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Alternative Farming Systems Information Center of the National Agricultural Library
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture


Compost: On-farm Systems

January 1990 - June 1997

Quick Bibliography Series no. QB 97-12

248 Citations in English from the AGRICOLA Database
September 1997

Compiled By:
Mary V. Gold
Alternative Farming Systems Information Center (, Information Centers Branch
National Agricultural Library, Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture
Beltsville, Maryland 20705-2351

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National Agricultural Library Cataloging Record:

Gold, Mary V.
Compost: on-farm systems.
(Quick bibliography series ; 97-12)
1. Compost--Bibliography. 2. Agricultural wastes--Management--Bibliography. I. Title
aZ5071.N3 no.97-12

Search Strategy


1   (compost* or vermicompost* or cocompost*)/TI,DE,ID

2   (farm* or dairy* or dairies or ranch* or (low input*) or (ancillary enterprise*) /TI,DE,ID

3   (manure* not (green manure*)) or (animal waste*) or slurr* or (crop* residue*) or hay or straw /TI,DE,ID

4   (chicken* or poultry or broiler*) near litter /TI,DE,ID

5   waste* near agricultur* /TI,DE,ID

6   (waste* near (disposal or utilization or treatment*) and agriculture*) /TI,DE,ID

7   #2 or #3 or #4 or #5 or #6

8   #1 and #7

9   #8 not (mushroom* or factory or sludge or (growing media))

10   #9 and LA=English

11   #10 and PY=1990-1997

Compost: On-farm Systems

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Citation no.: 1, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Adding coal ash to the composting mix.
Beaver, T. Biocycle. v.36(3): p.88-89. (1995 Mar.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composting; coal; ash; manures; food wastes; waste paper; litter plant

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Adding value to composted manure.
Biocycle. v.36(3): p.61-62. (1995 Mar.)
Descriptors: organic fertilizers; composts; poultry manure; granules; value-added; waste utilization

NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
Aeration experiments for swine waste composting.
Lau, A. K.; Lo, K. V.; Liao, P. H.; Yu, J. C. Bioresource- technol. v.41(2): p.145-152. (1992)
Includes references.
Descriptors: pig manure; waste treatment; composting; aeration; temperature; composts; physicochemical properties

NAL Call No.: QH84.8.B46
Aerobic composting of plant wastes and their effect on the yield of ryegrass and tomatoes.
Kostov, O.; Tzvetkov, Y.; Petkova, G.; Lynch, J. M. Biol- fertil-soils. v.23(1): p.20-25. (1996)
Includes references.
Descriptors: lolium multiflorum; lycopersicon esculentum; composts; quality; rice husks; crop residues; oryza sativa; linum usitatissimum; vitis vinifera; waste utilization; composting; nitrogen content; biomass; carbon; carbon-nitrogen ratio; microbial activities; nitrification; nitrate nitrogen; crop yield; crop quality; cephalosporium; dry matter accumulation; plant composition; fertilizers; manures; organic fertilizers; organic versus mineral fertilizers
Abstract: Vine branches, rice husks and flax residues were composted. The dynamics of biomass carbon, C/N ratios and nitrification were studied. The highest quality level and the most stabilized composts with the highest values of total N (1.3- 1.6%) and the smallest C/N ratios (8.0-9.0) were found with the vine branch composts. Compost application significantly increased the yield of tomatoes (24.0-61.1%) and the quality of fruits compared to soil treated with mineral fertilizers and manure. Inoculation of the vine branch compost with a Cephalosporium sp. had a positive effect on the yield and the quality of both ryegrass and tomatoes. The stabilization of the microbial biomass C level in the composts coincided with the beginning of intensive nitrification. Inoculation lowered the conductivity values and nitrate contents in all composts. It appeared that when nitrate N concentrations in the composts were more than 5% of the total N, NO3 accumulation in the fruits could result. However, the results can be applied to similar substrates and conditions of composting.

NAL Call No.: TP1.P7
Aerobic processing of solid organic wastes for the production of a peat alternative: a review.
Biddlestone, A. J.; Gray, K. R. Process-biochem. v.26(5): p.275-279. (1991 Oct.)
Literature review.
Descriptors: agricultural wastes; crop residues; animal wastes; aerobic treatment; composting; composts; peat; literature reviews; microbial degradation

6. NAL Call No.: TD420.A1P7 v.33 no.8
Aerobic thermophilic composting of piggery solid wastes.
Bhamidimarri, S. M. R.; Pandey, S. P. Appropriate waste management technologies for developing countries selected proceedings of the 3rd IAWQ Specialized Conference on Appropriate Waste Management Technologies for Developing Countries, held in Nagpur, India, 25-26 February 1995. (1st edition) p.89-94. (1996)
IAWQ Specialized Conference on Appropriate Waste Managment Technologies for Developing Countries (New York: Pergamon Press); includes references.
Descriptors: composting; pig manure; pig slurry; sawdust; aerobic treatment; thermophilic bacteria; streptococcus; waste treatment; nutrient content; nitrogen content; phosphorus

NAL Call No.: TD796.5.C58
Agricultural composting in the United States.
Kashmanian, R. M.; Rynk, R. F. Compost-sci-util. v.3(3): p.84-88. (1995 Summer)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composting; on-farm processing; surveys; cattle manure; poultry; pigs; carcasses; poultry manure; pig manure; crop residues; usa

NAL Call No.: 56.8 J822
Agricultural composting in the United States: trends and driving forces.
Kashmanian, R. M.; Rynk, R. F. J-soil-water-conserv. v.51(3): p.194-201. (1996 May-1996 June)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composting; on-farm processing; trends; surveys

NAL Call No.: S544.3.A2C47
Agricultural producer--self environmental assistance.
LaPrade, J. C.; Hairston, J. E. Circ-ANR. [Auburn, Ala.: Alabama Cooperative Extension Service, Auburn University]. #801, 11p. (1993 July)
Descriptors: farm management; fertilizers; questionnaires; pesticides; composting

NAL Call No.: TD419.R47
Agricultural waste.
Marr, J. B.; Facey, R. M. Water-environ-res. v.66(4): p.387-394. (1994 June)
Includes references.
Descriptors: agricultural wastes; characteristics; anaerobic treatment; recycling; composting; literature reviews

NAL Call No.: TD419.R47
Agricultural waste.
Marr, J. B.; Facey, R. M. Water-environ-res. v.67(4): p.503-507. (1995 June)
Includes references.
Descriptors: waste treatment; waste water treatment; animal wastes; agricultural wastes; composting; literature reviews

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Agricultural waste composting.
Biocycle. v.31(5): p.33. (1990 May)
Descriptors: composting; agricultural wastes; research; usda; federal programs; legislation; usa

NAL Call No.: TD419.R47
Agricultural wastes.
Walsh, J. L.; Valentine, G. E.; Ross, C. C. Res-j-water- pollut-control-fed. v.63(4): p.452-458. (1991 June)
Includes references.
Descriptors: agricultural wastes; waste treatment; waste disposal; recycling; usage; anaerobic treatment; composting; manures; water pollution; feeds; chemicals; reviews

NAL Call No.: S590.C63
Agronomic effectiveness of poultry manure composts.
Mahimairaja, S.; Bolan, N. S.; Hedley, M. J. Commun-soil-sci- plant-anal. v.26(11/12): p.1843-1861. (1995)
Includes references.
Descriptors: brassica oleracea var. capitata; zea mays; composts; poultry manure; rock phosphate; sulfur; urea; comparisons; crop yield; nitrogen; use efficiency; phosphorus; nutrient uptake; recovery; nitrate; leaching; residual effects; ammonium nitrogen; nitrate nitrogen; movement in soil; sulfocomposts; phosphocomposts
Abstract: Two field experiments were conducted to examine the agronomic value of poultry manure composted in the presence of both phosphate rock (PR) and elemental sulphur (So) (sulphocompost) and PR alone (phosphocompost). Winter cabbage and summer maize were used as test crops. For the first season's winter cabbage, the phosphocompost and sulphocompost were approximately 12% and 60% as effective as urea and both composts were equally effective as urea for the second season's maize crop. The greater agronomic effectiveness of sulphocompost could be attributed to the improved nitrogen (N)-use efficiency increased PR dissolution and improved S nutrition. Distribution of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) in the soil profile of field plots indicated greater potential for winter leaching of N from urea than poultry manure which could be the reason for the improved residual value of the manure reflected in summer maize yields. The results from the field experiments indicated that composting poultry manure with So and PR not only reduces environmental pollution associated with manure application, but also increases the agronomic effectiveness of manure.

NAL Call No.: 47.8 AM33P
Alternatives for the disposal of poultry carcasses.
Blake, J. P.; Donald, J. O. Poult-sci. v.71(7): p.1130- 1135. (1992 July)
Includes references.
Descriptors: poultry farming; waste disposal; carcass disposal; rendering; fermentation; composting; extrusion; burial; incineration
Abstract: Every broiler production facility is faced with the reality of carcass disposal. Nationwide, this represents a tremendous amount of organic matter that requires environmentally and biologically safe disposal or utilization. Disposal of poultry carcasses has been identified as one of the major problems facing the poultry industry. If poultry carcasses resulting from death by natural occurrences at such high levels of production are not disposed of by environmentally acceptable methods, future industry expansion will be limited or regulatory constraints will be imposed. Methods for the disposal of poultry carcasses include burial, incineration, composting, and rendering. Burial and incineration impose environmental concerns that are becoming less acceptable. Composting is environmentally sound, relatively inexpensive, and is gaining widespread acceptance. Rendering carcasses into a valued protein by-product meal is another alternative. Methods for transporting fresh or refrigerated carcasses to a rendering facility are being investigated. When coupled with rendering, fermentation is an excellent alternative for storing and sporting pathogen-free poultry carcasses. Extrusion of carcasses provides an alternative to conventional by-product rendering. AD methods that allow for the environmentally safe and biosecure disposal of poultry carcasses should be considered. No single method will completely solve the problem.

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Citation no.: 1, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240

NAL Call No.: TP995.A1I5
Anaerobic composting with methane recovery from agricultural and village wastes.
Badawi, M. A.; Blanc, F. C.; Wise, D. L.; El Shinnawi, M. M.; Abo Elnaga, S. A.; El Shimi, S. A. Proc-ind-waste-conf. (46): p.727-739. (1992)
Meeting held May 14-16, 1991, West Lafayette, Indiana.
Descriptors: composting; methane production; biogas; anaerobic digestion; biological treatment; crop residues; maize silage; cattle manure; refuse

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Anaerobic gasification advances.
Skajaa, J.; Hannibal, E. Biocycle. v.32(10): p.74-77. (1991 Oct.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: biogas; anaerobic conditions; composting; gasification; bioenergy; agricultural wastes; industrial wastes; refuse; biomass; fertilizers; ownership; denmark

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Analyzing contaminants in the organic waste stream.
McEvoy, M. Biocycle. v.34(5): p.71-72. (1993 May)
Descriptors: organic fertilizers; composts; contaminants; heavy metals; organochlorine pesticides; polycyclic hydrocarbons; antibiotics; animal manures; seafoods; food wastes; washington

NAL Call No.: S544.3.N3C66
Animal waste management for the horseowner.
Wheeler, G.; Cirelli, A. Jr. Fact-sheet-Max-C-Fleischmann- Coll-Agric,-Coop-Ext-Serv. [Reno, Nev.: The College]. #95- 11, 4p. (1995)
Includes references.
Descriptors: horses; horse manure; waste disposal; suburban areas; composting; odor abatement; dust control; application to land; nutrient content

NAL Call No.: S494.5.B563A47
Application of a pO2-auxostat as a model in thermophilic composting of manure at low partial pressures of oxygen.
Pel, R.; Gottschal, J. C.; Zwart, K. B. Agricultural biotechnology in focus in the Netherlands / J.J. Dekkers, H.C. van der Plas & D.H. Vuijk (eds.). [Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc]. p.243-249. (1990)
Includes references.
Descriptors: manures; composting; thermophilic microorganisms; aerobes; anaerobes; bioreactors; oxygen consumption; biotechnology

NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
Application of natural zeolites for the reduction of ammonia emissions during the composting of organic wastes in a laboratory composting simulator.
Bernal, M. P.; Lopez Real, J. M.; Scott, K. M. Bioresource- technol. v.43(1): p.35-39. (1993)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composting; straw; pig slurry; mixtures; ammonia; emission; nitrogen; losses; zeolites; adsorbents

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Aspergillus in compost: Straw man or fatal law.
Haines, J. Biocycle. v.36(4): p.32-35. (1995 Apr.)
Descriptors: composting; aspergillus; health hazards

NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
An assessment of composting in cloth bags without enforced aeration.
Yu, J. C.; Lau, A. K.; Liao, P. H.; Lo, K. V. Bioresource- technol. v.37(1): p.103-106. (1991)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composting; bags; cattle manure; peat; mosses; chopping; paper; mixtures; temperature; weight; ph; moisture content; carbon nitrogen ratio; monitoring; weight losses; enclosed composting

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Bavarian on-farm composting.
Brinton, R. B.; Brinton, W. F. Jr. Biocycle. v.35(6): p.47-49. (1994 June)
Descriptors: yards; wastes; food wastes; composting; waste utilization; on-farm processing; germany

NAL Call No.: 47.8 Am33P
Biodegradability and microbial activities during composting of poultry litter.
Atkinson, C. F.; Jones, D. D.; Gauthier, J. J. Poultry- sci. v.75(5): p.608-617. (1996 May)
Includes references.
Descriptors: poultry manure; composting; microbial degradation; sawdust; nitrogen content; fiber content; volatile compounds; indoles; plate count; decay fungi; temperature; carbon dioxide; microbial activities; 4,4-diamidino 2-phenylindole
Abstract: Poultry litter is composted to reduce odor and pathogens and to improve its quality as a soil amendment. Organic material, e.g., sawdust, is added to increase the C:N ratio to achieve optimum degradation of organic C and retention of N through microbial biomass formation. However, the relative biodegradabilities of the organic material in poultry litter and the amendment are usually not known. Furthermore, it is assumed that as microorganisms metabolize organic compounds and produce CO2, they increase in biomass and, therefore, retain N. In this study, bench-scale compost reactors were used to determine the relative contributions of poultry litter and of the amendment (sawdust) to the biodegradability of a compost mix. Approximately 29% of the volatiles lost from the poultry litter mix came from the sawdust. Fiber analyses revealed that only a small portion of cellulose was degraded. Although microbial subpopulations able to degrade selected macromolecules were present at varying levels, the overall level of microorganisms did not change markedly. Populations capable of degrading bacterial cell walls were present throughout the composting period, and microbiological assays indicated that inorganic nutrients were available to support limited microbial growth. These results suggest that N compounds and inorganic nutrients are recycled, rather than fixed during composting.

NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
Biodegradation of paddy straw with cellulolytic fungi and its application on wheat crop.
Kanotra, S.; Mathur, R. S. Bioresour-technol. v. 47(2): p.185-188. (1994)
Includes references.
Descriptors: rice straw; biodegradation; cellulolytic microorganisms; fungi; composting; triticum aestivum; crop yield; india

NAL Call No.: S494.5.B563A47
Biotechnological aspects of manure and manure cake composting.
Zwart, K. B. Agricultural biotechnology in focus in the Netherlands / J.J. Dekkers, H.C. van der Plas & D.H. Vuijk (eds.). [Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc]. p. 240-242. (1990)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composting; animal manures; animal wastes; waste treatment; biotechnology; ammonia; emission; air pollution

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Blending composts with fertilizers.
Biocycle. v.34(2): p.71. (1993 Feb.)
Descriptors: triticum aestivum; nitrogen; sugarcane bagasse; composts; fertilizers; jute; agricultural wastes; usa; pakistan

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
By George! composting at Mount Vernon.
Arner, R. Biocycle. v.36(12): p.79-80. (1995 Dec.)
Descriptors: composting; animal manures; waste utilization; history; virginia

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
California egg ranch solves manure problem.
Buchanan, M.; Fulford, B. Biocycle. v.33(3): p.56-57. (1992 Mar.)
Descriptors: poultry manure; composting; waste treatment; recycling; california; santa cruz, california

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Citation no.: 1, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Challenges of on-farm composting.
Oshins, C.; Fiorina, L. Biocycle. v.34(11): p.72-73. (1993 Nov.)
Descriptors: composting; on-farm processing; regional surveys; pennsylvania

NAL Call No.: QH84.8.B46
Change in N fractions during composting of wheat straw.
Bannick, C. G.; Joergensen, R. G. Biol-fertil-soils. v.16(4): p.269-274. (1993)
Includes references.
Descriptors: wheat straw; composting; nitrogen; amino acids; amino sugars; composts; decomposition

NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
Changes during processing in the organic matter of composted and air-dried poultry manure.
Mondini, C.; Chiumenti, R.; Da Borso, F.; Leita, L.; De Nobili, M. Bioresour-technol. v.55(3): p.243-249. (1996 Mar.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: poultry manure; composting; air drying; organic matter; carbon; nitrogen; carbon-nitrogen ratio; humification; nutrient content
Abstract: Composting and active drying are the main techniques employed to prevent losses of NH3 and development of undesirable odours from poultry manure. We studied the effects of these treatments on C and N content and stabilization of organic matter. Carbon and N contents of composted poultry manure (CPM) at the end of the processes were 82.9 and 56.1%, respectively, of the initial material, whereas the C content of dried poultry manure (DPM) remained practically the same, while the N content slightly increased with time. Nitrogen content of DPM at the end of the process was about three times higher than that of CPM (55.1 and 19.2 mg/g, respectively). The humification index (HI) showed a decreasing trend in both products, indicating the formation of humic substances in both processes, although to different extents: even at 20 days CPM showed HI values typical of a well-matured material (0.50), whereas HI for DPM at the end of the process was 1.14, indicating that this material did not achieve stabilization. Application of electrofocusing (EF) to characterize the qualitative evolution of humic substances showed a more complex EF profile in the case of CPM and confirmed the higher stabilization of OM in the composted material. CPM could be useful as a soil amendment because of its high degree of stabilization, whereas DPM can be considered mainly as an organic fertilizer, because of its high content of N. If DPM was piled for a long period its OM could achieve a high degree of humification, so increasing the agronomic quality of this fertilizer.

NAL Call No.: QR100.M5
Changes in functional abilities of the microbial community during composting of manure.
Insam, H.; Amor, K.; Renner, M.; Crepaz, C. Microb-ecol. v.31(1): p.77-87. (1996)
Includes references.
Descriptors: cattle manure; composting; turning; frequency; microbial flora; biomass production; respiration; maturity; compost maturity
Abstract: The objective of this study was (a) to detect changes of the functional abilities of the microflora during composting of manure as a result of windrow turning frequency and (b) to detect differences between distinct zones within the windrows. Biolog GN microtiter plates containing 95 different carbon sources were inoculated with diluted suspensions of compost material containing 15,000 microorganisms per well (120 microliter). We found a dramatic shift in functional microbial community structure during the 8-week composting process. The shift was more rapid when the compost windrows were turned. The substrate use pattern in the outer, well-aerated zone of the unturned windrow was similar to that of the turned windrows. Microbial biomass and respiration decreased more rapidly in the turned than in the unturned windrows, indicating a different pace of compost maturation. The data suggest that the Biolog assay may be a suitable approach to determine compost maturity.

NAL Call No.: 56.9 So3
Characterization of water extracts of two manures and their adsorption on soils.
Liang, B. C.; Gregorich, E. G.; Schnitzer, M.; Schulten, H. R. Soil-sci-soc-am-j. [Madison, Wis. Soil Science Society of America]. v.60(6): p.1758-1763. (1996 Nov.-1996 Dec.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: cattle manure; composts; comparisons; extracts; characterization; chemical composition; organic matter; adsorption; soil types textural; soil texture; clay; stockpiled versus composted dairy manure; dissolved organic carbon
Abstract: To uncover possible chemical differences between stockpiled and composted dairy manures, water extracts of these manures were analyzed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and by pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py- FIMS). Judging from the 13C NMR, which took into consideration all of the organic C present, aliphatic and aromatic C in the composted and stockpiled manure extracts were similar but the composted manure extract appeared to be richer in protein C, phenolic C, and carboxylic C and poorer in carbohydrate C than the stockpiled manure extract. Major components of the extract of the stockpiled manure extract determined by Py-FIMS, which measured only volatile organics, were N compounds > phenols + monolignins > carbohydrates > alkylaromatics > peptides = lipids > lignin dimers > sterols > fatty acids > suberins. On the other hand, the quantitative order of organic components of the composted manure extract was phenols + monolignins > N compounds > carbohydrates > peptides > alkylaromatics > lipids > fatty acids > sterols = lignin dimers > suberins. The relatively low total ion intensity of the water extract of the composted manure and its greater aromaticity suggested that composting increased polymerizathin and cross-linking and so led to the formation of larger molecules. Water-soluble organic C (DOC) extracted from the manures was used to study adsorption isotherms on soils varying in clay content from 3 to 54%. The adsorption of the DOC by the soils increased as the clay and organic matter contents and the surface areas of the soils increased. Increased adsorption of the DOC extracted from the composted manure appeared to be due to increased molecular weights.

NAL Call No.: QH541.5.D4J6
Chemical, physico-chemical and microbiological examination of town refuse compost and chicken manure as organic fertilizers.
El Nadi, A. H.; Rabie, R. K.; Abdel Magid, H. M.; Sabrah, R. E. A.; Abdel Aal, S. I. J-arid-environ. v.30(1): p.107-113. (1995 May)
Includes references.
Descriptors: refuse compost; poultry manure; mineral content; nutrient content; chemical composition; water holding capacity; bacteria; fungi

NAL Call No.: S605.5.O74
China's changing garden.
Rodale, R. Org-gard. v.37(9): p.23-24, 26. ill. (1990 Dec.)
Descriptors: gardens; composting; organic culture; organic farming; china

NAL Call No.: S494.5.S86S8
Co-composted poultry mortalities and poultry litter: composition and potential value as a fertilizer.
Cummins, C. G.; Wood, C. W.; Delaney, D. P. J-sustain- agric. v.4(1): p.7-19. (1993)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composts; poultry manure; poultry; carcasses; carcass disposal; waste utilization; chemical properties; chemical composition; composting; surveys; alabama

NAL Call No.: S1.N32
Co-composting works: but can you make it pay.
Shirley, C. New-farm. v.14(2): p.47. (1992 Feb.)
Descriptors: composting; animal manures; municipal refuse disposal; cooperation; farmers; pennsylvania; the farm co- compost project

NAL Call No.: TD796.5.C58
Combining legumes and compost: a viable alternative for farmers in conversion to organic agriculture.
Astier, M.; Gersper, P. L.; Buchanan, M. Compost-sci- util. v.2(1): p.80-87. (1994 Winter)
Includes references.
Descriptors: brassica oleracea var. italica; organic farming; conversion; poultry manure; legumes; composts; ammonium sulfate; crop yield; california

NAL Call No.: TD930.A55 1995
Commercial and on-farm production and marketing of animal waste compost products.
Carr, L.; Grover, R.; Smith, B.; Richard, T.; Halbach, T. Animal waste and the land-water interface [Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers]. p.485-492. (1995)
Includes references.
Descriptors: animal wastes; composting; techniques; composts; quality; marketing

NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
Comparative effects of peat and sawdust employed as bulking agents in composting.
Martin, A. M.; Evans, J.; Porter, D.; Patel, T. R. Bioresource-technol. v.44(1): p.65-69. (1993)
Includes references.
Descriptors: fish scrap; poultry manure; crab waste; composting; peat; sawdust; bulking agents; canada

NAL Call No.: 290.9 Am32T
Comparison between the nitrogen fluxes from composting farm wastes and composting yard wastes.
Ballestero, T. P.; Douglas, E. M. Trans-ASAE. v.39(5): p.1709-1715. (1996 Sept.-1996 Oct.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: agricultural wastes; litter plant; composting; composts; nitrogen; movement in soil; comparisons; groundwater; water quality; nitrate nitrogen; ammonium nitrogen; nitrous oxide; water content; forest soils; clearcutting; bulk density; transport processes
Abstract: A nitrogen transport and mass-balance study was performed at a large-scale composting facility in order to evaluate the impact of such facilities on groundwater quality. In the soil zone, soil moisture NO3-N concentrations in excess of 100 mg/L were consistently observed at depths as great as 1.5 m below a farm waste windrow, and reached levels as high as 900 mg/L by the end of the composting process. There was a strong inverse relationship between NH4-N changes in the farm waste and NO3-N changes in the soil directly below the windrow. Little attenuation occurred as NO3-N was transported downward through the soil. NO3-N in soil moisture 1.5 m below the yard waste remained at ambient levels for much of the two-month sampling period. Quantified nitrogen losses during the composting process were nearly 10 times higher in the farm waste than in the yard waste. Of the nitrogen species sampled, dissolved NO3-N was by far the predominant pathway for nitrogen loss from the composting farm waste, while gaseous N2O losses predominated in the composting yard waste. The major factors determining the degree to which nitrogen was lost during the composting process were waste characteristics of: the type of organic carbon present, the percentage of inorganic nitrogen, the bulk density, and moisture content.

NAL Call No.: QH84.8.B46
Comparison of chemical and microbiological methods for the characterization of the maturity of composts from contrasting sources.
Forster, J. C.; Zech, W.; Wurdinger, E. Biol-fertil- soils. v.16(2): p.93-99. (1993)
Includes references.
Descriptors: bark compost; barley straw; composts; rape straw; refuse compost; straw disposal; wheat straw; ammonification; arginine; enzyme activity; fulvic acids; humic acids; immobilization; nitrogen; oxidoreductases; soil enzymes; soil fertility

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Compost has key role in shift to organic farming.
Grealy, S. Biocycle. v.38(1): p.67-68. (1997 Jan.)
Descriptors: composting; on-farm processing; organic farming; desert soils

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Citation no.: 1, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Compost pays off in the orchard.
Farrell, M. Biocycle. v.37(10): p.40, 42. (1996 Oct.)
Descriptors: orchards; organic farming; orchard soils; composts; on-farm processing; composting; oregon

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Compost pelletization eases end use in Nigeria.
John, N. M.; Adeoye, G. O.; Sridhar, M. K. C. Biocycle. v.37(6): p.55-56. (1996 June)
Descriptors: composts; pelleting; poultry manure; research projects; nigeria

NAL Call No.: S544.3.A2C47
Composting agricultural wastes in Alabama.
Donald, J. O.; Mitchell, C. C.; Gilliam, C. H. Circ-ANR-ala- coop-ext-serv-auburn-univ. [Auburn, Ala.: The Service]. #572, 4p. (1990 July)
In subseries: Agricultural Engineering.
Descriptors: agricultural wastes; composting; alabama

NAL Call No.: S544.3.A2C47
Composting agricultural wastes in Alabama.
Donald, J. O.; Mitchell, C. C.; Gilliam, C. H. Circ-ANR. [Auburn, Ala.: Alabama Cooperative Extension Service, Auburn University]. #572, 4p. (1994 Oct.)
In the subseries: Agricultural Engineering.
Descriptors: agricultural wastes; composting; particle size; moisture content; carbon-nitrogen ratio; temperature; windrows; bins; aeration; soil amendments; fertilizers; application rates; alabama

NAL Call No.: SF5.A8 1990
Composting and land application of animal wastes.
Harada, V. Proceedings, the 5th AAAP Animal Science Congress, May 27-June 1, 1990, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China. v.1: p.264-287. (1990)
Chunan, Miaoli, Taiwan: The Organization Committee, Fifth AAAP Animal Science Congress; includes references.
Descriptors: animal wastes; composting; waste disposal; waste treatment; japan

NAL Call No.: SF55.A78A7
Composting and land application of animal wastes.
Harada, Y. Asian-australasian-j-anim-sci. v.5(1): p. 113-121. (1992 Mar.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: animal wastes; composting; application to land; japan

NAL Call No.: 30.98 AG8
Composting and the roots of sustainable agriculture.
Blum, B. Agric-hist. v.66(2): p.171-188. (1992 Spring)
In the series analytic: History of Agriculture and the Environment / edited by D.E. Bowers and D. Helms. A Special Symposium, June 19- 22, 1991, Washington, D.C.
Descriptors: agriculture; history; composting; sustainability; waste disposal; literature reviews; usa; europe

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Composting animal manure with municipal yard trimmings.
Wetterauer, D.; Killorn, R. Biocycle. v.37(10): p.54, 56-57. (1996 Oct.)
Descriptors: composting; waste utilization; animal manures; litter plant; yards; wastes; rural communities; projects; iowa; cocomposting

NAL Call No.: 290.9 Am32T
Composting broiler litter from two management systems.
Henry, S. T.; White, R. K. Trans-ASAE. v.36(3): p.873- 877. (1993 May-1993 June)
Includes references.
Descriptors: poultry manure; waste disposal; broilers; composting; litter; poultry farming; south carolina; usa
Abstract: The physical and chemical properties of litter and its compost were investigated for two broiler management systems. Management practice one removed all litter after each group of birds, while management practice two removed litter after every third group of birds. Both practices had mass reductions due to composting of approximately 25%. Management practice two had higher concentrations (dry basis) of all chemical constituents, except nitrogen (N) and total organic carbon (TOC). The concentrations of chemical constituents, except Al and TOC, increased due to composting. The litter and the resulting compost showed significant differences for both management practice one and two. However, the characteristics of the compost produced from management practice one were similar to the characteristics of the compost for management practice two.

NAL Call No.: SF481.J68
Composting cage layer manure with poultry litter.
Haque, A. K. M. A.; Vandepopuliere, J. M. J-appl-poult- res. v.3(3): p.268-273. (1994 Fall)
Includes references.
Descriptors: poultry manure; composting; litter; turkeys; broilers; bacterial count; escherichia coli; salmonella; moisture content

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Composting dog manure in Fairbanks.
Freeborne, J. Biocycle. v.35(1): p.70-71. (1994 Jan.)
Descriptors: composting; animal manures; dogs; alaska

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Composting food and vegetative waste.
Jones, B. J. Biocycle. v.33(3): p.69-71. (1992 Mar.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composting; food wastes; organic wastes; agricultural wastes; economic impact; farmers; businesses; cooperation; maine

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Composting food waste on the farm.
Adams, N. E. Biocycle. v.34(6): p.73-75. (1993 June)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composting; food wastes; farm tests; state government; law; cost benefit analysis; new hampshire

NAL Call No.: TD172.J6
Composting gin trash reduces waste disposal and pollution problems.
Pessarakli, M. J-environ-sci-health-part-A-environ-sci- eng. v.25(8): p.1037-1047. (1990)
Includes references.
Descriptors: cotton gin trash; waste treatment; composting; mixtures; poultry manure; ratios; techniques

NAL Call No.: aS622.S6
Composting improves water quality.
Soil-water-conserv-u-s-dep-agric-soil-conserv-serv. v.13(1): p.16-18. (1992 May-1992 June)
Descriptors: poultry farming; mortality; composting; watershed management; water quality; southern states of usa

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Citation no.: 1, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240

NAL Call No.: TD927.N38 1994
Composting manures using various carbon sources.
Lufkin, C. S.; Kenny, M.; Loudon, T. L.; Scott, J. Proceedings of the National Symposium on Protecting Rural America's Water Resources: Partnerships for Pollution Solutions, October 23- 26, 1994, Omni Shoreham Hotel, Washington, DC. p.105-112. (1994)
National Symposium on Protecting Rural America's Water Resources: Partnerships for Pollution Solutions. Oklahoma, City, OK: Ground Water Protection Council; includes references.
Descriptors: cattle manure; composting; leaves; straw; hay; sawdust; windrowing; windrowers; dairy manure

NAL Call No.: DISS F1990069
The composting of farmyard manure with mineral additives and under forced aeration and the utilization of FYM and FYM compost in crop production = Die Kompostierung von Stallmist mit Zuschlagstoffen und unter Zwangsbeluftung und die Verwendung von Stallmist und Stallmistkompost im Pflanzenbau.
Ott, P. ill., 289p. Witzenhausen, Germany (1990)
Thesis (doctoral)--Universitat des Landes Hessen, 1990; includes bibliographical references (p. 277-289); summary in German
Descriptors: farmyard manure; composting

NAL Call No.: QR1.M562
Composting of goat dung with various additives for improved fertilizer capacity.
Agamuthu, P. World-j-microbiol-biotechnol. v.10(2): p.194-198. (1994 Mar.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: goats; animal manures; composts; additives; pennisetum purpureum; temperature; ph; moisture content; water holding capacity

NAL Call No.: TD796.5.G74 1990
Composting of poultry litter, leaves, and newspaper.
Gresham, C. W.; Janke, R. R.; Moyer, J.; Rodale Research Center. ill., v, 35p. "Supported by a grant from the Pennsylvania Energy Office." (Kutztown, Pa.: Rural Urban Office, Rodale Research Center, Rodale Institute, c1990)
Descriptors: compost; poultry manure

NAL Call No.: S494.5.S86S8
Composting of poultry wastes: implications for dead poultry disposal and manure management.
Sims, J. T.; Murphy, D. W.; Handwerker, T. S. J-sustain- agric. v.2(4): p.67-82. (1992)
Includes references.
Descriptors: chickens; carcass disposal; composting; composts; nitrogen; mineralization

NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
Composting of salmon-farm mortalities.
Liao, P. H.; Vizcarra, A. T.; Lo, K. V. Bioresour- technol. v. 47(1): p.67-71. (1994)
Includes references.
Descriptors: fish farms; salmon; mortality; waste treatment; composting

NAL Call No.: TD796.5.C58
Composting of salmon farm mortalities with passive aeration.
Liao, P. H.; Vizcarra, A. T.; Chen, A.; Lo, K. V. Compost- sci-util. v.2(4): p.58-66. (1994 Autumn)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composting; composts; fish; aeration; volatile fatty acids; phenol; phytotoxicity; fish composts

NAL Call No.: TD172.J6
Composting of separated solid swine manure.
Liao, P. H.; Vizcarra, A. T.; Chen, A.; Lo, K. V. J-environ- sci-health,-part-A,-environ-sci-eng. [New York, Marcel Dekker]. v.28(9): p.1889-1901. (1993)
Includes references.
Descriptors: pig manure; composting; efficiency; moisture content; temperature; volatile fatty acids; volatility; odor emission; waste treatment

NAL Call No.: 58.8 J82
Composting of separated solid swine wastes.
Lo, K. V.; Lau, A. K.; Liao, P. H. J-agric-eng-res. v.54(4): p.307-317. (1993 Apr.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: pig manure; solid wastes; separation; composting; waste treatment; bulking agents; composts; quality
Abstract: The effects of various bulking agents were examined on the efficiency of composting the fibrous solids obtained from swine manure after a liquid/solids separation process. The effects on the quality of the resulting composts were also examined. The separated solids were either composted without bulking agents, or mixed with different portions of peat moss and/or sawdust. Aeration rates were also varied in different experimental sets. A self-heating mode of operation was adopted. The results indicated that the fibrous solids from a liquid/solids separation process could be composted in small reactors with or without the addition of bulking agents. The composting masses reached thermophilic temperatures (45-70 degrees C) and met regulatory requirements with or without aeration. Aeration rates of 0.04 to 0.08 1/min per kg volatile matter and an intermittent mode of aeration are recommended for the composting of separated swine manure. Based on measured compost characteristics and composition, the finished composts made from a manure/peat moss mixture had the best quality in terms of moisture content, nitrogen content, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio and colour of the product.

NAL Call No.: 80 AC82
Composting of three kinds of residues of very different origin.
Soliva, M.; Giro, F. Acta-hortic. (302): p.181-192. (1992 Mar.)
In the series analytic: Compost Recycling of Wastes / edited by C. Balis, M. De Bertoldi, G.L. Ferrero, V. Maniow, and E. Kapetanios. Proceedings of an International Symposium, October 4-7, 1989, Athens, Greece.
Descriptors: composting; plant residues; cattle manure; rabbit droppings; poultry droppings; spain

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Composting on Pennsylvania farms.
Abel, J.; Oshins, C. Biocycle. v.36(9): p.66-68. (1995 Sept.)
Descriptors: composting; on-farm processing; surveys; pennsylvania

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Composting on the urban fringe.
Bye, J. Biocycle. v.32(4): p.60-62. (1991 Apr.)
Descriptors: farm enterprises; composting; waste utilization; cattle manure; fish scrap; horse manure; organic wastes; windrows; massachusetts; off-farm wastes

NAL Call No.: TD796.5.C66 1990
Composting potato culls and potato processing wastes: a feasibility study.
Woods End Research Laboratory. ill., 45p. (Woods End Research Laboratory, Inc., Mount Vernon, Me., 1990)
Running title: Potato cull composting feasibility study. Resources; sponsored by: Central Aroostook Soil & Water Conservation District"--Cover.
Descriptors: compost-maine; potato waste; agricultural wastes-maine-recycling

NAL Call No.: 290.9 Am32P
A composting process design computer model.
Person, H. L.; Shayya, W. H. Pap-am-soc-agric-eng. [St. Joseph, Mich.: American Society of Agricultural Engineers]. #934030, 15p. (1993 Summer)
Paper presented at the "1993 International Summer Meeting sponsored by The American Society of Agricultural Engineers," and The Canadian Society of Agricultural Engineering," June 20-23, 1993, Spokane, Washington.
Descriptors: composting; design; computer software; models; animal wastes; waste utilization

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Composting record diagnosis and prognosis.
Golueke, C.; Diaz, L. Biocycle. v.31(7): p.64, 66, 68- 69. (1990 July)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composting; agricultural wastes; waste treatment

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Citation no.: 1, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Composting regulations stir up California farmers.
Timmons, L. Biocycle. v.36(10): p.79-80, 82-83. (1995 Oct.)
Descriptors: composting; on-farm processing; regulations; california

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Composting residential and commercial streams.
Gies, G. Biocycle. v.36(5): p.78-79. (1995 May)
Descriptors: composting; waste utilization; food wastes; waste paper; agricultural wastes; ontario

NAL Call No.: 100 Al1H
Composting sweetens smell of swine manure.
McCaskey, T.; Little, J. Highlights-agr-res. v.41(4): p.13-14. (1994 Winter)
Descriptors: pigs; pig manure; fertilizers; odors; composting; waste disposal; economic analysis

NAL Call No.: S544.3.N7N45
Consider composting yard and agricultural wastes.
Richard, T. News-views v.75(5): p.6-7. (1990 May)
Descriptors: composting; agricultural wastes; farm income; waste treatment

NAL Call No.: S544.3.N7A4
Considering on-farm composting? many options open.
Richard, T. Agfocus-publ-cornell-coop-ext-orange-cty. 13p. (1991 Aug.)
Descriptors: agricultural wastes; composting; animal wastes; animal manures

NAL Call No.: S544.3.A2C47
Construction of a dead-poultry composter.
Donald, J. O.; Blake, J. P. Circ-ANR-ala-coop-ext-serv- auburn-univ. [Auburn, Ala.: The Service]. #604, 4p. (1991 July)
In subseries: Agricultural Engineering.
Descriptors: poultry; carcass disposal; composting; farm buildings; alabama

NAL Call No.: TD796.5.C58
Controlled, high rate composting of mixtures of food residuals, yard trimmings and chicken manure.
Elwell, D. L.; Keener, H. M.; Hansen, R. C. Compost-sci- util. v.4(1): p.6-15. (1996 Winter)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composting; yards; wastes; food wastes; poultry manure; mixtures; monitoring; carbon-nitrogen ratio; dry matter; losses; aeration; temperature; air flow; oxygen; consumption; moisture content; carbon dioxide; emission; ammonia; gas production

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Controlling ammonia emission at composting plants.
Bonazzi, G.; Valli, L.; Piccinini, S. Biocycle. v.31(6): p.68-71. (1990 June)
Includes references.
Descriptors: poultry manure; composting; biodegradation; temperature; ph; moisture content; ammonia; vaporization; italy

NAL Call No.: 290.9 AM32P
Conversion of potato harvesting machinery to invert compost windrows of food and agricultural waste.
Whitney, L. F.; Rynk, R. E.; Grant, R. J. Pap-amer-soc-agric- eng. [St. Joseph, Mich.: The Society]. #90-6563, 12p. (1990 Winter)
Paper presented at the "1990 International Winter Meeeting", December 18-21, 1990, Chicago, Illinois.
Descriptors: solanum tuberosum; agricultural wastes; composting; farm machinery; mechanization

NAL Call No.: 100 M69MI
Cookbook for poultry litter may solve industry problems.
Broadway, R. MAFES-res-highlights-miss-agric-for-exp- stn. v.54(12): p.7. (1991 Dec.)
Descriptors: poultry manure; composting; waste disposal; mississippi

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Dairy farmers shift to composting.
Rynk, R. Biocycle. v.35(4): p.58-59. (1994 Apr.)
Descriptors: composting; cattle manure; dairy farms; on-farm processing; surveys; usa; canada

NAL Call No.: 47.8 Am33P
Degradation of aflatoxin by poultry litter.
Jones, F. T.; Wineland, M. J.; Parsons, J. T.; Hagler, W. M. Jr. Poultry-sci. v.75(1): p.52-58. (1996 Jan.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: maize; poultry manure; aflatoxins; microbial degradation; detoxification; composting; temperature; moisture content; ammonia
Abstract: Two trials were conducted to determine whether deep stacking of contaminated corn with poultry litter destroys aflatoxin. Contaminated corn was ground and mixed with litter to carbon:nitrogen ratios of 30:1. Moistures were adjusted by adding tap water just prior to incubation or stacking. The initial laboratory trial included only broiler litter at 40% moisture, whereas the subsequent field trial involved a 2 X 2 factorial design with litter type (turkey or broiler) and moisture (20 or 40%) as main effects. Aflatoxin assays were reduced in the laboratory trial from 433 and 402 to 54 and 8 ppb in Containers 1 and 2, respectively, after 35 d of incubation at 28 C. In the field trial, aflatoxin disappeared from broiler and turkey litter mixtures with projected moistures of 20% after 10 and 6 wk of storage, respectively, whereas disappearance in mixtures containing projected moistures of 40% required 5 and 3 wk, respectively. Differences in moisture appear to account for differences in the ability of turkey and broiler litter to detoxify aflatoxin. Hence, turkey and broiler litter would appear equal with respect to the ability to detoxify aflatoxin- contaminated corn. Disappearance of aflatoxin during storage with litter could have occurred as a result of ammonia release during storage or microbial detoxification mechanisms. However, nitrogen values suggest that microbial action was responsible for much of the detoxification, as aflatoxin disappeared from mixtures with little apparent ammonia release.

NAL Call No.: S592.7.A1S6
Denitrification losses of N from fresh and composted manures.
Mahimairaja, S.; Bolan, N. S.; Hedley, M. J. Soil-biol- biochem. v.27(9): p.1223-1225. (1995 Sept.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: animal manures; composts; denitrification; nitrogen; losses; composting; wood chips; sulfur; wheat straw; zeolites; fresh manures; biological denitrification

NAL Call No.: SB249.N6
The derived demand for poultry litter and poultry litter compost in delta cotton production.
Danforth, D.; Cochran, M. J.; Miller, D. Proc-beltwide- cotton-conf. p.475-477. (1993)
Meeting held January 10-14, 1993, New Orleans, Louisiana.
Descriptors: cotton; crop production; poultry manure; demand

NAL Call No.: 290.9 Am32P
Design parameters for in-vessel poultry manure composting.
Keener, H. M.; Marugg, C.; Hoitink, H. A. J.; Hansen, R. C. Pap-am-soc-agric-eng. [St. Joseph, Mich.: American Society of Agricultural Engineers]. #914001, 18p. (1991 Summer)
Paper presented at the "1991 International Summer Meeting sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers," June 23-26, 1991, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
Descriptors: poultry manure; composting; systems; environmental protection; models

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Citation no.: 1, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240

NAL Call No.: S605.5.B5
Determination of compost biomaturity. II. Optical density of water extracts of composts as a reflection of their maturity.
Mathur, S. P.; Dinel, H.; Owen, G.; Schnitzer, M.; Dugan, J. Biol-agric-hortic. v.10(2): p.87-108. (1993)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composts; maturation; stability; determination; colorimetry; absorbance; wavelengths; extracts; solubility; organic matter; carbon; biochemical oxygen demand; ammonium nitrogen; nitrate nitrogen; nitrogen content; ash; moisture content; environmental temperature; aerobiosis; oxygen; ammonia; hydrogen sulfide; lepidium sativum; seed germination; composting; humification; farmyard manure; waste paper; dissolved organic carbon; biostability

NAL Call No.: S605.5.B5
Determination of compost biomaturity. III. Evaluation of a colorimetric test by 13C-NMR spectroscopy and pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry.
Schnitzer, M.; Dinel, H.; Mathur, S. P.; Schulten, H. R.; Owen, G. Biol-agric-hortic. v.10(2): p.109-123. (1993)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composts; maturation; stability; determination; evaluation; colorimetry; extracts; spectral analysis; carbon; organic compounds; structure; aromaticcompounds; heterocyclic nitrogen compounds; humification; composting; farmyard manure; waste paper; mass spectrometry; nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; biostability; humic substances; aliphatic compounds

NAL Call No.: 290.9 Am32P
Development of a composting recipe for swine manure.
Collins, E. R. Jr.; Parson, S. C. Pap-am-soc-agric-eng. [St. Joseph, Mich.: American Society of Agricultural Engineers]. #934033, 29p. (1993 Summer)
Paper presented at the "1993 International Summer Meeting sponsored by The American Society of Agricultural Engineers," and The Canadian Society of Agricultural Engineering," June 20-23, 1993, Spokane, Washington.
Descriptors: pig manure; composting; recipes; performance

NAL Call No.: SF395.P62
Disposing of dead swine.
Murphy, D. W.; Estienne, M. J.; Dobbins, C. N.; Foster, K. A. Pork industry handbook .[West Lafayette, Ind.: Cooperative Extension Service, Purdue University]. (PIH-133): p.4 (1995 June)
Management, PIH-133, June 1995.
Descriptors: pigs; carcass disposal; pig farming; composting; fermentation; lactobacillus

NAL Call No.: S631.F422
Dissolution of phosphate rock during the composting of poultry manure: an incubation experiment.
Mahimairaja, S.; Bolan, N. S.; Hedley, M. J. Fertil-res. v.40(2): p.93-104. (1994)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composting; poultry manure; rock phosphate; mixtures; phosphorus; solubility; determination; amendments; calcium; sulfur; ph; composts; ammonium nitrogen; nitrate nitrogen; nitrogen content
Abstract: Dissolution of phosphate rocks (PRs) during composting with poultry manure was examined using a radioactive 32p labelled synthetic francolite and North Carolina phosphate rock (NCPR) through laboratory incubation experiments. Francolite or NCPR was mixed with different poultry manure composts at a rate equivalent to 5 mg P g-1 and the dissolution was measured after 60 and 120 days incubation by a sequential phosphorus (P) fractionation procedure. The use of 32p labelled francolite showed that in manure systems, PR dissolution can be measured more accurately from the increases in NaOH extractable P (deltaNaOH-P) than from the decreases in HCl extractable P (deltaHCl-P) in the PR treated manure over the control. The dissolution measurements showed that approximately 8 to 20% of francolite and 27% of NCPR dissolved during incubation with poultry manure composts in the presence of various amendments. Addition of elemental sulphur (S degrees) to the compost enhanced the dissolution of PRs. The results provide no evidence for the beneficial effect of protons (H+), produced during the nitrification of NH4+ in manure composts, on PR dissolution. The low level of dissolution of PR in poultry manure composts was attributed mainly to the high concentration (4.8 X 10(-2) mol L- 1) of calcium (Ca2+) in manure solution.

NAL Call No.: S441.S855
Ecological management of potato cropping systems.
Porter, G. A. Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education SARE research projects Northeast Region. 12p. (1995)
SARE Project Number: LNE93-36/ANE93-18. Record includes floppy disk. Date of report is December 1995. Record includes several attachments about the project.
Descriptors: solanum tuberosum; leptinotarsa decemlineata; perillus bioculatus; coleomegilla maculata; bacillus thuringiensis; beauveria bassiana; green manures; composts; cattle manure; soil physical properties; nitrate nitrogen; leaching; growth; plant water relations; crop yield; low input agriculture; maine

NAL Call No.: S89.E2
An economic analysis of on-farm food waste composting.
Cook, T. E.; Halstead, J. M.; Sciabarrasi, M. R.; Estes, G. O. Res-rep-nh-agric-exp-stn. [Durham, N.H.: New Hampshire Agricultural Experiment Station]. #129, 22p. (1994 Apr.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: food wastes; composting; farms; composts; waste paper; economic analysis; estimated costs; new hampshire

NAL Call No.: HD1401.S73 no.93 7
An economic comparison of composted manure and commercial nitrogen with imperfect information.
Berends, P. T. 17p. (Dept. of Agricultural Economics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kan., 1993)
"January 1993."
Descriptors: comparisons; economic analysis

NAL Call No.: HD1773.A2N6
The economic feasibility of poultry litter composting facilities in Eastern West Virginia.
Fritsch, D. A.; Collins, A. R. Agric-resour-econ-rev. v.22(2): p.199-209. (1993 Oct.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: poultry manure; composting; economic viability; feasibility; waste disposal; fees; location of production; west virginia; off-farm composting

NAL Call No.: S539.5.J68
Economic feasibility of using composted manure on irrigated grain sorghum.
Williams, J. R.; Diebel, P. L.; Berends, P. T.; Schlegel, A. J. J-prod-agric. v.7(3): p.323-327. (1994 July-1994 Sept.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: sorghum bicolor; irrigated stands; animal manures; composts; nitrogen fertilizers; application rates; crop yield; economic analysis; feasibility; costs; returns; kansas

NAL Call No.: S605.5.B5
Effect of different organic manures and garden waste compost on the nitrate dynamics in soil, N uptake and yield of winter wheat.
Berner, A.; Scherrer, D.; Niggli, U. Biol-agric-hortic. v.11(1/4): p.289-300. (1995)
Paper presented at a workshop on Nitrate Leaching in Ecological Agriculture held October 1993, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Descriptors: triticum aestivum; winter wheat; farmyard manure; composts; slurries; nitrogen; nutrient sources; npk fertilizers; top dressings; mineralization; nutrient availability; nutrient uptake; crop growth stage; nitrogen content; soil water; crop yield; grain; dry matter accumulation; wheat straw; growth rate; switzerland; organic versus inorganic fertilizers

NAL Call No.: QH84.8.B46
Effect of lignite humic acid treatment on the rate of decomposition of wheat straw.
Whiteley, G. M.; Pettit, C. Biol-fertil-soils. v.17(1): p.18-20. (1994)
Includes references.
Descriptors: wheat straw; decomposition; humic acids; lignite; composts; composting

NAL Call No.: 80 Ac82
The effect of manure composted with drum composter on aromatic plants.
Aflatuni, A. Acta-hortic. (344): p.63-68. (1993 Nov.)
Paper presented at the "International Symposium on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants," March 22-25, 1993, Tiberias, Israel.
Descriptors: culinary herbs; medicinal plants; composts; cattle manure; dry matter; crop yield; essential oils; greenhouse culture; finland

NAL Call No.: TD796.5.C58
Effect of straw composting on the degradation and stabilization of chlorophenols in soil.
Benoit, P.; Barriuso, E. Compost-sci-util. v.3(3): p.31- 37. (1995 Summer)
Paper presented at the symposium on the Biogeochemistry of Compost held August 1994 as part of the 36th Rocky Mountain Conference.
Descriptors: polluted soils; 2,4-dichlorophenol; chlorinated hydrocarbons; pesticide residues; immobilization; soil organic matter; wheat straw; humification; composts; biodegradation; transformation; soil flora; biological activity in soil; 4 chlorophenol; biological transformation

NAL Call No.: S590.C63
Effective cation exchange capacity of manure compost of varying maturity stages determined by the saturation-displacement method.
Saharinen, M. H.; Vuorinen, A. H.; Hostikka, M. Commun-soil- sci-plant-anal. v.27(15/17): p.2917-2923. (1996)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composts; quality; composting; cation exchange capacity; determination; test procedure; cation saturation; displacement; compost maturity
Abstract: The effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) of manure composts, at the start and during the composting process, were determined. During this study we developed a new saturation-displacement principle based method for compost samples. It was clearly demonstrated that ECEC of manure compost, as analyzed from three successive composting series, profoundly increased as compost matured. In addition, the ECEC values were highly repeatable, due to the proper mixing of the matrix with the saturation, washing, and displacement solutions, as well as to the preventing of any matrix losses with the separation of the matrix from those solutions with careful centrifugation-filtration procedure.

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Citation no.: 1, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240

NAL Call No.: QH545.A1E52
Effects of composting on phytotoxicity of spent pig- manure sawdust litter.
Tiquia, S. M.; Tam, N. F. Y.; Hodgkiss, I. J. Environ- pollut. v.93(3): p.249-256. (1996)
Includes references.
Descriptors: pig manure; composting; moisture content; phytotoxicity; brassica alboglabra; brassica parachinensis; allium sativum; cucumis sativus; amaranthus; lycopersicon esculentum; amaranthus espinosus

NAL Call No.: TD172.A7
Effects of fertilizer on insecticides adsorption and biodegradation in crop soils.
Rouchard, J.; Thirion, A.; Wauters, A.; Steene, F. v. de.; Benoit, F.; Ceustermans, N.; Gillet, J.; Marchand, S.; Vanparys, L. Arch-environ-contam-toxicol. v.31(1): p.98-106. (1996 July)
Includes references.
Descriptors: cattle manure; pig slurry; green manures; crop residues; composts; aldicarb; thiofanox; insecticides; adsorption; persistence; half life; soil organic matter; beta vulgaris; beta vulgaris var. saccharifera; belgium; imidacloprid

NAL Call No.: 80 AC82
Elimination of cucumber green mottle mosaic tobamovirus by composting infected cucumber residues.
Avgelis, A. D.; Manios, V. I. Acta-hortic. (302): p.311- 314. (1992 Mar.)
In the series analytic: Compost Recycling of Wastes / edited by C. Balis, M. De Bertoldi, G.L. Ferrero, V. Maniow, and E. Kapetanios. Proceedings of an International Symposium, October 4-7, 1989, Athens, Greece.
Descriptors: cucumis sativus; plants; infections; cucumber green mottle mosaic tobamovirus; plant residues; composting; disease control; greece

NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
Emissions of malodorous compounds and greenhouse gases from composting swine feces.
Kuroda, K.; Osada, T.; Yonaga, M.; Kanematu, A.; Nitta, T.; Mouri, S.; Kojima, T. Bioresour-technol. v.56(2/3): p.265-271. (1996 May-1996 June)
Includes references.
Descriptors: pig manure; composting; aeration; odor emission; methane; nitrous oxide; ammonia; thiols; methyl sulfide; hydrogen sulfide; sulfur; processing losses; sulfur compounds; dimethyl disulfide; methylmercaptan; nitrogen losses
Abstract: Emissions of harmful gases, malodorous compounds and greenhouse gases emitted during composting of swine feces under continuous aeration were studied using a laboratory- scale composting apparatus. Concentrations of ammonia and sulfur compounds in the exhaust gas rose remarkably after starting and at every turning, and their changes reflected the odor concentrations calculated from sensory tests. Volatile fatty acids, in high concentrations at the start, were rapidly reduced within several hours from starting and did not rise again. Methane emission was observed within only 1 day from starting. Nitrous oxide repeatedly rose and fell after every turning, as did ammonia. From the viewpoint of nitrogen loss during composting, however, the total amount of nitrous oxide emission seemed quite small compared with that of ammonia.

NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
Evaluation of parameters related to chemical and agrobiological qualities of wheat-straw composts including different additives.
Blanco, M. J.; Almendros, G. Bioresour-technol. v.51(2/3): p.125-134. (1995)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composts; wheat straw; maturity; additives; organic matter; phytotoxicity; lepidium sativum; bioassays; seed germination; crop yield; lolium rigidum; organic additives; mineral additives.
Abstract: The chemical and agrobiological characteristics of 37 composts from wheat straw with different additives were evaluated through routine tests. In general, the plant yield under greenhouse conditions in soils amended with these composts was unrelated to data from the phytotoxicity germination biotest, but with the chemical parameters reflecting selective biopolymer degradation in straw. This suggests that factors such as microbial immobilization of nutrients had greater influence than phytotoxic inhibitor compounds in the plant yield of the soils amended with the composts studied. Monitoring the composition of the water-soluble fraction was also useful as regards crop yield of soils improved with compost. The factors potentially connected with the positive or depressive effect of composts in soil were assessed through factorial design experiments involving successive harvesting, calcium carbonates and mineral fertilization. In general, mineral fertilization may lead to decreased yields in soils to which immature composts are applied. The effects on compost maturity of the different by- products used as additives are discussed for the system studied.

NAL Call No.: TD420.A1P7
The evaluation of sawdust swine waste compost on the soil ecosystem, pollution and vegetable production.
Kao, M. M. Water-sci-technol-j-int-assoc-water-pollut-res- control. v.27(1): p.123-131. (1993)
In the series analytic: Appropriate Waste Management Technologies / edited by G. Ho and K. Mathew. Proceedings of the International Conference, held November 27-28, 1991, Perth, Australia.
Descriptors: composts; pig slurry; sawdust; mixtures; soil pollution; zinc; copper; brassica pekinensis; crop yield; taiwan

NAL Call No.: TD172.J6
Evaluation of swine waste composting in vertical reactors.
Lau, A. K.; Liao, P. H.; Lo, K. V. J-Environ-sci-health-part- a-environ-sci-eng. v.A28(4): p.761-777. (1993)
Includes references.
Descriptors: pig manure; pig slurry; composting; waste treatment; moisture content; height; temperature; particle size distribution; shrinkage; compaction; statis pile system

NAL Call No.: 58.8 J82
Evaluation of the maturity of compost made from salmon farm mortalities.
Liao, P. H.; Chen, A.; Vizcarra, A. T.; Lo, K. V. J-agric- eng-res v.58(4): p.217-222. (1994 Aug.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composts; maturity; indicators; organic acids; phenols; concentration; storage; duration; moisture content; ph; composting; salmon; salmon culture; waste treatment; carbon-nitrogen ratio

NAL Call No.: S590.C63
Evaluation of the stabilization level of pig organic waste: influence of humic-like compounds.
Govi, M.; Ciavatta, C.; Sitti, L.; Gessa, C. Commun-soil-sci- plant-anal. v.26(3/4): p.425-439. (1995)
Includes references.
Descriptors: pig slurry; sludges; pig manure; straw; composting; composts; maturation; decomposition; humification; humic acids; fulvic acids; organic matter; isoelectric focusing; degradation; degree of humification

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Expanding markets for composted products.
Conrad, P. Biocycle. v.35(11): p.63-65. (1994 Nov.)
Descriptors: composts; dairy wastes; cattle manure; marketing; ancillary enterprises

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Expanding uses for poultry litter.
Collins, A. R.; Fritsch, D. A.; Diener, R. Biocycle. v.34(1): p.64-67. (1993 Jan.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: poultry manure; waste disposal; waste treatment; cattle feeding; soil amendments; composting; cost benefit analysis; transport costs; water pollution; state government; west virginia

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Farm composters play significant management role.
Kamp, M. v. d. Biocycle. v.33(11): p.67-69. (1992 Nov.)
Descriptors: composting; on-farm processing; composts; uses; massachusetts

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Farm composting project explores key areas.
Biocycle. v.32(7): p.38-40. (1991 July)
Descriptors: composting; food wastes; waste paper; recycling; research projects; farmers; maine; pittston, maine; commercial composting

NAL Call No.: S661.F37 1995
Farm scale composting. Biocycle. ill.(some col.), 80p. (JG Press, Emmaus, Pa., 1995)
Cover title.
Descriptors: compost management; compost economic aspects

NAL Call No.: SF481.2.F56
Farm structures for manure storage and composting mortality.
Ouart, M. D.; Bucklin, R. A.; Douglas, C. R. Proc-fla-poult- inst. (501): p.18-24. (1992)
Meeting held Oct 13-14, 1992, Gainesville, Florida.
Descriptors: farm storage; farm buildings; poultry manure; carcasses; composting; carcass disposal; broilers

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Citation no.: 1, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240

NAL Call No.: S441.S855
Farmer-to-farmer compost exchange.
Conkling, D. Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education SARE or Agriculture in Concert with the Environment ACE research projects. 32p. (1992)
SARE Project Number: ANE92.10. Record includes 3 1/2 floppy disk. Includes Appendices.
Descriptors: composts; leaves; animal wastes; dairy farms; low-input agriculture; sustainability; connecticut; sustainable farm practices

NAL Call No.: S661.N55 1994
A farmers' guide to Maryland compost regulations.
Nilsson, J.; Strahl, S. D.; Pickering Creek Environmental Center. iii, 12p. (Pickering Creek Environmental Center, Easton, Md., 1994)
Includes bibliographical references (p. 11-12).
Descriptors: compost-maryland; agricultural wastes- environmental aspects-maryland; nonpoint source pollution- maryland-prevention

NAL Call No.: TD796.5.D74 1990
Feasibility of on-farm composting.
Dreyfus, D. iii, 31p. (Rural Urban Office, Rodale Research Center, Rodale Institute, Kutztown, PA , 1990)
"Supported by a grant from the Pennsylvania Energy Office."
Descriptors: compost-pennsylvania-berks county; compost-pennsylvania-lancaster county; agricultural wastes- recycling; recycling waste, etc. pennsylvania berks county; recycling waste, etc. pennsylvania lancaster county

NAL Call No.: S661.F56 1993
Final report: on-farm composting of grass straw.
Hashimoto, A. G.; Oregon State University. ill., 23 leaves.. (Oregon State University, Corvallis, Ore., 1993)
Other title: On-farm composting of grass straw; "Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service."
Descriptors: compost; straw as fertilizer

NAL Call No.: S605.5.B5
A five year study on nitrate leaching under crops fertilised with mineral and organic fertilisers in lysimeters.
Leclerc, B.; Georges, P.; Cauwel, B.; Lairon, D. Biol-agric- hortic. v.11(1/4): p.301-308. (1995)
Paper presented at a workshop on Nitrate Leaching in Ecological Agriculture held October 1993, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Descriptors: crops; rotations; organic fertilizers; composts; npk fertilizers; nutrient sources; nitrogen; losses from soil; leaching; nutrient uptake; soil fertility; france; organic versus inorganic fertilizers; manure compost; urban compost; brushwood compost

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Food residues become community asset.
Steuteville, R. Biocycle. v.33(4): p.56-57. (1992 Apr.)
Descriptors: food wastes; animal manures; composting; waste treatment; cooperation; wisconsin; kenosha, wisconsin; duck litter

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Food waste composting facility plants recycling seeds.
Spencer, R. Biocycle. v.32(4): p.42-44. ill. (1991 Apr.)
Descriptors: food wastes; composting; recycling; educational programs; mixtures; wood chips; animal manures; waste utilization; new york

NAL Call No.: S494.5.S86M53 no.4
Forage based farming, manure handling and farm composting.
Koepf, H. H. ill., 48p. (Michael Fields Agricultural Institute, East Troy, Wis., 1993)
"This is a compilation of the proceedings of a one day conference held on Thursday, March 18, 1993, at Michael Fields Agricultural Institute, Inc., in East Troy, Wisconsin."
Descriptors: forage plants-congresses; manure handling- congresses; sustainable agriculture-congresses

NAL Call No.: S590.C63
Forecasting agrobiological properties of wheat straw with different additives--multiple regression models including chemical parameters.
Blanco, M. J.; Almendros, G. Commun-soil-sci-plant-anal. v.26(15/16): p.2473-2484. (1995)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composts; wheat straw; quality; additives; comparisons; stability; chemical properties; lolium rigidum; yields; crop growth stage; compost maturity; compost quality
Abstract: The agrobiological properties of 37 composts prepared from wheat straw with a series of organic or mineral additives have been determined through standard chemical analyses and greenhouse experiments with soils of different carbonate content and in the presence, or absence of mineral fertilization. Plant yield on soils treated with the composts was studied in successive stages of development of rye grass (Lolium rigidum), showing significant differences that paralleled the values of a limited number of compost parameters. Under greenhouse conditions and in the presence of mineral supply, the least matured composts led to improved plant yield only in the early harvests, decreasing thereafter which points to a behavior typical for the microbial immobilization of the additional nutrients. The germination (phytotoxicity) index was found poorly correlated with the yield in the different soils, whereas the N and lignin contents provided the most significant information, the results suggesting no cause-to-effect relationship in such correlations. The multiple regression models showed significant differences as regards the system studied when the limiting influence of nitrogen (N) was reduced through additional fertilization. The most significant coefficients for the plant yield were those reflecting the total mineralization rates of the compost, the composition of the water-soluble fraction, and the concentration of lipids whereas, when no mineral solution was added, the yield was explained mainly by the N content in compost and in water-soluble products. In successive harvests, the significance level of the compost N level tended to increase, whereas that of lipid decreased, the former factor showing the greatest influence when carbonates are present in the soil.

NAL Call No.: S75.F87
From an unmentionable to a commodity.
DePolo, J. Futures-mich-state-univ-agric-exp-stn. v.8(3): p.19-20. ill. (1990 Fall)
Descriptors: manures; composting; michigan

NAL Call No.: QH84.8.B46
Growth and cocoon production of Drawidia nepalensis (Oligochaeta).
Kaushal, B. R.; Bisht, S. P. S. Biol-fertil-soils. v.14(3): p.205-212. (1992)
Includes references.
Descriptors: drawida; cocoons; earthworms; growth; incubation; laboratory rearing; nutrition; vermicomposting; cattle manure; horse manure; soil water

NAL Call No.: QH84.8.B46
Growth and reproduction of the vermicomposting earthworm Perionyx excavatus as influenced by food materials.
Manna, M. C.; Singh, M.; Kundu, S.; Tripathi, A. K.; Takkar, P. N. Biol-fertil-soils. v.24(1): p.129-132. (1997)
Includes references.
Descriptors: vermicomposting; waste utilization; perionyx excavatus; earthworms; farmyard manure; wheat straw; maize stover; soy straw; straw; refuse; comparisons; food;sources; decomposition; mineralization; population dynamics; reproduction; growth; survival; composts; quality; stability; chemical composition; india; chickpea straw; compost maturity; reproduction potential
Abstract: An outdoor study was undertaken using polyethylene containers to assess the suitability of different organic residues, soybean straw (Glycine max L. Merrill), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.), maize stover (Zea mays L.), chickpea straw (cicer arietinum L.) and city garbage, as food for the tropical epigeic earthworm Perionyx excavatus, and to assess the influence of this earthworm on the decomposition of these materials. Maize stover was found to be the most suitable of the food materials used. Population growth of P. excavatus was enhanced by addition of these organic materials in the temperature range 24-30 degrees C, while the population was adversely affected above 30 degrees C in a vermiculture system. Addition of earthworms accelerated the breakdown of residues, which ultimately resulted in a lowering of the C:N ratio, water- soluble carbon and carbohydrates, and increased ash percentage and cation exchange capacity compared with their respective controls.

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Handling liquids and solids on hog farms.
Haywood, F. Biocycle. v.38(3): p.55-57. (1997 Mar.)
Descriptors: composting; pig manure; waste utilization; colorado

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
How a landscaper became an on-farm composter.
Segall, L. Biocycle. v.36(3): p.63-64. (1995 Mar.)
Descriptors: composting; on-farm processing; waste utilization

NAL Call No.: 56.9 SO3
Humic substances formed during the composting of organic matter.
Inbar, Y.; Chen, Y.; Hadar, Y. Soil-sci-soc-am-j. v.54(5): p.1316-1323. (1990 Sept.-1990 Oct.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: cattle slurry; humic acids; soil organic matter; composting
Abstract: Humic substances (HS) were extracted from separated cattle-manure compost (CSM) at various stages of decomposition. Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements were performed on the purified humic acids (HA) as well as crude fiber and chemical analyses. Levels of HS extracted from the CSM samples doubled during the composting (from 377 to 710 g kg-1 organic matter [OM]). The HS were divided into: (i) HA, which increased from 184 to 457 g kg-1 OM; and (ii) a fulvic fraction (FF). The FF was separated on XAD-8 resin to: (i) fulvic acid (FA), which maintained an unchanged level during composting (80- 100 g kg-1), and (ii) a nonhumic fraction (NHF), which increased from 107 to 170 g kg-1 OM during the process. The ratios between the concentrations of these fractions were tested as humification indexes. These indexes changed significantly during the process and were found to correlate exponentially with the composting time, C/N ratio, or both. Quantities of low-molecular- weight components (FF and NHF) rapidly increased during the first 40 d of composting and were nearly constant thereafter. The HA and HS contents reached nearly constant values after approximately 90 d. Only slight compositional and structural changes in CSM HA were detected with cross-polarization magic- angle spinning (CPMAS) 13C-NMR, FTIR spectra, and chemical analyses. The elemental composition and functional groups of CSM RA resembled those reported for HA of plant residues, peats, and incompletely humified materials. The CPMAS 13C-NMR spectra of the CSM HA resembled that of lignin. The aromaticity of the HA was about 40% and the lignin content was approximately 60%. The NMR data correlated web with results obtained by FTIR spectroscopy, both indicating that the CSM HA are composed of partially degraded constituents of plant tissue, which still retain to some extent their chemical structures. The major plant components identified in the HA were lignin, carbohydrates, and long-chain aliphatic structural groups.

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Citation no.: 1, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240

NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
Humic substances in straw compost with rock phosphate.
Singh, C. P.; Amberger, A. Biol-wastes. v.31(3): p.165- 174. (1990)
Includes references.
Descriptors: wheat straw; composting; waste treatment; waste utilization; rock phosphate; phosphorus; calcium; retention; capacity; humic acids; fulvic acids; molasses; incorporation

NAL Call No.: 450 P699
Identification and biological activity of germination- inhibiting long-chain fatty acids in animal-waste composts.
Marambe, B.; Nagaoka, T.; Ando, T. Plant-cell-physiol. [Kyoto, Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists]. v.34(4): p.605-612. (1993 June)
Includes references.
Descriptors: sorghum bicolor; seed germination; water uptake; atp; alpha amylase; enzyme activity; long chain fatty acids; composts; poultry droppings; pig slurry; cattle dung; phenolic compounds
Abstract: Long-chain fatty acids in germination- inhibiting animal-waste composts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids. These acids were found at concentrations greater than 0.25 mg (g dry compost)-1. The identified acids, together with lauric acid, and five kinds of short- and medium-chain fatty acid, were tested for their effects on the germination process of sorghum seeds. The authentic long- chain fatty acids, which were dissolved in a 1: 9 (v/v) mixture of methanol and distilled water at 40 mg liter-1, significantly reduced the alpha-amylase activity, physiological water uptake, and ATP content of the germinating seeds during the first 24 h of imbibition, as well as the rate of germination of seeds. Among the tested fatty acids, myristic and palmitic acids were the most potent inhibitors of germination. The inhibitory effects of long-chain fatty acids were stronger than those of the phenolic acids. The short- and medium-chain fatty acids did not have any significant germination-inhibitory effects at 40 mg liter-1. The results indicate that the long-chain fatty acids are the dominant inhibitors of germination in animal-waste composts, and that the inhibition of the alpha- amylase activity in germinating sorghum seeds is one aspect of the mode of action of these long- chain fatty acids.

NAL Call No.: 100 C12CAG
Incorporating rice straw into soil may become disposal option for growers.
Blank, S. C.; Jetter, K.; Wick, C. M.; Williams, J. F. Calif- agric. v.47(4): p.8-12. (1993 July-1993 Aug.)
Descriptors: rice straw; straw disposal; plowing; straw burning; composting; total costs; california

NAL Call No.: QH84.8.B46
Influence of low-molecular-weight organic acids on the solubilization of phosphates.
Bolan, N. S.; Naidu, R.; Mahimairaja, S.; Baskaran, S. Biol- fertil-soils. v.18(4): p.311-319. (1994)
Includes references.
Descriptors: organic acids; adsorption; rhizosphere; litter plant; composts; poultry manure; phosphorus; solubilization; nutrient uptake; phosphorus fertilizers; lolium rigidum

NAL Call No.: 290.9 Am32T
Influence zone of aeration pipes and temperature variations in passively aerated composting of manure slurries.
Sartaj, M.; Fernandes, L.; Patni, N. K. Trans-ASAE. v.38(6): p.1835-1841. (1995 Nov.-1995 Dec.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: poultry manure; slurries; peat; aeration; composting; methodology; temperature profile; physicochemical properties; pipes; composts ; ontario; perforated aeration pipes; zone of influence
Abstract: Natural and passive aeration methods of composting under high initial moisture content condition (76%) were studied. Compost material consisted of poultry manure slurry as the waste and peat as the bulking agent. Piles were trapezoidal in section with an initial volume and height of 5 m3 and 1.2 m, respectively. Correlation factors of temperature readings of identical positions in replicate piles showed that the process was quite stable and reproducible. Influence zone of passive aeration pipes was limited to the interior portion of the bottom half of the pile. Temperature distribution inside the piles indicated that passive aeration pipes were effective in providing more air than natural aeration. Passive aeration process finished two weeks earlier than natural aeration process. The final product had a dark brown color and was rich in total nitrogen and phosphorus.

NAL Call No.: S441.S855
Integrated hog farming and market gardening for small farmers in tropical areas of the western region.
Fleming, K. Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education SARE or Agriculture in Concert with the Environment ACE research projects. 6, 9p. (1993)
SARE Project Number: LWE 92-2. Reporting period for this report is October 1992 to September 1993.
Descriptors: pig farming; composting; agricultural wastes; market gardens; tree fruits; sustainability; economic analysis; small farms; demonstration farms; tropics; hawaii

NAL Call No.: S441.S8552
Integration of animal waste, winter cover crops and biological antagonists for sustained management of Columbia lance and other associated nematodes on cotton.
Barker, K. R.; Koenning, S. R.; Mikkelsen, R. L.; Edmisten, K. L. Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education SARE research projects Southern Region. 31p. (1995)
SARE Project Number: LS94-60. Record includes floppy disk.
Descriptors: gossypium; plant parasitic nematodes; poultry manure; composts; cover crops; secale cereale; green manures; paecilomyces; biological control agents; nitrogen fertilizers; use efficiency; nematode control; cultural control; biological control; sustainability; north carolina; municipal waste compost

NAL Call No.: S592.17.A73A74
Kinetics of composting rice straw with glue waste at different carbon: nitrogen ratios in a semiarid environment.
Jhorar, B. S.; Phogat, V.; Malik, R. S. Arid-soil-res- rehabil. v.5(4): p.297-306. (1991 Oct.-1991 Dec.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composting; kinetics; rice straw; adhesives; industrial wastes; carbon-nitrogen ratio; semiarid zones; cocomposting

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Leaves prove best bulking agent for grass clippings.
Barnes, J.; Heimlich, J. Biocycle. v.33(5): p.38-39. (1992 May)
Descriptors: composting; grass clippings; bulking; leaves; wood chips; straw; bulking agents; composts; decomposition; ohio

NAL Call No.: QL336.Z6
Life-cycle of the European compost worm Dendrobaena veneta (Oligochaeta).
Viljoen, S. A.; Reinecke, A. J.; Hartman, L. S-afr-j-zool-s- afr-tydskr-dierkd. v.26(1): p.43-48. (1991 Jan.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: dendrobaena; biological development; cattle manure; cocoons; growth; incubation; life cycle; reproduction; vermiculture; german federal republic

NAL Call No.: QL336.Z6
Life cycle of the oriental compost worm Perionyx excavatus (Oligochaeta).
Hallatt, L.; Reinecke, A. J.; Viljoen, S. A. S-afr-j-zool-s- afr-tydskr-dierkd. v.25(1): p.41-45. (1990 Jan.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: oligochaeta; soil fauna; life cycles; cattle manure; composting; waste disposal

NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
Loss of nitrogenous compounds during composting of animal wastes.
Martins, O.; Dewes, T. Bioresource-technol. v.42(2): p.103-111. (1992)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composting; mixtures; chopping; straw; liquid manures; poultry manure; pig manure; cattle manure; nitrogen; losses; leachates; gases; emission; ph; nitrogen balance

NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
Losses and transformation of nitrogen during composting of poultry manure with different amendents: an incubation experiment.
Mahimairaja, S.; Bolan, N. S.; Hedley, M. J.; Macgregor, A. N. Bioresour-technol. v. 47(3): p.265-273. (1994)
Includes references.
Descriptors: poultry manure; composting; aerobic treatment; anaerobic treatment; amendments; nitrogen; losses; transformation

NAL Call No.: S605.5.B5
Losses of nutrients through leaching and surface runoff from manure-containing composts.
Ulen, B. Biol-agric-hortic. v.10(1): p.29-37. (1993)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composts; manures; nitrogen; nutrients; losses; leaching; runoff; environmental impact; manure heaps

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Low cost composting methods for farmers.
Wilkinson, E. A.; Amick, D. R. Biocycle. v.36(3): p.65- 66. (1995 Mar.)
Descriptors: composting; on-farm processing; waste utilization

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Citation no.: 1, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Low cost options for fish waste.
Brinton, R. Biocycle. v.35(3): p.68-70. (1994 Mar.)
Descriptors: fish scrap; wheat straw; composting

NAL Call No.: 290.9 Am32P
Low-input composting of crab waste.
Brodie, H. L.; Carr, L. E.; Tolley, A. T. Pap-Am-Soc-Agric- Eng. [St. Joseph, Mich.: American Society of Agricultural Engineers]. #916004, 9p. (1991 Summer)
Paper presented at the "1991 International Summer Meeting sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers," June 23-26, 1991, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
Descriptors: crab waste; food processing; waste disposal; composting

NAL Call No.: S605.5.A43
Low-input, on-farm composting of high C:N ratio residues.
Churchill, D. B.; Horwath, W. R.; Elliott, L. F.; Blisland, D. M. Am-j-altern-agric. v.11(1): p.7-9. (1996)
Includes references.
Descriptors: crop residues; straw; lolium perenne; composting; on-farm processing; windrows; carbon-nitrogen ratio; low-input agriculture; sustainability; low-input composting
Abstract: Farm residues with high C:N ratios are difficult to use because of their low economic value and excessive volume. Composting is ideal for upgrading such residues, but was not thought possible without co-composting or lowering of the C:N ratio. We developed a low-input method to compost perennial ryegrass straw on-farm by forming windrows and fuming them either zero, two, four, or six times throughout the year with a commercial, straddle-type turner. No water beyond normal rainfall and no N other than that contained in the straw was added. The volume of straw was reduced by up to 88% with four or six turns over 20 to 24 weeks. The average internal temperature of straw windrows reached a maximum of 54 degrees C with four turns. The ability to compost these residues will help in the development of sustainable farming systems by allowing recycling of straw waste.

NAL Call No.: SF481.2.F56
Management and handling of poultry manure.
Nordstedt, R. A. Proc-fla-poult-inst. (49th): p.34-35. (1990)
Meeting held on October 9-10, 1990, Gainesville, Florida.
Descriptors: poultry manure; waste utilization; pollution; composting; waste treatment

NAL Call No.: 290.9 Am32P
Management of on-farm composting in the Intermountain West.
Miller, B. E.; Farrell Poe, K.; Pace, M. G.; Miller, R. L. Pap-am-soc-agric-eng. [St. Joseph, Mich.: American Society of Agricultural Engineers]. #94-4042/94-4082, 7p. (1994 Summer)
Paper presented at the 1994 International Summer Meeting Sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, June 19-22, 1994, Kansas City, Missouri.
Descriptors: waste treatment; composts; dairies; mountain states of usa

NAL Call No.: HD1775.A2A5
Managing and using wastes.
Donald, J.; Mitchell, C.; Ruffin, B. G. Ala-agribusiness- auburn-univ-ala-coop-ext-serv. v.29(4): p.4-6. (1991 Apr.)
Descriptors: animal wastes; waste utilization; waste disposal; composting

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Manure handling alternatives cut costs.
Logsdon, G. Biocycle. v.34(7): p.52-54. (1993 July)
Descriptors: animal manures; composting; costs; organic farming

NAL Call No.: 100 ID14
Market alternatives for Treasure Valley cull onions.
Levi, A. E.; Fellman, J. K.; Guenthner, J. F.; Makus, L. D.; Thornton, M. K. Bull-idaho-agric-exp-stn. [Moscow, Idaho: The Station]. #730, 14p. (1992 Feb.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: allium cepa; quality controls; agricultural wastes; dehydrated foods; frozen foods; plant oils; livestock feeding; composting; idaho; oregon

NAL Call No.: 381 J8223
Maturity assessment of wheat straw composts by thermogravimetric analysis.
Blanco, M. J. J-agric-food-chem. v.42(11): p.2454-2459. (1994 Nov.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: wheat straw; composts; decomposition; thermal degradation; thermogravimetry
Abstract: Thermogravimetric analysis in oxidizing atmosphere has been used to characterize composts prepared from wheat straw with different organic and mineral additives. After a wide range of classical parameters were determined for the chemical maturity of composts, plant yield improvement was studied in a greenhouse experiment. It was found that most chemical and agrobiological maturity indices paralleled peak area values in the differential thermogravimetric curves. In particular, the weight loss corresponding to compost material destroyed between 360 and 540 degrees C showed a very significant correlation with the germination index and the plant yield of the soils amended with compost. As expected, the extent of such thermal effects reflected also the H/C, O/C, and C/N ratios and the lignin content of the composts. Experiments during the methodological optimization of thermogravimetric analyses have shown the importance of removing the compost water- soluble fraction to prevent spurious results, probably due to the effect of salts on thermal decomposition in the lignocellulosic substrate.

NAL Call No.: TD796.5.C58
Mechanisms regulating composting of high carbon to nitrogen ratio grass straw.
Horwath, W. R.; Elliott, L. F.; Churchill, D. B. Compost-sci- util. v.3(3): p.22-30. (1995 Summer)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composting; straw; grasses; feasibility; carbon-nitrogen ratio; field experimentation; laboratory methods; windows; mineralization; microbial activities; environmental temperature; microorganisms; biomass; carbon; nitrogen; lignin; windrow composting; windrow turning

NAL Call No.: 290.9 Am32P
Method for composting grass seed straw residue.
Churchill, D. B.; Bilsland, D. M.; Elliott, L. F. Pap-am-soc- agric-eng. [St. Joseph, Mich.: American Society of Agricultural Engineers]. #93-8505, 12p. (1993 Winter)
Paper presented at the "1993 International Winter Meeting sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers," December 14- 17, 1993, Chicago, Illinois.
Descriptors: ryegrass straw; straw disposal; composting; windows

NAL Call No.: S671.A66
Method for composting grass seed straw residue.
Churchill, D. B.; Bilsland, D. M.; Elliott, L. F. Appl-eng- agric. v.11(2): p.275-279. (1995 Mar.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: straw; plant residues; composting; windrows; machinery; temperature; volume; oregon
Abstract: Long and short straw from grass seed production fields were collected, formed into windrows, and turned with a commercial compost turner zero, two, four, or six times over a nine-month period. Internal temperature and volume reduction of windrows were monitored weekly from October 1992, to June 1993. Volume was reduced by as much as 88% for long-straw windrows and 80% for short-straw windrows. Near- maximum volume reductions were achieved with as few as four turns for the short straw and two turns for the long straw. Number of turns had a significant effect on the rate of volume reduction. Four or more turns were necessary to produce a compost product with a soil- like texture. Temperatures necessary to kill all seed contained in the compost were not achieved and use of the compost should be limited to situations where crop and weed seedlings are not a concern.

NAL Call No.: TS1960.A33
Methods of disposal of paunch contents with emphasis on composting.
Wilson, D. Adv-meat-res. v.8: p.265-281. (1992)
In the series analytic: Inedible Meat By-products, edited by A. M. Pearson and T. R. Dutson.
Descriptors: meat byproducts; stomach; composting; waste treatment; manures

NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
Microbial activities during composting of spent pig- manure sawdust litter at different moisture contents.
Tiquia, S. M.; Tam, N. F. Y.; Hodgkiss, I. J. Bioresour- technol. v.55(3): p.201-206. (1996 Mar.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: pig manure; litter; sawdust; composting; moisture content; microbial activities; oxygen consumption; atp; temperature; air temperature; biomass; carbon; nitrogen; oxidoreductases; enzyme activity; correlation; environmental factors; aerobic heterotrophs; compost temperature
Abstract: The changes in microbial properties, including total aerobic heterotrophs, O2-consumption rate, ATP content, dehydrogenase activity and microbial biomass C and N of the spent pig-manure sawdust litter were examined during further composting. The effects of three moisture levels, 50% (pile A), 60% (pile B) and 70% (pile C), on the composting process were also evaluated. Piles A and B had very similar trends of change in temperature and microbial properties during the composting period but pile C was significantly different. Temperatures in the first two piles increased to a peak of 64-69 degrees C by day 4, while that of pile C rose to a lower peak (58 degrees C) on day 7. The high moisture content (about 70%) of pile C led to early cooling of the pile and decreased the production of microbial activity and biomass. Although water was added frequently to maintain the moisture content of each pile, it was difficult in practice to maintain the moisture content of pile C at 70%, since water leaked out from the pile. Therefore, a moisture content of between 50 and 60% can be considered as the optimal moisture level for further composting of the spent litter. In general, the total aerobic heterotrophs, O2 consumption rate and ATP content of all piles increased dramatically during the thermophilic stage of composting, but then decreased slowly and were maintained at lower levels at the end of the composting process. Stability of microbial properties was observed at day 60, indicating that two months is enough to convert spent litter to a mature compost. Temperature was found to be correlated with ATP content, dehydrogenase activity and oxygen consumption rate, and so these parameters could be used to indicate.

NAL Call No.: QH84.8.B46
Microbial C and N dynamics during mesophilic and thermophilic incubations of ryegrass.
Horwath, W. R.; Elliott, L. F. Biol-fertil-soils. v.22(1/2): p.1-9. (1996)
Includes references.
Descriptors: lolium perenne; crop residues; ryegrass straw; decomposition; composting; microbial degradation; microbial flora; biomass; carbon; nitrogen; nutrient requirements; mineralization; solubility; environmental temperature; carbon-nitrogen ratio; low-input agriculture; mesophiles; thermophiles
Abstract: Laboratory studies were conducted to determine C and N dynamics during the decomposition of ryegrass straw under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. A K(C) of 0.61 was developed for the chloroform-fumigation extraction method to estimate microbial biomass C. These estimates showed that the C and N requirement of the thermophilic biomass was approximately 50% of the mesophilic biomass. There was no relationship between chloroform-fumigation microbial biomass estimates and plating of microorganisms from straw on specific media. Mineralized C was measured as 185 and 210 g kg-1 straw in the 25 degrees C and 50 degrees C treatments, respectively. The efficiency of microbial substrate use, on a total straw basis, was 34 and 28% in the 25 degrees C and 50 degrees C incubations, respectively. The level of soluble C declined more slowly than total C mineralization at both temperatures, indicating that a portion of the labile C was not readily biodegradable. The addition of N decreased the rate of C mineralization at both temperatures. The reduced N requirement of the thermophiles explains why rapid degradation of the high C:N residue occurred without additional N or the need for the addition of a low C:N ratio substrate. Additional inoculum did not affect the decomposition process. We conclude that the promotion of thermophilic biomass activities, through composting for example, may prove useful in upgrading agricultural wastes for introduction into sustainable cropping systems.

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Citation no.: 1, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240

NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
Microbiological and biochemical changes during the composting of oil palm empty-fruit-bunches. Effect of nitrogen supplementation on the substrates.
Thambirajah, J. J.; Zulkali, M. D.; Hashim, M. A. Bioresour- technol. v.52(2): p.133-144. (1995)
Includes references.
Descriptors: elaeis guineensis; agricultural wastes; crop residues; composting; cattle manure; goats; animal manures; poultry manure; carbon nitrogen ratio; decomposition; thermophilic bacteria; thermophilic fungi; lignocellulosic wastes
: The composting of oil palm empty-fruit-bunches and of oil palm empty-fruit-bunches in supplementation with either goat dung, cow dung or chicken manure differed in the resulting C:N ratios. The initial C:N ratios (52:1, 35:1, 48:1, 47:1) for the four compost heaps were significantly reduced to 24:1, 14:1, 18:1 and 12:1, respectively, after 60 days of composting, resulting in the production of a stable humus that is suitable for crop production. A temperature of 70 degrees C was maintained for 3 days at the onset of composting. Both mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria showed consistent activity throughout the process, whereas fungal activity was completely suppressed during the peak heating phase. The rate of utilization of cellulosic material showed a positive correlation with the increase in the nitrogen content of the compost.

NAL Call No.: 290.9 Am32P
Microbiological safety of composted poultry farm mortalities.
Conner, D. E.; Blake, J. P.; Donald, J. O. Pap-am-soc-agric- eng. [St. Joseph, Mich.: American Society of Agricultural Engineers]. #91-4053, 12p. (1991 Summer)
Paper presented at the "1991 International Summer Meeting sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers," June 23-26, 1992, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
Descriptors: poultry; mortality; waste disposal; composting; bacteria; fungi

NAL Call No.: S605.5.B5
Mineralization of composted 15N-labelled farmyard manure during soil incubations.
Cheneby, D.; Nicolardot, B.; Godden, B.; Penninckx, M. Biol- agric-hortic. v.10(4): p.255-264. (1994)
Includes references.
Descriptors: silty soils; nitrogen; carbon; mineralization; nutrient availability; composts; farmyard manure; soil organic matter; decomposition

NAL Call No.: S592.7.A1S6
Moisture requirements of Dendrobaena veneta (Oligochaeta), a candidate for vermicomposting.
Muyima, N. Y. O.; Reinecke, A. J.; Viljoen Reinecke, S. A. Soil-biol-biochem. v.26(8): p.973-976. (1994 Aug.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: dendrobaena; earthworms; growth; maturation; cocoons; cattle manure; environmental factors; moisture content; vermicomposting; moisture; moisture perferences
Abstract: Dendrobaena veneta, an earthworm species from Europe, has been reported to have the potential to combat organic waste problems and to be a producer of protein. This study was concerned with the effect of moisture on growth, maturation and cocoon production of this species. Moisture preferences of clitellate worms were studied with the aid of cylindrical moisture towers filled with cattle manure, ground to a particle size of between 500 and 1000 micrometers and moistened. A moisture gradient was allowed to develop in the towers and after the worms were added they were kept at a temperature of 15 degrees C and a relative humidity of 47.7%. Juvenile worms were exposed to different moisture contents in glass flasks filled with cattle manure medium and kept at 15 degrees C. The highest frequency for clitellate worms was between 77.9 and 78.7% while their moisture preference ranged between 67.4 and 84.3%. For cocoon production the highest frequency was between 73.1 and 79.9%. The optimum moisture content for growth and maturation of juvenile worms was 75%. From the results it appears that this earthworm species could be utilized in organic waste with a relatively high moisture content. However, comparing the reproductive capacity and maturation time with that of other vermicomposting species, D. veneta seems to be a less successful earthworm species for vermicomposting.

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Moving compost to market.
Spencer, R. Biocycle. v.32(8): p.36-39. (1991 Aug.)
Descriptors: composting; agricultural wastes; road transport; marketing; quality controls; connecticut; lebanon, connecticut; yard wastes

NAL Call No.: 100 Al1H
Municipal waste becomes asset to farm land: proper carbon:nitrogen ratio is key to success.
Entry, J. A.; Wood, B. H.; Edwards, J. H.; Wood, C. W. Highlights-agr-res. v.43(1): p.8-9. (1996 Spring)
Descriptors: wood chips; organic wastes; waste paper; cotton gin trash; composting; carbon-nitrogen ratio; poultry manure; ammonium nitrate; application to land; soil ph; chemical composition; low-input agriculture; yard wastes

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
New partners enter on-farm composting.
Biocycle. v.38(1): p.63-66. (1997 Jan.)
Descriptors: composting; on-farm processing; animal wastes; animal manures

NAL Call No.: 290.9 Am32P
Nitrate movement beneath a beef cattle manure composting site.
Nienaber, J. A.; Ferguson, R. B. Pap-am-soc-agric-eng. [St. Joseph, Mich.: American Society of Agricultural Engineers]. #92-2611/92-2629, 12p. (1992 Winter)
Paper presented at the "1992 International Winter meeting sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers," December 15- 18, 1992, Nashville, Tennessee.
Descriptors: profiles; cattle manure; nitrate

NAL Call No.: QH540.J6
Nitrogen and carbon mineralization rates of composted manures incubated in soil.
Hadas, A.; Portnoy, R. J-environ-qual. v.23(6): p.1184- 1189. (1994 Nov.-1994 Dec.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: cattle manure; composts; decomposition; nitrogen; carbon; mineralization; nitrogen content; simulation models
Abstract: Rates of decomposition and inorganic N release from composted manures should be known and predictable on the basis of their composition for their proper use as a source of available N. Four composted cattle manures were analyzed for their inorganic N, soluble organic C and N, and total N and organic matter contents. The composts were incubated in soil for 32 wk at 30 degrees C and 60% water-holding capacity. Inorganic N and CO2 evolution were determined periodically. Inorganic N released from the composts after 32 wk ranged from 11 to 29% of their total N content, 2 to 12% of total N were initially inorganic, and 1 to 5% were soluble organic N. The rates of decomposition of the composts were computed by the simulation model NCSOIL by minimizing the deviation of the model output from the periodically measured CO2 and inorganic N release and by using the soluble and insoluble organic C and N contents of the composts as input. The soluble components decomposed before the end of the first week. The decomposition rate constant obtained for the insoluble components of three composts was 4 to 5 X 10(- 4) d-1, whereas for one compost it was 1 X 10(-8) d-1, indicating that this compost was much more stable. To obtain universal rate constants that will fit any compost, components of the insoluble material must be better defined.

NAL Call No.: 56.8 J823
Nitrogen interactions and crop uptake from fresh and composted 15N-labelled poultry manure.
Kirchmann, H. J-Soil-sci. v.41(3): p.379-385. (1990 Sept.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: poultry manure; nitrogen fertilizers; labeling; poultry manure; interactions; composting

NAL Call No.: 290.9 Am32P
Nitrogen transformations during poultry manure composting.
Hansen, R. C.; Keener, H. M.; Marugg, C.; Dick, W. A.; Hoitink, H. A. J. Pap-am-soc-agric-eng. [St. Joseph, Mich.: American Society of Agricultural Engineers]. #914014, 16p. (1991 Summer)
Paper presented at the "1991 International Summer Meeting sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers," June 23-26, 1991, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
Descriptors: poultry manure; composting; ammonia; nitrogen; nitrification

NAL Call No.: QH84.8.B46
Nitrogen transformations in tropical soils under conventional and sustainable farming systems.
Chao, W. L.; Tu, H. J.; Chao, C. C. Biol-fertil-soils v.21(4): p.252-256. (1996)
Includes references.
Descriptors: tropical soils; clay soils; alluvial soils; nitrogen; transformation; nitrification; biological activity in soil; soil bacteria; populations; population density; ammonium; oxidation; nitrite; agricultural soils; farming systems; sustainability; fertilizers; composts; pig manure; nutrient sources; nitrifying bacteria; conventional versus sustainabable farming; inorganic versus organic fertilizers
Abstract: Samples of alluvial soil from mixed sandstone shale and slate and of Taiwan clay were collected from two sites, both managed under a similar crop rotation scheme. The fields were further divided into sections which were managed under either conventional farming or sustainable farming practices. When the soil samples were collected in April 1989, after 1 year of operation under conventional or sustainable practices, the nitrification activities of both soils managed under sustainable practices had improved dramatically compared to the conventional practices. The nitrifying activities in Taiwan clay samples collected in April 1993 which had been managed with chemical or with organic fertilizer were not significantly different. However, nitrifying activity in the alluvial soil was higher under sustainable than under conventional practices. Numbers of NH4-oxidizing bacteria were not significantly different in any of the soil samples irrespective of the different management practices. In contrast, higher numbers of NO2-oxidizing bacteria were detected in both soils managed sustainably. The results also indicated that the composition of NH4-oxidizing bacteria differed in the alluvial soil when managed with different kinds of fertilizer.

NAL Call No.: TD930.A55 1995
Nutrient cycling from cattle feedlot manure and composted manure applied to Southern High Plains drylands.
Jones, O. R.; Willis, W. M.; Smith, S. J.; Stewart, B. A. Animal waste and the land-water interface [Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers]. p.265-272. (1995)
Includes references.
Descriptors: feedlot wastes; composts; fertilizers; no tillage; stubble mulching; soil depth; nitrogen; phosphorus; application rates; runoff; nitrate nitrogen; ammonium nitrogen; water pollution; texas

NAL Call No.: S605.5.I45 1989
Nutrient recycling through off-farm organic waste.
Vogtmann, H.; Frickle, K.; Schuler, Ch. Agricultural alternatives and nutritional self-sufficiency for a sustainable agricultural system that respects man and his environment. p.342-354. (1990)
Proc. of the IFOAM Seventh Int Scientific Conference, Ouagadougou, January 2-5, 1989. [Witzenhausen?]: Ekopan; includes references.
Descriptors: composting; households; refuse; composts; brassica oleracea; beta vulgaris; pythium ultimum; plant disease control; quality; heavy metals; biocides; chemicals; nutrient content; weeds; seedling emergence; german federal republic; xenobiotics; biological waste composts; biogenic waste composts

NAL Call No.: S671.A66
Odor control from poultry manure composting plant using a soil filter.
Sweeten, J. M.; Childers, R. E. Jr.; Cochran, J. S.; Bowler, R. Appl-eng-agric. v.7(4): p.439-449. (1991 July)
Includes references.
Descriptors: poultry manure; composting; odor abatement; scrubbers; soil; filters
Abstract: High intensity odors from a poultry manure composting building were controlled by discharging them with a fan-blower through perforated pipe beneath 20-25 cm (8-10 in.) of sand and pea gravel in a 0.23 ha (0.57 ac) soil filter field. Ammonia concentrations were reduced by 97-99%. Odor intensity measured with a butanol olfactometer decreased by 30-80% as compared to composting building odors.

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Citation no.: 1, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240

NAL Call No.: QR1.C78
Oleic acid transformations by selected strains of Sphingobacterium thalpophilum and Bacillus cereus from composted manure.
Kaneshiro, T.; Nakamura, L. K.; Bagby, M. O. Curr- microbiol. v.31(1): p.62-67. (1995 July)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composts; bacillus cereus; bacteria; oleic acid; hydroxy fatty acids; amides; lipids; lipid metabolism; fatty amides; polar oleyl lipids
Abstract: In a survey of 186 randomly selected microbial strains isolated from composted manure, 63 transformed oleic acid into three types of

NAL Call No.: S661.O5
On-farm composting: a method for converting manure into soil-building humus while saving time, money and fuel.
Land Stewardship Project (U.S.). ill., 8p. (Land Stewardship Project, Lewiston, MN, 1991?)
Cover title.
Descriptors: compost; humus; farm manure; organic farming; sustainable agriculture

NAL Call No.: 100 Al1H
On-farm composting feasible for disposal of swine carcasses.
McCaskey, T. A.; Little, J. A.; Krotz, R. M.; Lino, S. P.; Hannah, T. C. Highlights-agr-res. v.43(1): p.18-20. (1996 Spring)
Descriptors: pigs; carcass disposal; composting; techniques; odor abatement; fertilizers; nutrient content; waste disposal; alabama

NAL Call No.: S661.O53 1992
On-farm composting handbook.
Rynk, R.; Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Service. ill., xiii, 186p. (Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Service, Ithaca, N.Y., 1992)
"June, 1992"
Descriptors: compost; farm manure; sustainable agriculture; crop residues

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
On-farm composting in the U.K.
Bujang, K. B.; Lopez Real, J. M. Biocycle. v.34(8): p.72-73. (1993 Aug.)
Descriptors: composting; on-farm processing; livestock farming; uk

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
On-farm composting of municipal organics.
Oshins, C.; Kelvin, R. Biocycle. v.33(7): p.50-51. (1992 July)
Descriptors: on-farm processing; composting; refuse; yards; litter plant; rural urban relations; problem analysis; problem solving

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
On-farm handling of organic residuals.
Glenn, J. Biocycle. v.33(11): p.34-36. (1992 Nov.)
Descriptors: composting; on-farm processing; handling; organic matter

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
On-farm leaf composting and mulching.
Kluchinski, D.; Morgan, J. Biocycle. v.34(3): p.64, 66- 67. (1993 Mar.)
Descriptors: composting; mulching; leaves; on-farm processing; soil amendments; regional surveys; new jersey

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Organic farms and urban yard trimmings.
Grobe, K. Biocycle. v.36(9): p.63-65. (1995 Sept.)
Descriptors: composting; on-farm processing; yards; wastes; litter plant; california; yard trimmings

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Organic feedstock generators team up with local farmers.
Verville, R. R. Biocycle. v.37(8): p.58-61. (1996 Aug.)
Descriptors: composting; on-farm processing; waste utilization; maine

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Organic herb farm composts on-site.
Biocycle. v.38(2): p.49-50. (1997 Feb.)
Descriptors: composting; on-farm processing; illinois

NAL Call No.: 290.9 Am32P
Passively aerated composting of manure slurry.
Patni, N. K.; Fernandes, L.; Zhang, W.; Jui, P. Pap-am-soc- agric-eng. [St. Joseph, Mich.: American Society of Agricultural Engineers]. #92-4501/92-4519, 18p. (1992 Winter)
Paper presented at the "1992 International Winter Meeting sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers," December 15-18, 1992, Nashville, Tennessee.
Descriptors: poultry manure; composting; aeration; waste treatment

NAL Call No.: S605.5.B5
Passively aerated layered composting of salmon farm mortalities.
Liao, P. H.; Vizcarra, A. T.; Chen, A.; Lo, K. V. Biol-agric- hortic. v.10(4): p.265-270. (1994)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composting; salmon; aeration; comparisons; carbon-nitrogen ratio; composts; quality; waste utilization; static pile composting

NAL Call No.: S661.N56 1994
The passively aerated windrow system of composting: a guide to PAWS composting for farmers.
Nilsson, J.; Smith, M. 1.; Hubley, W.; Gillan, J.; New England Small Farm Institute. ill., 22, [2]p. (New England Small Farm Institute, Belchertown, MA., 1994?)
"This guide was created by the New England Small Farm Institute with a grant provided by the Massachusetts Dept. of Food & Agriculture. It has been reprinted especially for Pickering Creek Environmental Center on-farm composting workshops held in the spring of 1994."
Descriptors: compost; windrows

NAL Call No.: TD930.A55 1995
Perspective on alternative waste utilization strategies.
Hauck, R. D. Animal waste and the land-water interface [Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers]. p.463-474. (1995)
Includes references.
Descriptors: animal wastes; waste utilization; biogas; gas production; composting; aquaculture; biomass production

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Citation no.: 1, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240

NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
Phosphatase and beta-glucosidase activities in humic substances from animal wastes.
Garcia, C.; Ceccanti, B.; Masciandaro, G.; Hernandez, T. Bioresour-technol. v.53(1): p.79-87. (1995)
Includes references.
Descriptors: vermicomposting; composts; cattle manure; sheep manure; phosphoric monoester hydrolases; beta glucosidase; enzyme activity; humic acids; worm casts; isoelectric focusing
Abstract: Phosphatase and beta-glucosidase, which are hydrolases bound to humic substances, were determined in the extracts of humic substances and in their fractions (F) of varying molecular weight (F1<10(3) low, F2<10(3)-10(4) intermediate and F3>10(4) high) obtained from cow and sheep manure and their corresponding vermicomposted products (casting). In both of these products F2 was the fraction with the highest C and N content, while the F1 fraction lost the greatest proportion of C during vermicomposting. Phosphatase and beta- glucosidase could be detected in all the fractions studied, whether these were from the extracts of the manure or from the casting. However, the enzymatic activity found in the extracts was less than the total activity of all the fractions summed, which demonstrated that an increase in activity was obtained as a consequence of the ultrafiltration. IEF spectra pointed to bands of humic substances with higher isoelectric points (Ip) in the castings than in the corresponding manures. Most of the beta- glucosidase in cow manure (as determined in humic bands appearing in the polyacrylamide gel after IEF) corresponded to humic bands which focused at Ip between 4.1 and 4.7, while in cow manure casting most of the activity was in bands with Ip between 5.1 and 6. In sheep manure and casting the bands which showed beta- glucosidase activity also showed phosphatase activity. Both in the extract and in its different fractions beta-glucosidase and phosphatase activity increased with IEF. IEF spectra showed that humic substances of the casting had higher enzymatic activity than those of the corresponding manures.

NAL Call No.: S1.N32
Pig-powered composting.
Shirley, C. New-farm. v.16(6): p.53-55, 60. (1994 Sept.- 1994 Oct.)
Descriptors: composting; cattle manure; wood chips; litter; hay; pigs; animal power; aeration

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Piloting commercial organics composting.
Riggle, D. Biocycle. v.35(2): p.53-55. (1994 Feb.)
Descriptors: composting; on-farm processing; food wastes; pilot projects; regulations

NAL Call No.: SF481.2.F56
Potential demand for poultry manure in north Florida.
Tervola, R. S. Proc-fla-poult-inst. (49th): p.14-16. (1990)
Meeting held on October 9-10, 1990, Gainesville, Florida.
Descriptors: poultry manure; fertilizers; composts; crab waste; nutrient content; soil conditioners; livestock feeding; florida

NAL Call No.: 275.29 G29C
Poultry composting facilities.
Hammond, C. Circ-coop-ext-ser-univ-ga-coll-agric. [Athens, Ga.: The Service]. #828, 5p. (1994 Oct.)
Descriptors: poultry; poultry farming; carcass disposal; composting; carbon-nitrogen ratio; layout; design calculations; costs; comparisons; operation; composters

NAL Call No.: 275.29 M68Ext
Poultry & eggs.
Haynes, R.; Williams, B. Publ-miss-state-univ,-coop-ext-serv. [State College, Miss.: Cooperative Extension Service, Mississippi State University]. #1961, 3p. (1994 Apr.)
In subseries: AgFocus '94.
Descriptors: poultry; eggs; economic impact; prices; returns; poultry manure; composting; carcass disposal; regulation; mississippi

NAL Call No.: 290.9 AM32P
Poultry manure composting ammonia capture and aeration control.
Hansen, R. C.; Keener, H. M.; Dick, W. A.; Marugg, C.; Hoitink, H. A. J. Pap-amer-soc-agric-eng. [St. Joseph, Mich.: The Society]. #90-4062, 18p. (1990 Summer)
Paper presented at the "1990 International Summer Meeting sponsored by The American Society of Agricultural Engineers," June 24-27, 1990, Columbus, Ohio.
Descriptors: poultry manure; aeration; ammonia

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Practical applications of on-farm composting technology.
Lufkin, C.; Loudon, T.; Kenny, M.; Scott, J. Biocycle. v.36(12): p.76-78. (1995 Dec.)
Descriptors: composting; animal manures; technology; on-farm processing; michigan

NAL Call No.: S79.E3
A practical guide for composting poultry litter.
Brake, J. D. Bull-miss-agric-for-exp-stn. [Mississippi State, Miss.: The Station]. #981, 8p. (1992 June)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composting; poultry manure; guidelines; litter; windrows; carbon-nitrogen ratio

NAL Call No.: TD796.5.C58
A preliminary comparative study of three manure composting systems and their influence on process parameters and methane emissions.
Lopez Real, J.; Baptista, M. Compost-sci-util v.4(3): p.71-82. (1996 Summer)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composting; systems; cattle manure; windrowing; aeration; piles; comparisons; dry matter; moisture; mass; losses; volume; bulk density; change; temporal variation; methane production; emission; environmental impact; air pollution; pollution control; methane; forced aeration; minimal intervention; greenhouse gases

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Privatized composting in a farm setting.
Bye, J. Biocycle. v.32(10): p.60-61. (1991 Oct.)
Descriptors: composting; on-farm processing; solid wastes; cranberries; litter; poultry manure; waste paper; windrows; monitoring; massachusetts

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Producing and marketing manure compost.
Logsdon, G. Biocycle. v.32(2): p. 44-47. ill. (1991 Feb.)
Descriptors: animal manures; composting; composts; marketing; waste utilization; profitability; vermont

NAL Call No.: 290.9 AM32P
Production systems to reduce nonpoint source pollution.
Donald, J. O.; Martin, J. B.; Gilliam, C. H. Pap-amer-soc- agric-eng. [St. Joseph, Mich.: The Society]. #90-2059, 13p. (1990 Summer)
Paper presented at the "1990 International Summer Meeting sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers," June 24-27, Columbus, Ohio.
Descriptors: poultry manure; agricultural wastes; composting; feed supplements; pollution; waste utilization; alabama

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
A profit center grows on composted manure.
Logsdon, G. Biocycle. v.34(11): p.66-67. (1993 Nov.)
Descriptors: composting; animal manures; composts; application to land; organic farming

NAL Call No.: 56.9 So3
Pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry of the four phases of cow manure composting.
Van Bochove, E.; Couillard, D.; Schnitzer, M.; Schulten, H. R. Soil-sci-soc-am-j. v.60(6): p.1781-1786. (1996 Nov.-1996 Dec.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composting; cattle manure; organic matter; formation; chemical degradation; chemical analysis; mass spectrometry; temporal variation; chemical composition; organic compounds
Abstract: Pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS) was used to analyze organic matter formed by the composting of cow manure. Analyses were done on samples withdrawn during the four characteristic phases (mesophilic, thermophilic, cooling, and maturation) of the composting process. The organic components that were identified included carbohydrates, phenols, monomeric and dimeric lignins, n-C38 to n- C-51 n-alkyl monoesters, n-C15 to n-C34 fatty acids, sterols, and heterocyclic N. Sterols of animal and plant origins were detected in relatively large amounts. Among the heterocyclic N forms, indole predominated. During the thermophilic phase, carbohydrates and n-fatty acids increased. During the cooling phase, concentrations of carbohydrates increased, while dimeric lignins degraded to monomeric lignins and complex plant waxes to n-fatty acids. The maturation phase was characterized by decreases in concentrations of all identifiable components, indicating the formation of chemically more complex structures.

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Citation no.: 1, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240

NAL Call No.: 56.8 C162
Quantification of nitrogen mineralization and immobilization in soil in the presence of organic amendments. Quantification des processus de mineralisation et d'organisation de l'azote dans un sol en presence d'amendements organiques.
Jedidi, N.; Cleemput, O. v.; M'Hiri, A. Can-j-soil-sci. v.75(1): p.85-91. (1995 Feb.)
Anniversary issue.
Descriptors: clay loam soils; nitrogen; mineralization; immobilization; potassium nitrate; organic amendments; composts; age; farmyard manure; stability; nitrogen content; carbon- nitrogen ratio; cellulose; lignin

NAL Call No.: 80 AC82
Rabbit manure composting.
Vall Llossera, X.; Voltas, J.; Pujola, M.; Soliva, M. Acta- hortic. (302): p.153-166. (1992 Mar.)
In the series analytic: Compost Recycling of Wastes / edited by C. Balis, M. De Bertoldi, G.L. Ferrero, V. Maniow, and E. Kapetanios. Proceedings of an International Symposium, October 4-7, 1989, Athens, Greece.
Descriptors: rabbit droppings; composting; humification; decomposition; spain

NAL Call No.: TD796.5.R43 1995
Recycling of crop, animal, human and industrial wastes in agriculture.
Tandon, H. L. S. H. L. S. ill., 150p. (Fertiliser Development and Consultation Organisation, New Delhi, India , 1995)
Includes bibliographical references.
Descriptors: agricultural wastes-recycling-india; compost-india; recycling waste, etc.-india

NAL Call No.: TD420.A1P7 v.33 no.4/5
Reducing diffuse pollution through implementation of agricultural best management practices: a case study.
Cook, M. G.; Hunt, P. G.; Stone, K. C.; Canterberry, J. H. Diffuse pollution '95 selected proceedings of the 2nd IAWQ International Specialized Conference and Symposia on Diffuse Pollution, held in Brno and Prague, Czech Republic, 13-18 August 1995. p.191-196. (1996)
1st ed. Oxford; New York: Pergamon Press; includes references.
Descriptors: pollution control; water pollution; runoff; leaching; nitrate; ammonium; nitrogen fertilizers; low- input agriculture; application rates; groundwater pollution; herbicide residues; alachlor; atrazine; metolachlor; waste treatment; piggery effluent; composting; chickens; carcasses; water quality; streams; watersheds; aquifers; north carolina; nonpoint source pollution

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Regional source separated composting.
Kjolhede, J. Biocycle. v.35(7): p.38-39. (1994 July)
Descriptors: composting; organic wastes; residential areas; waste utilization; on-farm processing; iowa

NAL Call No.: S627.C76C76 1994
Residue management strategies in the Northeast.
Radke, J. K.; Honeycutt, C. W. Crops residue management [Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers]. p.77-107. (1994)
Includes references.
Descriptors: crop residues; animal manures; agricultural wastes; refuse; conservation tillage; no tillage; minimum tillage; cycling; nutrients; soil water; soil temperature; soil ph; spatial distribution; composting; farm income; agricultural land; human population; population density; northeastern states of usa; maryland; virginia; west virginia; delaware; district of columbia; conventional tillage

NAL Call No.: QH84.8.B46
Ryegrass straw component decomposition during mesophilic and thermophilic incubations.
Horwath, W. R.; Elliott, L. F. Biol-fertil-soils. v.21(4): p.227-232. (1996)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composting; ryegrass straw; lignocellulosic wastes; decomposition; environmental temperature; carbon-nitrogen ratio; lipids; sugars; polysaccharides; lignin; biodegradation; mineralization; microbial activities; lolium perenne
Abstract: The decomposition of perennial ryegrass straw was examined under mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. Thermophilic conditions were used to define the composting process. The change in lipids, sugars, soluble polysaccharides, cellulose, and lignin was determined during a 45-day incubation. C, H, O, and N steadily decreased in both temperature treatments. The lignin content, as measured by the Klason or 72% H2SO4 method, decreased by 10% under mesophilic and 29% under thermophilic conditions. The Klason lignin C loss was 25 and 39% under mesophilic and thermophilic incubations, respectively. The changes in element (C, N, H, and O) ratios indicated that 94% of the lignin fraction was altered during both low- and high- temperature incubations. The changes in the lignin-like fraction as shown by elemental ratios were more extensive than those indicated by the Klason method, showing that this lignin determination has limited value in describing plant residue decomposition. The decomposition of the straw components and the concomitant degradation of the lignin fraction represent an important decomposition process that facilitates the composting of ryegrass straw with a high C:N ratio.

NAL Call No.: S494.5.B563A47
A simulation device for the composting process and its ammonia emission.
Hamelers, H. V. M.; Koster, I. W.; Wilde, V. d. Agricultural biotechnology in focus in the Netherlands / J.J. Dekkers, H.C. van der Plas & D.H. Vuijk (eds.). [Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc]. p.249-253. (1990)
Includes references.
Descriptors: manures; composting; ammonia; emission; air pollution; heat loss; temperature; control

NAL Call No.: SB317.5.H68
Sir Albert Howard and the indore process.
Hershey, D. R. HortTechnology. v.2(2): p.267-269. (1992 Apr.-1992 June)
Paper presented at the 88th American Society for Horticultural Science "History of the Organic Movement Workshop," July 24, 1991, University Park, Pennsylvania.
Descriptors: organic farming; composts; composting; history; biographies

220. NAL Call No.: HD9484.C65P54 1994
The skin of the earth: a life story of environmental stewardship.
Philippe, P.; Benner, P. (Escart Press, Waterloo, Ont., 1994)
Includes bibliographical references: p. 119-121.
Descriptors: Philippe, Pierre, 1912 ; grow rich waste recycling systems; farmers-channel islands-biography; businessmen-canada-biography; compost

NAL Call No.: HT401.A36
Soil conservation in Cuba: a key to the new model for agriculture.
Gersper, P. L.; Rodriguez Barbosa, C. S.; Orlando, L. F. Agric-human-values. v.10(3): p.16-23. (1993 Summer)
In the special issue: Low-input Sustainable Agriculture in Cuba / edited by J.A. Carney.
Descriptors: low input agriculture; sustainability; soil conservation; soil fertility; tillage; fertilizers; nitrogen fixing bacteria; green manures; rotations; intercropping; vermicomposting; agricultural wastes; recycling; animal production; cuba

NAL Call No.: TD172.J68
Solid waste disposal in The Netherlands.
Brasser, L. J. J-air-waste-manage-assoc. v.40(10): p.1364-1367. (1990 Oct.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: solid wastes; waste disposal; waste treatment; waste utilization; recycling; composting; manures; netherlands; incineration

NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
Static pile, passive aeration composting of manure slurries using peat as a bulking agent.
Mathur, S. P.; Patni, N. K.; Levesque, M. P. Biol- wastes. v.34(4): p.323-333. (1990)
Includes references.
Descriptors: manures; slurries; mosses; bulking agents; mixtures; composting; technology; composts; physicochemical properties; canada

NAL Call No.: TD796.5.C58
Status of dairy manure composting in North America.
Rynk, R. Compost-sci-util. v.2(1): p.20-26. (1994 Winter)
Includes references.
Descriptors: dairy farms; manures; composting; usa; quebec; progress report

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Strategies for yard waste composting.
Barkdoll, A. W.; Nordstedt, R. A. Biocycle. v.32(5): p.60-65. (1991 May)
Includes references.
Descriptors: yards; solid wastes; composting; waste utilization; windrows; mixtures; nitrogen; poultry manure; florida

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Citation no.: 1, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240

NAL Call No.: S671.A66
Survival of weed seeds and seed pathogen propagates in composted grass seed straw.
Churchill, D. B.; Alderman, S. C.; Mueller Warrant, G. W.; Elliott, L. F.; Bilsland, D. M. Appl-eng-agric. v.12(1): p.57-63. (1996 Jan.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composting; lolium perenne; crop residues; poa annua; lolium multiflorum; festuca arundinacea; weeds; seeds; viability; helotiales; claviceps purpurea; survival; composts; turning; temperature; collection; windrows; quality; compost quality; gloeotinia temulenta; windrow composting; fungal propagules
Abstract: Seeds of annual bluegrass (Poa annua), annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreber), and propagules of two fungal pathogens of grass Gloeotinia temulenta (blindseed) and Claviceps purpurea (ergot) were placed in mesh packets and inserted into compost windrows of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) straw. Compost treatments included three types of straw, two methods of turning, and three depths of seed or propagule placement. Packets were inserted to depths of 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 m (1, 2, and 3 ft) and corresponding internal compost temperatures were recorded weekly. Windrows were turned either zero, two, four, or six times over eight months. During the 1992-1993 season, windrows were turned with a commercial straddle-type compost turner and in the 1993-1994 season, windrows were turned with a tractor front-end loader. Composting proceeded without addition of nitrogen except for that present in the straw and without water beyond normal rainfall. Survival of weed seeds and pathogen propagules decreased with numbers of turns, but was not related to straw collection method, depth of packet placement, or method of turning.

NAL Call No.: S605.5.I45 1989
Techniques for collecting and recycling crop residues, and the effects of transformation products on soil and crops.
Lompo, S. M. P.; Bado, F. B.; Hien, V. Agricultural alternatives and nutritional self-sufficiency for a sustainable agricultural system that respects man and his environment. p.282-294. (1990)
Proc. of the IFOAM Seventh Int Scientific Conference, Ouagadougou, January 2-5, 1989. [Witzenhausen?]: Ekopan.
Descriptors: sorghum; pennisetum americanum; organic fertilizers; crop residues; recycling; composting; anaerobic treatment; sorghum stalks; farmyard manure; composts; enrichment; dolomite; phosphates; ash; urea; biogas; quality; measurement; chemical analysis; crop yield; dry matter accumulation; soil analysis; nitrogen; carbon; burkina faso

NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
Temperature distribution and variation in passively aerated static compost piles.
Fernandes, L.; Zhan, W.; Patni, N. K.; Jui, P. Y. Bioresour- technol. v. 48(3): p.257-263. (1994)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composting; aeration; temperature; spatial distribution; spatial variation; composts; moisture content; poultry manure; peat; straw

NAL Call No.: S1.N32
Too much manure, too few farmers: co-composting may solve multiple dilemmas.
Bowman, G. New-farm. v.16(2): p.16-17, 61. (1994 Feb.)
Descriptors: composting; poultry manure; cotton gin trash

NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
Trace elemental characterization of composted poultry manure.
Ihnat, M.; Fernandes, L. Bioresour-technol. v.57(2): p.143-156. (1996 Aug.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: poultry manure
Abstract: Aerobically composted poultry manure was comprehensively characterized with respect to elemental content. Total, water-extractable and 1N nitric-acid-extractable concentrations of 21 trace, minor and major elements: Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sr, Ti, V and Zn, were determined in manure slurry composted with barley/oat straw or sphagnum peat moss bulking agents. Levels originated predominantly from the manure and total concentrations in composts, expressed as mg/kg on a dry basis, ranged from 0.2 for Cd, 2-5 for Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti and V, to 37000 for Ca. Extractable concentrations varied with extractant and element from a low of 2% of total for Ba with water to 100% for most elements with acid. Nitric acid facilitated quantitative leaching of virtually every element tested with the exception of Mo. Cadmium, Na and Rb were fairly completely leached out with both water and acid. The effect of composting time for four elements with sufficient data, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn, suggested a hint of immobilization of Mn and Zn with respect to water extraction and of Cu and Fe with respect to acid extraction and increased lability of Mn and Zn to acid extraction after composting.

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Transitional farmers expand compost markets.
Biocycle. v.35(4): p.54-55. (1994 Apr.)
Descriptors: composts; application to land; markets; alternative farming

NAL Call No.: 1.98 Ag84
Trash or cash commodity? It's all in the blend.
Comis, D. Agric-res. v.44(7): p.9-11. (1996 July)
Descriptors: soil amendments; waste utilization; waste paper; yards; litter plant; waste wood; building materials; gypsum; animal manures; mixtures; composting; pelleting; agricultural research

NAL Call No.: S1.N32
Turn leaves into loam: is co-composting right for you.
Ohins, C. New-farm. v.16(1): p.33-40. (1994 Jan.)
Descriptors: composting; on-farm processing

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Turnaround in the poultry industry.
Logsdon, G. Biocycle. v.34(2): p.60-63. (1993 Feb.)
Descriptors: poultry manure; composting; fertilizers; carcass disposal; nitrogen; animal feeding; delaware; arkansas

NAL Call No.: 56.8 SO3
Unsaturated hydraulic characteristics of composted agricultural wastes, tuff, and their mixtures.
Wallace, R.; Silva, F. F. d.; Chen, Y. Soil-sci. v.153(6): p.434-441. (1992 June)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composts; grape marc; volcanic ash; mixtures; culture media; pot culture; unsaturated hydraulic conductivity; determination; mathematical models; soil water retention; soil water potential; saturated hydraulic conductivity; hysteresis; crop management; fertilizers; irrigation

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Urban green on the farm.
Grobe, K. Biocycle. v.38(2): p.51-55. (1997 Feb.)
Descriptors: litter plant; urban areas; waste utilization; composts; application to land; farmland; projects; yard trimmings

NAL Call No.: S592.7.A1S6
The use of earthworms in environmental management.
Edwards, C. A.; Bater, J. E. Soil-biol-biochem. v.24(12): p.1683-1689. (1992 Dec.)
In the special issue ISEE 4. Proceedings of the "4th International Symposium on Earthworm Ecology," June 11-15, 1990, Avignon, France / edited by A. Kretzschmar.
Descriptors: oligochaeta; earthworms; land improvement; reclamation; organic wastes; animal wastes; waste treatment; vermicomposting; agricultural chemicals; toxicity; soil pollution
Abstract: During the past 25 years, research by the authors at Rothamsted Experimental Station investigated many aspects of the utilization of earthworms in land improvement and environmental management. Results of some of these investigations are summarized in this paper with the aim of illustrating the general principles of how earthworm populations can be manipulated and managed for environmental improvement. The use of earthworms in land improvement and reclamation: we investigated the effects of inoculating earthworms of the species Lumbricus terrestris L., Aporrectodea longa (Ude), Aporrectodea caliginosa (Sav.) and Allolobophora chlorotica (Sav.) into intact soil profiles in the laboratory, plots on direct-drilled, arable land in the field and newly-capped waste disposal sites that had few or no earthworms. In all these studies the earthworms increased significantly in number and rate of growth and yield of plants growing on the inoculated sites. Earthworms for inoculation were obtained by field collection after watering soil with dilute formaldehyde solution. The use of earthworms inorganic waste management: the life cycles and productivity of Eisenia fetida (Sav.), Eudilus eugeniae (Kinberg), Perionyx excavatus (Michaelsen) and Dendrobaena veneta (Rosa), and their potential in processing animal and plant wastes, from sewage, agricultural, domestic, urban and industrial sources are summarized. The preprocessing of wastes, their population ecology, optimum stocking rates, the mechanization of processing and utilization of the product are discussed. Results of experiments on the effects of temperatures of 10, 15, 20 and 25 degrees C and a range of soil moisture contents of 70, 75, 80, 85 and 90% on the growth, cocoon production and cocoon hatching of the four species are summarized. The use of earthworms in assessment of the environmental effects of chemicals: earthworms can be used as key indicators to predict the effects of chemicals on other soil invertebrates. Methods of testing chemicals against earthworms in field and laboratory are reviewed. Two standardized laboratory test methods, one exposing earthworms to chemicals on filter paper and one to chemicals in artificial soils are described, and the median lethal concentration (LC50) for chloracetamide, pentachlorophenol, chlordane, carbaryl, potassium bromide, copper sulfate and trichloracetic acid calculated, based on assays done in 34 laboratories. The relevancy of the two tests in environmental toxicity testing is reviewed.

NAL Call No.: S441.S855
Use of poultry litter as a soil amendment in southern row crop agriculture: a feasibility study based on agronomic, environmental, and economic factors.
Miller, D. M. Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education SARE or Agriculture in Concert with the Environment ACE research projects.[42] 116p. (1992)
SARE Project Number: LS91-39-27-A. Reporting date for this report is February 1992 to December 1992.
Descriptors: gossypium; zea mays; glycine max; cynodon dactylon; winter wheat; triticum aestivum; oryza sativa; poultry manure; composts; application rates; soil fertility; soil depth; nitrogen; crop yield; nitrate nitrogen; runoff; demonstration farms; alabama; arkansas

NAL Call No.: S494.5.S86S8
Variety selection and cultural methods for lowering nitrate levels in winter greenhouse lettuce and endive.
Schonbeck, M. W.; Rivera, R.; O'Brien, J.; Ebinger, S.; DeGregorio, R. E. J-sustainable-agric. v.2(1): p.49-75. (1991)
Includes references.
Descriptors: lactuca sativa; cichorium endivia; cultivars; nitrate; nitrate nitrogen; nitrogen content; leaves; winter; greenhouse culture; crop production; field tests; light regime; light relations; solar radiation; organic farming; hydroponics; nutrient solutions; liquid fertilizers; pot culture; organic culture; composts; integrated systems; aquaculture; soil analysis; nitrogen; inorganic compounds; harvesting date; seasonal variation; carbon dioxide enrichment; varietal reactions; growth rate; crop yield; dry matter accumulation; weight; nutrient availability; new england; fresh weight; soil inorganic nitrogen; composting-greenhouse

NAL Call No.: 80 AC82
Vegetable residues from garden/produce markets as recyclable biomass for high-quality compost production.
Vallini, G.; Pera, A.; Nizzi, E.; Tortorella, L.; Ciurli, A. Acta-hortic. (302): p.363-368. (1992 Mar.)
In the series analytic: Compost Recycling of Wastes / edited by C. Balis, M. De Bertoldi, G.L. Ferrero, V. Maniow, and E. Kapetanios. Proceedings of an International Symposium, October 4-7, 1989, Athens, Greece.
Descriptors: vegetables; crop residues; fresh products; markets; composting; biological treatment; composts; physicochemical properties; biology; properties; organic fertilizers; italy

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Citation no.: 1, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240

NAL Call No.: QR1.M562
Vermicomposting in the management of pig-waste in Hong Kong.
Wong, S. H.; Griffiths, D. A. World-j-microbiol- biotechnol. v.7(6): p.593-595. (1991 Nov.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: pig manure; pig slurry; vermicomposting; pheretima; hong kong; pheretima asiatica

NAL Call No.: S590.C63
Wageningen evaluating programmes for analytical laboratories (WEPAL), organization and purpose.
Houba, V. J. G.; Uittenbogaard, J.; Pellen, P. Commun-soil- sci-plant-anal. v.27(3/4): p.421-431. (1996)
Paper presented at the 1995 International Symposium on Soil Testing and Plant Analysis: Quality of Soil and Plant Analysis in View of Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment held August 5-10, 1995, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Descriptors: soil analysis; plant analysis; sediment; composts; manures; sludges; chemical analysis; quality; laboratory methods; laboratories; evaluation; programs; quality controls; netherlands; laboratory evaluating programs; laboratory evaluating exchange programs; analytical quality
Abstract: Quality control of analytical procedures for soils, plants, sediments, manure, compost, and sludges is of utmost importance to produce reliable and reproducible analytical data. For this purpose first, second, and third line quality control measures are taken in analytical laboratories. For first line control certified reference materials (CRM's) are preferred. However, the number and matrix variation in CRM's for environmental analytical research is still very limited. For second line control internal reference samples are often used, but again here the values for many element and parameter concentrations are questionable since almost no check versus CRM's is possible. For third line control participation in laboratory evaluating exchange programmes (LEEP's) is recommended. The number of LEEP's is fortunately increasing nowadays. One of the reasons for this increase is the fact that accredited laboratories are recommended, and in some countries, obliged to participate in LEEP's--if they exist--for their analytical programs. In this article the Wageningen Evaluating Programmes for Analytical Laboratories (WEPAL) for plants, soils, sediments, manures, composts, and sludges are described and examples of results achieved and further use of tested bulk samples are given.

NAL Call No.: 100 C12CAG
Weed seed in dairy manure depends on collection site.
Cudney, D. W.; Wright, S. D.; Shultz, T. A.; Reints, J. S. Calif-agric. v.46(3): p.31-32. ill. (1992 May-1992 June)
Descriptors: manures; weeds; seed dispersal; composting; dairy cattle

NAL Call No.: S1.N32
When composting makes sense: is it a miracle or a hassle.
Shirley, C. New-farm. v.14(1): p.6-11. (1992 Jan.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composting; animal manures; usa

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Why farmers become composters.
Riggle, D. Biocycle. v.35(11): p.58-62. (1994 Nov.)
Descriptors: composting; on-farm processing

NAL Call No.: TD796.5.C58
Winter composting using the passively aerated windrow system.
Lynch, N. J.; Cherry, R. S. Compost-sci-util. v.4(3): p.44-52. (1996 Summer)
Includes references.
Descriptors: composting; winter; windrows; design; aeration; agricultural wastes; waste utilization; idaho; windrow composting

NAL Call No.: 57.8 C734
Yard waste composting enters a new dimension.
Glenn, J. Biocycle. v.31(9): p.30-36. ill. (1990 Sept.)
Includes references.
Descriptors: yards; agricultural wastes; composting; solid wastes; grasses

NAL Call No.: S605.5.I45 1989
Zai: traditional techniques as a source of Sahelian soil productivity increase.
Abdoulaye, O. Agricultural alternatives and nutritional self- sufficiency for a sustainable agricultural system that respects man and his environment. p.97-101. (1990)
Proc. of the IFOAM Seventh Int Scientific Conference, Ouagadougou, January 2-5, 1989. [Witzenhausen?]: Ekopan
Descriptors: farming systems; traditional farming; arid lands; agricultural production; projects; traditional technology; soil fertility; regeneration; sustainability; seedbed preparation; composts; sowing; erosion control; infiltration; runoff; desertification; drought; sahel; burkina faso

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Citation no.: 1, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240

Author Index

Abdel Aal, S.I. 36,12
Abdel Magid, H.M. 36
Abdoulaye, O. 248
Abel, J. 71
Abo Elnaga, S.A. 16
Adams, N.E. 58
Adeoye, G.O. 47
Aflatuni, A. 103
Agamuthu, P. 63
Alderman, S.C. 226
Almendros, G. 110, 129
Amberger, A. 136
Amick, D.R. 150
Amor, K. 34
Ando, T. 137
Arner, R. 29
Astier, M. 40
Atkinson, C.F. 25
Avgelis, A.D. 108
Badawi, M.A. 16
Bado, F.B. 227
Bagby, M.O. 181
Ballestero, T.P. 43
Bannick, C.G. 32
Baptista, M. 205
Barkdoll, A.W. 225
Barker, K.R. 142
Barnes, J. 144
Barriuso, E. 104
Baskaran, S. 139
Bater, J.E. 237
Beaver, T. 1
Benner, Peter. 220
Benoit, F. 107
Benoit, P. 104
Berends, P.T. 100
Berends, Patrick T. 98
Bernal, M.P. 21
Berner, A. 101
Bhamidimarri, S.M.R. 6
Biddlestone, A.J. 5
Bilsland, D.M. 161, 162, 226
Bisht, S.P.S. 131
Blake, J.P. 15, 81, 167
Blanc, F.C. 16
Blanco, M.J. 110, 129, 159
Blank, S.C. 138
Blisland, D.M. 153
Blum, B. 52
Bolan, N.S. 14, 88, 95, 139, 148
Bonazzi, G. 83
Bowler, R. 180
Bowman, G. 229
Brake, J.D. 204
Brasser, L.J. 222
Brinton, R. 151
Brinton, R.B. 24
Brinton, W.F. Jr. 24
Broadway, R. 85
Brodie, H.L. 152
Buchanan, M. 30, 40
Bucklin, R.A. 120
Bujang, K.B. 185
Bye, J. 72, 206
Canterberry, J.H. 214
Carr, L. 41
Carr, L.E. 152
Cauwel, B. 125
Ceccanti, B. 196
Ceustermans, N. 107
Chao, C.C. 177
Chao, W.L. 177
Chen, A. 67, 68, 113, 193
Chen, Y. 135, 235
Cheneby, D. 168
Cherry, R.S. 246
Childers, R.E. Jr. 180
Chiumenti, R. 33
Churchill, D.B. 153, 160, 161, 162, 226
Ciavatta, C. 114
Cirelli, A. Jr. 19
Ciurli, A. 240
Cleemput, O. van. 211
Cochran, J.S. 180
Cochran, M.J. 89
Collins, A.R. 99, 116
Collins, E.R. Jr. 93
Comis, D. 232
Conkling, D. 121
Conner, D.E. 167
Conrad, P. 115
Cook, M.G. 214
Cook, T.E. 97
Couillard, D. 210
Crepaz, C. 34
Cudney, D.W. 243
Cummins, C.G. 38
Da Borso, F. 33
Danforth, D. 89
De Nobili, M. 33
DeGregorio, R.E. 239
Delaney, D.P. 38
DePolo, J. 130
Dewes, T. 147
Diaz, L. 75
Dick, W.A. 176, 202
Diebel, P.L. 100
Diener, R. 116
Dinel, H. 91, 92
Dobbins, C.N. 94
Donald, J. 156
Donald, J.O. 15, 48, 49, 81, 167, 208
Douglas, C.R. 120
Douglas, E.M. 43
Dreyfus, Daniel. 123
Dugan, J. 91
Ebinger, S. 239
Edmisten, K.L. 142
Edwards, C.A. 237
Edwards, J.H. 171
El Nadi, A.H. 36
El Shimi, S.A. 16
El Shinnawi, M.M. 16
Elliott, L.F. 153, 160, 161, 162, 165, 217, 226
Elwell, D.L. 82
Entry, J.A. 171
Estes, G.O. 97
Estienne, M.J. 94
Evans, J. 42
Facey, R.M. 10, 11
Farrell, M. 46
Farrell Poe, K. 155
Fellman, J.K. 158
Ferguson, R.B. 173
Fernandes, L. 140, 192, 228, 230
Fiorina, L. 31
Fleming, K. 141
Forster, J.C. 44
Foster, K.A. 94
Freeborne, J. 56
Frickle, K. 179
Fritsch, D.A. 99, 116
Fulford, B. 30
Garcia, C. 196
Gauthier, J.J. 25
Georges, P. 125
Gersper, P.L. 40, 221
Gessa, C. 114
Gies, G. 77
Gillan, Judith. 194
Gillet, J. 107
Gilliam, C.H. 48, 49, 208
Giro, F. 70
Glenn, J. 187, 247
Godden, B. 168
Golueke, C. 75
Gottschal, J.C. 20
Govi, M. 114
Grant, R.J. 84
Gray, K.R. 5
Grealy, S. 45
Gregorich, E.G. 35
Gresham, Cyane W. 64
Griffiths, D.A. 241
Grobe, K. 189, 236
Grover, R. 41
Guenthner, J.F. 158
Hadar, Y. 135
Hadas, A. 174
Hagler, W.M. Jr. 87
Haines, J. 22
Hairston, J.E. 9
Halbach, T. 41
Hallatt, L. 146
Halstead, J.M. 97
Hamelers, H.V.M. 218
Hammond, C. 200
Handwerker, T.S. 65
Hannah, T.C. 183
Hannibal, E. 17
Hansen, R.C. 82, 90, 176, 202
Haque, A.K.M.A. 55
Harada, V. 50
Harada, Y. 51
Hartman, L. 145
Hashim, M.A. 166
Hashimoto, Andrew G. 124
Hauck, R.D. 195
Haynes, R. 201
Haywood, F. 133
Hedley, M.J. 14, 88, 95, 148
Heimlich, J. 144
Henry, S.T. 54
Hernandez, T. 196
Hershey, D.R. 219
Hien, V. 227
Hodgkiss, I.J. 106, 164
Hoitink, H.A.J. 90, 176, 202
Honeycutt, C.W. 216
Horwath, W.R. 153, 160, 165, 217
Hostikka, M. 105
Houba, V.J.G. 242
Hubley, Warren. 194
Hunt, P.G. 214
Ihnat, M. 230
Inbar, Y. 135
Insam, H. 34
Janke, Rhonda R. 64
Jedidi, N. 211
Jetter, K. 138
Jhorar, B.S. 143
Joergensen, R.G. 32
John, N.M. 47
Jones, B.J. 57
Jones, D.D. 25
Jones, F.T. 87
Jones, O.R. 178
Jui, P. 192
Jui, P.Y. 228
Kamp, M. van de 117
Kanematu, A. 109
Kaneshiro, T. 181
Kanotra, S. 26
Kao, M.M. 111
Kashmanian, R.M. 7, 8
Kaushal, B.R. 131
Keener, H.M. 82, 90, 176, 202
Kelvin, R. 186
Kenny, M. 61, 203
Killorn, R. 53
Kirchmann, H. 175
Kjolhede, J. 215
Kluchinski, D. 188
Koenning, S.R. 142
Koepf, Herbert H. 128
Kojima, T. 109
Koster, I.W. 218
Kostov, O. 4
Krotz, R.M. 183
Kundu, S. 132
Kuroda, K. 109
Lairon, D. 125
Land Stewardship Project (U.S.). 182
LaPrade, J.C. 9
Lau, A.K. 3, 23, 69, 112
Leclerc, B. 125
Leita, L. 33
Levesque, M.P. 223
Levi, A.E. 158
Liang, B.C. 35
Liao, P.H. 3, 23, 66, 67, 68, 69, 112, 113, 193
Lino, S.P. 183
Little, J. 78
Little, J.A. 183
Lo, K.V. 3, 23, 66, 67, 68, 69, 112, 113, 193
Logsdon, G. 157, 207, 209, 234
Lompo, S.M.P. 227
Lopez Real, J. 205
Lopez Real, J.M. 21, 185
Loudon, T. 203
Loudon, T.L. 61
Lufkin, C. 203
Lufkin, C.S. 61
Lynch, J.M. 4
Lynch, N.J. 246
M'Hiri, A. 211
Macgregor, A.N. 148
Mahimairaja, S. 14, 88, 95, 139, 148
Makus, L.D. 158
Malik, R.S. 143
Manios, V.I. 108
Manna, M.C. 132
Marambe, B. 137
Marchand, S. 107
Marr, J.B. 10, 11
Martin, A.M. 42
Martin, J.B. 208
Martins, O. 147
Marugg, C. 90, 176, 202
Masciandaro, G. 196
Mathur, R.S. 26
Mathur, S.P. 91, 92, 223
McCaskey, T. 78
McCaskey, T.A. 183
McEvoy, M. 18
Mikkelsen, R.L. 142
Miller, B.E. 155
Miller, D. 89
Miller, D.M. 238
Miller, R.L. 155
Mitchell, C. 156
Mitchell, C.C. 48, 49
Mondini, C. 33
Morgan, J. 188
Mouri, S. 109
Moyer, Jeffrey. 64
Mueller Warrant, G.W. 226
Murphy, D.W. 65, 94
Muyima, N.Y.O. 169
Nagaoka, T. 137
Naidu, R. 139
Nakamura, L.K. 181
New England Small Farm Institute. 194
Nicolardot, B. 168
Nienaber, J.A. 173
Niggli, U. 101
Nilsson, Jon. 122, 194
Nitta, T. 109
Nizzi, E. 240
Nordstedt, R.A. 154, 225
Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Service 184
O'Brien, J. 239
Ohins, C. 233
Oregon State University. 124
Orlando, L.F. 221
Osada, T. 109
Oshins, C. 31, 71, 186
Ott, Pierre, 1949 62
Ouart, M.D. 120
Owen, G. 91, 92
Pace, M.G. 155
Pandey, S.P. 6
Parson, S.C. 93
Parsons, J.T. 87
Patel, T.R. 42
Patni, N.K. 140, 192, 223, 228
Pel, R. 20
Pellen, P. 242
Penninckx, M. 168
Pera, A. 240
Person, H.L. 74
Pessarakli, M. 59
Petkova, G. 4
Pettit, C. 102
Philippe, Pierre, 1912 220
Phogat, V. 143
Piccinini, S. 83
Pickering Creek Environmental Center. 122
Porter, D. 42
Porter, G.A. 96
Portnoy, R. 174
Pujola, M. 212
Rabie, R.K. 36
Radke, J.K. 216
Reinecke, A.J. 145, 146, 169
Reints, J.S. 243
Renner, M. 34
Richard, T. 41, 79, 80
Riggle, D. 198, 245
Rivera, R. 239
Rodale, R. 37
Rodale Research Center. Rural Urban Office. 64
Rodriguez Barbosa, C.S. 221
Ross, C.C. 13
Rouchard, J. 107
Ruffin, B.G. 156
Rynk, R. 86, 224
Rynk, R.E. 84
Rynk, R.F. 7, 8
Rynk, Robert. 184
Sabrah, R.E.A. 36
Saharinen, M.H. 105
Sartaj, M. 140
Scherrer, D. 101
Schlegel, A.J. 100
Schnitzer, M. 35, 91, 92, 210
Schonbeck, M.W. 239
Schuler, Ch. 179
Schulten, H.R. 35, 92, 210
Sciabarrasi, M.R. 97
Scott, J. 61, 203
Scott, K.M. 21
Segall, L. 134
Shayya, W.H. 74
Shirley, C. 39, 197, 244
Shultz, T.A. 243
Silva, F.F. da 235
Sims, J.T. 65
Singh, C.P. 136
Singh, M. 132
Sitti, L. 114
Skajaa, J. 17
Smith, B. 41
Smith, Miranda, 1944 194
Smith, S.J. 178
Soliva, M. 70, 212
Spencer, R. 127, 170
Sridhar, M.K.C. 47
Steene, F. van de. 107
Steuteville, R. 126
Stewart, B.A. 178
Stone, K.C. 214
Strahl, Stuart D. 122
Sweeten, J.M. 180
Takkar, P.N. 132
Tam, N.F.Y. 106, 164
Tandon, H. L. S. (Hari Lal Singh) 213
Tervola, R.S. 199
Thambirajah, J.J. 166
Thirion, A. 107
Thornton, M.K. 158
Timmons, L. 76
Tiquia, S.M. 106, 164
Tolley, A.T. 152
Tortorella, L. 240
Tripathi, A.K. 132
Tu, H.J. 177
Tzvetkov, Y. 4
Uittenbogaard, J. 242
Ulen, B. 149
Valentine, G.E. 13
Vall Llossera, X. 212
Valli, L. 83
Vallini, G. 240
Van Bochove, E. 210
Vandepopuliere, J.M. 55
Vanparys, L. 107
Verville, R.R. 190
Viljoen Reinecke, S.A. 169
Viljoen, S.A. 145, 146
Vizcarra, A.T. 66, 67, 68, 113, 193
Vogtmann, H. 179
Voltas, J. 212
Vuorinen, A.H. 105
Wallace, R. 235
Walsh, J.L. 13
Wauters, A. 107
Wetterauer, D. 53
Wheeler, G. 19
White, R.K. 54
Whiteley, G.M. 102
Whitney, L.F. 84
Wick, C.M. 138
Wilde, V. de 218
Wilkinson, E.A. 150
Williams, B. 201
Williams, J.F. 138
Williams, J.R. 100
Willis, W.M. 178
Wilson, D. 163
Wineland, M.J. 87
Wise, D.L. 16
Wong, S.H. 241
Wood, B.H. 171
Wood, C.W. 38, 171
Woods End Research Laboratory. 73
Wright, S.D. 243
Wurdinger, E. 44
Yonaga, M. 109
Yu, J.C. 3, 23
Zech, W. 44
Zhan, W. 228
Zhang, W. 192
Zulkali, M.D. 166
Zwart, K.B. 20, 27

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Citation no.: 1, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240

Subject Index

2,4-dichlorophenol 104
4,4-diamidino 2-phenylindole 25
4-chlorophenol 104
absorbance 91
additives 63, 110, 129
adhesives 143
adsorbents 21
adsorption 35, 107, 139
aeration 3, 49, 67, 82, 109, 140, 192, 193, 197, 202, 205, 228, 246
aerobes 20
aerobic heterotrophs 164
aerobic treatment 5, 6, 148
aerobiosis 91
aflatoxins 87
age 211
agricultural chemicals 237
agricultural land 216
agricultural production 248
agricultural research 232
agricultural soils 177
agricultural wastes 5, 10, 11, 12, 13, 17, 28, 43, 48, 49, 57, 75, 77, 79, 80, 84, 141, 158, 166, 170, 208, 216, 221, 246, 247
agricultural wastes-environmental aspects-maryland 122
agricultural wastes-maine-recycling 73
agricultural wastes recycling 123
agricultural wastes-recycling-india 213
agriculture 52
air drying 33
air flow 82
air pollution 27, 205, 218
air temperature 164
alabama 38, 48, 49, 81, 183, 208, 238
alachlor 214
alaska 56
aldicarb 107
aliphatic compounds 92
allium cepa 158
allium sativum 106
alluvial soils 177
alpha amylase 137
alternative farming 231
amaranthus 106
amaranthus espinosus 106
amendments 95, 148
amides 181
amino acids 32
amino sugars 32
ammonia 21, 27, 82, 83, 87, 91, 109, 176, 202, 218
ammonification 44
ammonium 177, 214
ammonium nitrate 171
ammonium nitrogen 14, 43, 91, 95, 178
ammonium sulfate 40
anaerobes 20
anaerobic conditions 17
anaerobic digestion 16
anaerobic treatment 10, 13, 148, 227
analytical quality 242
ancillary enterprises 115
animal feeding 234
animal manures 18, 27, 29, 39, 53, 56, 63, 80, 88, 100, 126, 127, 157, 166, 172, 203, 207, 209, 216, 232, 244
animal power 197
animal production 221
animal wastes 5, 11, 27, 41, 50, 51, 74, 80, 121, 156, 172, 195, 237
antibiotics 18
application rates 49, 100, 178, 214, 238
application to land 19, 51, 171, 209, 231, 236
aquaculture 195, 239
aquifers 214
arginine 44
arid lands 248
arkansas 234, 238
aromatic compounds 92
ash 1, 91, 227
aspergillus 22
atp 137, 164
atrazine 214
bacillus cereus 181
bacillus thuringiensis 96
bacteria 36, 167, 181
bacterial count 55
bags 23
bark compost 44
barley straw 44
beauveria bassiana 96
belgium 107
beta glucosidase 196
beta vulgaris 107, 179
beta vulgaris var 107
bins 49
bioassays 110
biochemical oxygen demand 91
biocides 179
biodegradation 26, 83, 104, 217
bioenergy 17
biogas 16, 17, 195, 227
biogenic waste composts 179
biographies 219
biological activity in soil 104, 177
biological control 142
biological control agents 142
biological denitrification 88
biological development 145
biological transformation 104
biological treatment 16, 240
biological waste composts 179
biology 240
biomass 4, 17, 160, 164, 165
biomass production 34, 195
bioreactors 20
biostability 91, 92
biotechnology 20, 27
brassica alboglabra 106
brassica oleracea 179
brassica oleracea var 14, 40
brassica parachinensis 106
brassica pekinensis 111
broilers 54, 55, 120
brushwood compost 125
building materials 232
bulk density 43, 205
bulking 144
bulking agents 42, 69, 144, 223
burial 15
burkina faso 227, 248
businesses 57
businessmen-canada-biography 220
calcium 95, 136
california 30, 40, 76, 138, 189
canada 42, 86, 223
capacity 136
capitata 14
carbon 4, 33, 91, 92, 160, 164, 165, 168, 174, 227
carbon dioxide 25, 82
carbon dioxide enrichment 239
carbon-nitrogen ratio 4, 23, 33, 49, 82, 143, 153, 160, 165, 166, 171, 193, 200, 204, 211, 217
carbon to nitrogen ratio 113
carcass disposal 15, 38, 65, 81, 94, 120, 183, 200, 201, 234
carcasses 7, 38, 120, 214
cation exchange capacity 105
cation saturation 105
cattle dung 137
cattle feeding 116
cattle manure 7, 16, 23, 34, 35, 61, 70, 72, 86, 96, 103, 107, 115, 131, 145, 146, 147, 166, 169, 173, 174, 196, 197, 205, 210
cattle slurry 135
cellulolytic microorganisms 26
cellulose 211
cephalosporium 4
change 205
characteristics 10
characterization 35
chemical analysis 210, 227, 242
chemical composition 35, 36, 38, 132, 171, 210
chemical degradation 210
chemical properties 38, 129
chemicals 13, 179
chickens 65, 214
chickpea straw 132
china 37
chlorinated hydrocarbons 104
chopping 23, 147
cichorium endivia 239
claviceps purpurea 226
clay 35
clay loam soils 211
clay soils 177
clearcutting 43
coal 1
cocomposting 53, 143
cocoons 131, 145, 169
coleomegilla maculata 96
collection 226
colorado 133
colorimetry 91, 92
commercial composting 118
compaction 112
comparisons 14, 35, 43, 98, 129, 132, 193, 200, 205
compost 64, 124, 182, 184, 194, 220
compost economic aspects 119
compost-india 213
compost-maine 73
compost management 119
compost-maryland 122
compost maturity 34, 105, 129, 132
compost-pennsylvania-berks county 123
compost-pennsylvania-lancaster county 123
compost quality 129, 226
compost temperature 164
composters 200
composting 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 37, 38, 39, 41, 42, 43, 45, 46, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 97, 99, 102, 105, 106, 108, 109, 112, 113, 114, 116, 117, 118, 120, 126, 127, 130, 133, 134, 135, 136, 138, 140, 141, 143, 144, 146, 147, 148, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 156, 157, 158, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 170, 171, 172, 175, 176, 179, 180, 183, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 195, 197, 198, 200, 201, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 212, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 232, 233, 234, 240, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247
composting-greenhouse 239
composts 2, 3, 4, 5, 14, 18, 28, 32, 35, 38, 40, 41, 43, 44, 46, 47, 63, 65, 67, 69, 88, 91, 92, 95, 96, 97, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 107, 110, 111, 113, 114, 115, 117, 121, 125, 129, 132, 137, 139, 140, 142, 144, 149, 155, 159, 168, 174, 177, 178, 179, 181, 193, 196, 199, 207, 209, 211, 219, 223, 226, 227, 228, 231, 235, 236, 238, 239, 240, 242, 248
computer software 74
concentration 113
connecticut 121, 170
conservation tillage 216
consumption 82
contaminants 18
control 218
conventional tillage 216
conventional versus sustainabable farming 177
conversion 40
cooperation 39, 57, 126
copper 111
correlation 164
cost benefit analysis 58, 116
costs 100, 157, 200
cotton 89
cotton gin trash 59, 171, 229
cover crops 142
crab waste 42, 152, 199
cranberries 206
crop growth stage 101, 129
crop management 235
crop production 89, 239
crop quality 4
crop residues 4, 5, 7, 16, 107, 153, 165, 166, 184, 216, 226, 227, 240
crop yield 4, 14, 26, 40, 96, 100, 101, 103, 110, 111, 227, 238, 239
crops 125
cuba 221
cucumber green mottle mosaic tobamovirus 108
cucumis sativus 106, 108
culinary herbs 103
cultivars 239
cultural control 142
culture media 235
cycling 216
cynodon dactylon 238
dairies 155
dairy cattle 243
dairy farms 86, 121, 224
dairy manure 61
dairy wastes 115
decay fungi 25
decomposition 32, 102, 114, 132, 144, 159, 165, 166, 168, 174, 212, 217
degradation 114
degree of humification 114
dehydrated foods 158
delaware 216, 234
demand 89
demonstration farms 141, 238
dendrobaena 145, 169
denitrification 88
denmark 17
desert soils 45
desertification 248
design 74, 246
design calculations 200
determination 91, 92, 95, 105, 235
detoxification 87
dimethyl disulfide 109
disease control 108
displacement 105
dissolved organic carbon 35, 91
district of columbia 216
dogs 56
dolomite 227
drawida 131
drought 248
dry matter 82, 103, 205
dry matter accumulation 4, 101, 227, 239
duck litter 126
duration 113
dust control 19
earthworms 131, 132, 169, 237
economic analysis 78, 97, 98, 100, 141
economic impact 57, 201
economic viability 99
educational programs 127
efficiency 68
eggs 201
elaeis guineensis 166
emission 21, 27, 82, 147, 205, 218
enclosed composting 23
enrichment 227
environmental factors 164, 169
environmental impact 149, 205
environmental protection 90
environmental temperature 91, 160, 165, 217
enzyme activity 44, 137, 164, 196
erosion control 248
escherichia coli 55
essential oils 103
estimated costs 97
europe 52
evaluation 92, 242
extracts 35, 91, 92
extrusion 15
farm buildings 81, 120
the farm co-compost project 39
farm enterprises 72
farm income 79, 216
farm machinery 84
farm management 9
farm manure 182, 184
farm storage 120
farm tests 58
farmers 39, 57, 118
farmers-channel islands-biography 220
farming systems 177, 248
farmland 236
farms 97
farmyard manure 62, 91, 92, 101, 132, 168, 211, 227
fatty amides 181
feasibility 99, 100, 160
federal programs 12
feed supplements 208
feedlot wastes 178
feeds 13
fees 99
fermentation 15, 94
fertilizers 4, 9, 17, 28, 49, 78, 177, 178, 183, 199, 221, 234, 235
festuca arundinacea 226
fiber content 25
field experimentation 160
field tests 239
filters 180
finland 103
fish 67
fish composts 67
fish farms 66
fish scrap 42, 72, 151
florida 199, 225
food 132
food processing 152
food wastes 1, 18, 24, 57, 58, 77, 82, 97, 118, 126, 127, 198
forage plants-congresses 128
forced aeration 205
forest soils 43
formation 210
france 125
frequency 34
fresh manures 88
fresh products 240
fresh weight 239
frozen foods 158
fulvic acids 44, 114, 136
fungal propagules 226
fungi 26, 36, 167
gardens 37
gas production 82, 195
gases 147
gasification 17
german federal republic 145, 179
germany 24
gloeotinia temulenta 226
glycine max 238
goats 63, 166
gossypium 142, 238
grain 101
granules 2
grape marc 235
grass clippings 144
grasses 160, 247
greece 108
green manures 96, 107, 142, 221
greenhouse culture 103, 239
greenhouse gases 205
groundwater 43
groundwater pollution 214
grow rich waste recycling systems 220
growth 96, 131, 132, 145, 169
growth rate 101, 239
guidelines 204
gypsum 232
half life 107
handling 187
harvesting date 239
hawaii 141
hay 61, 197
health hazards 22
heat loss 218
heavy metals 18, 179
height 112
helotiales 226
herbicide residues 214
heterocyclic nitrogen compounds 92
history 29, 52, 219
hong kong 241
horse manure 19, 72, 131
horses 19
households 179
human population 216
humic acids 44, 102, 114, 135, 136, 196
humic substances 92
humification 33, 91, 92, 104, 114, 212
humus 182
hydrogen sulfide 91, 109
hydroponics 239
hydroxy fatty acids 181
hysteresis 235
idaho 158, 246
illinois 191
imidacloprid 107
immobilization 44, 104, 211
incineration 15, 222
incorporation 136
incubation 131, 145
india 26, 132
indicators 113
indoles 25
industrial wastes 17, 143
infections 108
infiltration 248
inorganic compounds 239
inorganic versus organic fertilizers 177
insecticides 107
integrated systems 239
interactions 175
intercropping 221
iowa 53, 215
irrigated stands 100
irrigation 235
isoelectric focusing 114, 196
italy 83, 240
japan 50, 51
jute 28
kansas 100
kenosha, wisconsin 126
kinetics 143
labeling 175
laboratories 242
laboratory evaluating exchange programs 242
laboratory evaluating programs 242
laboratory methods 160, 242
laboratory rearing 131
lactobacillus 94
lactuca sativa 239
land improvement 237
law 58
layout 200
leachates 147
leaching 14, 96, 125, 149, 214
leaves 61, 121, 144, 188, 239
lebanon, connecticut 170
legislation 12
legumes 40
lepidium sativum 91, 110
leptinotarsa decemlineata 96
life cycle 145
life cycles 146
light regime 239
light relations 239
lignin 160, 211, 217
lignite 102
lignocellulosic wastes 166, 217
linum usitatissimum 4
lipid metabolism 181
lipids 181, 217
liquid fertilizers 239
liquid manures 147
literature reviews 5, 10, 11, 52
litter 54, 55, 164, 197, 204, 206
litter plant 1, 43, 53, 139, 186, 189, 232, 236
livestock farming 185
livestock feeding 158, 199
location of production 99
lolium multiflorum 4, 226
lolium perenne 153, 165, 217, 226
lolium rigidum 110, 129, 139
long chain fatty acids 137
losses 21, 82, 88, 147, 148, 149, 205
losses from soil 125
low-input agriculture 96, 121, 153, 165, 171, 214, 221
low-input composting 153
lycopersicon esculentum 4, 106
machinery 162
maine 57, 96, 118, 190
maize silage 16
maize stover 132
manure compost 125
manure handling-congresses 128
manure heaps 149
manures 1, 4, 13, 20, 130, 149, 163, 218, 222, 223, 224, 242, 243
market gardens 141
marketing 41, 115, 170, 207
markets 231, 240
maryland 216
mass 205
mass spectrometry 92, 210
massachusetts 72, 117, 206
mathematical models 235
maturation 91, 92, 114, 169
maturity 34, 110, 113
measurement 227
meat byproducts 163
mechanization 84
medicinal plants 103
mesophiles 165
methane 109, 205
methane production 16, 205
methodology 140
methyl sulfide 109
methylmercaptan 109
metolachlor 214
michigan 130, 203
microbial activities 4, 25, 160, 164, 217
microbial degradation 5, 25, 87, 165
microbial flora 34, 165
microorganisms 160
mineral additives 110
mineral content 36
mineralization 65, 101, 132, 160, 165, 168, 174, 211, 217
minimal intervention 205
minimum tillage 216
mississippi 85, 201
mixtures 21, 23, 59, 82, 95, 111, 127, 147, 223, 225, 232, 235
models 74, 90
moisture 169, 205
moisture content 23, 49, 55, 63, 68, 82, 83, 87, 91, 106, 112, 113, 164, 169, 228
moisture perferences 169
molasses 136
monitoring 23, 82, 206
mortality 60, 66, 167
mosses 23, 223
mountain states of usa 155
movement in soil 14, 43
mulching 188
municipal refuse disposal 39
municipal waste compost 142
nematode control 142
netherlands 222, 242
new england 239
new hampshire 58, 97
new jersey 188
new york 127
nigeria 47
nitrate 14, 173, 214, 239
nitrate nitrogen 4, 14, 43, 91, 95, 96, 178, 238, 239
nitrification 4, 176, 177
nitrifying bacteria 177
nitrite 177
nitrogen 14, 21, 28, 32, 33, 43, 44, 65, 88, 101, 125, 147, 148, 149, 160, 164, 165, 168, 174, 176, 177, 178, 211, 225, 227, 234, 238, 239
nitrogen balance 147
nitrogen content 4, 6, 25, 91, 95, 101, 174, 211, 239
nitrogen fertilizers 100, 142, 175, 214
nitrogen fixing bacteria 221
nitrogen losses 109
nitrous oxide 43, 109
no tillage 178, 216
nonpoint source pollution 214
nonpoint source pollution-maryland-prevention 122
north carolina 142, 214
northeastern states of usa 216
npk fertilizers 101, 125
nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy 92
nutrient availability 101, 168, 239
nutrient content 6, 19, 33, 36, 179, 183, 199
nutrient requirements 165
nutrient solutions 239
nutrient sources 101, 125, 177
nutrient uptake 14, 101, 125, 139
nutrients 149, 216
nutrition 131
odor abatement 19, 180, 183
odor emission 68, 109
odors 78
off-farm composting 99
off-farm wastes 72
ohio 144
oleic acid 181
oligochaeta 146, 237
on-farm processing 7, 8, 24, 31, 45, 46, 71, 76, 86, 117, 134, 150, 153, 172, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 198, 203, 206, 215, 233, 245
ontario 77, 140
operation 200
orchard soils 46
orchards 46
oregon 46, 158, 162
organic acids 113, 139
organic additives 110
organic amendments 211
organic compounds 92, 210
organic culture 37, 239
organic farming 37, 40, 45, 46, 157, 182, 209, 219, 239
organic fertilizers 2, 4, 18, 125, 227, 240
organic matter 33, 35, 91, 110, 114, 187, 210
organic versus inorganic fertilizers 101, 125
organic versus mineral fertilizers 4
organic wastes 57, 72, 171, 215, 237
organochlorine pesticides 18
oryza sativa 4, 238
ownership 17
oxidation 177
oxidoreductases 44, 164
oxygen 82, 91
oxygen consumption 20, 164
paecilomyces 142
pakistan 28
paper 23
particle size 49
particle size distribution 112
peat 5, 23, 42, 140, 228
pelleting 47, 232
pennisetum americanum 227
pennisetum purpureum 63
pennsylvania 31, 39, 71, 123
perforated aeration pipes 140
performance 93
perillus bioculatus 96
perionyx excavatus 132
persistence 107
pesticide residues 104
pesticides 9
ph 23, 63, 83, 95, 113, 147
phenol 67
phenolic compounds 137
phenols 113
pheretima 241
pheretima asiatica 241
Philippe, Pierre, 1912 220
phosphates 227
phosphocomposts 14
phosphoric monoester hydrolases 196
phosphorus 6, 14, 95, 136, 139, 178
phosphorus fertilizers 139
physicochemical properties 3, 140, 223, 240
phytotoxicity 67, 106, 110
pig farming 94, 141
pig manure 3, 6, 7, 68, 69, 78, 93, 106, 109, 112, 114, 133, 147, 164, 177, 241
piggery effluent 214
pigs 7, 78, 94, 183, 197
piles 205
pilot projects 198
pipes 140
pittston, maine 118
plant analysis 242
plant composition 4
plant disease control 179
plant oils 158
plant parasitic nematodes 142
plant residues 70, 108, 162
plant water relations 96
plants 108
plate count 25
plowing 138
poa annua 226
polar oleyl lipids 181
polluted soils 104
pollution 154, 208
pollution control 205, 214
polycyclic hydrocarbons 18
polysaccharides 217
population density 177, 216
population dynamics 132
populations 177
pot culture 235, 239
potassium nitrate 211
potato waste 73
poultry 7, 38, 81, 167, 200, 201
poultry droppings 70, 137
poultry farming 15, 54, 60, 200
poultry manure 2, 7, 14, 25, 30, 33, 36, 38, 40, 42, 47, 54, 55, 59, 64, 82, 83, 85, 87, 89, 90, 95, 99, 116, 120, 139, 140, 142, 147, 148, 154, 166, 171, 175, 176, 180, 192, 199, 201, 202, 204, 206, 208, 225, 228, 229, 230, 234, 238
prices 201
problem analysis 186
problem solving 186
processing losses 109
profiles 173
profitability 207
programs 242
progress report 224
projects 53, 236, 248
properties 240
pythium ultimum 179
quality 4, 41, 69, 105, 129, 132, 179, 193, 226, 227, 242
quality controls 158, 170, 242
quebec 224
questionnaires 9
rabbit droppings 70, 212
rape straw 44
ratios 59
recipes 93
reclamation 237
recovery 14
recycling 10, 13, 30, 118, 127, 221, 222, 227
recycling waste, etc 123, 213
refuse 16, 17, 132, 179, 186, 216
refuse compost 36, 44
regeneration 248
regional surveys 31, 188
regulation 201
regulations 76, 198
rendering 15
reproduction 132, 145
reproduction potential 132
research 12
research projects 47, 118
residential areas 215
residual effects 14
respiration 34
retention 136
returns 100, 201
reviews 13
rhizosphere 139
rice husks 4
rice straw 26, 138, 143
road transport 170
rock phosphate 14, 95, 136
rotations 125, 221
runoff 149, 178, 214, 238, 248
rural communities 53
rural urban relations 186
ryegrass straw 161, 165, 217
sahel 248
salmon 66, 113, 193
salmon culture 113
salmonella 55
santa cruz, california 30
saturated hydraulic conductivity 235
sawdust 6, 25, 42, 61, 111, 164
scrubbers 180
seafoods 18
seasonal variation 239
secale cereale 142
sediment 242
seed dispersal 243
seed germination 91, 110, 137
seedbed preparation 248
seedling emergence 179
seeds 226
semiarid zones 143
separation 69
sheep manure 196
shrinkage 112
silty soils 168
simulation models 174
sludges 114, 242
slurries 101, 140, 223
small farms 141
soil 180
soil amendments 49, 116, 188, 232
soil analysis 227, 239, 242
soil bacteria 177
soil conditioners 199
soil conservation 221
soil depth 178, 238
soil enzymes 44
soil fauna 146
soil fertility 44, 125, 221, 238, 248
soil flora 104
soil inorganic nitrogen 239
soil organic matter 104, 107, 135, 168
soil ph 171, 216
soil-physical properties 96
soil pollution 111, 237
soil temperature 216
soil texture 35
soil types-textural 35
soil water 101, 131, 216
soil water potential 235
soil water retention 235
solanum tuberosum 84, 96
solar radiation 239
solid wastes 69, 206, 222, 225, 247
solubility 91, 95, 165
solubilization 139
sorghum 227
sorghum bicolor 100, 137
sorghum stalks 227
sources 132
south carolina 54
southern states of usa 60
sowing 248
soy straw 132
spain 70, 212
spatial distribution 216, 228
spatial variation 228
spectral analysis 92
stability 91, 92, 129, 132, 211
state government 58, 116
static pile composting 193
statis pile system 112
stockpiled versus composted dairy manure 35
stomach 163
storage 113
straw 21, 61, 114, 132, 144, 147, 153, 160, 162, 228
straw as fertilizer 124
straw burning 138
straw disposal 44, 138, 161
streams 214
streptococcus 6
structure 92
stubble mulching 178
suburban areas 19
sugarcane bagasse 28
sugars 217
sulfocomposts 14
sulfur 14, 88, 95, 109
sulfur compounds 109
surveys 7, 8, 38, 71, 86
survival 132, 226
sustainability 52, 121, 141, 142, 153, 177, 221, 248
sustainable agriculture 182, 184
sustainable agriculture-congresses 128
sustainable farm practices 121
switzerland 101
systems 90, 205
taiwan 111
techniques 41, 59, 183
technology 203, 223
temperature 3, 23, 25, 49, 63, 68, 82, 83, 87, 112, 162, 164, 218, 226, 228
temperature profile 140
temporal variation 205, 210
test procedure 105
texas 178
thermal degradation 159
thermogravimetry 159
thermophiles 165
thermophilic bacteria 6, 166
thermophilic fungi 166
thermophilic microorganisms 20
thiofanox 107
thiols 109
tillage 221
top dressings 101
total costs 138
toxicity 237
traditional farming 248
traditional technology 248
transformation 104, 148, 177
transport costs 116
transport processes 43
tree fruits 141
trends 8
triticum aestivum 26, 28, 101, 238
tropical soils 177
tropics 141
turkeys 55
turning 34, 226
uk 185
unsaturated hydraulic conductivity 235
urban areas 236
urban compost 125
urea 14, 227
usa 7, 12, 28, 52, 54, 86, 224, 244
usage 13
usda 12
use efficiency 14, 142
uses 117
value-added 2
vaporization 83
varietal reactions 239
vegetables 240
vermicomposting 131, 132, 169, 196, 221, 237, 241
vermiculture 145
vermont 207
viability 226
virginia 29, 216
vitis vinifera 4
volatile compounds 25
volatile fatty acids 67, 68
volatility 68
volcanic ash 235
volume 162, 205
washington 18
waste disposal 13, 15, 19, 50, 52, 54, 78, 85, 99, 116, 146, 152, 156, 167, 183, 222
waste treatment 3, 6, 11, 13, 27, 30, 50, 59, 66, 68, 69, 75, 79, 112, 113, 116, 126, 136, 154, 155, 163, 192, 214, 222, 237
waste utilization 2, 4, 24, 29, 38, 53, 72, 74, 77, 127, 132, 133, 134, 136, 150, 154, 156, 190, 193, 195, 207, 208, 215, 222, 225, 232, 236, 246
waste water treatment 11
waste wood 232
wastes 24, 53, 82, 189
water content 43
water holding capacity 36, 63
water pollution 13, 116, 178, 214
water quality 43, 60, 214
water uptake 137
watershed management 60
watersheds 214
wavelengths 91
weeds 179, 226, 243
weight 23, 239
weight losses 23
west virginia 99, 116, 216
wheat straw 32, 44, 88, 101, 102, 104, 110, 129, 132, 136, 151, 159
windows 160, 161
windrow composting 160, 226, 246
windrow turning 160
windrowers 61
windrowing 61, 205
windrows 49, 72, 153, 162, 194, 204, 206, 225, 226, 246
winter 239, 246
winter wheat 101, 238
wisconsin 126
wood chips 88, 127, 144, 171, 197
worm casts 196
xenobiotics 179
yard trimmings 189, 236
yard wastes 170, 171
yards 24, 53, 82, 186, 189, 225, 232, 247
yields 129
zea mays 14, 238
zeolites 21, 88
zinc 111
zone of influence 140

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