escargot. Terms such as "garden snail" or "common brown garden snail" are rather meaningless since they refer to so many types of snails, but they sometimes mean H. aspersa.

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Mating and Egg Laying

Snails are hermaphrodites. Although they have both male and female reproductive organs, they must mate with another snail of the same species before they lay eggs. Some snails may act as males one season and as females the next. Other snails play both roles at once and fertilize each other simultaneously. When the snail is large enough and mature enough, which may take several years, mating occurs in the late spring or early summer after several hours of courtship. Sometimes there is a second mating in summer. (In tropical climates, mating may occur several times a year. In some climates, snails mate around October and may mate a second time 2 weeks later.) After mating, the snail can store sperm received for up to a year, but it usually lays eggs within a few weeks. Snails are sometimes uninterested in mating with another snail of the same species that originated from a considerable distance away. For example, a H. aspersa from southern France may reject a H. aspersa from northern France.

Snails need soil at least 2 inches deep in which to lay their eggs. For H. pomatia, the soil should be at least 3 inches deep. Keep out pests such as ants, earwigs, millipedes, etc. Dry soil is not suitable for the preparation of a nest, nor is soil that is too heavy. In clay soil that becomes hard, reproduction rates may decrease because the snails are unable to bury their eggs and the hatchlings have difficulty emerging from the nest. Hatchability of eggs depends on soil temperature, soil humidity, soil composition, etc. Soil consisting of 20% to 40% organic material is good. Keep the soil 65 F to 80 F, best around 70. Maintain soil moisture of 80%. One researcher removes eggs immediately after they are deposited, counts them, then keeps them on moist cotton until the eggs hatch and the young start to eat. Snails lose substantial weight by laying eggs. Some do not recover. About one-third of the snails will die after the breeding season.

H. pomatia eggs measure about 3mm in diameter and have a calcareous shell and a high yolk content. H. pomatia lays the eggs in July or August, 2 to 8 weeks after mating, in holes dug out in the ground. (Data varies widely on how long after mating snails lay eggs.) The snail puts its head into the hole or may crawl in until only the top of the shell is visible; then it deposits eggs from the genital opening just behind the head. It takes the snail 1 to 2 days to lay 30 to 50 eggs. Occasionally, the snail will lay about a dozen more a few weeks later. The snail covers the hole with a mixture of the slime it excretes and dirt. This slime, which the snail excretes to help it crawl and to help preserve the moisture in its soft body, is glycoprotein similar to eggwhite.

Fully-developed baby H. pomatia snails hatch about 3 to 4 weeks after the eggs are laid, depending on temperature and humidity. Birds, insects, mice, toads and other predators take a heavy toll on the young snails. The snails eat and grow until the weather turns cold. They then dig a deep hole, sometimes as deep as 1 foot, and seal themselves inside their shell and hibernate for the winter. This is a response to both decreasing temperature and shorter hours of daylight. When the ground warms up in spring, the snail emerges and goes on a binge of replacing lost moisture and eating.

H. aspersa eggs are white, spherical, about 3mm in diameter and are laid 5 days to 3 weeks after mating. (Data varies widely due to differences in climate and regional variations in the snails' habitats.) H. aspersa lays an average of 85 eggs in a nest that is 1- to 1 1/2-inches deep. Data varies from 30 to over 120 eggs, but high figures may be from when more than one snail lays eggs in the same nest.

In warm, damp climates, H. aspersa may lay eggs as often as once a month from February through October, depending on the weather and region. Mating and egg-laying begin when there are at least 8 hours of daylight and continue until days begin to get shorter. In the United States, longer hours of sunlight that occur when temperatures are still too cold will affect this schedule, but increasing hours of daylight still stimulate egg laying. If warm enough, the eggs hatch in about 2 weeks, or in 4 weeks if cooler. It takes the baby snails several more days to break out of the sealed nest and climb to the surface. In a climate similar to southern California's, H. aspersa matures in about 2 years. In central Italy, H. aspersa hatches and emerges from the soil almost exclusively in the autumn. If well fed and not overcrowded, those snails that hatch at the start of the season will reach adult size and form a lip at the edge of their shell by the following June. If you manipulate the environment to get more early hatchlings, the size and number of snails that mature the following year will increase. In South Africa, some H. aspersa mature in 10 months, and under ideal conditions in a laboratory, some have matured in 6 to 8 months. Most of H. aspersa's reproductive activity takes place in the second year of its life.

By contrast, one giant African snail, Achatina fulica, lays 100 to 400 elliptical eggs that each measure about 5mm long. Each snail may lay several batches of eggs each year, usually in the wet season. They may lay eggs in holes in the ground like H. pomatia, or lay eggs on the surface of a rocky soil, in organic matter, or at the base of plants. In 10 to 30 days, the eggs hatch releasing snails about 4mm long. These snails grow up to 10mm per month. After 6 months, the Achatina fulica is about 35mm long and may already be sexually mature. Sexual maturity takes 6 to 16 months, depending on weather and the availability of calcium. This snail lives 5 or 6 years, sometimes as many as 9 years.

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Growth

Within the same snail population and under the same conditions, some snails will grow faster than others. Some will take twice as long to mature. This may help the species survive bad weather, etc., in the wild. However, a snail farmer should obviously select and keep the largest and fastest maturing snails for breeding stock. Sell the smaller snails. By selecting only the largest, the average size of the snail may increase significantly in only a couple of generations. Most of the differences in growth are probably due to environmental factors including stocking density. However, to whatever extent these differences are genetic, you might as well breed large, fast-growing snails instead of small, slower-growing ones.

Several factors can greatly influence the growth of snails including: population density; stress [snails are sensitive to noise, light, vibration, unsanitary conditions, irregular feedings, being touched, etc.]; feed; temperature and moisture; and the breeding technology used.

H. aspersa requires at least 3% to 4% calcium in the soil (or another source of calcium) for good growth. Most snails need more calcium in the soil than H. aspersa. Low calcium intake will slow the growth rate and cause the shell to be thinner. Calcium may be set out in a feeding dish or trough so the snails can eat it at will. Food is only one calcium source. Snails may eat paint or attack walls of buildings seeking calcium, and they also will eat dirt.

A newborn's shell size depends on the egg size since the shell develops from the egg's surface membrane. As the snail grows, the shell is added onto in increments. Eventually the shell will develop a flare or reinforcing lip at its opening. This shows that the snail is now mature; there will be no further shell growth. Growth is measured by shell size, since a snail's body weight varies and fluctuates, even in 100% humidity. The growth rate varies considerably between individuals in each population group. Adult size, which is related to the growth rate, also varies, thus the fastest growers are usually the largest snails. Eggs from larger, healthier snails also tend to grow faster and thus larger.

Dryness inhibits growth and even stops activity. When it becomes too hot and dry in summer, the snail becomes inactive, seals its shell and estivates (becomes dormant) until cooler, moister weather returns. Some snails estivate in groups on tree trunks, posts, or walls. They seal themselves to the surface thus sealing up the shell opening.

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Farming snails

Successful snail culture requires the correct equipment and supplies, including: snail pens or enclosures; devices for measuring humidity (hygrometer), temperature (thermometer), soil moisture, and light (in foot candles); a weight scale and an instrument to measure snail size; a kit for testing soil contents; and a magnifying glass to see the eggs. You also may need equipment to control the climate (temperature and humidity), to regulate water (e.g., a sprinkler system to keep the snails moist and a drainage system), to provide light and shade, and to kill or keep out pests and predators. Some horticultural systems such as artificial lighting systems and water sprinklers may be adapted for snail culture. You will have better results if you use snails of the same kind and generation. Some recommend putting the hatchlings in another pen.

Four Systems: Snail farms may be outdoors; in buildings with a controlled climate; or in closed systems such as plastic tunnel houses or "greenhouses." In addition, snails may breed and hatch inside in a controlled environment and then (after 6 to 8 weeks) may be placed in outside pens to mature.

Climate: A mild climate (59-75 F) with high humidity (75% to 95%) is best for snail farming, though most varieties can stand a wider range of temperatures. The optimal temperature is 70 F for many varieties. When the temperature falls below 45 F, snails hibernate. Under 54 F the snails are inactive, and under 50 F, all growth stops. When the temperature rises much above 80 F or conditions become too dry, snails estivate. Wind is bad for snails because it speeds up moisture loss, and snails must retain moisture.

Moisture: Snails need damp, not wet, environments. Although snails need moisture, you must drain wet or waterlogged soil to make it suitable for them. Similarly, rainwater must run off promptly. Snails breathe air and may drown in overly wet surroundings. A soil moisture content of 80% of capacity is favorable. In the hours of darkness, air humidity over 80% will promote good snail activity and growth.

Ninety-nine percent of snail activity, including feeding, occurs in the cool, dark nighttime, with peak activity taking place 2 to 3 hours after darkness begins. The cooler temperature stimulates activity, and the nighttime dew helps the snail move easily. They hide in sheltered places during most of the day. If necessary, use misting sprayers, like those used for plant propagation, in dry climates to maintain adequate humidity and moisture levels.

Soil: Use a good medium soil that has neither a lot of sand nor too much clay. Snails are unable to dig into hard, dry clay. Soils with too much sand do not contain enough water. Soil that contains 20% to 40% organic matter is good. The soil should be similar to that of a garden in which green, leafy vegetables thrive. If your snail farm contains plants, keep them wet and properly care for them. Regularly remove any weeds. Neutralize soil that is too acidic with lime to make it suitable (at about pH 7). Besides the pH value of the soil, calcium must be available either from the soil or another readily available source, since snail shells are 97% to 98% calcium carbonate. If in doubt, you can add a little ground limestone. One researcher treats the soil with polyacrylamide at the rate of 12.5cc of a 160-g M.A./one preparation in 250cc of water per kilogram of dry soil. This stabilization treatment helps the soil structure resist washing. This allows regular cleaning without destroying the crumb structure of the soil that is beneficial for egg laying.

Snails dig in soil and ingest it. Good soil favors snail growth and provides some of their nutrition. Lack of access to good soil may cause fragile shells even when the snails have well-balanced feed; the snails growth may lag far behind the growth of other snails on good soil. Snails will often eat feed, then go eat dirt. Sometimes, they will eat only one or the other. This may be one reason that you should not crowd too many snails into too small a pen. The soil, unless frequently changed, will become fouled with mucus and droppings. Chemical changes also may occur in the soil. A mixture of peat, clay, compost, CaCO3 at pH 7 makes a very good soil. Leaf mold at pH 7 works almost as well. Organic matter in the soil seems as important as carbonates. Soils that are richest in exchangeable calcium and magnesium stimulate growth best. Usable carbonates and total calcium are important. Calcium may be added to the soil at the rate of 10 pounds per 100 square feet. Calcium may also be set out in a feeding dish or trough so the snails can eat it at will.

Pens and Enclosures

[Note: The U.S. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Standards for Snail-Rearing Facilities were revised March 2001 and are available at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/permits/downloads/snails_containment_guidelines.pdf.]

Enclosures for snails are usually long and thin instead of square. This allows you to walk around (without harming the snails) and reach in the whole pen. The enclosure may be a trough with sides made of wood, block, fiber cement sheets, or galvanized sheet steel. Cover it with screen or netting. The covering will confine the snails and keep out birds and other predators. Fences or walls are usually 2-feet high plus at least 5 inches into the ground. Fencing made of galvanized metal or hard-plastic sheets helps keep out some predators. A cover will protect against heavy rain. Shade (which may be a fine mesh screen) on warm winter days helps keep the snails dormant. Use 5mm mesh or finer for pen screens or fences. Pens containing baby snails will need a finer mesh.

Snails like hiding places, especially during the warm daytime. For example, purchase plastic soil drainage pipes from the local garden center, split them in two lengthwise, and stack one layer one way and the next layer at a right angle. This will provide shelter and will increase by 50% the number of snails you can put in the pen.

A sprinkler system will ensure moisture when needed. Turn it on at sunset. If turned on early in the day, the moisture may drive snails out into hot sunshine. Monitor temperature and humidity using a thermometer and a hygrometer.

Although you can use fencing for the enclosure's sides, the bottom, if not the ground or trays of dirt, must be a surface more solid than screening. A snail placed in a wire-mesh-bottom pen will keep crawling, trying to get off the wires and onto solid, more comfortable ground.

Preventing escapes: In an open pen, curve the top of the fences inward in a half circle to confine the vineyard snail. H. aspersa will escape from such an open pen, so you could use an electric fence to contain them. [The electric fence top has two or more thin wires that are 2 to 4mm apart. Each wire carries the opposite charge of the wire next to it. Use a battery or transformer to supply 4 to 12 volts to the wire. A snail will get a mild shock and retract when it crawls over a wire and touches a second wire.]

Another technique to confine snails is to bend the fence top inward into a sharp "V" shape with about a 20 angle. The snail's shell will hit the bent-back part of the screen before he can reach up and start crawling on it. This blocks him, and the angled screen automatically compensates for the size of the snail.

Another alternative, especially handy for solid wall enclosures, is to attach to the wall a horizontal piece of screen that projects inward several inches over the enclosure. Make the screen with material like nylon monofilament that is moderately stiff and springy yet easily flexible. On the inside edge of the screen, remove the cross fibers until you've created a fringe several inches wide. As the would-be escapee crawls on the underside of the screen and moves out onto the fringe, his weight pulls several individual fibers down. One by one, another fiber gets away from the snail and springs back up out of reach. Eventually the snail is dangling by a thread. He then falls because the surface area is not big enough to crawl on.

Since snails usually will not cross a copper band, another solution is to top the fence with 3-inch-wide (or wider) copper band. You could bend the band so that part of it faces inward and is parallel to the pen floor. If the band is placed too close to the ground, rain may wash soil against the copper and leave a residue that may enable the snail to cross it. Also, be sure to bury the bottom of the fence deep enough into the ground so that the snails don't dig under it.

Pens with gardens: An alternate method is to make a square pen with a 10-foot-square garden in it. Plant about six crops, e.g., nettles and artichokes, inside the pen. The snails choose what they want to eat. If it has not rained, turn sprinklers on for about 15 minutes at dusk, unless the snails are dormant. A disadvantage to this method is that, if the snails are not mature at the end of the year, it is difficult to replant fresh plant crops in the pens.

Plastic tunnels make cheap, easy snail enclosures, but it is difficult to regulate heat and humidity. The tunnel will be 10 to 20 warmer than the outside, and snails become dormant as the temperature climbs above 80 F.

Indoor pens: With snails raised indoors under controlled conditions, reproduction varies according to the geographic origin of the breeding stock. For example, one researcher found that H. aspersa snails from Brittany seem to do better indoors than snails from another region. To breed snails indoors, keep the temperature at 70 F. and the relative humidity at 80% to 90%; some sources say 95%. Another source recommends 75% humidity by day and 95% at night. The Center for Heliciculture once recommended 65-75% humidity during the day and 85-95% at night at 68 F. In any event, avoid humidity higher than 95% (some say 90%) for any length of time. Excessive humidity can kill snails. Optimum temperature and relative humidity depend on several things, including the snail variety and even where breeding stock was gathered. For H. aspersa, the optimum temperature for hatching eggs seems to be 68 F at 100% relative humidity. The second best temperature/humidity combination depends on where the snails came from and results can drop drastically to 0% hatching at 62.6 F and 100% humidity. Err on the side of a few degrees warmer or a small percentage dryer. Do not keep the soil wet when the humidity is maintained at 100%, as the eggs will absorb water, swell up, and burst.

Use fluorescent lights to give artificial daylight. Different snails respond differently to day length. The ratio of light to darkness influences activity, feeding, and mating andegg-laying. Eighteen or more hours of light apparently stimulate H. aspersa growth, while less than 12 hours inhibit it. Some snail species may associates the long hours of light with the start of summer--the peak growing season. Eighteen hours of daylight also appear optimal for breeding (mating and egg laying), but snails will breed in darkness.

Breeding boxes and cages: Snails can be bred in boxes or cages stacked several units high. Use an automatic sprinkler system to provide moisture. Breeding cages should have a feed trough and a water trough. Plastic trays that are a couple of inches deep are adequate; deeper water troughs increase the chance of snails drowning in them. These trays may be set on a bed of small gravel. Fill small plastic pots, e.g., flower pots about 3 inches deep, with sterilized dirt (or a loamy pH neutral soil) and set them in the gravel to give the snails a place to lay their eggs. Remove and replace each pot after the snails lay eggs. (Set one pot inside another so that you can easily lift one out without shifting the gravel.)

After the snails have laid their eggs, put the pots in a nursery where the eggs will hatch. Keep the young snails in the nursery for about 6 weeks. Then move them to a separate pen as young snails do best if kept with other snails of similar size. Eight hours of daylight is optimal for young snails.

The following is an example of starting H. pomatia in boxes: Build wooden boxes measuring 25 by 35cm and 25cm high. Cut a 6cm-diameter hole (to drain excess moisture) in the bottom and cover the hole with plastic screening, well secured. Cover a frame with plastic screening to create the box lid. The lids either must open or be removable. Keep the boxes on shelves so they are easily accessible. Fill the boxes one-third full with loose, uncompacted garden soil baked to kill all organisms (insects, nematodes, bacteria, etc.). [Use soil that does not have fertilizer or chemicals in it.] Partially cover the soil with moss, but leave enough room for the snails to crawl around on the dirt. Sprinkle water on the moss.

Move to boxes (three per box) those snails in the outdoor pen that are starting to make holes in which to lay their eggs. After the snails lay eggs, return them to the outside pen. The soil in the boxes must not dry out. Always keep the moss slightly moist. Too much moisture is dangerous, however, as the eggs may swell up and burst. The eggs hatch in about 25 days, but the baby snails remain in the egg "shells." They then work their way out of the nest for about 10 additional days before they appear on the moss and on the sides of the box. Snails on the wood sides of the box are in danger of drying out and must be carefully removed and put on the moss. Shells are very fragile at this time.

Feed the baby snails tender lettuce leaves (Boston type, but head type is probably just as good.) [This description does not include a water trough, but the authors assume there is one. The snails should have water available.]

Three weeks after the snails appear on the moss, carefully remove the baby snails and put them together in a temporary container. Carefully remove the moss and dirt, watching for any more baby snails. Replace the dirt and moss with fresh (sterilized/baked) dirt and fresh moss. Count and return the snails to the box.

The young snails can be kept over winter in these boxes. Stack the boxes in a cool room protected from frost. The room should never get colder than 32 F nor warmer than 37.4 F. Snails will become active again the following spring when the temperature rises above 41 F. Feed them for 4 weeks. They should now average about 8mm. Move them to a pen, carefully clean and dry the boxes, and prepare the boxes for the new season. H. pomatia matures in 18 months to 4 years.

Mixed system: A variation of the method above is to let the snails lay the eggs in the outdoor pen, then carefully transfer the eggs to the boxes. [The other steps are the same.] In the pen, look for snails that have dug holes and are in them laying eggs. The tip of their shell will be visible. Stick a marker in the ground next to the hole. When the snail is finished and leaves, use a garden trowel to dig up the eggs and move them. This task is difficult. The eggs can be both physically damaged and covered with dirt.

Example: Five stages of snail raising

Some who raise H. aspersa separate the five stages: reproduction, hatching, young, fattening, and final fattening.

In a typical example, the breeding box has concrete sides, soil with earthworms (to cleanse the soil) on the bottom, vegetation, curved tiles to provide shelter, feeders, and a chicken waterer. Mosquito netting or screening covers the top. These breeding boxes may be outside, or you may get better results when the boxes are inside a greenhouse--as long as the greenhouse does not get too hot or too dry. One researcher reported that in outdoor boxes, each breeder snail had about seven young. In greenhouses, each breeder snail had about 9 to 12 young. The researcher felt that under better weather conditions than those he had that year, each adult breeder snail would have produced 15 young snails.

Fattening pens may be outside or in a greenhouse. High summer temperatures and insufficient moisture cause dwarfing and malformations of some snails. This is more a problem inside greenhouses if the sun overheats the building. A sprinkler system (e.g., a horticultural system or common lawn sprinklers) can supply moisture. Make sure excess water can drain.

Fattening pens may contain 2-foot by 3-foot pieces (or other convenient size) of heavy plastic sheets, hung from boards resting on a rack that lets the tips of the plastic sheets just touch the ground. The plastic sheets are about 4 inches apart. The sheets give the snails a resting and hiding place. Feeders may be located on the rack that supports the plastic sheets.

Put a layer of coarse sand and topsoil with earthworms on the fattening pen's bottom. The worms help clean up the snail droppings.

You can put snails that hatched the previous summer in a chilled room for hibernation over winter. Then, about the 1st of April, (adjusted for your local climate), move them to the final fattening pen. If you have several fattening pens, put the smaller snails in one, medium in another, large in another. Do not exceed one-third pound of H. aspersa snails per square foot of pen. Since snails lose weight when they estivate in summer, some growers do not stock pens by weight but by count. For H. aspersa, 10 to 12 snails per square foot is about the maximum.

Breeding pens can be set up just like the fattening pens or the fattening pens can be used as breeding pens after you harvest the mature snails. Harvest some snails and leave some to breed.

Cannibalism by Hatchlings

The first snails to hatch eat the shells of their eggs. This gives them needed calcium for their shells. They may then begin eating unhatched eggs. If the snail eggs are kept at the optimum temperature, 68 F (for some varieties), and if none of the eggs lose moisture, most eggs will hatch within 1 to 3 days of each other. Cannibalism also will be low. If hatching extends over a longer period, cannibalism may increase. Some eggs eaten are eggs that were not fertile or did not develop properly, but sometimes, properly developing embryos might be eaten. A high density of "clutches" of egg masses increases the rate of cannibalism, as other nearby egg masses are more likely to be found and eaten. Snail egg has 12 to 20 times the protein of salad. The protein helps the baby snails start developing quickly and be healthier. Snail egg is an excellent starter food for newly hatched snails, but they tend to only eat eggs of their own species.

Gathering snails

Besides farming snails, it is possible to gather them free from artichoke, kiwifruit, avocado, and citrus growers in some areas. The growers might pick the snails for you for a fee. In citrus groves where copper bands have been placed around the tree trunks, the snails will crawl up the tree to feed on the leaves. They will stop when they come to the copper band and will remain there for days. The snails gathered just below the band are easy to pick off.

Snails gathered in the wild to stock a snail farm may have a high mortality rate as they adjust to the new conditions. These snails may have consumed poison baits, agricultural chemicals, or poisonous plants (e.g., nightshade); therefore, you should not immediately use them. Put them in a pen and feed them for at least 3 days to purge their system of any toxins and to give them a chance to die if they have consumed a lethal dose. If they are still healthy after 3 or 4 days, they should be O.K.. Withhold all food, except water, for the last 1 to 2 days.

Feeding

Feeding season is April through October, (or may vary with the local climate), with a "rest period" during the summer. Do not place food in one small clump so that there is not enough room for all the snails to get to it. Snails eat solid food by rasping it away with their tongues. Feeding activity depends on the weather, and snails may not necessarily feed every day. Evening irrigation in dry weather may encourage feeding since the moisture makes it easier for the snails to move about.

Put the breeding snails in the breeding pens in April or early May. Feed until mid June when mating begins and the snails stop feeding. Snails resume eating after they lay eggs. Once snails have laid their eggs, you can remove the adult snails. This leaves more food and less crowding for the hatchlings.

Snails of the same species collected from different regions may have different food preferences. Some foods that snails eat are: Alyssum, fruit and leaves of apple, apricot, artichoke (a favorite), aster, barley, beans, bindweed, California boxwood, almost any cabbage variety, camomile, carnation, carrot, cauliflower, celeriac (root celery), celery, ripe cherries, chive, citrus, clover, cress, cucumbers (a favorite snail food), dandelion, elder, henbane, hibiscus, hollyhock, kale, larkspur, leek, lettuce (liked, and makes good snails), lily, magnolia, mountain ash, mulberry, mums, nasturtium, nettle, nightshade berries, oats, onion greens, pansy, parsley, peach, ripe pears, peas, petunia, phlox, plum, potatoes (raw or cooked), pumpkins, radish, rape, rose, sorrel, spinach, sweet pea, thistle, thornapple, tomatoes (well liked), turnip,wheat, yarrow, zinnia. They will eat sweet lupines, but will reject bitter lupines and other plants with high quinolizidine alkaloids. Snails also avoid plants that produce other defensive chemicals, defensive stem hairs, etc.

Snails usually prefer juicy leaves and vegetables over dry ones. If you feed snails vegetable trimmings, damaged fruit, and cooked potatoes, promptly remove uneaten food as it will quickly spoil. You may supply bran that is wet or sprinkle dry bran over leafy vegetables. The diet may consist of 20% wheat bran while 80% is fruit and vegetable material. Some growers use oats, corn meal, soybean meal, or chicken mash. Laying mash provides calcium, as does crushed oyster shells. Snails also may eat materials such as cardboard (but do not purposely feed it to them); they can eat through shipping cartons and escape. Snails may sometimes eat, within a 24-hour period, food equal to 10%, and occasionally as much as 20%, of their body weight. Active snails deprived of food will lose more than one-third of their weight before they starve to death--a process that takes 8 to 12 weeks. Estivating snails can survive much longer.

Supply calcium at least once a week if it is not available in the soil. It should not contain harmful salts or be so alkaline as to burn the snails. Mix calcium with wet bran or mashed potatoes and serve on a pan; this will keep any leftover food from rotting on the ground.

Some researchers use chicken mash for feed. You can cut a plastic pipe in half lengthwise to make two troughs which can be used as feeders for mash. Mix laying mash (used for egg-producing hens) into the feed to provide calcium for the snails' shells. Commercial chicken feeding mash is around 16% to 17% protein, from fish meal and meat meal, making it good for growing snails. Supplying mash to hatchlings might reduce cannibalism. Two feeds that snails like and that promote good growth are: (A) broiler finisher mash consisting of 7% broiler concentrate, 58% corn, 16% soya, 18% sorghum, 7 % limestone flour (40% Ca); and (B) chicken feed (pellets) for layers consisting of 5% layer concentrate, 10%, corn, 15% soya, 20% sorghum, 44% barley, 6% limestone flour (40%Ca).

Pellets are fine for larger snails, but mash is better for younger ones. Partially crush pellets if you feed them to young snails. Snails do not grow well if rabbit pellets are their primary diet. Snails show a distinct preference for moist feed. Ensure easy access to enough water if you feed snails dry mash.

Be sure to frequently clean the feed and water dishes. The amount of feed a snail eats depends very much on air humidity and on the availability of drinking water. You can serve clean drinking water in a shallow container to reduce the risk of the snail drowning. Some types of chicken waterers may be suitable. Other factors (e.g., temperature, light intensity, food preferences versus food supplied, etc.) also affect feeding. A compromise, until you find the optimum feed, is to feed half green vegetable material and half chicken feed/grain/animal protein.

Young H. aspersa readily eats milk powder. Its rapid rate of assimilation promotes rapid growth.

Diseases and Pests

Basic common sense hygiene may prevent the spread of disease or otherwise improve the health and growth rate of snails. For example, remove and replace food daily to prevent spoilage. Earthworms added to the soil will help keep the pen clean.

Parasites, nematodes, trematodes, fungi, and microarthropods may attack snails, and such problems can spread rapidly when snail populations are dense. The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes intestinal infections that can spread rapidly in a crowded snail pen.

Watch for predators such as: rats, mice, moles, skunks, weasels, birds, frogs and toads, lizards, walking insects (e.g., some beetle and cricket varieties), some types of flies, centipedes, and even certain cannibalistic snail varieties (such as Strangesta capillacea).

Population Density

Population density also affects successful snail production. Pens should contain no more than six to eight fair-sized snails per square foot, or about four large H. pomatias; or figure one kilogram per square meter (about .2 pounds of snail per square foot), which automatically compensates for the size of the snails. If you want them to breed, best results will occur with not more than eight snails per square meter (.8 snails per square foot). Some sources say that, for H. pomatia to breed, .2 to .4 snails per square foot is the maximum.

Snails tend not to breed when packed too densely or when the slime in the pen accumulates too much. The slime apparently works like a pheromone and suppresses reproduction. On the other hand, snails in groups of about 100 seem to breed better than when only a few snails are confined together. Perhaps they have more potential mates from which to choose. Snails in a densely populated area grow more slowly even when food is abundant, and they also have a higher mortality rate. These snails then become smaller adults who lay fewer clutches of eggs, have fewer eggs per clutch, and the eggs have a lower hatch rate. Smaller adult snails sell for less. Dwarfing is quite common in snail farming and is attributable mainly to rearing conditions rather than heredity factors. Crowding snails is false economy. A recommended rate for H. aspersa is not more than one-third pound per square foot of soil surface for snails that weigh more than 1 gram and not more than .2 pound per square foot for snails that weigh less. (One ounce is about 28 grams.)

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Shipping

Select only active snails for canning, processing or shipping. An inactive snail may be sick or dying. It is best to ship live snails (laws permitting) while dormant, between late Fall and early March, although it is then difficult to be sure they are "active." Inspect each snail to be sure it looks healthy. Put them in a container packed in ice to keep the temperature near (but not below) freezing to keep the snails dormant. When the weather warms up and the snails are active, they cannot be packed so closely in cartons. As live animals, you must handle them humanely. Some sources say not to ship live snails (H. pomatia) after June begins, as they no longer have good flavor. H. aspersa has a fragile shell until it matures and forms a lip, so immature snails are not commercially desirable.

Snails tend not to eat during shipping. Do not provide food, as it will spoil and may make the snails sick or die. Purge the snails' digestive tracts to ensure that they are clear of grit or previously-eaten food. Three or 4 days before transporting, put the snails in a separate container without dirt or other kinds of food. Feed the snails cornmeal or bran for several days. As it passes through the digestive tract, it will clean out previously-eaten food. Stop feeding, but continue to supply water. Clean the pens and snails several times a day to keep out mucus and fecal matter.

Shipping cartons must have air holes, preferably screened to prevent escape or injury to the snails. Be careful not to injure snails with wires or staples when closing the carton. Also remember, snails can push upward against a barrier with a force equal to several times their own weight. Enough snails may cause the carton lids to pop off and may even loosen nails.

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Turning Snails into Escargot

Snails are mature when a lip forms at the opening of their shell. Before they mature, their shells are more easily broken, making them undesirable. For H. aspersa, commercial weight is 8 grams or larger.

The nutrient composition of raw snails (per 100 grams of edible portion), according to information from the nutrient databank of France, is:

Energy (kcal): 80.5
Water (g): 79
Protein (g): 16
Available carbohydrates (g): 2
Fibres (g): 0
Fat (g): 1
Magnesium (mg): 250
Calcium (mg): 170
Iron (mg): 3.5
Vitamin C (mg): 0

Snails are washed, steamed, shelled, then washed in a vinegar- (or lemon juice) and water-solution before they are canned. Producing a quality canned product is somewhat tricky, and you must take care to prevent food poisoning. To prepare live snails for cooking, remove the membrane, if any, over the shell opening. Soak the snails in enough water to cover them. (Add 1/2-cup salt or 1/4-cup vinegar for every 50 snails.) Mucus will turn the water white. Change the water several times during the 3- to 4-hour soaking. Rinse several times or under running water until no mucus remains. Put snails in cold water and bring to a boil. Boil about eight minutes, then drain and plunge the snails into cold water. Drain. With a needle or small fork, pick the snails out of their shells. Remove the intestine and cut off all black parts. (Some cooks also cut off the head, tail, and all "cartilage or gristle.") Prepare according to your recipe. An alternate method is: Wash the snails well in clear water. Drop into boiling salt water (to which you may add lemon juice and/or herbs), and cook--about 10-15 minutes--until you can easily remove the snails from their shells. Drain and rinse.

Prepare the giant African snail by breaking away the shell, then cutting the foot away from the rest of the body. The traditional way to remove the slime is to rub wood ashes on the snail, then wash the snail (or part of the snail) under running water, then repeat until no slime remains. You may substitute substances like flour (to which you may add salt and vinegar) for ashes. Cut up the foot into convenient-sized pieces. [You may dehydrate the leftover visceral mass, crush it up with the shell, and mix it in poultry feed to make up 10% of your snail feed.] Another source says put the live snails in boiling water for 30 minutes to kill them and to make removal from the shell easy. During boiling, the snails will release a large quantity of mucus. Data varies, but 28% to 46% of the live weight of Achatina is shell.

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Restrictions and Regulations

The same snails that some people raise or gather as food also are agricultural pests that cause considerable crop damage. Introduced slug and snail varieties tend to be worse pests than native species, probably due in part to the lack of natural controls. Snail pests attack crops ranging from leafy vegetables to fruits that grow near the ground, such as strawberries and tomatoes, to citrus fruits high up on trees.

The Federal Plant Pest Act defines a plant pest as "any living stage (including active and dormant forms) of insects, mites, nematodes, slugs, snails, protozoa, or other invertebrate animals, bacteria, fungi, other parasitic plants or reproductive parts thereof; viruses; or any organisms similar to or allied with any of the foregoing; or any infectious substances, which can directly or indirectly injure or cause disease or damage in or to any plants or parts thereof, or any processed, manufactured, or other products of plants..." The Animal Plant Health and Inspection Service (APHIS) categorizes giant African snails as a "quarantine significant plant pest." The United States does not allow live giant African snails into the country under any circumstances. It is illegal to own or to possess them. APHIS vigorously enforces this regulation and destroys or returns these snails to their country of origin. For more information, see APHIS Permits: Snails and Slugs (http://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/permits/index.shtml), or the National Invasive Species Information Center Species Profile: Giant African Snail (http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/animals/africansnail.shtml).

Since large infestations of snails can do devastating damage, many states have quarantines against nursery products, and other products, from infested states. Further, it is illegal to import snails (or slugs) into the U.S. without permission from the Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) Division, Animal Plant Health and Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. For more information, contact Plant Pest Evaluations Toll Free Telephone: 866-524-5421. APHIS also oversees interstate transportation of snails. To import snails into the U.S. and/or move them interstate, download application or apply on-line for an APHIS PPQ 526 Plant Pest Permit at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/permits/ppq_epermits.shtml. To access the on-line permitting system, create a level 2 eAuthentication account at https://eauth.sc.egov.usda.gov/eAuth/selfRegistration/selfRegLevel2Step1.jsp. To complete the level 2 eAuthentication process, contact your nearest local registration authority, which can be found at http://offices.sc.egov.usda.gov/locator/app.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the canning of low-acid foods such as snails. According to FDA, "establishments engaged in the manufacture of Low-acid or Acidified Canned Foods (LACF) offered for interstate commerce in the United States are required. . .to register their facility. . .and file scheduled processes for their products with" the FDA. This does not refer to fresh products. For appropriate forms, contact: LACF Registration Coordinator, HFS-618, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 200 C Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20204. Telephone: (202) 205-5282. FAX: (202) 205-4758 or (202) 205-4128.

Improper canning of low-acid meats, e.g., snails, involves a risk of botulism. When canning snails for home consumption, carefully follow canning instructions for low-acid meats to prevent food poisoning.

State laws also may apply to imports into certain states and to raising snails in a given state. Your state also may want to inspect and approve your facility. Thus anyone who plans to raise snails also should check with their State's Agriculture Department.

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U.S. Imports and Exports

General information on importing agricultural products to the U.S. is available at:


U.S. Import and Export Statistics

U.S. Census
Import/Export Statistics (http://www.census.gov/econ/overview/index.html#inttrade)
Call (301) 457-2242. Provide the 10-digit subject code. There is a fee if the information is faxed to you. Mailed printouts are free. http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/reference/codes/sitc/sitc.txt

U.S. Department of Commerce, Commerce Department Online Services
http://www.commerce.gov/index.htm
* STAT-USA (or go to http://www.stat-usa.gov/)
Select GLOBUS and NTDB

The United States International Trade Commission
http://dataweb.usitc.gov
Select "Interactive Tariff and Trade DataWeb Login"
Create an account. Login in.
Create a New Query/Report. When you create this report, use the "Create a New Commodity List" button in the "Select All Commodities or a Pre-Defined List" section to develop a report that calculates statistics for snails.
The HTS codes are:
0307.60.0000: SNAILS, OTHER THAN SEA SNAILS, LIVE, FRESH, CHILLED, FROZEN, DRIED, SALTED OR IN BRINE
1605.90.5500: SNAILS, OTHER THAN SEA SNAILS, PREPARED OR PRESERVED
The 5-digit SITC code is:
01293 - SNAILS, EXCEPT SEA SNAILS, FRESH CHILLED...

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Contacts

Istituto Internazionale di Elicicoltura
[International Institute of Heliciculture]
Via Vittorio Emanuele, 55
12062 CHERASCO (CN) Italy
Tel: 39 0172 48.93.82/48.84.78
FAX: 39 0172 48.92.18
E-mail: ist.elicicoltura@tin.it
URL: http://www.lumache-elici.com/en/

Instituto Internacional De Helicicultura
Cl. Sant Salvador D`Horta, 42 17003-Girona
FAX: 972.20.95.35
Phone: 657.87.11.12
URL: http://www.helicicultura.com/Castellano.htm

Plant Pest Evaluations
Toll free: 866-524-5421
Information on Plant Pest Permits: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/permits/index.shtml
Provides information on U.S. regulations for the raising, handling, import or export of snails.

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References

Electronic References

There are few online documents that focus specifically on snail production. Many documents focus on eradication efforts. However, some information found at these sites also can be useful for rearing snails.

The sites below contain general information, images, and/or diagrams. To locate additional online resources, try the automated searches at the end of this section.

Conduct Automated Searches

Conduct an automated, real-time, search to locate current resources on this topic. When you select one of the automated search strategies below, your browser will access the Web site or database, perform a search of that site using the search terms listed, and return the results of the search. [Select your browser's Back Button to return to this publication.]

Browse: The National Agricultural Library's (NAL) AGRICOLA database by subject heading. [Information about AGRICOLA, http://agricola.nal.usda.gov/help/aboutagricola.html.] AGRICOLA is organized into two bibliographic data sets. The Catalog includes books, serials, audiovisuals, and other resources. The Article Citation Database covers journal articles, book chapters, short reports, and reprints. Select a link below to browse for the terms: helix or snail

Browse the AGRICOLA Citation Database by Subject Heading for the terms:

helix
or
snail

Browse the AGRICOLA Subject Catalog by Subject Heading for the terms:

helix
or
snail

Search the Internet for key phrases related to snail farming:

"snail farming" OR "snail culture" OR "heliciculture" OR "helicicultura" OR "elicicoltura"

Bibliography

These references are from searches of several major databases including NAL's AGRICOLA database. When available, abstracts are provided. Citations for NAL-owned publications include an NAL call number. Information about NAL's lending policies is available from the Document Delivery Services Branch

  1. Assessment of the molluscicidal activity of a copper complex compound.
    Davis, P.R.; van Schagen, J.J.; Widmer, M.A.; Craven, T.J.; Slug and snail pests in agriculture. Proceedings of a Symposium, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK, 24-26 September 1996. 1996, 53-62. Includes references.
    (Language: English)

  2. "At a snail's pace."
    Malouf, Mary Brown. Dallas Observer, February 8-14, 1996, pp. 22-27.

  3. ["Automation of the fattening of escargots."] "Automatisatie van de vetmesting van escargots."
    De Grisse, J., and A. De Grisse. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent (Belgium) 56, no.1 (1991): 83-96. Includes references.
    (Language: Dutch; summaries in English.)
    Abstract: This reference describes an automated system in which snails are placed in receptacles that hang from rails. The holder can easily be moved from one location to another to perform different tasks, e.g., feeding or cleaning.

  4. ["Battery for snail fattening (Helix aspersa Mueller) assigned to professional breeding."] "Een vetmestingsbatterij voor consumptieslakken (Helix aspersa Mueller), bestemd voor de professionele slakkenkweek."
    De Grisse, A. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen RijksuniversiteitGent (Belgium) 55 (1990): 127-138. Includes references and illustrations.

  5. Biochemical composition of Helix snails: influence of genetic and physiological factors.
    Gomot, A. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 1998, 64: no. 2, 173-181. Includes references.
    (Language: English)

  6. NAL Call No.: SH236 B65 no. 5
    [Biology and Production of Escargots.] Biologia E Cultivo De Escargots.
    Lobao, Vera Lucia; Barros, Helenice Pereira; and Myriam Tereza Horikawa. Sao Paulo: Governo do Estado de Sao Paulo, Secretaria da Agricultura, Coordenadoria da Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Institute de Pesca, [1988]. 12 pp. Includes illustrations.

  7. ["Bionomy, importance and protection of Helix pomatia.] Bionomia, vyznam a ochrana druhu Helix pomatia."
    Lucivjanska, V. The First Czecho Slovak Seminar on Snail culture. Nitra (CSFR). May 17, 1991. Ustav Vedeckotechnickych Informacii pre Polnohospodarstvo, Nitra (CSFR). [Collection of Papers. The First Czecho-Slovak Seminar on Snail Culture.] Zbornik Referatov. Prvy Celostatny Seminar Chov Slimakov. Nitra. Ustav Vedeckotechnickych Informacii pre Polnohospodarstvo. 1990. pp. 7-24. Includes references and 13 graphs.

  8. ["Boxes for rearing the very young Helix aspersa Mueller, the edible snail."] "Kweekdozen voor infantielen van de consumptieslak Helix aspersa Mueller."
    De Grisse, A. Mededelingen van de Faculteit-Landbouwwetenschappen Rijksuniversiteit Gent (Belgium) 55 (1990): 47-57. Includes references and illustrations.

  9. Calcium provision to eggs in two populations of Helix aspersa by parents fed a diet high in lead.
    Beeby, A.; Richmond, L. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 2001, 67: no. 1, 1-6. Includes references.
    (Language: English)

  10. "California snail ranchers appear on the right track."
    Stein, Mark A. Arizona Republic, final edition, April 1, 1987, Food Section, p. FD13.

  11. NAL Call No.: QH301.C63
    "'Central arousal' and sexual responsiveness in the snail, Helix aspersa."
    Adamo, Shelley A., and Ronald Chase. Behavioral Neural Biology. 55 (1991): 194-213.

  12. Changes in the reproductive system of the snail Helix aspersa caused by mucus from the love dart.
    Koene, J.M.; Chase, C. Journal of Experimental Biology. 1998, 201: 15, 2313-2319. Includes references.
    (Language: English)

  13. ["Characterization of the edible snail market [in Belgium]."] "Caracterisation du marche des escargots."
    Gicart, I. Agricontact (Belgium). Courrier du Ministere de l' Agriculture, No. 260 (April 1994), pp. 11-13.

  14. NAL Call No.: SF597.S6M37
    [Complete Guide to the Raising of Snails.] Guida Completa All'allevamento Delle Chiocciole.
    Marasco, Francesco; and Corrado Murciano. Milano: G. De Vecchi, 1981. 124 pp. Includes references, photos and illustrations.

  15. Consumption of three garden plants in west Texas by Helix aspersa.
    Roberson, M.; Moorhead, D.L. Southwestern Naturalist. 1999, 44: 1, 90-93. Includes references.
    (Language: English)

  16. NAL Call No.: 49-F84
    ["Contribution to production of 'Petit-gris' snails 'Helix aspersa Muller'. I. Reproduction and hatching of juveniles under controlled thermo-hygrometric conditions."] "Contribution a l'elevage de l'escargot Petit-Gris: Helix aspersa Muller (Mollusque gasteropode Pulmone Stylommatophore). I. Reproduction et eclosion des jeunes, en batiment et en conditions thermo-hygrometriques controlees."
    Daguzan, J. Annales de Zootechnie [Paris: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique] 30, no. 2 (1981): 249-272. Includes references, tables, and illustrations.
    (Language: French; summary in English.)

  17. NAL Call No.: 49-F84
    ["Contribution to production of 'Petit-gris' snails (Helix aspersa Muller). II. Development of juveniles from hatching until 12 weeks of age under controlled housing and rearing conditions France."] "Contribution a l'elevage de l'escargot Petit-gris: Helix aspersa Muller (mollusque gasteropode pulmone stylommatophore). II. Evolution de la population juvenile de l'eclosion a l'age de 12 semaines, en batiment et en conditions d'elevage controlees."
    Daguzan, J. and H. Rouet. Annales de Zootechnie [Paris: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique] 31, no.2 (1982): 87-110. Includes bibliography, tables, and illustrations.
    (Language: French; summary in English.)

  18. ["Contribution to snail culture with the system of vertical planes."] "Aportacion a la cria de helicidos con el sistema de planos verticales."
    Cuellar Cuellar, R., and J.C. Fontanilles Perez. Zootechnia (Spain) 34 (October-December 1985): 227-229. Includes illustrations and 13 references.
    (Language: Spanish; summaries in English.)

  19. NAL Call No.: SF597.S6S52
    "A contribution to the study of the beneficial effects of soil on the growth of Helix aspersa."
    Gomot, A.; Bruckert, S.; Gomot, L.; and J. C. Combe. Snail Farming Research: A Collection of Papers Published in Conjunction with the First International Award for Research on Snail Farming by The Italian Snail Farmers Association. [Scientific Committee of the Italian Snail Farmers Association, trans. and ed.] Cherasco, Italy: Associazione Nazionale Elicicoltori, 1986. pp. 76-83. Includes references.

  20. NAL Call No.: SF597.S6S52
    "Contribution to the study of the effect of stocking density in the culture of Helix aspersa (Muller)."
    Stephanou, D. Snail Farming Research: A Collection of Papers Published in Conjunction with the First International Award for Research on Snail Farming by The Italian Snail Farmers Association. Cherasco, Italy: Associazione Nazionale Eicicoltori, 1986. pp. 27-33. Includes references.

  21. ["Contribution to the study of the snail breeding. Trial of the rearing in a conditionned building."] "Contribution a l' etude de l' heliciculture. Essai d' elevage en batiment conditionne."
    Ksontini, L. These (Doctor of Veterinary Medicine). Sidi Thabet (Tunisia): Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire, 1993. 215 pp.
    (Language: French; summary in English.)

  22. NAL Call No.: SB599.B73
    Contributions of genetics of snail farming and conservation.
    De Matos, R. M. A. In the series analytic: Slugs and Snails in World Agriculture. Proceedings of a Symposium Organized by the British Crop Protection Council with the Support of the Malacological Society of London, April 10-12, 1989, University of Surrey, Guildford, England. I. Henderson, ed. British Crop Protection Council Monograph Series, no. 41 (1989): 11-18. Thornton Heath, [England]: British Crop Protection Council, 1989.

  23. NAL Call No.: SF597.S6S52
    "Copper sheet, an effective barrier in the rearing of Helix pomatia (L.)."
    Moens, R.; Gigot, J.; and J. Vase. Snail Farming Research: A Collection of Papers Published in Conjunction with the First International Award for Research on Snail Farming by The Italian Snail Farmers Association. Cherasco, Italy: Associazione Nazionale Eicicoltori, 1986. pp. 23-26. Includes references and illustrations.
    Abstract: Describes equipment for rearing Helix pomatia, particularly barriers such as copper or sheet-metal.

  24. Dart receipt promotes sperm storage in the garden snail Helix aspersa.
    Rogers, D.W.; Chase, R. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 2001, 50: 2, 122-127. Includes references.
    (Language: English)

  25. Dart shooting influences paternal reproductive success in the snail Helix aspersa (Pulmonata, Stylommatophora).
    Landolfa, M.A.; Green, D.M.; Chase, R. Behavioral Ecology. 2001, 12: 6, 773-777.
    (Language: English)

  26. ["Description of the Flemish snail farming method for the edible snail husbandry [minilivestock]"]. "Beschrijving van en resultaten bekomen met de vlaamse kweekmethode voor consumptieslakken."
    Grisse, A. de. Mededelingen-Faculteit-Landbouwkundige-en-Toegepaste-Biologische-Wetenschappen-Universiteit-Gent (Belgium). (1996), 61(1):85-117. ISSN: 0368-9697. [Address: Gent Univ. (Belgium). Faculty of Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences. Dept of Crop Protection]

  27. Determinants of paternity in the garden snail Helix aspersa.
    Rogers, D.W.; Chase, R. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 2002, 52: 4, 289-295.
    (Language: English)

  28. "Different metric traits among three strains of apple snail, Pomaceacanaliculata."
    Fujio, Y.; Kurihara, H.; and E. Brand. Tohoku Journal of Agricultural Research (Japan), 41(March 1991): 61-68. Includes 16 referencs, tables and illustrations.
    (Language: Japanese; summaries in English.)

  29. Direct and correlated responses to individual selection for large adult weight in the edible snail Helix aspersa Muller.
    Dupont-Nivet, M.; Mallard, J.; Bonnet, J.C.; Blanc, J.M. Journal of Experimental Zoology. 2000, 287: 1, 80-85. Includes references.
    (Language: English)

  30. ["Discussion on snail rearing."] "Spytali sme sa za Vas."
    Chov-Slimakov (Slovak Republic) 4, no.3 (May 1993): 7-9.
    (Language: Slovak; summary in English.)
    Abstract: Summary of a seminar held in Sumvald (Czech Republic) on snail culture. Discussions included feeding (vitamin supplements, weight gain, consumption, feeding cycle, diet, nutrition, etc.), population density, reproduction, and the economics of snail farming.

  31. ["Dispersal in the edible snail, Helix pomatia: a test case for present generalizations [dispersal concepts]."] "Dispersion de l' escargot Helix pomatia: etude de cas pour une generalisation [concepts de dispersion]."
    Hansson, L. Acta-Oecologica (France) 12 (1991): 761-769. Includes 20 references.
    (Language: French; summaries in English and French.)
    Abstract: Discusses the effects population change, distribution, structure, and density on helix pomatia. Includes information on its habitat, movement and lifespan. Examples and models are given from Sweden, Scandinavia, and Western Europe.

  32. Dissociation of food-finding and tentacle-lowering, following food-attraction conditioning in the snail, Helix aspersa.
    Ungless, M.A. Behavioural Processes. 2001, 53: 1-2, 97-101. Includes references.
    (Language: English)

  33. ["Document on the breeding of the giant African snail Achatina achatina."] "Note sur l' elevage de l' escargot geant africain: Achatina achatina."
    Zongo, D.; Coulibaly, M.; Diambra, O. H.; and E. Adjiri. Nature et Faune (FAO-PNUE) 6, no. 2 (April-June 1990): 32-44, 62-66.
    (Language: English and French.)

  34. NAL Call No.: SB599.B73
    The economics of commercial domestication of the African giant land snail Archachatina (Calachatina) marginata (Swainson) in Nigeria.
    Olufokunbi, B., Phillips, E.O., Omidiji, J.O., Ogbonna, U.O., Makinde, H.T., and O. J. Apansile. In the series analytic: Slugs and Snails in World Agriculture. Proceedings of a Symposium Organized by the British Crop Protection Council with the Support of the Malacological Society of London, April 10-12, 1989, University of Surrey, Guildford, England. I. Henderson, ed. British Crop Protection Council Monograph Series, no. 41 (1989): 41-88. Thornton Heath, [England]: British Crop Protection Council, 1989.

  35. NAL Call No.: 41.8-C163
    "Edible land snail production under natural climatic conditions in Nova Scotia."
    Lirette, A.; Lewis, J. C.; MacPherson, M. D.; and J. P. MacIntyre. Canadian Journal of Animal Science. 72 (March 1992): 155-159. Includes references.
    (Language: English; summary in French.)

  36. NAL Call No.: S41.E93
    "Edible snails."
    Elmslie, L. J. Evolution of Domesticated Animals. Mason, Ian L., ed. London: Longman, 1984. pp. 432-433. Includes 8 references.

  37. "Effect of courtship and repeated copulation on egg production in the simultaneously hermaphroditic land snail Arianta arbustorum."
    Baur, B; and A. Baur. (Institute of Zoology, University of Basel, Rheinsprung, Basel 4052, Switzerland.) Invertebrate Reproduction and Development 23, no. 3 (1992): 201-206. Includes 31 references.
    Abstract: The results of laboratory studies show that repeated copulation within a reproductive season stimulates egg production while a longer display of coutship behavior had no effect on egg production. Repeated copulation, however, did not improve hatch rate or accelerate egg laying.

  38. NAL Call No.: 10-J822
    "Effect of temperature and photoperiod on growth and reproduction of Helix aspersa var. maxima."
    Jess, S.; Marks, R.J. Journal of Agricultural Science. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. May 1998. v. 130 (pt.3) p. 367-372.

  39. Effect of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd on fitness in snails (Helix aspersa).
    Laskowski, R.; Hopkin, S.P. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 1996, 34: 1, 59-69. Includes references.
    (Language: English)

  40. ["Effects of feeding and breeding environment on the performances and corporeal composition of Helix pomatia, Helix lucorum and Helix aspersa."] "Effectto dell' alimentazione e dell' ambiente di allevamento sulle prestazioni produttive e sulla composizione corporea di Helix pomatia, Helix lucorum e Helix aspersa."
    Bittante, G.; Gallo, L.; and F. Pellizzari. Informatore Agrario (Italy) 44, no. 31 (August 19, 1988): 49-60. Includes references.

  41. NAL Call No.: QL336 A3
    "The effects of temperature and photoperiod on growth and maturation rate of Limicolaria flammea Mueller (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Achatinidae)."
    Egonmwan, R. I. Journal of African Zoology. [Revue de Zoologie Africaine] 105, no. 1 (February 1991): 69-75. Includes 13 references, tables, and illustrations.

  42. Elements of cold hardiness in a littoral population of the land snail Helix aspersa (Gastropoda: Pulmonata).
    Ansart, A.; Vernon, P.; Daguzan, J. Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology. 2002, 172: 7, 619-625.
    (Language: English)

  43. "Enterprising 'ranchers' keep escargots growing."
    Strobel, Bill. San Jose Mercury News, Morning final edition, March 3, 1987, p. 8B.
    Abstract: This short article describes the experiences of snail-ranching business partners in California.

  44. "Escargot to go 'little grays' bring couple a little green."
    Tabor, Gail. The Arizona Republic, Final Chaser edition, March 29, 1993 , p. B1.
    Abstract: This article briefly describes Terry Beckman's snail farming operation and his company, Escargot Express.

  45. Evaluation of the quality of live Helix aspersa snails and the ready-to-eat product. [Hodnoceni jakosti suroviny a vyrobku z hlemyzde Helix aspersa.]
    Stegnerova, H.; Lukesova, D.; Polak, P.; Haringova, L. Veterinarstvi. 1998, 48: 2, 55-57. Includes references.
    (Language: Czech)

  46. Evolution of genetic variability in a population of the edible snail, Helix aspersa Muller, undergoing domestication and short-term selection.
    Dupont-Nivet, M.; Mallard, J.; Bonnet, J.C.; Blanc, J.M. Heredity. 2001, 87: 2, 129-135. Includes references.
    (Language: English)

  47. Evolutionary history of the land snail Helix aspersa in the Western Mediterranean: preliminary results inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.
    Guiller, A.; Coutellec-Vreto, M.A.; Madec, L.; Deunff, J. Molecular Ecology. 2001, 10: 1, 81-87. Includes references.
    (Language: English)

  48. Experimental hybridization between two sub-species of snails (Helix aspersa aspersa and Helix aspersa maxima): consequences for fertility, survival and growth.
    de Vaufleury, A.G.; Borgo, R.; Invertebrate Reproduction and Development. 2001, 40: 2-3, 217-226. Includes references.
    (Language: English)

  49. ["Experimental study of the impact of snail mix feeding on the growth of Helix aspersa aspersa Muller."] "Voederproeven met de consumptieslak Helix aspersa aspersa Mueller."
    De Grisse, A. Mededelingen van de Faculteit-Landbouwwetenschappen Rijksuniversiteit Gent (Belgium) 55, no.1 (1990): 59-71. Includes 12 references, tables, and illustrations.
    (Language: Dutch.)

  50. NAL Call No.: SF597.S6S52
    "Experiments on the nutrition of Helix cincta (Kobelt) and Helix aspersa (Muller)."
    Stephanou, D. Snail Farming Research: A Collection of Papers Published in Conjunction with the First International Award for Research on Snail Farming by The Italian Snail Farmers Association. [Scientific Committee of the Italian Snail Farmers Association, trans. and ed.] Cherasco, Italy: Associazione Nazionale Elicicoltori, 1986. pp. 42-49. Includes references. [Note: Article contains feed composition tables.]

  51. NAL Call No.: QL55.A1L3
    "Factors affecting the food intake, growth and protein utilization in the Helix aspersa snail. Protein content of the diet and animal age."
    Sanz-Sampelayo, M.R.; Fonolla, J.; and F. G. Extremera. Laboratory Animals [London: Royal Society of Medicine Services] 25, no. 4 (October 1991): 291-298. Includes references.
    Abstract: Food intake, growth and protein utilization were studied in the Helix aspersa snail by means of a nutritional balance experiment. This was designed in a 5 X 11 factorial arrangement involving 5 diets of different protein content (10.0, 12.5, 15.0, 17.5 and 20.0%) and 11 animal ages (ranging over 15 to 180 days of age). Dietary protein content and animal age determined food intake and protein utilization. The variations of dry matter and protein intake rates, growth rates, growth efficiency factors and protein retention rates, depending on dietary protein content or animal age were in agreement with what happens in other animals. These results suggest that there is no need to use diets with more than 17.5% of crude protein in these animals. XAU: Animal Estacion Experimental del Zaidin (CSIC), Granada, Spain.

  52. NAL Call No.: SF597.S6F3 v.1
    Farming Snails: Learning about Snails, Building a Pen, Food and Shelter Plants.
    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Better Farming Series no. 33. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1986. 58 pp. Includes illustrations.

  53. NAL Call No.: SF597.S6F3 v.2
    Farming Snails: Choosing Snails, Care and Harvesting, Further Improvement.
    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Better Farming Series no. 34. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1986. 36pp. Includes illustrations.

  54. Feeding behaviour of juvenile snails (Helix pomatia) to four plant species grown at elevated atmospheric CO2.
    Ledergerber, S.; Leadley, P.W.; Stocklin, J.; Baur,B. Acta Oecologica. 1998, 19: 1, 89-95. Includes references.
    (Language: English)

  55. NAL Call No.: SF597.S6S52
    "Feeding of the giant African snail Achatina achatina (Linne'): some feeds compared."
    Esobe, S. O. Snail Farming Research: A Collection of Papers Published in Conjunction with the First International Award for Research on Snail Farming by The Italian Snail Farmers Association. [Scientific Committee of the Italian Snail Farmers Association, trans. and ed.] Cherasco, Italy: Associazione Nazionale Elicicoltori, 1986. pp. 50-53. Includes references.

  56. NAL Call No.: 423.92-B63
    ["Feeding of Helix pomatia (L.) (Mollusca, Gasteropoda, Helicidae) in commercial rearing Edible snail, weight gains."] "Note sull'alimentazione di Helix pomatia (L.) (Mollusca, Gasteropoda, Helicidae) in allevamenti commerciali."
    Bolchi Serini, G.; Rota, P.; and F. Tacchini. Bollettino De Zoologia Agraria E Di Bachicoltura vol. 16, pp. 99-111. Milano: Universita degli Studi di Milano, 1981 (pub. 1982). Includes references and illustrations.

  57. Field observations on feeding of the land snail Helix aspersa Muller.
    Iglesias, J.; Castillejo, J. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 1999, 65: 4, 411-423. Includes references.
    (Language: English)

  58. NAL Call No.: SF597.S6S52
    "Final fattening and outdoor breeding of the edible snail Helix aspersa."
    Chevallier, H. Snail Farming Research: A Collection of Papers Published in Conjunction with the First International Award for Research on Snail Farming by The Italian Snail Farmers Association. [Scientific Committee of the Italian Snail Farmers Association, trans. and ed.] Cherasco, Italy: Associazione Nazionale, 1986. pp. 1-8. Includes references and illustrations.
    Includes references.

  59. Food-attraction conditioning in the snail, Helix pomatia.
    Teyke, T. Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology. 1995, 177: 4, 409-414. Includes references.
    (Language: English)

  60. Freezing tolerance versus freezing susceptibility in the land snail Helix aspersa (Gastropoda: Helicidae).
    Ansart, A.; Vernon, P.; Daguzan, J. CryoLetters. 2001, 22: 3, 183-190. Includes references.
    (Language: English)

  61. NAL Call No.: HD9438.E343F83 1992
    [The French Market and Snail Production Economy.] Le Marche Francais et L'economie De La Production De L'escargot: Dossiers Economiques.
    Aubert, Claude. Paris: Institut Technique de L'aviculture, 1992. 47 pp.

  62. NAL Call No.: SB599.B73
    "Genetic and Environmental Variability of Adult Size in Some Stocks of the Edible Snail, Helix Aspersa."
    Dupont, Nivet M. A. Guiller, and J.C. Bonnet. Journal of Zoology. 1997, 241(4):757-765. Surgeres, France: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Domaine du Magneraud, Heliciculture, BP 52, 17700 Surgeres, France.

  63. ["The golden years of the Italian snail."] "Gli anni d' oro della chiocciola italiana."
    Avagnina, G. Informatore Zootecnico (Italy) 37, no.12 (June 1990): 59-62.
    (Language: Italian.)

  64. NAL Call No.: 41.8 V6439
    ["Growth ability and incubation of snails in the interior husbandry of snail (Review)."] "Rastove schopnosti a inkubacia v interierovom chove slimakov."
    Puzder, M.; and F. Lesnik. Veterinarstvi (CSFR) 42 (November 1992): 423- 424.
    Abstract: Discusses rearing techniques, reproduction, and developmental stages of helix aspersa.

  65. NAL Call No.: SF597.S6S52
    "The growth of Helix aspersa in Lazio (central Italy): late-hatched snails."
    Costamagna, A. Snail Farming Research: A Collection of Papers Published in Conjunction with the First International Award for Research on Snail Farming by The Italian Snail Farmers Association. [Scientific Committee of the Italian Snail Farmers Association, trans. and ed.] Cherasco, Italy: Associazione Nazionale Elicicoltori, 1986. pp. 18-22. Includes references.

  66. NAL Call No.: SF597.S6S52
    "Growth of Helix aspersa in the presence or absence of adults of the same species or of another species (Helix pomatia)."
    Marciano, P. Snail Farming Research: A Collection of Papers Published in Conjunction with the First International Award for Research on Snail Farming by The Italian Snail Farmers Association. [Scientific Committee of the Italian Snail Farmers Association, trans. and ed.] Cherasco, Italy: Associazione Nazionale Elicicoltori, 1986. pp. 67-75. Includes references.

  67. Growth, mortality and fecundity in successive generations of Helix aspersa Muller cultured indoors and crowding effects on fast-, medium- and slow-growing snails of the same clutch.
    Lazaridou-Dimitriadou M; Alpoyanni E; Baka M; Brouziotis Th; Kifonidis, N.; Mihaloudi, E.; Sioula, D.; Vellis, G. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 1998, 64: 1, 67-74. Includes references.
    (Language: English)

  68. "Growth, mortality and feeding rates of the snail Helix Aspersa at different population densities in the laboratory, and the depression of activity of helicid snails by other individuals, or their mucus.
    Dan, N.; and S. E. R. Bailey. Journal of Molluscan Studies (48):257-65.

  69. "Growth, mortality and fecundity in successive generations of Helix aspersa Muller cultured indoors and crowding effects on fast-, medium- and slow-growing snails of the same clutch."
    Lazaridou, Dimitriadou M; Alpoyanni, E; Baka, M; Brouziotis, Th; Kifonidis, N; Mihaloudi, E; Sioula, D; Vellis, G. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 1998, 64(1):67-74. ISSN: 0260-1230

  70. "Growth patterns and morphological features of juvenile Helix aspersa from west Texas."
    Roberson, M; Moorhead, DL. Southwestern Naturalist (1999), 44(1):93-96. ISSN: 0038-4909.

  71. "Growth, reproduction and activity rhythms in two species of edible snails, Helix aspersa and Helix lucorum, in non-24-hour light cycles."
    Lazaridou Dimitriadou, M.; and S. E. R. Bailey. Journal of Zoology (United Kingdom) 225,no.3 (1991): 381-393. Includes 28 references.

  72. ["The growth of snail in breeding."] "Crescita della chiocciola in allevamento."
    Elmslie, L. Elicicoltura (Italy) 29, no.3 (December 1992): 10-11. (Language: Italian.)

  73. [Handbook on the Breeding of Giant African Snails.] Nunywe Wema Kleun Ee Kunkpla Gwin Nyinyi E. Guide Pratique D' Elevage D' Escargots Geants Africains.
    Hardouin, J.; Codjia, J. T. C.; and J. C. Heymans. Cotonou (Benin), 1993. 69 pp.
    (Language: Fon, French.)

  74. Heavy metal toxicity in the snail Helix aspersa maxima reared on commercial farms: cellular pathology.
    Bradley, M.D.; Runham, N.W. Slug & snail pests in agriculture. Proceedings of a Symposium, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK, 24-26 September 1996. 1996, 353-358. Includes references.
    (Language: English)

  75. NAL Call No.: S441.A475
    Heliculture is hot and markets are many: snail farmers demonstrate that there's more than one way to sell a snail. 1.
    Silva, B. AgVentures. Blackwell, OK : Schatz Pub. Group, c1997-. Feb/Mar 1999. v. 3 (1) p. 47-48.
    (Language: English)

  76. NAL Call No.: S441.A475
    Heliculture is hot and markets are many: snail farmers demonstrate that there's more than one way to sell a snail. 2.
    Silva, B. AgVentures. Blackwell, OK : Schatz Pub. Group, c1997-. Apr/May 1999. v. 3 (2) p. 44-46, 61.
    (Language: English)

  77. NAL Call No.: SF597.S6B66 1990
    [Helix Aspersa Snail; Biology, Farming.] L'escargot Helix Aspersa: Biologie, Elevage.
    Bonnet, Jean-Claude; Aupinel, Pierrick; and Jean-Louis Vrillon. In the series: Du Labo au Terrain. Paris: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 1990. 124 pp. Includes references.

  78. [Helix Pomatia and Other Edible Snails: Students' Study.] Vinbjergsnegle Og Andre Spiselige Snegle.
    Fausboell, H. C.; Larsen, E. K.; Moeller, H.; Nielsen, A. M. K.; and J. M. Rahner. Copenhagen (Denmark): Kongelige Veterinaer og Landbohoejskole, 1989. 99 pp. Includes 29 references, tables, and illustrations.
    (Language: Danish.)

  79. Humic acid: a growth factor for Helix aspersa Muller (Gastropoda: Pulmonata).
    Elmslie, L.J. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 1998, 64: 3, 400-401. Includes references.
    (Language: English)

  80. ["The importance of soil in the interier farming of snail Helix aspersa."] "Vyznam hliny v interierovom chove slimakov Helix aspersa."
    Uhrincat, M.; Tancin, V.; Mihina, S. Journal of Farm Animal Science (Slovakia), no. 28(1995):277-281. Vyskumny Ustav Zivocisnej Vyroby, Nitra (Slovakia)

  81. "In Britain, snails are catching on slowly."
    Jackson, Maggie. Record, (Northern New Jersey), January 22, 1989, Special Sections, p. 029

  82. Influence of egg cannibalism on growth, survival and feeding in hatchlings of the land snail Helix aspersa Muller (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora).
    Desbuquois, C. Reproduction, Nutrition, Development. 1997, 37: 2, 191-202. Includes references.
    (Language: English)

  83. NAL Call No.: SF597.S6S52
    "The influence of cannibalistic egg eating on the growth of young Arianta arbustorum (L.) (Helicidae)."
    Baur, B. Snail Farming Research: A Collection of Papers Published in Conjunction with the First International Award for Research on Snail Farming by The Italian Snail Farmers Association. [Scientific Committee of the Italian Snail Farmers Association, trans. and ed.] Cherasco, Italy: Associazione Nazionale Elicicoltori, 1986. pp. 9-17. Includes references.

  84. ["Influence of creeping substrate and of a mixture artificial diet and soil on the growth of the edible snail Helix aspersa maxima."] "Invloed van grond als kruipsubstraat en als toevoegsel aan het voeder op de groei van de consumptieslak Helix aspersa maxima (Gros Gris)."
    Grisse, A. de. Defloor, J. Mededelingen-Faculteit-Landbouwkundige-en-Toegepaste-Biologische-Wetenschappen-Universiteit-Gent (Belgium). (1996). 61(1):119-127. [Address: Gent Univ. (Belgium). Faculty of Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences. Dept. of Crop Protection.] ISSN: 0368-9697.

  85. "Influence of egg cannibalism on growth, survival and feeding in hatchlings of the land snail Helix aspersa Muller (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora)."
    Desbuquois, C. Reproduction, Nutrition, Development. 1997, 37(2):191-202. ISSN: 0926-5287.

  86. The influence of ingestive conditioning on food choices in the land snail Helix aspersa Muller (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Stylommatophora).
    Desbuquois, C.; Daguzan, J. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 1995, 61: 3, 353-360. Includes references.
    (Language: English)

  87. ["Influence of mixing different soil types [chalk, sand, leaf mold, peat] with feed on the growth of the edible snail Helix aspersa maxima (Gros gris)"]. "Invloed van het toevoegen van enkele grondsoorten aan het voeder op de groei van van de consumptieslak Helix aspersa maxima (Gros gris)."
    Grisse, A. de. Defloor, J.; Vercauteren, F. Mededelingen-Faculteit-Landbouwkundige-en-Toegepaste-Biologische-Wetenschappen-Universiteit-Gent (Belgium). (1996). 61(1):129-139. [Address: Gent Univ. (Belgium). Faculty of Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences. Dept of Crop Protection] ISSN: 0368-9697

  88. Influence of Roman snail (Helix pomatia L.) farm rearing upon its reproduction and growth rate.
    Lysak, A.; Mach-Paluszkiewicz, Z.; Ligaszewski, M. Annals of Animal Science. 2001, 1: 2, 63-74. Includes references.
    (Language: English)

  89. NAL Call No.: QH301.C63
    "The interactions of courtship, feeding and locomotion in the behavioural hierarchy of the snail Helix aspersa."
    Adamo, Shelley A. and Chase, Ronald. Behavioral Neural Biology 55 (1991): 1-18.

  90. [Introduction to anatomy and physiology of farmed snails.] Wazny dla praktyki weterynaryjnej zarys anatomii, fizjologii oraz parametrow zoohigienicznych ladowych slimakow hodowlanych.
    Wasowski, R.; Sowinski, G.; Adamiak, Z. Magazyn Weterynaryjny. 1997, 6: 3, 202-206. Includes references.
    (Language: Polish)

  91. Invertebrates [Minilivestock] Farming [Guinea Pigs (Cavia Porcellus), African Giant Snails, Insects, Cricetomys, Butterfly Ranching, Silkworm, Common Birdwing (Ornithoptera Priamus), Graphium Weiskei.] Proceedings of the Seminar Held at La Union (Philippines), November 1992.
    Hardouin, J.; and C. E. Stievenart, eds. La Union (Philippines). November, 1992. Antwerpen (Belgium): [n.p.], 1993. 49 pp. Includes bibliography.

  92. ["Is snail farming an economic activity?"] "Esiste l'azienda elicola tra le attivita economiche?"
    Bigliardi E. Annali della Facolta di Medicina Veterinaria (Universita di Parma) 11 (1991): 55-70. Inlcudes references, tables, and figures.
    (Language: Italian; summaries in English.)
    Abstract: Describes the market for snails in Italy where production is on the rise and demand currently outstrips supply. Includes data on production costs, market prices, imports, species currently farmed, and on consumption. In Italy, Helix aspersa is the most common species.

  93. Lead reduces shell mass in juvenile garden snails (Helix aspersa).
    Beeby, A.; Richmond, L.; Herpe, F. Environmental Pollution. 2002, 120: 2, 283-288. Includes references.
    (Language: English)

  94. NAL Call No.: QL55.I5
    Learning in the land snail Helix aspersa.
    Ray, S. Animal Technology [Sussex] : The Institute. Dec 1998. v. 49 (3) p. 135-143. Includes references.
    (Language: English)

  95. ["Life cycle of the escargot (Helix aspersa Muller 1774) in Thailand."] "Wongchon chiwit khong hoi escargot (Helix aspersa Muller 1774) nai Prathet Thai."
    Tanapan Pattamanon; Chokchai Senawong; and Nitaya Lauhachinda. [Proceedings of the 24th National Conference: Poster Session. [January 27-29, 1986, Bangkok (Thailand)]] Raingan Kan Prachum Thang Wichakan Khrang Thi 24 Phak Poster. Bangkok (Thailand). Bangkok, Thailand: Kasetsart University, 1986. pp. 8-14.
    (Language: Thai; Summaries in English and Thai.)

  96. The localization of aluminium in the digestive gland of the terrestrial snail Helix aspersa.
    Brooks, A.W.; White, K.N. Tissue and Cell. 1995, 27: 1, 61-72. Includes references.
    (Language: English)

  97. [Management Possibility of the Land Snail Megalobulimus Maximus as Protein Source in San Martin [Peru].] Posibilidad De Manejo Del Caracol Terrestre Megalobulimus Maximus Como Recurso Proteinico En San Martin [Peru].
    Campoverde V, L. Lima (Peru): Universidad Nacional Agraria La MolinaLima, 1992. 83 pp. Thesis (Mag Sc).

  98. [Manual for Breeding Giant African Snails in the Tropics.] Manuel D'elevage Des Escargots Geants Africains Sous Les Tropiques. Stievenart C.; and J. Hardouin. Wageningen, Netherlands: Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA)[Address: CTA, Postbus 380, 6700 AJ Wageningen, Netherlands], 1990. 39 pp. Includes 56 references.
    (Language: French.)
    Abstract: This book discusses the giant African snail (archachatina and Achatina). It focuses on its biology, breeding techniques, predators and diseases, and its commercial value.

  99. ["Marketing in snail rearing with regard to climatic conditions in Slovak and Czech Republics."] "Pohlad na marketing v chove slimakov vzhladom na klimaticke podmienky v Slovenskej a v Ceskej republike."
    Lutisan, J. Chov Slimakov (Slovak Republic) 4, no. 6 (November 1993): p. 6.

  100. ["Materials and structures in the fencing [for Helix breeding]."] "Materiali e strutture nei recinti [per l' allevamento delle Helix."]
    Elicicoltura (Italy) 29, no.3 (December 1992): p. 12.
    (Language: Italian.)

  101. NAL Call No.: SF597. S6A92 1987
    [Memento for the Snail Farmer.] Memento De L'eleveur D'escargots.
    Aubert, Claude. Paris: Institut Technique de L'aviculture, 1987. 323 pp. Includes references, graphs, photos, and illustrations.
    (Language: French.)

  102. Metal concentrations in Helix pomatia, Helix aspersa and Arion rufus: a comparative study.
    Menta, C.; Parisi, V. Environmental Pollution. 2001, 115: 2, 205-208. Includes references.
    (Language: English)

  103. Methods for toxicity assessment of contaminated soil by oral or dermal uptake in land snails: metal bioavailability and bioaccumulation.
    de Vaufleury, A.G.; Pihan, F.; Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 2002, 21: 4, 820-827. Includes references.
    (Language: English)

  104. ["Mixed culture on Helix aspersa Muller (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) in the south of Chile."] "Cultivo mixto de Helix aspersa Muller (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) en el sur de Chile."
    Zapata M, J.; and R. C. Zuleta. Agro Ciencia (Chile) 10 (June 1994): 33-36. Includes 12 references.
    (Language: Spanish; summaries in English.)

  105. ["Morbidity and mortality of snails and methods of their investigation."] "Vysetrovanie morbidity a mortality slimakov."
    Benko, L. Chov Slimakov (Slovak Republic) 4 (May 1993): 5-6.
    (Language: Slovak; summary in English.)

  106. ["The need of [snail] production [in Italy]."] "Bisogno di produzione [di chiocciole in Italia]."
    Elicicoltura (Italy) no.1 (April 1993): 1-2.
    (Language: Italian.)
    Abstract: Includes production data and information on world markets and domestic consumption.

  107. NAL Call No.: 49-IN3
    "New methods for rearing edible snails [Italy]." "Nuove tecniche di allevamento delle chiocciole."
    Avagnina, G. Informatore Zootecnico [Bologna: Edagricole] 29, no. 18 (September 30, 1982): p. 85. Includes illustrations.
    (Language: Italian.)

  108. "Oh, give me a home, where the Escargot roam...Food: Snail ranchers hope to slime their competition with product that chefs at upscale eateries say is more tasty."
    Hightower, Susan. Los Angeles Times, Orange County ed., December 5, 1995, Business Section, p. 8 part D.

  109. "Only one of its kind in U.S. California snail rancher turns slippery mollusk into high-flown Escargot."
    Stein, Mark A. Los Angeles Times, Home ed., March 5, 1987, Business Section, p. 1, part 4.

  110. ["Oviposition and egg incubation in artificial conditions by Helix aspersa Mueller."] "De eileg en incubatie van eieren van Helix aspersa Mueller."
    De Grisse, A. Mededelingen Van De Faculteit-Landbouwwetenschappen Rijksuniversiteit Gent (Belgium) 55 (1990): 35-46. Includes references and illustrations.

  111. NAL Call No.: 511-P444AEB
    "Participation of calcium and calmodulin in mechanisms of development of sensitization in the edible snail."
    Nikitin, V. P.; Samoilov, M. O.; and S. A. Kozyrev. Akademiia Nauk SSSR. Doklady Biological Sciences Section. New York, N.Y.: Consultants Bureau, March 1992. b v. 320 (1/6): 600-605.
    Translated from: Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR 320, no. 1 (1991): 236-241. (511 P444A).
    (Language: English; Russian.)

  112. Phenotypic plasticity in reproductive traits: importance in the life history of Helix aspersa (Mollusca: Helicidae) in a recently colonized habitat.
    Madec, L.; Desbuquois, C.; Coutellec-Vreto, M.A. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 2000, 69: 1, 25-39. Includes references.
    (Language: English)

  113. "Population density effects on growth in culture of the edible snail Helix aspersa var. maxima."
    Jess S; and R. J. Marks. [Applied Plant Science Division, Department of Agriculture for Northern Ireland, UK.] Journal of Molluscan Studies 61 (3): 313-323. Includes references.
    (Language: English)
    Abstract: Discusses stocking density and growth for the culture of Helix aspersa.

  114. NAL Call No.: 464.8-SP2
    "The potential for snail farming."
    Elmslie, L. J. SPAN: Progress in Agriculture [Foston: J.G.R. Stevens] 25, no. 1 (1982): 35-37. Includes references.

  115. NAL Call No.: 23-N484
    "The potential for snail farming."
    Elmslie, L. J. New Zealand Farmer 103 (November 1982): 30, 33.

  116. NAL Call No.: SB599.B73
    "The potential for snail farming in West Africa."
    Hodasi, J. K. M. In the series analytic: Slugs and Snails in World Agriculture. Proceedings of a Symposium Organized by the British Crop Protection Council with the Support of the Malacological Society of London, April 10-12, 1989, University of Surrey, Guildford, England. I. Henderson, ed. British Crop Protection Council Monograph Series, no. 41 (1989): 27-31. Thornton Heath, [England]: British Crop Protection Council, 1989.

  117. NAL Call No.: SF597.S6A82-1984
    "A practical approach to backyard snail farming."
    Akinnusi, O. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production. 1998, 25: 1-2, 193-197

  118. NAL Call No.: SF597.S6D4
    [Practical Rational Snail Breeding.] Elicicoltura Pratica Razionale.
    Della Peita, Cesare. In the series, I Tucani, no. 6. Milano: Ottaviano, 1981. 200 pp. Includes references and illustrations.

  119. ["Practical studies and applications on open air breeding to complete life cycle of Helix pomatia."] "Studi e applicazioni pratiche sull' allevamento a ciclo biologico completo delle Helix pomatia all' aperto."
    Cavallo Passerini, M. G. Elicicoltura (Italy). April 1993. p. 12.
    (Language: Italian.)

  120. NAL Call No.: 410 Au73
    "Production of eggs and young snails by adult Theba pisana (Muller) and Cernuella virgata (da Costa) (Mollusca: Helicidae) in laboratory cultures and field populations [South Australia]."
    Baker, G. H. Australian Journal of Zoology 39 (1991): 673-679. Includes 26 references, table, and figures.
    (Language: English.)
    Abstract: Presents findings of a laboratory study on the reproductive capabilities of two helicid land snails. Discusses factors such as shell size and density.

  121. NAL Call No.: 49-F84
    ["Production of 'Petit-gris' snails (Helix aspersa Muller). III. Mixed rearing (reproduction in heated buildings and fattening in external."] "Contribution a l'elevage de l'escargot Petit-gris: Helix aspersa Muller (Mollusque Gasteropode Pulmone Stylommatophore). III. Elevage mixte (reproduction en batiment controle et engraissement en parc exterieur): activite des individus et evolution de la population juvenile selon la charge biotique du parc."
    Daguzan, J. Annales de Zootechnie [Paris: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique] 34, no. 2 (1985): 127-148. Includes references.
    (Language: French; summary in English.)

  122. [Production quality of edible snail Helix aspersa maxima in different farm management systems.] Jakosc produkcji slimakow jadalnych Helix aspersa maxima w roznych systemach wychowu fermowego.
    Lysak, A.; Mach-Paluszkiewicz, Z.; Ligaszewski, M. 50 years of the National Research Institute of Animal Production, Safe food as a challenge to animal sciences. Balice, Poland, 24 May, 2000. Roczniki Naukowe Zootechniki. 2000, No. Supl.z.8, 187-191. Includes references.
    (Language: Polish)

  123. ["Profitability of snail culture [in Belgium]."] "La rentabilite de l' activite helicicole."
    Ministere de l' Agriculture, Bruxelles (Belgium). Administration de l'Elevage et des Services Veterinaires. Agricontact (Belgium) [Courrier du Ministere de l' Agriculture], no. 259 (March 1994): 11-16.

  124. NAL Call No.: SF597.S6M34-1983
    Profitable Snail Breeding.
    Mainardi Fazio, Fausta. Barcelona: Editorial De Vecchi, 1983. 112 pp.
    (Language: Spanish.)

  125. NAL Call No.: 26-T756
    "Prospects for snail farming in West Africa."
    Monney, K.A. Tropical Science (1998), 38(4):238-247. London : Whurr Publishers Ltd.

  126. [Protein requirement for Helix aspersa maxima during the growing phase.] Exigencia de proteina para o escargot frances, Helix aspersa maxima em fase de crescimento.
    Soares, C.M.; Hayashi, C.; Cocito, I.C. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia. 2002, 31: 2, Supplement, 835-841. Includes references.
    (Language: Portuguese)

  127. NAL Call No.: aS21.D27S64
    Raising Snails.
    Cheney, S. Special Reference Briefs Series no. SRB 88-04. Beltsville, MD: USDA, National Agricultural Library, 1988. 15 pp. Includes references.
    Abstract: Provides an overview of snail farming and rearing techniques, mainly for Helix aspersa, Helix pomatia, and the giant African snail. Lists edible snails; describes four snail-farming systems; and includes information on feeding, reproduction, shipping, etc.

  128. "Ranch partners headin' for snail roundup."
    Baker, Bonnie. The Arizona Republic, final ed., August 1, 1988, p. 3SD

  129. Rearing density effect on the production performance of the edible snail Helix aspersa Muller in indoor rearing.
    Dupont-Nivet, M.; Coste, V.; Coinon, P.; Bonnet, J.C.; Blanc, J.M. Annales de Zootechnie. 2000, 49: 5, 447-456. Includes references.
    (Language: English)

  130. [The Rearing of Edible Snails: Production and Preparation of the Garden Snail. Supplemented and Updated 2nd Edition.] L'elevage Des Escargots: Production et Preparation du Petit-Gris.
    Chevallier H. 2nd ed. Maisons-Alfort: Editions du Point Veterinaire, 1992. Includes references and bibliography.
    (Language: French.)
    Abstract: Covers the biology and culture of the Helix aspersa. Includes topics such as its anatomy, mating and reproduction, diseases and pests, rearing techniques, and marketing.

  131. NAL Call No.: 49-IN3
    ["Rearing of snails [Feeding, reproduction, Italy]."] "L'allevamiento della chiocciola."
    Grazia Tovoli, M.; and G. Lambertini. Informatore Zootecnico [Bologna: Edagricole] 30, no. 4 (February 28, 1983): 40-41.

  132. "Reproduction of the golden apple snail (Ampullaridae): egg mass, hatching, and incubation."
    Lacanilao, F. Philippine Journal of Science 119, no. 2 (April-June 1990): 95-105. Includes references and tables.
    Abstract: Describes a study (and its results) on reproduction and breeding (for laboratory and field culture) in the golden apple snail (Apullarius sp.). Examines the influence of food quality and some environmental conditions on egg properties. Provides data on size and number of egg masses, incubation periods, hatching rates, stocking density, effects of water change, seasonal or natural temperature effects, and effects of snail age.

  133. [Reproduction of Helix Aspersa Mueller and Egg Intensive Indoor Production.] Reproduction De Helix Aspersa Mueller et Production D' Oeufs En Elevage Hors-Sol.
    Bergonzat, F. Toulouse (France): Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Toulouse (France), 1990. 138 pp.
    Doctoral Theses. Includes references, tables and graphics.
    (Language: French.)

  134. "Sarasota man's 600 snails are escargone."
    Enns, Gregory. St. Petersburg Times, O South Pinnellas ed., May 2, 1996, p. 6B

  135. NAL Call No.: HD1491 A1C6
    ["Situation and prospects of the sector and the market of the snail culture."] "Situazione e prospettive del settore e del mercato elicicolo."
    Zuppiroli, M.; and A. Poggio. Cooperazione in Agricoltura (Italy) no. 3 (July-September 1989): 53-66. Includes references.
    (Language: Italian.)

  136. NAL Call No. SF597.S6M34-1983
    "Size-fecundity relationships in the land snail Helix aspersa: preliminary results on a form outside the norm."
    Madec, L; Guiller, A; Coutellec-Vreto, M.A.; Desbuquois, C. Invertebrate-Reproduction-and-Development. (1998) 34(1):83-90.

  137. "Slow growth snail-farming sisters tough out the recession and hope more people will gain an appetite for Escargot."
    Chan, Gilbert. Sacramento Bee, Metro Final ed., May 8, 1995, Business Section, p. E1.

  138. Slugs and Snails in World Agriculture.
    Henderson, Ian, ed. Proceedings of a Symposium Organised by the British Crop Protection Council with the Support of the Malacological Society of London, April 10-12, 1989, University of Surrey, Guildford, England. British Crop Protection Council Monograph, no. 41. Thornton Heath: British Crop Protection Council, 1989. 422 pp.

  139. [The Snail: Biology, Reproduction and Commercial Breeding.] O Caracol: Biologia, Reproducao E Criacao Comercial.
    Ripado, M. F. B. In the series Biblioteca do Agricultur, no. 10. Mem Martins (Portugal): Publicacoes Europa America, Lda. 1995. 93 pp.
    Includes references and illustrations.
    (Language: Portuguese.)

  140. [Snail breeding: from hobby to profession [Helix aspersa maxima, the Flemish snail battery]] De kweek van escargots: van hobby naar professional.
    Grisse, A. de. Source: Gent (Belgium). 1994. 234 p. Address: Gent Univ. (Belgium). Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen. Vakgroep Gewasbescherming.

  141. NAL Call No.: 41.2 T646 1983 no.93
    [Snail Culture.] L'heliciculture: Production, Inspection et Commercialisation Des Produits Transformes.
    Dupont, Marie-Jose. [Toulouse, France]: Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Toulouse, 1983. No. 93, 100 pp. Includes references and illustrations.

  142. Snail farming.
    Asa, Kusnin. Jakarta : Bhratara Karya Aksara, 1984. vii, 24 p. : ill. (Language: Indonesian)

  143. NAL Call No.: SF597.S6C46
    [Snail Farming.] Chov Slimakov.
    Nitra: Vydavatelstvo NOI: 1990-. Bimonthly.
    (Language: Slovak; most with summaries in English.) [Note: NAL owns volumes for 1992 and 1993.]

  144. Snail farming: intensive snail breeding, full biological cycle production, trading.
    Giovanni Avagnina, editor Cherasco, Italy: Istituto Internazionale di Elicicoltura [International Institute of Breeding of edible snails]. 116 p.

  145. NAL Call No.: SF191.W6
    ["Snail farming."] "L'achatiniculture."
    Hardouin J; Stievenart C; and J. T. C. Codjia.
    [Address: Bureau pour l'echange et la distribution de l'information sur le mini-elevage, Unite de zoologie generale et appliquee, Faculte des sciences agronomiques de l'Etat, 2, Passage des Deportes, 5030 Gembloux, Belgium.] World Animal Review no. 83 (1995): 29-39. Includes 16 references.
    (Language: French; summaries in English and Spanish.)
    Abstract: This articles discusses the giant snails of the Achatina, Archachatina, Burtoa and Limicolaria species in Africa. Topics include the current market for snails, breeding, feeding and nutrition, growth, habitats, and pathogens.

  146. NAL Call No.: SF597.S6C5
    [Snail Farming.] L'elevage Des Escargots: Production et Preparation du Petit- Gris.
    Chevallier, Henry. Maisons-Alfort: Editions du Point Veterinaire, 1985. 128 pp. Includes references and illustrations.
    (Language: French.)
    Abstract: Each issue of this bimonthly magazine focuses on a specific aspect of snail farming, e.g., nutrition, housing, breeding, environment, etc. Includes graphs, charts, drawings, etc.

  147. NAL Call No.: 23-N484
    "Snail farming for export--the pace quickens [Culture, markets, New Zealand]."
    Pos, H. New Zealand Farmer [Auckland: New Zealand Newspapers] 105, no. 11 (June 14, 1984): pp. 99, 101, 102.

  148. NAL Call No.: SB599.B73
    "Snail farming in field pens in Italy."
    Elmslie, L. J. In the series analytic: Slugs and Snails in World Agriculture. Proceedings of a Symposium Organized by the British Crop Protection Council with the Support of the Malacological Society of London, April 10-12, 1989, University of Surrey, Guildford, England. I. Henderson, ed. British Crop Protection Council Monograph Series, no. 41 (1989): 19-25. Thornton Heath, [England]: British Crop Protection Council, 1989.
    Abstract: Discusses culture of edible snails in Italy, particularly the Helix aspersa. Includes information on snail pens and rearing techniques.

  149. NAL Call No.: SB599.B73
    "Snail farming in the United Kingdom."
    Runham, N. W. In the series analytic: Slugs and Snails in World Agriculture. Proceedings of a Symposium Organized by the British Crop Protection Council with the Support of the Malacological Society of London, April 10-12, 1989, University of Surrey, Guildford, England. I. Henderson, ed. British Crop Protection Council Monograph Series, no. 41 (1989): 49-55. Thornton Heath, [England]: British Crop Protection Council, 1989.

  150. NAL Call No.: SF597.S6S52
    Snail Farming Research: A Collection of Papers Published in Conjunction with the First International Award for Research on Snail Farming Offered by Associazione Nazionale Elicicoltori (A.N.E.), the Italian Snail Farmers Association.
    Associazione Nazionale Elicicoltori (Italy). [Scientific Committee of the Italian Snail Farmers Association, trans. and ed.] Cherasco, Italy: Associazione Nazionale Elicicoltori, 1986. 91 pp.

  151. NAL Call No.: SF597.S6S52
    "Snail farming techniques and research problems."
    Elmslie, L. J. Snail Farming Research: A Collection of Papers Published in Conjunction with the First International Award for Research on Snail Farming by The Italian SnailFarmers Association. [Scientific Committee of the Italian Snail Farmers Association, trans. and ed.] Cherasco, Italy: Associazione Nazionale Elicicoltori, 1986. pp. 84-89. Includes references.
    Abstract: Includes information on farming systems; animal housing; pens; loose housing; nutrition and feeding; and stocking-density

  152. ["The snail, have a look on the market [in Italy]."] "Chiocciola, un occhio al mercato [in Italia]."
    Nunzi, L. Terra e Sole (Italy) 48, no. 610 (June 1993): 307-308.
    (Language: Italian.)
    Abstract: Describes snail culture in Italy and the Italian market for edible snails. Contains marketing information and data on production, consumption, imports, foreign trade, and wholesale prices.

  153. [Snail Helix Aspersa: Biology, Breeding.] L' Escargot Helix Aspersa: Biologie, Elevage.
    Bonnet, J. C.; Aupinel, P.; and J. L. Vrillon. Paris, France: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique [Address: Domaine Pluridisciplinaire du Magneraud, 17700 Surgeres, France], 1990. 124 pp. Includes bibliography, glossary, production figures, tables, and 49 graphs.

  154. ["Snail husbandry in the Slovak Republic."] "Sucasna situacia v CSFR."
    Euro Helix Co. (Bratislava, CSFR). Chov Slimakov v. 1 (December 1990): p. 5.
    Abstract: Describes five new snail farms in the Slovak Republic.

  155. NAL Call No.: S441.A475
    The snail market: a slow but sure opportunity.
    Silva, B. AgVentures. Blackwell, OK : Schatz Pub. Group, c1997-. Oct/Nov 1997. v. 1 (3) p. 58-59, 61-62.
    (Language: English)

  156. NAL Call No.: SF597 S6J65
    Snail Production Basics.
    Johnson, Richard M; and Richard V. Johnson. Sanger, CA: Frescargot Farms, 1987. 3 pp.
    Includes 7 references.
    Abstract: Gives a brief overview of the history, biology, and anatomy of snails; describes feeding and nutrition, sanitation and hygiene, preferred environment, and breeding and rearing techniques.

  157. NAL Call No.: SF597.S6J65
    Snail Production Techniques: Raising Terrestrial Snails (Helicidae) Commercially.
    Johnson, Richard V. Sanger, CA: Frescargot Farms, Inc., rev. May 1995. 87 pp.
    Abstract: This guide discusses snail body systems and body processes; production facilities and equipment; nutritional guidelines for snails; snail processing and preparation; predators, pests, and parasites; snail production management; and snail production troubleshooting. Includes illustrations, references, a glossary, sample application forms, and recipes.

  158. Snail Production Techniques: Raising Terrestrial Snails (Helicidae) Commercially.
    Sanger, CA: Frescargot Farms, Inc., 1995. Video (VHS, 40 minutes.)

  159. "Snail rancher: escargot finding a niche."
    The Associated Press. St. Louis Post Dispatch, Five Star Lift ed., November 19, 1995, Business Section, p. 03E.

  160. NAL Call No.: SF597 S6G7
    [Snail Rearing.] La Chiocciola D'allevamento.
    Griglione, Natale. In the series: I Libri Di Vita in Campagna. Verona: Edizioni L'Informatore Agrario. 1990. 103 pp. Includes references and illustrations. (Language: Italian.)

  161. NAL Call No.: SB599.B73
    "Snail rearing or heliciculture of Helix aspersa Muller."
    Daguzan, J. In the series analytic: Slugs and Snails in World Agriculture. Proceedings of a Symposium Organized by the British Crop Protection Council with the Support of theMalacological Society of London, April 10-12, 1989, University of Surrey, Guildford, England. I. Henderson, ed. British Crop Protection Council Monograph Series, no. 41 (1989): 3-10. Thornton Heath, [England]: British Crop Protection Council, 1989.

  162. NAL Call No.: SF597.S6V53 1986
    [Snails.] Escargots: Criacao Domestica E Comercial.
    Vieira, Marcio Infante. Sao Paulo, Brasil: Nobel, 1986. 4a edition. 131 pp. (Language: Portuguese.)

  163. NAL Call No.: QL430.4 C72
    [Snails.] L'escargot: Zoologie, Symbolique, Imaginaire, Medecine et Gastronomie.
    Cranga, Francoise. Dijon: les Editions du bien public, 1991. 183 pp. Includes references.
    (Language: French.)

  164. "Snails pace the path to profit; escargot ranchers riding herd to yuppie market."
    Hamilton, Martha M. The Washington Post, April 05, 1987, p. h01

  165. NAL Call No.: SF597.S6F72 1983
    [Snails and Snail Culture.] L'escargot et l'heliciculture.
    Daguzan, Jacques. [France. Ministere de l'agriculture. Informations techniques des services veterinaires.] Paris: Ministere de l'agriculture, 1983. 207 pp. Includes references, illustrations, graphs, and photos.
    (Language: French.)

  166. NAL Call No.: 41.8-V641
    "Snails and snail farming: an introduction for the veterinary profession."
    Cooper, J. E.; and C. Knowler. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 129, no. 25/26 (December 1991): 541-549. Includes references.
    Abstract: Heliciculture increases the likelihood that snail farmers will consult a veterinarian about the health, diet, well-being, or conservation of snails. This article describes the biology, anatomy, and reproductive systems of snails; proper environment; handling and transportation considerations; nutritional requirements; and predators and parasites.

  167. ["Snails and snail farming: An introduction for the veterinary profession."] "Lumache e loro allevamento: un nuovo interesse per la professione veterinaria."
    Cooper, J. E.; and C. Knowler. Selezione Veterinaria (Italy) 34, no. 1 (January 1993): 91- 92.
    (Language: Italian.)

  168. [Snails and its Utilization.] Bekicot Dan Manfaatnya.
    Ungaran (Indonesia): Balai Informasi Pertanian Jawa Tengah, 1988. 36 pp. Includes 8 references; 14 illustrations.
    (Language: Indonesian.)
    Descriptors: snails; snail-culture; feeds; foods; food-technology; animal-production; mollusca; production

  169. NAL Call No.: S441.A475
    Snails--slow, edible, and highly profitable.
    Wiley, M.K. AgVentures. Blackwell, OK : Schatz Pub. Group, c1997-. Dec 2001/ Jan 2002. v. 5 (6) p. 14-17.
    (Language: English)

  170. "A snail's tale; it's a very different sort of ranching."
    Sietsema, Tom. The Washington Post, November 4, 1987, Food Section, p. E01.

  171. NAL Call No.: SF597.S6S52
    "Some aspects of the reproduction of Helix aspersa (Muller)."
    Stephanou, D. Snail Farming Research: A Collection of Papers Published in Conjunction with the First International Award for Research on Snail Farming by The Italian Snail Farmers Association. [Scientific Committee of the Italian Snail Farmers Association, trans. and ed.] Cherasco, Italy: Associazione Nazionale Elicicoltori, 1986. pp. 34-41. Includes references.
    Abstract: Describes culture of Helix aspersa including reproduction, stocking density, hatch success of eggs, and proper environment.

  172. NAL Call No.: 41.8 V6439
    ["Some aspects of snail breeding."] "Niektore aspekty chovu slimakov."
    Puzder M.; and F. Lesnik. Veterinarstvi 42, no. 6 (June 1992): 222-223.
    (Language: Slovakian.)
    Abstract: This article on raising Helix aspersa includes information on snail biology, age,weight, reproductive performance, environment factors (temperature, humidity), lighting, feeds and feeding, and biology.

  173. "Some facts and updates on edible snails and snail farming."
    Quinones, N. C. Tigerpaper (FAO) 21, no. 1 (January-March 1994): 8-14. [FAO Accession No: XF95:347539 (available on Microfiche).]
    Abstract: Gives a short background on snails; describes various aspects of snail culture such as feeding habits, feeds, and nutrition; behavior and reproduction; and pens and cages.

  174. NAL Call No.: SF191.W6
    "Some observations on the edible giant land snails of West Africa."
    Hodasi, J. K. M. World Animal Review, no. 52 (Rome: FAO, 1984): 24-28. Includes references, illustrations, and maps.

  175. NAL Call No.: SF597.S6S52
    "Some observations on the feeding behaviour and food preferences of the giant West African snail Archachatina marginata (Swainson)."
    Hodasi, J. K. M. Snail Farming Research: A Collection of Papers Published in Conjunction with the First International Award for Research on Snail Farming by The Italian Snail Farmers Association. [Scientific Committee of the Italian Snail Farmers Association, trans. and ed.] Cherasco, Italy: Associazione Nazionale Elicicoltori, 1986. pp. 54-66. Includes references.

  176. "Some really slow 'pokes: Texan corrals snail trade rancher goes high tech to fatten up his tiny herd."
    Bundy, Beverly. The Arizona Republic, final ed., October 7, 1995, p. A35.

  177. "Some really slow 'pokes: Texas 'ranch' raises snails."
    Bundy, Beverly. Phoenix Gazette, final ed., October 6, 1995, p. A35

  178. ["Studies and practical applications on the open breeding of Helix pomatia."] "Studi e applicazioni pratiche sull' allevamento all' aperto di Helix pomatia."
    Cavallo-Passerini, M. G. Elicicoltura (Italy), no. 2 (July 1993): p. 7.
    (Language: Italian.)

  179. Strain differences in Helix pomatia L. (Gastropoda: Pulmonata): diapause, digging, growth rate and shell fill.
    Elmslie, L.J. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 2001, 67: 1, 121-124. Includes references.
    (Language: English)

  180. NAL Call No.: 442.8-B5265
    "Studies on the ecology and production of the Roman snail Helix pomatia L"
    Turcek, F. J. Biologia Bratislava 25, no. 2 (1970): 103-108.

  181. ["Study of the garden snail Helix aspersa M., under artificial rearing conditions."] "Estudio del caracol de jardin Helix aspersa M., bajo condiciones de cria artificial."
    Rebolledo, R.R.; Tapia, P; and L. L. Leonelli. Simiente (Chile) [Universidad de la Forontera, Temuco, Chile.] 62, no. 1 (March 1992): 1, 8-13. Includes 6 references.
    (Language: Spanish; summaries in English and Spanish.)
    Abstract: The feeding habits, food preferences, and behavior of the Helix aspersa was studied in artificial growing conditions over a 3-month period. Chile's potential market for Helix aspersa is discussed.

  182. NAL Call No.: 9.3 SI4
    ["Study on selection of the reproducing subjects [of Helix pomatia] by the investigation of embryonic coil diameter."] "Studio sulla selezione dei soggetti riproduttori [di Helix pomatia] mediante l' esame del diametro della spira embrionale."
    Griglione, N. Elicicoltura (Italy), no. 2 (July 1993): 4-5. Includes 4 tables.
    (Language: Italian.)

  183. NAL Call No.: 23-N484
    "Systems for snail farming."
    Pos, H. New Zealand Farmer 105, no. 13 (July 12, 1984): 93-94, 96.
    Abstract: This article describes four types of snail farming systems.

  184. NAL Call No.: QL750.O3
    "Terpene-based selective herbivory by Helix aspersa (Mollusca) on Thymus vulgaris (Labiatae)."
    Linhart, Y.B.; and J. D. Thompson. Oecologia [Berlin, W. Germany: Springer International] 102, no. 1 (1995): 126-132.

  185. "USDA to pet store owners: Don't let that escargot! Federal agents are trying to track down 1,000 illegally imported giant African snails."
    Pressley, Sue Anne. The Washington Post, final ed., May 23, 1992, pp. F03.

  186. Variability of egg cannibalism in the land snail Helix aspersa in relation to the number of eggs available and the presence of soil.
    Desbuquois, C.; Chevalier, L.; Madec, L. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 2000, 66: 2, 273-281. Includes references.
    (Language: English)

  187. NAL Call No.: 49-F84
    ["Variations in the reproductive capacities of 'Petit-gris' snails, Helix aspersa Muller according to their geographic origin. I. Mating and egg laying."] "Variations des capacites reproductrices de l'escargot 'Petit-gris' Helix aspersa Muller (Mollusque, Gasteropode, Pulmone, Stylommatophore), selon son origine geographique. I. Accouplement et ponte."
    Guemene, D.; Daguzan, J. Annales de Zootechnie [Paris: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique] 31, no. 4 (1982): 369-390. Includes references.
    (Language: French; summary in English.)

  188. NAL Call No.: 49-F84
    ["Variations in the reproductive capacities of 'Petit-gris' snails, Helix aspersa Muller (Mollusca, Gasteropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora) according to their geographic origin. II. Incubation of eggs and hatching of juveniles."] "Variations des capacites reproductrices de l'escargot "Petit-gris" Helix aspersa Muller (Mollusque, Gasteropode, Pulmone, Stylommatophore), selon son origine geographique. II. Incubation des oeufs et eclosion des jeunes."
    Guemene, D.; and J. Daguzan. Annales de Zootechnie [Paris: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique] 32, no. 4 (1983): 525-538. Includes references.
    (Language: French; summary in English.)

  189. ["What healthy snails need. Knowledge and experience of a practicing veterinarian in feeding snails of the species Helix aspersa M., their husbandry and disease occurrence."] "Co potrebuje zdravy hlemyzd'. Poznatky a zkusenosti praktickeho veterinarniho lekare s krmivem pro hlemyzde druhu Helix aspersa M., technologii a vyskytem nemoci."
    Martinkova, I. Veterinarstvi 44 (1994): 9, 434.
    (Language: Czechoslovakian.)

  190. ["The winter coating [in the Helix husbandry]."] "La copertura invernale [nell' allevamento della Helix]."
    Santomaggio, G. Elicicoltura (Italy) no. 3, (November 1994): 8-10. Includes 10 tables.
    (Language: Italian.)

  191. ["Winter preservation of Helix pomatia [housings in the husbandries]."] "Conservazione invernale di Helix pomatia [ricoveri negli allevamenti]."
    Griglione, N. Elicicoltura (Italy) no. 3, (November 1994): 4-5. (Language: Italian.)


Notes

1. "Of snails." Roman Farm Management: The Treatises of Cato and Varro. Trans. "A Virginia Farmer," from Varro's Rerum Rusticarum, Libri III. New York: The MacMillan Company, 1913. pp. 325-327.

2. Pos, Hans. "Systems for snail farming." New England Farmer 105, no. 13 (July 12, 1984).

3. J.K.M. Hodasi, "Some observations on the feeding behaviour and food preferences of the giant West African snail Archachatina marginata (Swainson)," in Snail Farming Research: A Collection of Papers Published in Conjunction with the First International Award for Research on Snail Farming by The Italian Snail Farmers Association. [Scientific Committee of the Italian Snail Farmers Association, trans. and ed.] Cherasco, Italy: Associazione Nazionale Elicicoltori, 1986. pp. 54-66.]

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Metric Conversion Charts

Convert Fahrenheit to Celsius

The formula to convert degrees Fahrenheit (F) to degrees Celsius (C) is: F=(Cx1.8) +32

32° F equals 0° C
50° F equals 10° C
69° F equals 20° C
77° F equals 25° C
86° F equals 30° C

Convert Millimeters to Inches

The formula to convert millimeters to inches is: mm x 0.04 = inches
The formula to convert inches to millimeters is: inches / 0.04 = mm

6 millimeters equals .25 inches
10 millimeters equals .40 inches
13 millimeters equals .5 inches
25 millimeters equals 1 inch


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September 17, 1996
[Revision notes: Additional citations and Web sites added this electronic version, July 2004. An automated literature search feature was added, October 2004. Web sites were updated May 2008]


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