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Anesthesia and Analgesia for Farm Animals

Animal Welfare Information Center
United States Department of Agriculture
National Agricultural Library

ISSN: 1052-5378

Quick Bibliography Series, QB 95-13
January 1989 - January 1995

Updates QB 94-21

400 citations in English from AGRICOLA
March 1995

Compiled By:
Tim Allen
Animal Welfare Information Center, Information Centers Branch
National Agricultural Library, Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture
10301 Baltimore Ave., Beltsville, Maryland 20705-2351


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National Agricultural Library Cataloging Record:

 Allen, Tim
   Anesthesia and analgesia for farm animals : January 1989-
 January 1995.
   (Quick bibliography series ; 95-13)
   1. Animal anesthesia--Bibliography. 2. Domestic animals--
 Bibliography. 3. Animal immobilization--Bibliography. I.
 Title.
 aZ5071.N3 no.95-13
 

Search Strategy

   Line Description
   ---- -----------
   1.   anesthe? or anasthe? or anaesthe? or analges? or pain?
        or distress or tranquil? or anxiolytic? or
        neuroleptanalges? or paralytic? or hypnotic? or
        sedative? or neuromuscular(W)block? or hypothermia
   2.   cow or cows or cattle or sheep or pig? or swine or
        boar? or barrow? or gilt? or horse? or mare? or
        stallion? or livestock? or bull or bulls or lamb? or
        ram? or ewe?
   3.   pony or ponies or foal or colt? or chicken? or chick or
        chicks or poult? or hen? or rooster? or turkey? or
        capon? or duck? or geese? or goose or emu? or ostrich?
        or llama?
   4.   rhea? or goat? or equine? or bovine? or ovine? or
        buffalo? or catfish? or trout? or donkey? or mule or
        mules
   5.   S2 or S3 or S4
   6.   S1 and S5
   7.   S6/ti
   8.   S7 and PY=1989:1995
 

 1                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Accuracy of a reflectance pulse oximeter in anesthetized
 horses. Watney, G.C.G.; Norman, W.M.; Schumacher, J.P.; Beck,
 E.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1993 Apr. American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (4):
 p. 497-501; 1993 Apr. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Blood; Oxygen; Measurement;
 Instruments; Accuracy
 
 Abstract:  The accuracy of a reflectance pulse oximeter was
 determined in 22 anesthetized horses, oximetric blood oxygen
 saturation was measured with the pulse oximeter probe attached
 to the mucosa of the mandible. Arterial blood oxygen
 saturation (Sao2) was calculated from arterial blood gas
 values and the equine blood oxygen dissociation curve. The
 mean +/- SD difference between oximetric blood oxygen
 saturation and Sao2 was -1.3 +/- 3.1% for values of (Sao2)
 ranging from 80 to 100%. The difference between oximetric
 blood oxygen saturation and Sao2 was influenced by Sao2, the
 mean arterial blood pressure, and preanesthetic medication
 administered, but not by age, sex, or body weight of the
 horse, individual animal effect, anesthetic induction or
 maintenance agent, procedure performed, body position, mode of
 lung ventilation, time of sampling, arterial pH, or carbon
 dioxide tension.
 
 
 2                                      NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3
 Actions of isoflurane and halothane in pregnant mares.
 Daunt, D.A.; Steffey, E.P.; Pascoe, J.R.; Willits, N.; Daels,
 P.F. Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1992 Nov01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 201
 (9): p. 1367-1374; 1992 Nov01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mares; Pregnancy; Inhaled anesthetics; Halothane;
 Anesthesia; Blood pressure; Respiration rate; Carbon dioxide;
 Oxygen; Duration; Recovery; Blood chemistry
 
 
 3                                     NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46
 Acupuncture for the treatment of chronic back pain in 200
 horses. Martin, B.B. Jr; Klide, A.M.
 Lexington, Ky. : The Association; 1992.
 Proceedings of the annual convention of the American
 Association of Equine Practitioners (37): p. 593-601; 1992. 
 Meeting held December 1-4, 1991, San Francisco, California. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Acupuncture; Pain
 
 
 4                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Acute effects of perineural administration of sodium
 hyaluronate on palmar digital neurectomy sites in horses.
 Murray, R.C. \u Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS;
 Gaughan, E.M.; DeBowes, R.M.; Mosier, D.A.; Hoskinson, J.J.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1994 Oct. American journal of veterinary research v. 55 (10):
 p. 1484-1489; 1994 Oct. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Hyaluronic acid; Neurectomy;
 Postoperative complications; Drug effects; Neoplasms; Nerve
 tissue; Inflammation; Swelling; Infusion
 
 Abstract:  Biaxial palmar digital neurectomy of all limbs was
 performed on 6 mixed-breed castrated adult male horses, using
 a standard guillotine method. Using a Teflon catheter, 20 mg
 (2 ml) of sodium hyaluronate (group 1), 2 ml of phosphate-
 buffered saline solution (group 2), or catheter placement with
 no infusion (group 3) was applied to 4 (group 1) or 2 (groups
 2 and 3) of 8 incisions/horse. Treatments were administered
 after closure of the neurectomy incision, and the catheter was
 removed. Horses were evaluated daily for 1 week, then weekly
 over a 9-week period for evidence of lameness, swelling, and
 ultrasonographic changes. On week 9, horses were euthanatized
 and neurectomy sites were removed en bloc for histologic
 evaluation of axonal regrowth, inflammation, and fibrosis.
 Neither lameness nor sign of painful neuroma was observed
 clinically in any of the horses. Neurectomy eliminated
 cutaneous heel sensation in all limbs for the duration of the
 study. Swelling was evident at all neurectomy sites. There
 were no significant differences between treatment sites for
 measurement of pastern circumference or ultrasonographic
 evaluation of incisional swelling. Foci of ultrasonographic
 hyperechogenicity increased over time, but there was no
 significant difference in hyperechogenicity between treatment
 groups. Histologic evidence of neuroma formation was observed
 at all sites. Morphometric assessment of neuroma cross-
 sectional areas revealed no significant difference between the
 groups, as did subjective histologic assessment of neuroma
 density and fibrous tissue content. We conclude that there are
 no clinical, ultrasonographic, or histologic effects on
 neuroma formation and fibrosis at sites of palmar digital
 neurectomy associated with a single perineural administration
 of sodium hyaluronate or phosphate-buffered saline solution.
 
 
 5                             NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 Acute pain from castration and tail docking of lambs.
 Molony, V.; Wood, G.N.
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p.
 385-395, 400-401; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Lambs; Pain; Tail; Cutting; Castration;
 Anesthesia; Local anesthesia; Xylazine; Morphine; Etorphine;
 Naloxone; Drug effects
 
 
 6                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R3224
 Alleviation of postanesthetic hypoxemia in the horse.
 McMurphy, R.M.; Cribb, P.H.
 Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1989 Jan.
 The Canadian veterinary journal v. 30 (1): p. 37-41; 1989 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Adverse effects; Hypoxia;
 Therapy; Oxygen; Partial pressure
 
 
 7                                   NAL Call. No.: 442.8 J8222
 Alterations in pituitary gland sensitivity in ram lambs to
 physiological doses of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH),
 after divergent selection based on the luteinizing hormone
 response to a pharmacological GnRH challenge. Evans, N.P.;
 McNeilly, J.R.; Springbett, A.J.; Webb, R.
 Colchester : The Journal; 1991 Nov.
 Journal of reproduction and fertility v. 93 (2): p. 559-567;
 1991 Nov. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rams; Lambs; Lines; Gnrh; Lh; Hormone secretion;
 Anesthesia; Injectable anesthetics; Dosage effects; Line
 differences; Hypothalamus; Pituitary
 
 
 8                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Analgesic activity and respiratory effects of butorphanol in
 sheep. Waterman, A.E.; Livingston, A.; Amin, A.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1991 Jul.
 Research in veterinary science v. 51 (1): p. 19-23; 1991 Jul. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sheep; Analgesics; Dosage; Pain; Respiratory
 gases; Mechanical stimulation; Heat tolerance
 
 Abstract:  The analgesic drug butorphanol tartrate has proved
 useful clinically in horses and dogs but its analgesic profile
 had not yet been investigated in sheep. This study was
 initiated to determine the thermal and mechanical
 antinociceptive activity of butorphanol (at the dose rates
 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg kg-1) in sheep. The drug produced
 significant analgesia in the thermal lest system, the duration
 of which was dose related but no significant elevation in
 mechanical pressure thresholds could be detected. In a further
 set of experiments the dose rate was increased to 0.4 mg kg-1
 and mechanical testing was repeated. There was still no
 clinically significant elevation in pressure thresholds. At a
 dose rate of 0.2 mg kg-1 the drug had no detectable effect on
 respiratory blood gas tensions. Behavioural changes were
 severe if a dose rate of 0.2 mg kg-1 was exceeded.
 
 
 9                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Analgesic and spasmolytic effects of dipyrone, hyoscine-N-
 butylbromide and a combination of the two in ponies.
 Roelvink, M.E.J.; Goossens, L.; Kalsbeek, H.C.; Wensing, T.
 London : The Association; 1991 Oct26.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 129 (17): p. 378-380; 1991 Oct26.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Colic; Antiinflammatory agents;
 Parasympatholytics; Drug combinations; Pain; Spasms; Drug
 effects
 
 
 10                                    NAL Call. No.: SF951.E62
 The analgesic effect of ketoprofen for use in treating equine
 colic as compared to flunixin meglumine.
 Betley, M.; Sutherland, S.F.; Gregoricka, M.J.; Pollet, R.A.
 Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Publishing
 Company; 1991 Jun. Equine practice v. 13 (6): p. 11-16; 1991
 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Colic; Medical treatment; Analgesics;
 Flunixin; Pain; Drug effects; Antiinflammatory agents
 
 
 11                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Analgesic effects of detomidine in thoroughbred horses with
 chronic tendon injury.
 Chambers, J.P.; Livingston, A.; Waterman, A.E.; Goodship, A.E.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1993 Jan.
 Research in veterinary science v. 54 (1): p. 53-56; 1993 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Detomidine; Tendons; Legs; Trauma; Pain
 
 Abstract:  This study was undertaken to assess the analgesia
 provided by detomidine (20 micrograms kg-1 intravenously) in
 thoroughbred horses. Pain thresholds to a mechanical noxious
 stimulus were measured before and after a period of mild
 chronic pain in one foreleg. Detomidine was a good analgesic
 in control animals, their pain thresholds were significantly
 elevated for about 60 minutes. After injury, the injured leg
 had a significantly lower pain threshold and the intensity and
 duration of analgesia provided by detomidine were
 significantly reduced. The analgesia in the opposite (sound)
 leg was also reduced, indicating that there were both central
 and peripheral aspects to this increased sensitivity to
 painful stimuli. Detomidine deserves to be considered as a
 potent analgesic in the horse rather than a sedative with
 analgesic side effects.
 
 
 12                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AU72
 Analgesic therapy of beak-trimmed chickens.
 Glatz, P.C.; Murphy, L.B.; Preston, A.P.
 Brunswick, Victoria : Australian Veterinary Association; 1992
 Jan. Australian veterinary journal v. 69 (1): p. 18; 1992 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Fowls; Debeaking; Analgesics; Animal welfare;
 Feed intake
 
 
 13                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Analysis of the frequency spectrum of the equine
 electroencephalogram during halothane anaesthesia.
 Johnson, C.B.; Young, S.S.; Taylor, P.M.
 London : British Veterinary Association, 1960-; 1994 May.
 Research in veterinary science v. 56 (3): p. 373-378; 1994
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Electroencephalograms; Halothane;
 Anesthesia; Recordings
 
 Abstract:  The electroencephalogram (EEG) has been used in
 human clinical anaesthesia as an indicator of cortical
 activity and as an indicator of the depth of anaesthesia. It
 would be useful if it provided a reliable indication of the
 depth of anaesthesia of horses. In this study anaesthesia was
 induced with thiopentone and maintained with halothane in nine
 ponies. The end tidal halothane concentration [P(E-Hal)] was
 monitored and 20 seconds of EEG were recorded at 0.8 per cent,
 1.0 per cent and 1.2 per cent halothane, equivalent to the
 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC), 1.25 MAC and 1.5 MAC.
 Each 20 second block of data was divided into one second
 segments and averaged to give one second of averaged EEG from
 which a frequency spectrum was obtained by using a fast
 Fourier transformation. The power of the waveform at low
 frequency (1 to 3 Hz) was compared with that at higher
 frequency (9 to 11 Hz). The median frequency and 95th
 percentile (spectral edge) were also calculated. The spectral
 edge frequency had the best correlation with P(E-Hal).
 
 
 14                                    NAL Call. No.: aZ5071.N3
 Anesthesia and analgesia for farm animals, January 1987-
 January 1994. Allen, T.
 Beltsville, Md., National Agricultural Library; 1994 Apr.
 Quick bibliography series - National Agricultural Library
 (94-21): 84 p.; 1994 Apr.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Anesthesia; Analgesics; Pain
 
 
 15                               NAL Call. No.: SF914.A53 1990
 Anesthesia & analgesia in swine.
 Swindle, M.M.
 Columbia, Md. : American College of Laboratory Animal
 Medicine, 1990? :.; 1990.
 Anesthesia and analgesia in laboratory animals : proceedings -
 - 1990 Forum, American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine,
 Columbia Inn, Columbia, Maryland, May 3-6, 1990. p. 79-87;
 1990.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Miniature pigs; Anesthesia; Analgesics
 
 
 16                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46
 Anesthesia for the compromised or exhausted patient.
 Riebold, T.W.; Schmotzer, W.B.
 Manhattan, Kan. : The Association; 1989.
 Proceedings of the annual convention of the American
 Association of Equine Practitioners (34th): p. 509-518; 1989. 
 Meeting held December 4-7, 1988, San Diego, CA.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Exhaustion; Neuroleptics;
 Fluids; Blood pressure; Depth; Monitoring; Anesthetics
 
 
 17                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46
 Anesthesia for the equine orthopedic patient.
 Muir, W.W. III
 Lexington, Ky. : The Association; 1992.
 Proceedings of the annual convention of the American
 Association of Equine Practitioners (37): p. 721-733; 1992. 
 Meeting held December 1-4, 1991, San Francisco, California. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthetics; Hemodynamics; Postoperative
 complications
 
 
 18                                    NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Anesthesia in the llama.
 Riebold, T.W.; Kaneps, A.J.; Schmotzer, W.B.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1989 Sep.
 Veterinary surgery v. 18 (5): p. 400-404; 1989 Sep.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Llamas; Anesthesia; Anesthetics
 
 
 19                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.V535
 Anesthesia techniques in sheep and goats.
 Ewing, K.K.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders Company; 1990 Nov.
 The Veterinary clinics of North America : food animal practice
 v. 6 (3): p. 759-778; 1990 Nov.  In the series analytic:
 Advances in sheep and goat medicine / edited by M. C. Smith. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sheep; Goats; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Analgesics
 
 
 20                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Anesthetic and medical management of acute hemorrhage during
 surgery. Wagner, A.E.; Dunlop, C.I.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1993 Jul01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 203
 (1): p. 40-45; 1993 Jul01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Horses; Hemorrhage; Surgery;
 Anesthesia; Medical treatment; Blood volume; Losses;
 Hematocrit; Blood proteins
 
 
 21                                    NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47
 Anesthetic complications in the horse.
 Klein, L.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders; 1990 Dec.
 The Veterinary clinics of North America : equine practice v. 6
 (3): p. 665-692; 1990 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Equipment; Failure;
 Anesthetics; Ventilation; Complications; Cardiovascular
 system; Hypotension; Hypothermia; Hypoxia; Hyperthermia;
 Cardiac rhythm; Muscular diseases
 
 
 22                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46
 Anesthetic considerations for dystocia and caesarean section
 in mares. Hodgson, D.S.
 Manhattan, Kan. : The Association; 1989.
 Proceedings of the annual convention of the American
 Association of Equine Practitioners (34th): p. 543-547; 1989. 
 Meeting held December 4-7, 1988, San Diego, CA.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mares; Foaling; Anesthesia; Dystocia; Caesarean
 section; Techniques; Anesthetics
 
 
 23                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Anesthetic management of an incisional dehiscence in recovery
 following exploratory laparotomy in a horse.
 Curtis, M.B.; Eicker, S.W.; Archer, R.M.; Lindsay, W.A.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1992 Mar01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 200
 (5): p. 692-695; 1992 Mar01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Laparotomy; Postoperative
 complications; Case reports
 
 
 24                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3
 Anesthetic management of an incisional dehiscence in recovery
 following exploratory laparotomy in a horse.
 Curtis, M.B. \u University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI;
 Eicker, S.W.; Archer, R.M.; Lindsay, W.A.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1992 Mar01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 200
 (5): p. 692-695; 1992 Mar01.  Corrects AGRICOLA accession
 number IND92017406 in which the publication year was
 incorrectly entered as 1991.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Laparotomy; Postoperative
 complications; Case reports
 
 
 25                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3
 Anesthetic management of ostriches.
 Cornick, J.L. \u Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA;
 Jensen, J. Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1992 Jun01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 200
 (11): p. 1661-1666; 1992 Jun01.  Corrects AGRICOLA accession
 no. IND92038574 in which the volume was incorrectly entered as
 20.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ostriches; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Heart rate;
 Respiration rate; Blood pressure; Blood; Gases; Complications
 
 
 26                                    NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Anesthetic potency and cardiopulmonary effects of enflurane,
 halothane, and isoflurane in goats.
 Antognini, J.F.; Eisele, P.H.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1993 Dec. Laboratory animal science v. 43 (6): p.
 607-610; 1993 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Goats; Anesthesia; Halothane; Inhaled
 anesthetics; Drug effects; Cardiovascular system; Respiratory
 system; Dosage; Hemodynamics; Blood; Gases; Adverse effects
 
 Abstract:  Anesthetic requirements, as defined by the minimum
 alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC) that prevents gross,
 purposeful movement in 50% of animals, have not been
 determined in goats. Therefore, we determined anesthetic
 potency of enflurane (N = 6), halothane (N = 8), and
 isoflurane (N = 7) in goats by using the tail clamp and dew-
 claw clamp as the noxious stimuli and then measured the
 cardiovascular and respiratory effects of these agents. The
 MAC was 2.0 +/- 0.4%, 1.3 +/- 0.1%, and 1.5 +/- 0.3% (mean +/-
 SD) for enflurane, halothane, and isoflurane, respectively. At
 1 MAC, when ventilation was changed from controlled to
 spontaneous, blood pressure decreased in goats anesthetized
 with isoflurane (98 +/- 17 to 78 +/- 13 mm Hg) and halothane
 (95 +/- 10 to 83 +/- 14 mm Hg) but did not significantly
 change in goats anesthetized with enflurane; heart rate
 increased in goats anesthetized with halothane (117 +/- 12 to
 127 +/- 10 beats/min) but was not significantly different in
 goats anesthetized with enflurane or isoflurane; and cardiac
 output increased in goats anesthetized with enflurane (5.70
 +/-1.23 to 7.05 +/- 2.02 liters/min) and halothane (6.14 +/-
 0.94 to 7.91 +/-2.45 liters/min) but not with isoflurane.
 During spontaneous breathing, respiratory depression was
 manifested by apnea in two animals and an elevated PaCO2:57
 +/- 15 mm Hg, 55 +/- 13 mm Hg, and 59 +/- 14 mm Hg,
 respectively, for enflurane, halothane, and isoflurane. Minute
 ventilation during spontaneous breathing was approximately 50%
 of controlled ventilation for each anesthetic agent. We
 conclude that anesthetic requirements in goats are similar to
 those in other species; enflurane, halothane, and isoflurane
 are well tolerated during controlled ventilation; and
 respiratory depression makes these drugs less attractive
 during spontaneous breathing.
 
 
 27                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69
 Anesthetics and surgical techniques useful in the potbellied
 pig. Braun, W. Jr
 Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Co; 1993 May05.
 Veterinary medicine v. 88 (5): p. 441-447; 1993 May05. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Miniature pigs; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Surgical
 operations
 
 
 28                              NAL Call. No.: HV4711.A56 1989
 Animal pain., 2nd ed.
 Rollin, B.
 Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : Prentice Hall; 1989.
 Animal rights and human obligations / edited by Tom Regan,
 Peter Singer. p. 60-65; 1989.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Animal behavior; Animal welfare; Animal
 research; Laboratory animals; Pain; Castration; Suxamethonium
 
 
 29                                     NAL Call. No.: 450 P697
 Antiinflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of an
 aqueous extract of Erythraea centaurium.
 Berkan, T.; Ustunes, L.; Lermioglu, F.; Ozer, A.
 Stuttgart, W. Ger. : Georg Thieme Verlag; 1991 Feb.
 Planta medica v. 57 (1): p. 34-37; 1991 Feb.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Turkey; Gentianaceae; Plant extracts;
 Pharmacology; Antiinflammatory agents; Analgesics;
 Antipyretics
 
 
 30                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Antinociceptive effects of combining low doses of neuroleptic
 drugs and fentanyl in sheep.
 Kyles, A.E.; Waterman, A.E.; Livingston, A.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1993 Sep. American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (9):
 p. 1483-1488; 1993 Sep. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sheep; Pain; Neuroleptics; Fentanyl; Droperidol;
 Drug combinations; Dosage; Intravenous injection; Injection
 
 Abstract:  Effects of low doses of the neuroleptic drugs
 droperidol and zuclopenthixol, combined with a subanalgesic
 dose of the opioid mu-agonist, fentanyl, on mechanical
 nociceptive thresholds were evaluated in sheep. Intravenously
 administered droperidol (5 micrograms/kg of body weight) did
 not induce any change in the nociceptive thresholds when
 administered alone, but caused marked increase in threshold
 responses when combined with a subanalgesic dose of fentanyl
 (5 micrograms/ kg). Similarly, a combination of iv
 administered zuclopenthixol (100 micrograms/kg) and fentanyl
 induced significant (P < 0.05) antinociceptive effects,
 whereas zuclopenthixol administered iv alone had no effect on
 the threshold responses. Intrathecal administration of a low
 dose of droperidol (5-microgram total dose) combined with iv
 administered fentanyl also increased mechanical thresholds
 significantly (P < 0.05). These results indicate that
 interactions exist between dopaminergic and opioid systems in
 the processing of nociceptive information and that these
 effects may, at least partially, be mediated spinally.
 
 
 31                            NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 Antinociceptive effects of intrathecal opioids and alpha 2-
 agonists in sheep. Livingston, A.; Waterman, A.E.; Bouchenafa,
 O.; Kyles, A. New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p.
 281-291, 312; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sheep; Agonists; Opioids; Drug effects;
 Analgesics; Testing; Anesthesia; Dosage; Xylazine;
 Catheterization
 
 
 32                                     NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6
 Anxiolytic activity of Panax ginseng roots: an experimental
 study. Bhattacharya, S.K.; Mitra, S.K.
 Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Aug.
 Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 34 (1): p. 87-92; 1991 Aug. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Panax pseudoginseng; Roots; Diazepam; Anxiety;
 Behavior; Rats
 
 Abstract:  The putative anxiolytic activity of the white and
 red varieties of ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng, was
 investigated in rats and mice using a number of experimental
 paradigms of anxiety and compared with that of diazepam. Pilot
 studies indicated that single-dose administration of ginseng
 had little to no acute behavioral effects, hence the two
 varieties of ginseng were administered orally at two dose
 levels twice daily for 5 days, while diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.)
 was administered acutely. White and red varieties of ginseng
 (20 and 50 mg/kg) showed positive results when tested against
 several paradigms of experimental anxiety. Both were effective
 in the open-field and elevated plus-maze tests and reduced
 conflict behaviour in thirsty rats and footshock-induced
 fighting in paired mice. Ginseng also attenuated
 pentylenetetrazole-induced decrease in rat brain MAO activity,
 confirming its anxiolytic activity since this has been
 proposed to be an endogenous marker for anxiety. The effects
 induced by white and red ginseng (50 mg/kg X 5 days) were
 comparable to those induced by diazepam (1 mg/kg).
 
 
 33                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Aortic catheterization in cattle via the costoabdominal artery
 and validation for progesterone and estradiol-17 beta sample
 collection. Haibel, G.K.; Guilbault, L.A.; Villeneuve, P.;
 Thatcher, W.W. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical
 Association; 1989 Nov. American journal of veterinary research
 v. 50 (11): p. 1923-1925. ill; 1989 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle; Aorta; Catheters; Abdomen; Arteries;
 Cannulation; Progesterone; Estradiol; Blood specimen
 collection
 
 Abstract:  The abdominal portion of the aorta was catherized
 in 27 cows. Local analgesia was achieved by infiltration of
 anesthetic agents. A 10-cm skin incision was made caudal and
 parallel to the 13th rib at the lateral border of the epaxial
 muscles. The dorsal costoabdominal artery was exposed at its
 first lateral cutaneous branch by careful dissection through
 fascial layers. A sterile polyvinyl catheter (1.52 mm OD) was
 inserted into the artery and was advanced 35 to 40 cm to the
 abdominal portion of the aorta. Catheter patency was
 maintained for up to 5 weeks. Concentrations of plasma
 progesterone and estradiol-17 beta in samples obtained from
 the abdominal portion of the aorta were similar to
 simultaneously obtained concentration in samples from the
 jugular vein before and after parturition.
 
 
 34                                   NAL Call. No.: QP251.A1T5
 Application of lumbosacral spinal anesthesia for ovine
 caesarian surgery and for vasectomy under field conditions.
 Scott, P.R. \u Veterinary Field Station, Midlothian, Scotland;
 Sargison, N.D.; Penny, C.D.; Pirie, R.S.
 Newton, Mass. : Butterworth-Heinemann; 1994.
 Theriogenology v. 42 (5): p. 891-893; 1994.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ewes; Caesarean section; Lidocaine; Rams;
 Vasectomy; Conduction anesthesia; Preanesthetic medication;
 Xylazine; Postoperative complications; Paresis
 
 Abstract:  A 2% lignocaine solution infused at a dose of 2
 mg/kg at the lumbosacral site gave excellent analgesia in 28
 vasectomy operations and in 33 of 38 (87%) Caesarian
 operations at a dose of 4 mg/kg. Failure of the anesthetic
 technique in 4 sheep (6% of all operations) was associated
 with poor positioning of the ewe and incorrect identification
 of the epidural space. One fatality was recorded and was
 considered to result from lignocaine overdosage and the
 probable pooling of blood in the splanchnic vasculature.
 Pelvic limb paresis persisted for 2 to 4 h post epidural
 injection in all ewes, but no permanent paralysis was
 encountered. Lumbosacral epidural anesthesia gave excellent
 analgesia for vasectomy, and was indicated for Caesarian
 surgery when a dystocia was associated with severe vaginal
 prolapse or the delivery of a fetal monster. Further work is
 needed to find an analgesic preparation which has a shorter
 duration than the 2% lignocaine solution.
 
 
 35                                     NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6
 Arterial-alveolar carbon dioxide tension difference and
 alveolar dead space in halothane anaesthetised horses.
 Moens, Y.
 Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1989 Jul.
 Equine veterinary journal v. 21 (4): p. 282-284; 1989 Jul. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Halothane; Arteries; Carbon
 dioxide; Tension
 
 
 36                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Assessment of pain associated with degenerative hip disorders
 in adult male turkeys.
 Duncan, I.J.H.; Beatty, E.R.; Hocking, P.M.; Duff, S.R.I.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1991 Mar.
 Research in veterinary science v. 50 (2): p. 200-203; 1991
 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Turkeys; Hips; Degeneration; Joint diseases;
 Pain; Betamethasone; Physical activity
 
 
 37                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Assessment of the welfare of food restricted male broiler
 breeder poultry with musculoskeletal disease.
 Hocking, P.M.
 London : British Veterinary Association, 1960-; 1994 Jul.
 Research in veterinary science v. 57 (1): p. 28-34; 1994 Jul. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Broilers; Restricted feeding; Skeletomuscular
 anomalies; Animal welfare; Pain; Locomotion; Betamethasone;
 Naloxone; Animal behavior; Sexual behavior; Male fertility;
 Age differences; Opioid peptides
 
 Abstract:  The general and sexual activity of food restricted
 male broiler breeder poultry was assessed for evidence of
 behavioral changes associated with musculoskeletal lesions.
 The activity and fertility of male birds given betamethasone
 (an anti-inflammatory steroid) or saline were compared in a
 two-period crossover experiment. Behavioural changes occurred
 and the birds' mating activity and fertility were decreased
 when they were given the steroid, but these effects were not
 associated with the presence of lesions. In a second
 experiment, there were no differences in sexual motivation
 between birds either with or without leg disorders. The birds
 were trained to walk down an alley for their food and the
 speed of walking was compared in a two-period crossover
 experiment. Betamethasone decreased their walking speed in
 period one and the carryover effect was significant in period
 two. Naloxone decreased the walking speed of birds with
 lesions more than of those without lesions. This effect was
 taken as evidence for analgesia by endogenous opioids and may
 help to explain the lack of response of the birds to the
 analgesic agent. The evidence that these food restricted male
 broiler breeder birds experienced pain was equivocal.
 
 
 38                                     NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6
 Atelectasis causes gas exchange impairment in the
 anaesthetised horse. Nyman, G.; Funkquist, B.; Kvart, C.;
 Frostell, C.; Tokics, L.; Strandberg, A.; Lundquist, H.;
 Lundh, B.; Brismar, B.; Hedenstierna, G.
 Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1990 Sep.
 Equine veterinary journal v. 22 (5): p. 317-324; 1990 Sep. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Computed tomography;
 Atelectasis; Respiratory disorders; Gas exchange; Lungs
 
 
 39                                    NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Atracurium as an adjunct to halothane-oxygen anesthesia in a
 llama undergoing intraocular surgery: a case report.
 Donaldson, L.L.; Holland, M.; Koch, S.A.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1992 Jan.
 Veterinary surgery v. 21 (1): p. 76-79; 1992 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Llamas; Anesthesia; Surgical operations; Eyes;
 Halothane; Oxygen; Case reports
 
 
 40                            NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 The balloon model for controlled abdominal pain in the horse.
 Lowe, J.E.
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p.
 408-410, 432; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Surgical operations; Pain; Abdomen;
 Models; Balloons; Apparatus; Surgical equipment
 
 
 41                                       NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Behavioral and physiological effects of freeze or hot-iron
 branding on crossbred cattle.
 Lay, D.C. Jr; Friend, T.H.; Randel, R.D.; Bowers, C.L.;
 Grissom, K.K.; Jenkins, O.C.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1992
 Feb. Journal of animal science v. 70 (2): p. 330-336; 1992
 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Branding; Freezing; Blood plasma;
 Epinephrine; Heart rate; Norepinephrine; Hydrocortisone;
 Stress; Skin temperature; Pain; Animal welfare
 
 Abstract:  Twenty-seven crossbred calves (1/2 Simmental, 1/4
 Hereford, 1/4 Brahman) averaging 257 +/- 11 d of age were
 either hot-iron-branded (H), freeze-branded (F), or sham-
 branded (S). Calves were blocked for temperament, weight, and
 sex and were randomly assigned to day and order in which
 treatments were applied. To reduce stress from handling at
 treatment time, each calf was herded through the squeeze chute
 daily for 5 d before the experiment. Jugular cannulas were
 inserted in each calf 1 d before application of treatment.
 Blood samples and heart rate measures were obtained at -5, -3,
 0, .5, 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 min after application of the
 treatments. Mean concentrations of plasma epinephrine (EPI)
 were higher for H calves at time .5 min than for either S or F
 calves (P = .10). To account for individual differences,
 prebranding heart rates and hormone concentrations were
 subtracted from subsequent samples and were also used to
 calculate a proportion for each subsequent sample. Analyses of
 subtracted values found that EPI concentrations were greater
 for H calves than for either S or F calves (P = .007) at .5
 min postbranding. No other differences were found for the
 subtracted analyses. Analyses of proportion data also revealed
 that H calves had greater EPI than did either S or F calves (P
 = .027) at .5 min postbranding. Only three animals vocalized
 during branding, one H calf and two F calves. Despite the 5-d
 acclimation period, handling and restraint elevated plasma
 cortisol concentrations and heart rate. Because restraint
 elevated physiological indicators of stress, possible
 treatment differences may have been masked. The greater
 epinephrine response experienced by H calves indicates a
 higher momentary pain sensation than that experienced by
 either S or F calves.
 
 
 42                                     NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Behavioural evidence for persistant pain following partial
 beak amputation in chickens.
 Gentle, M.J.; Waddington, D.; Hunter, L.N.; Jones, R.B.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1990 Aug.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 27 (1/2): p. 149-157; 1990
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Hens; Debeaking; Pain; Behavior change; Drinking
 water; Temperature
 
 
 43                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Behavioural responses of lambs of three ages in the first
 three hours after three methods of castration and tail
 docking.
 Molony, V.; Kent, J.E.
 London : British Veterinary Association, 1960-; 1993 Sep.
 Research in veterinary science v. 55 (2): p. 236-245; 1993
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Lambs; Castration; Docking; Methodology;
 Veterinary equipment; Surgery; Age differences; Pain; Animal
 behavior
 
 Abstract:  The behavioural responses of groups of seven lambs
 were compared with control groups after castration and tail
 docking by rubber rings, application of a Burdizzo clamp in
 addition to a rubber ring and after surgical castration at
 five, 21 and 42 days. All methods at all ages produced changes
 in behaviour which were interpreted as indicative of
 considerable pain. The rubber ring groups showed most changes
 in behaviour at all ages. The rubber ring with Burdizzo groups
 showed least changes and some lambs in these groups showed
 much less response than others. The surgical groups showed
 some behavioural responses which were different, both
 qualitatively and quantitatively to those in other groups. It
 is concluded that indices used for recognition and assessment
 of acute pain received conditional support, that modification
 of the rubber ring with Burdizzo may provide the least painful
 method without local anaesthesia and that age had little
 effect on the responses.
 
 
 44                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Benzocaine-induced methemoglobinemia attributed to topical
 application of the anesthetic in several laboratory animal
 species.
 Davis, J.A.; Greenfield, R.E.; Brewer, T.G.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1993 Aug. American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (8):
 p. 1322-1326; 1993 Aug. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Laboratory animals; Benzocaine; Adverse effects;
 Topical application; Methemoglobinemia; Species differences
 
 Abstract:  In a screening study, a common benzocaine-
 containing anesthetic was topically applied to the following
 species: dogs (n = 11), domestic shorthair cats (n = 38),
 Long-Evans rats (n = 22), Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 11),
 ferrets (n = 6), rhesus monkeys (n = 10), cynomolgus monkeys
 (n = 10), owl monkeys (n = 10), New Zealand White rabbits (n =
 18), miniature pigs (n = 9), ICR mice (n = 4), C3H mice (n =
 4), and C57BL/10SnJ mice (n = 24). All animals, except mice
 and rats, received a 2-second spray to the mucous membranes of
 the nasopharynx for an estimated dose of 56 mg. A 2-second
 spray to rodents' oral mucous membranes delivered too great a
 volume of fluid for these animals; therefore, an equivalent
 dose was applied to the oral mucosa membranes by use of a 23-
 gauge needle and syringe. Initial (baseline) blood samples, as
 well as 4 blood samples taken every 15 minutes after drug
 application, were analyzed for methemoglobin (MHb), using an
 oximeter. Positive MHb response (> 3 SD above baseline) was
 seen in individuals of all groups. The study was repeated in
 dogs several months later to confirm low response. Response to
 benzocaine spray was observed in most animals tested, with
 response peaking between 15 and 30 minutes after dosing.
 Positive MHb response ranged from 3.5 to 38%, was detected in
 > 95% of individual animals, and ranged from 15 to 60 minutes
 after drug administration. Responses were variable because of
 the screening nature of the study and the topical route of
 drug administration, but the highest responses were observed
 in rabbits and cats, and the lowest were seen in mice and
 dogs. Methemoglobin could be a confounding variable for
 several types of studies; investigators should consider this
 toxicity of benzocaine-containing topical anesthetics and use
 appropriate alternative methods or drugs (ie, lidocaine).
 
 
 45                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Bilateral arytenoid cartilage paralysis after inhalation
 anesthesia in a horse.
 Abrahamsen, E.J.; Bohanon, T.C.; Bednarski, R.M.; Hubbell,
 J.A.E.; Muir, W.W. III
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1990 Nov15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 197
 (10): p. 1363-1365; 1990 Nov15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Adverse effects; Paralysis;
 Larynx; Case studies; Peripheral nerves
 
 
 46                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Biochemical and haematological changes following prolonged
 halothane anaesthesia in horses.
 Steffey, E.P.; Giri, S.N.; Dunlop, C.I.; Cullen, L.K.;
 Hodgson, D.S.; Willits, N.
 London : British Veterinary Association, 1960-; 1993 Nov.
 Research in veterinary science v. 55 (3): p. 338-345; 1993
 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Halothane; Anesthesia; Duration; Adverse
 effects; Hematology; Blood chemistry; Liver function; Renal
 function; Enzyme activity
 
 Abstract:  Six healthy horses were anaesthetised with
 halothane (1.2 times the horse minimal alveolar concentration)
 in oxygen for more than 12 hours. Serum bilirubin, aspartate
 aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and L-iditol
 dehydrogenase values were significantly (P < 0.05) increased
 for up to nine days after anaesthesia. These changes suggest
 an anaesthesia related liver dysfunction. Creatine kinase
 increased to an average of more than 1400 iu litre-1 24 hours
 after anaesthesia and this change is indicative of muscle cell
 disruption. Renal-associated biochemical results, (that is
 serum creatinine and inorganic phosphate concentrations) were
 significantly increased transiently and are indicative of
 reduced renal function during and immediately after
 anaesthesia. Plasma concentrations of eicosanoids (6-keto-
 PGF(1 alpha), PGF(2 alpha), PGE and thromboxane) following
 anaesthesia were not different from preanaesthetic values. The
 magnitude of liver and muscle cell related increases in serum
 enzyme activities resulting from prolonged halothane
 anaesthesia was in excess of that previously, reported for
 anaesthesia of shorter duration.
 
 
 47                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V643
 Biopsy of the bovine mammary gland.
 Knight, C.H.; Hillerton, J.E.; Teverson, R.M.; Winter, A.
 London : Bailliere Tindall; 1992 Mar.
 British veterinary journal v. 148 (2): p. 129-132; 1992 Mar. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Mammary glands; Biopsy; Milk yield
 
 Abstract:  A technique is described for biopsy of the bovine
 udder, employing sedation and local anaesthesia. Tissue
 samples of approximately 5 g were obtained by electrocautery
 from two quarters of the udder of a cow laterally recumbent.
 Care was taken to ensure complete haemostasis which was
 achieved by electrocoagulation and ligation. Postoperative
 recovery was rapid, and loss of yield was no greater in
 biopsied glands than in control glands of the same cow. Yield
 from all quarters returned to preoperative levels within 48 h.
 
 
 48                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Blood pressure response to tourniquet use in anesthetized
 horses. Copland, V.S.; Hildebrand, S.V.; Hill, T. III; Wong,
 P.; Brock, N. Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1989 Oct15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 195
 (8): p. 1097-1103; 1989 Oct15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Surgery; Veterinary
 equipment; Blood pressure
 
 
 49                       NAL Call. No.: 41.2 H198 1991 [no.35]
 Blutdruckregistrierung wahrend der Halothannarkose bei Pferden
 im Rahmen von Kolikoperationen  [Blood pressure monitoring
 during halothane anesthesia in colic operations on horses].
 Komsthoft, Ute
 Hannover : [s.n.],; 1991.
 170 p. : ill. ; 21 cm.  Summary in English.  Includes
 bibliographical references (p. 137-160).
 
 Language:  German
 
 
 50                                    NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 A bone biopsy procedure for neonatal pigs.
 Bobilya, D.J.; Maurizi, M.G.; Veum, T.L.; Allen, W.C.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1991 Jul.
 Laboratory animals v. 25 (3): p. 222-225; 1991 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Piglets; Newborn animals; Bones; Biopsy; Animal
 models
 
 Abstract:  Neonatal pigs were used to develop a surgical
 biopsy procedure to remove bone tissue from the ilium of small
 animals, with potential application for infants and small
 children. While the neonatal pig was under general
 anaesthesia, a scalpel was used to make a punch incision down
 to the ilium. Then a Craig Biopsy Trephine was used to remove
 a core sample of the bone. The samples ranged from 5 to 15 mm
 in length and 2 to 3 mm in diameter, with an average dry
 weight of 34.4 mg. The samples were adequate for mineral
 (calcium and zinc) analysis in our laboratory and may be
 equally suitable for histological or biochemical analyses.
 Surgical trauma was minimal, which permitted each pig to be
 biopsied every 7 days for 5 weeks without adverse
 consequences.
 
 
 51                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Cardiopulmonary effects of a tiletamine-zolazepam combination
 in sheep. Lagutchik, M.S.; Januszkiewicz, A.J.; Dodd, K.T.;
 Martin, D.G. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical
 Association; 1991 Sep. American journal of veterinary research
 v. 52 (9): p. 1441-1447; 1991 Sep. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sheep; Injectable anesthetics; Anesthesia; Heart;
 Lungs; Physiological functions
 
 Abstract:  To assess the effects on heart and lung function, a
 tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) anesthetic combination was evaluated
 in 10 Dorset-type ewes. Ewes were randomly allotted to 2 equal
 groups. Ewes of groups 1 and 2 were given a single bolus of TZ
 (12 and 24 mg/kg of body weight, IV, respectively) at time
 zero. Hemodynamic, pulmonary, and ventilation variables were
 measured at 15-minute intervals to 120 minutes. Blood gas
 variables were evaluated at 5-minute intervals for the first
 30 minutes, then at 15-minute intervals to 120 minutes. In all
 sheep, TZ administration induced rapid, smooth induction, with
 gradual and unremarkable recovery. Anesthesia duration was not
 significantly different between groups (mean +/- SD, 39 +/- 5
 and 40 +/- 14 minutes for groups 1 and 2, respectively).
 Immediate drug effects included apnea, decreased mean arterial
 blood pressure, and arterial hypoxemia. Cardiac output was
 significantly decreased in both groups at all times after drug
 administration. Significant changes in group-1 ewes included
 increased pulmonary and systemic vascular resistances and
 decreased inspired minute ventilation, tidal volume, and
 respiratory airflow. Significant changes in group-2 ewes
 included increased systemic vascular resistance and decreased
 pulmonary arterial pressure, inspired minute ventilation, and
 respiratory airflow. Both drug dosages induced apneustic
 breathing patterns and caused significant changes in arterial
 and venous blood hemoglobin concentrations and PCV.
 Tiletamine-zolazepam is useful for intermediate-duration
 anesthesia in sheep. However, because of alterations in
 cardiopulmonary function, its use at the dosages evaluated by
 us is not recommended in studies, in which minimal effects on
 heart and lung function are required, or in sheep with
 compromised heart or lung function.
 
 
 52                                    NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 Cardiopulmonary effects of ephedrine in halothane-anesthetized
 horses. Grandy, J.L.; Hodgson, D.S.; Dunlop, C.I.; Chapman,
 P.L.; Heath, R.B. Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications;
 1989 Dec.
 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 12 (4):
 p. 389-396; 1989 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Ephedrine; Halothane; Anesthesia; Cardiac
 output; Blood pressure
 
 
 53                                     NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6
 Cardiopulmonary effects of epidurally administered xylazine in
 the horse. Leblanc, P.H.; Eberhart, S.W.
 Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1990 Nov.
 Equine veterinary journal v. 22 (6): p. 389-391; 1990 Nov. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Cardiovascular system; Xylazine;
 Analgesics; Conduction anesthesia; Blood pressure
 
 
 54                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Cardiopulmonary effects of position in conscious cattle.
 Wagner, A.E.; Muir, W.W. III; Grospitch, B.J.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1990 Jan. American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (1):
 p. 7-10; 1990 Jan. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle; Position; Heart rate; Respiration rate;
 Blood pressure; Blood ph; Gases; Blood
 
 Abstract:  The cardiopulmonary effects of 4 positions
 (standing, right lateral, left lateral, and dorsal recumbency)
 were evaluated in conscious cattle in which no sedatives or
 anesthetic drugs were given. Each position was maintained for
 30 minutes, during which time there were no significant
 changes in heart rate, respiratory rate, mean arterial blood
 pressure, arterial pH, PaCO2, arterial base excess, or venous
 blood gas values. Significant decreases in PaO2 developed when
 cattle were in lateral positions and dorsal recumbency.
 Cardiac index was unchanged in all positions, except in dorsal
 recumbency at 30 minutes, when it was significantly decreased.
 
 
 55                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Cardiopulmonary effects of positioning pregnant cows in dorsal
 recumbency during the third trimester.
 Dunlop, C.I.; Hodgson, D.S.; Smith, J.A.; Chapman, P.L.;
 Tyler, L.M. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical
 Association; 1994 Jan. American journal of veterinary research
 v. 55 (1): p. 147-151; 1994 Jan. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cows; Pregnancy; Position; Uterus; Hemodynamics;
 Blood flow; Cardiovascular system; Respiratory system
 
 Abstract:  The uterine hemodynamic response to maternal
 positioning in dorsal recumbency was evaluated in 7 conscious
 pregnant cows during the third trimester. Anesthetic or
 sedative drugs were not administered. Uterine artery flow was
 measured, using a previously implanted ultrasonic flow probe.
 Catheters implanted in the uterine artery and vein were used
 for measurement of blood pressure and for blood sample
 collections. Heart rate, systemic arterial pressure, uterine
 arterial blood flow, arterial and venous oxygen and carbon
 dioxide tensions, and pH were measured in cows in standing
 position. Cows were cast with ropes and positioned in dorsal
 recumbency, then measurements were repeated at 15 and 30
 minutes. Compared with standing measurements, dorsal
 recumbency caused 50% increase in heart rate and 44% increase
 in arterial blood pressure. Uterine artery flow did not change
 significantly. Despite increased ventilation, arterial
 oxygenation was reduced during dorsal recumbency. There were
 minimal differences between measurements at 15 and 30 minutes
 of dorsal recumbency.
 
 
 56                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Cardiopulmonary effects of positive end-expiratory pressure in
 anesthetized, mechanically ventilated ponies.
 Wilson, D.V.; Soma, L.R.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1990 May. American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (5):
 p. 734-739; 1990 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Cardiovascular system;
 Partial pressure; Respiratory gases; Oxygen; Adverse effects
 
 Abstract:  To investigate the cardiopulmonary effects of
 positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), values of 10, 20, and
 30 cm of H2O, were applied to anesthetized, dorsally
 recumbent, ventilated ponies. After IV induction of general
 anesthesia, PEEP was superimposed on controlled ventilation
 with 100% oxygen, and changes in gas exchange and cardiac
 function were measured. Increasing values of PEEP in these
 ponies caused a linear increase in the mean (+/- SEM)
 functional residual capacity, from a control value (zero end-
 expiratory pressure) of 1.7 +/- 0.24 L to 2.2 +/- 0.31, 2.9
 +/- 0.32 and 3.4 +/- 0.3 L at PEEP of 10, 20, and 30 cm of
 H2O, respectively (P < 0.05). Paralleling these changes,
 intrapulmonary shunt fraction decreased significantly (P <
 0.05) from a control value of 12.9 +/- 0.5%, to 7.5 +/- 1.1
 and 2.1 +/- 0.6%, at PEEP of 20 and 30 cm of H2O,
 respectively. Cardiac output was decreased by increasing
 values of PEEP, from control value of 11.7 +/-1.56 L/min to
 9.9 +/- 1.51, 8.8 +/- 1.33 and 5.62 +/- 0.56 L/min at PEEP of
 10, 20, and 30 cm of H2O, respectively. Related to decreasing
 cardiac output, tissue oxygen delivery also decreased as PEEP
 was increased, from control value of 2.0 +/- 0.09 L/min to 1.8
 +/- 0.07, 1.6 +/- 0.06, and 1.03 +/- 0.04 L/min at PEEP of 10,
 20, and 30 cm of H2O, respectively. Thus, the effects of
 increasing values of PEEP in these ponies included increased
 functional residual capacity and arterial oxygenation, but
 marked reduction in cardiac output, resulting in no
 improvement or decrease in total oxygen delivery. Although
 PEEP is useful for improving arterial oxygenation, the
 deleterious cardiovascular effects should be anticipated or
 ameliorated by use of volume loading and/or inotrope
 administration.
 
 
 57                                     NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6
 Cardiopulmonary effects of xylazine sedation in the foal.
 Carter, S.W.; Robertson, S.A.; Steel, C.J.; Jourdenais, D.A.
 Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1990 Nov.
 Equine veterinary journal v. 22 (6): p. 384-388; 1990 Nov. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Foals; Cardiovascular system; Xylazine;
 Analgesics
 
 
 58                            NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 Cardiorespiratory and MAC-reducing effects of alpha-2-
 adrenoreceptoragonists in horses.
 Muir, W.W.; Wagner, A.E.; Hinchcliff, K.W.
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p.
 102-212; 1992. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Agonists; Analgesics; Drug effects;
 Anesthetics; Heart rate; Cardiovascular system; Respiratory
 system; Xylazine; Alpha-adrenergic receptors
 
 
 59                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Cardiorespiratory responses to electrical stimulation of the
 buccal mucosa in ponies.
 Young, S.S.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1990 Nov.
 Research in veterinary science v. 49 (3): p. 268-274. ill;
 1990 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Pain; Electrical stimulation;
 Responses; Respiratory system; Cardiovascular system; Mouth;
 Mucosa; Halothane; Injectable anesthetics; Blood pressure;
 Heart rate; Tidal volume; Lung ventilation
 
 
 60                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Cardiovascular and respiratory effects of inspired oxygen
 fraction in halothane-anesthetized horses.
 Cuvelliez, S.G.; Eicker, S.W.; McLauchlan, C.; Brunson, D.B.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1990 Aug. American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (8):
 p. 1226-1231; 1990 Aug. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Halothane; Anesthesia; Oxygen;
 Respiratory system; Cardiovascular system
 
 Abstract:  Anesthesia of equids is associated with pulmonary
 dysfunction. Cardiovascular and respiratory effects of
 inhalation anesthetic agents and duration of anesthesia have
 been studied, using oxygen as the carrier gas. To our
 knowledge, the effects of inspired oxygen have not been
 determined. We studied the cardiovascular and respiratory
 effects of 2 inspired oxygen fractions (0.30 and > 0.85) in 5
 laterally recumbent, halothane-anesthetized horses. Mean
 systemic arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, central
 venous pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, arterial pH, and
 arterial base excess were similar in horses of the 2 groups
 during 4 hours of anesthesia at constant end-tidal halothane
 concentration. End-tidal partial pressure of CO2, arterial
 partial pressure of CO2 and O2, and alveolar-to-arterial O2
 tension difference were greater in horses exposed to the
 higher oxygen concentration. On the basis of the data
 obtained, we suggest that greater hypoventilation and
 ventilation/perfusion mismatch occur when horses are breathing
 high-oxygen fraction. Arterial partial pressure of O2 was not
 different between the 2 groups of horses after they were
 disconnected from the anesthesia circuit and allowed to
 breathe room air. Horses recovered from anesthesia without
 complications.
 
 
 61                                    NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Cardiovascular effects of a ketamine-medetomidine combination
 that produces deep sedation in Yucatan mini swine.
 Vainio, O.M.; Bloor, B.C.; Kim, C.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1992 Dec. Laboratory animal science v. 42 (6): p.
 582-588; 1992 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Miniature pigs; Anesthetics; Cardiovascular
 system
 
 Abstract:  Seven chronically instrumented Yucatan minipigs
 were deeply sedated with the combination of ketamine (10
 mg/kg), a dissociative anesthetic, and medetomidine (0.2
 mg/kg), an alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist used as an animal
 sedative in Europe. Both drugs were drawn in the same syringe
 and administered in the left atrium via a previously inserted
 permanent catheter. As a result, hypertension (mean arterial
 pressure from 116 +/- 12 mmHg to 142 +/- 18 mmHg) occurred and
 was followed by bradycardia (from 107 +/- 22 bpm to 71 +/- 9
 bpm). Concomitantly both the rate of increase in ventricular
 pressure (48%) and ventricular wan thickening fraction (37%)
 decreased, thus indicating some worsening of left ventricular
 function. Further, systemic vascular resistance increased
 (290%) resulting in a reduction in cardiac output from 1.8 +/-
 0.7 l/minute to 0.4 +/- 0.3 l/minute. Also, left ventricular
 end diastolic pressure initially increased (maximum 10.2 +/-
 10.8 mmHg) but returned to the control level in 5 minutes. In
 spite of an increase in respiratory frequency (3x), PaCO2
 increased and PaO2 and pH declined. Rectal temperature
 decreased from 38.4 +/- 0.9 to 36.0 +/- 0.8 degrees C. All of
 these changes were transient and returned to control levels
 during the follow-up period (2 hours). However, epinephrine
 concentration was exceptionally decreased by the drugs and
 stayed under the detection limit (20 pg/kg) for the entire
 time, whereas norepinephrine was undetectable for 10 minutes
 postadministration. Ketamine-medetomidine, administered in a
 dose that produced deep sedation, induced marked but
 reversible changes in most of the cardiovascular variables;
 there were no pedal or palpebral reflexes for 30 minutes.
 
 
 62                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Cardiovascular effects recorded in horses during anaesthesia
 after treatment with trichlorfon.
 Adams, J.G.; Trim, C.M.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1989 Sep.
 Research in veterinary science v. 47 (2): p. 164-169; 1989
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Cardiovascular system;
 Trichlorfon; Anthelmintics; Blood pressure
 
 
 63                                    NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 The cardiovascular response of sheep to tiletamine-zolazepam
 and butorphanol tartrate anesthesia.
 Howard, B.W.; Lagutchik, M.S.; Januszkiewicz, A.J.; Martin,
 D.G. Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1990 Nov.
 Veterinary surgery v. 19 (6): p. 461-467; 1990 Nov.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ewes; Diazepam; Anesthetics; Ketamine
 
 
 64                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Cardiovascular responses to exogenous platelet-activating
 factor (PAF) in anesthetized ponies, and the effects of a PAF
 antagonist, WEB 2086. Wilson, D.V.; Eberhart, S.W.; Robinson,
 N.E.; Rice, R.; Gray, P.R. Schaumburg, Ill. : American
 Veterinary Medical Association; 1993 Feb. American journal of
 veterinary research v. 54 (2): p. 274-279; 1993 Feb. Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Phospholipids; Platelets; Dosage; Blood
 pressure; Antagonists; Hypotension; Vasoconstriction
 
 Abstract:  The effects of exogenous platelet-activating factor
 (PAF) were determined in anesthetized ponies. Administration
 of PAF induced a decrease in cardiac index that resulted in
 systemic hypotension. This was followed by tachycardia,
 hypertension, and a return of cardiac index to baseline.
 Pulmonary arterial pressure increased markedly because of
 pulmonary vasoconstriction. Exogenous PAF also caused
 leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. The specific PAF receptor
 antagonist (WEB 2086) blocked all PAF-induced changes.
 Flunixin meglumine, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, abolished the
 pulmonary hypertension and tachycardia, and attenuated the
 systemic hypotension but did not change the PAF-induced
 peripheral cellular changes. The PAF antagonist also inhibited
 platelet aggregation induced by PAF in vitro. The PAF-induced
 changes are similar to those reported after endotoxin exposure
 in horses.
 
 
 65                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 C81
 A case report on the use of guaifenesin-ketamine-xylazine
 anesthesia for equine dystocia.
 Lin, H.C.; Wallace, S.S.; Robbins, R.L.; Harrison, I.W.;
 Thurmon, J.C. Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell Veterinarian, Inc; 1994
 Jan.
 The Cornell veterinarian v. 84 (1): p. 61-66; 1994 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Dystocia; Anesthesia; Guaifenesin;
 Ketamine; Xylazine; Drug combinations; Case reports
 
 
 66                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Caudal analgesia induced by epidural or subarachnoid
 administration of detomidine hydrochloride solution in mares.
 Skarda, R.T.; Muir, W.W. III
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1994 May. American journal of veterinary research v. 55 (5):
 p. 670-680; 1994 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mares; Detomidine; Conduction anesthesia;
 Anesthesia; Ataxia; Hemodynamics; Injection; Drug effects
 
 Abstract:  Seven adult mares were used to determine the
 analgesic, CNS, and cardiopulmonary effects of detomidine
 hydrochloride solution after epidural or subarachnoid
 administration, using both regimens in random sequence. At
 least 1 week elapsed between experiments. A 17-gauge Huber
 point (Tuohy) directional needle was used to place a catheter
 with stylet into either the epidural space at the first
 coccygeal interspace or the subarachnoid space at the
 lumbosacral intervertebral junction. Catheters were advanced
 so that the tips lay at the caudal sacral (S5 to S4) epidural
 space or at the midsacral (S3 to S2) subarachnoid space.
 Position of the catheter was confirmed radiographically. A 1%
 solution of detomidine HCl was injected into the epidural
 catheter at a dosage of 60 micrograms/kg of body weight, and
 was expanded to a 10-ml volume with sterile water to induce
 selective caudal epidural analgesia (CEA). A dose of 30
 micrograms of detomidine HCl/kg expanded to a 3-ml volume with
 spinal fluid was injected into the subarachnoid catheter to
 induce caudal subarachnoid analgesia (CSA). Analgesia was
 determined by lack of sensory perception to electrical
 stimulation (avoidance threshold > 40 V, 0.5-ms duration) at
 the perineal dermatomes and no response to superficial and
 deep muscular pinprick stimulation at the pelvic limb and
 lumbar and thoracic dermatomes. Maximal CEA and CSA extended
 from the coccyx to spinal cord segments T15 and T14 at 10 to
 25 minutes after epidural and subarachnoid drug
 administrations in 2 mares. Analgesia at the perineal area
 lasted longer after epidural than after subarachnoid
 administration (142.8 +/- 28.8 minutes vs 127.1 +/- 27.7
 minutes). All mares remained standing. Both CEA and CSA
 induced marked sedation, moderate ataxia, minimal
 cardiopulmonary depression, increased frequency of second-
 degree atrioventricular heart block, and renal diuresis. All
 treatments resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) decreased
 heart rate, respiratory rate, systemic arterial blood
 pressure, PCV, and plasma total solids concentration. To the
 contrary, arterial carbon dioxide tension, plasma bicarbonate,
 and standard base excess concentrations were significantly (P
 < 0.05) increased. Arterial oxygen tension, pH, and rectal
 temperature did not change significantly from baseline values.
 Results indicate that use of detomidine for CEA and CSA in
 mares probably induces local spinal and CNS effects, marked
 sedation, moderate ataxia, mild cardiopulmonary depression,
 and renal diuresis.
 
 
 67                                     NAL Call. No.: SF601.I4
 Caudal epidural anaesthesia in the ewe.
 Harris, T.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1991 Nov.
 In practice v. 13 (6): p. 234-235; 1991 Nov.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ewes; Anesthesia
 
 
 68                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.C24
 Caudal epidural analgesia in cattle using xylazine.
 Caron, J.P.; LeBlanc, P.H.
 Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1989 Oct.
 Canadian journal of veterinary research; Revue canadienne de
 recherche veterinaire v. 53 (4): p. 486-489; 1989 Oct. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cows; Xylazine; Conduction anesthesia; Dosage;
 Duration; Perineum
 
 
 69                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Caudal epidural analgesia induced by xylazine administration
 in cows. St Jean, G.; Skarda, R.T.; Muir, W.W.; Hoffsis, G.F.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1990 Aug. American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (8):
 p. 1232-1236; 1990 Aug. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cows; Xylazine; Ataxia; Cardiovascular system;
 Respiratory system; Rumen motility; Drug effects; Adverse
 effects
 
 Abstract:  Xylazine (0.05 mg/kg of body weight diluted to a 5-
 ml volume, using 0.9% NaCl) or 5 ml of 0.9% NaCl was
 administered epidurally into the first caudal intervertebral
 space (Co1-Co2) in 8 cows (mean +/- SD body weight, 583 +/-
 150 kg). Cows were observed for responses to deep needle
 pricking of the caudal dermatomes (S3 to Co), sedation, and
 ataxia. Heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, rate
 of ruminal contractions, coccygeal arterial blood pressure,
 pHa, blood gas tension (Pa(O2), Pa(CO2)), base excess, total
 solids concentration, and PCV were determined before and after
 xylazine administration. Epidurally administered xylazine
 induced sedation and selective (S3 to Co) analgesia for at
 least 2 hours. Mild ataxia of hind limbs was observed in 6
 cows, but all cows remained standing. Heart rate, respiratory
 rate, rate of ruminal contractions, arterial blood pressure,
 Pa(O2), PCV, and total solids concentration were significantly
 (P < 0.05) decreased, and Pa(CO2), base excess, and
 bicarbonate concentration were significantly (P < 0.05)
 increased after xylazine administration. Epidurally
 administered 0.9% NaCl did not alter sensory perception to
 needle pricking and did not affect any of the physiologic
 variables determined. Although epidural administration of
 xylazine induced analgesia and sedation in healthy cows, it
 should be avoided for epidural analgesia in cattle with heart
 disease, lung disease, and/or gastrointestinal disease because
 of its potent cardiopulmonary and ruminal depressant effects.
 
 
 70                                    NAL Call. No.: SF951.J65
 Cervical vertebral mobilization under anesthetic (CVMUA): a
 physical therapy for the treatment of cervico-spinal pain and
 stiffness.
 Ahern, T.J.
 Lake Elsinore, Calif. : William E. Jones, DVM; 1994 Oct.
 Journal of equine veterinary science v. 14 (10): p. 540-545;
 1994 Oct. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Spine; Pain; Physical therapy;
 Anesthesia; Mobilization; Trauma
 
 
 71                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 C81
 Changes in equine carpal joint synovial fluid in response to
 the injection of two local anesthetic agents.
 White, K.K.; Hodgson, D.R.; Hancock, D.; Parry, B.W.; Cordell,
 C. Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell Veterinarian, Inc; 1989 Jan.
 Cornell veterinarian v. 79 (1): p. 25-38; 1989 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Lidocaine; Anesthetics; Injections;
 Carpus; Joints (animal); Synovial fluid
 
 
 72                            NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 Changes in nociceptive thresholds associated with chronic pain
 in sheep. Waterman, A.E.; Livingston, A.; Ley, S.J.; Brandt,
 S.
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p.
 378-385, 400; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sheep; Pain; Central nervous system; Testing;
 Animal experiments; Laboratory tests
 
 
 73                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Changes in plasma cortisol concentration in lambs of three
 ages after three methods of castration and tail docking.
 Kent, J.E.; Molony, V.; Robertson, I.S.
 London : British Veterinary Association, 1960-; 1993 Sep.
 Research in veterinary science v. 55 (2): p. 246-251; 1993
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Lambs; Castration; Docking; Methodology;
 Veterinary equipment; Surgery; Age differences;
 Hydrocortisone; Blood plasma; Pain
 
 Abstract:  Lambs were handled only or castrated and tail
 docked at five, 21 and 42 days of age by either surgery,
 rubber ring or rubber ring and Burdizzo. Plasma cortisol was
 measured in blood samples taken before and at 12, 24, 36, 48,
 60, 72, 84, 96, 138 and 180 minutes after castration and
 docking. Pre-treatment and peak cortisol values were highest
 in five-day-old lambs. The peak cortisol values, at each age,
 were similar for surgery and rubber ring groups. However, the
 peak occurred earlier after surgery and rubber ring Burdizzo
 than after rubber ring only treatment. The cortisol peak was
 28 nmol litre-1 lower after rubber ring Burdizzo than surgery
 or rubber ring only. Plasma cortisol returned to pretreatment
 values within 84 minutes after rubber ring Burdizzo, 96 to 138
 minutes after rubber ring only but not within 180 minutes
 after surgery. The changes in plasma cortisol together with
 the changes in behaviour suggest that the rubber ring Burdizzo
 method of castration and docking of lambs at all ages, was
 probably the least painful of the methods tested.
 
 
 74                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Characterisation of compounds isolated from the sera of horses
 with aacute grass sickness.
 Pemberton, A.D.; Hodgson, J.C.; Gilmour, J.S.; Doxey, D.L.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1990 Nov.
 Research in veterinary science v. 49 (3): p. 315-318; 1990
 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Grass sickness; Etiology; Blood serum;
 Neurotoxins; Hydrocortisone; Analgesics
 
 
 75                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Chemical immobilisation in ostriches (Struthio camelus) using
 etorphine hydrochloride.
 Samour, J.H.; Irwin-Davies, J.; Faraj, E.
 London : The Association; 1990 Dec08.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 127 (23): p. 575-576. ill; 1990 Dec08. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ostriches; Immobilization; Etorphine; Anesthesia
 
 
 76                                    NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47
 Chemical restraint and analgesia in the horse.
 Geiser, D.R.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders; 1990 Dec.
 The Veterinary clinics of North America : equine practice v. 6
 (3): p. 495-512; 1990 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Draft animals; Anesthetics; Anesthesia;
 Neuroleptics; Restraint of animals; Chloral hydrate; Opioids;
 Analgesics; Promazine; Xylazine; Diazepam; Morphine; Pethidine
 
 
 77                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46
 Chemical restraint and general anesthesia in the draft horse.
 Geiser, D.R.
 Manhattan, Kan. : The Association; 1989.
 Proceedings of the annual convention of the American
 Association of Equine Practitioners (35th): p. 461-472; 1989. 
 Meeting held December 3-6 1989, Boston, Massachusetts. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Draft animals; Anesthesia; Anesthetics;
 Restraint of animals
 
 
 78                                    NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47
 Chemical restraint for surgery in the standing horse.
 LeBlanc, P.H.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders; 1991 Dec.
 The Veterinary clinics of North America : equine practice v. 7
 (3): p. 521-533; 1991 Dec.  In the series analytic: Standing
 surgery / edited by Alicia L. Bertone.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Restraint of animals; Neuroleptics;
 Drugs; Opium; Drug combinations
 
 
 79                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Circulatory and respiratory responses of spontaneously
 breathing, laterally recumbent horses to 12 hours of halothane
 anesthesia.
 Steffey, E.P.; Dunlop, C.I.; Cullen, L.K.; Hodgson, D.S.;
 Giri, S.N.; Willits, N.; Woliner, M.J.; Jarvis, K.A.; Smith,
 C.M.; Elliott, A.R. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary
 Medical Association; 1993 Jun. American journal of veterinary
 research v. 54 (6): p. 929-936; 1993 Jun. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Halothane; Cardiovascular system;
 Respiratory system; Anesthesia; Duration
 
 Abstract:  Cardiovascular and at accompany markedly long
 periods (12 hours) of halothane anesthesia were characterized.
 Eight spontaneously breathing horses were studied while they
 were positioned in left lateral recumbency and anesthetized
 only with halothane in oxygen maintained at a constant end-
 tidal concentration of 1.06% (equivalent to 1.2 times the
 minimal alveolar concentration for horses). Results of
 circulatory and respiratory measurements during the first 5
 hours of constant conditions were similar to those previously
 reported from this laboratory (ie, a time-related significant
 increase in systemic arterial blood pressure, cardiac output,
 stroke volume, left ventricular work, PCV, plasma total solids
 concentration, and little change in respiratory system
 function). Beyond 5 hours of anesthesia, arterial blood
 pressure did not further increase, but remained above
 baseline. Cardiac output continued to increase, because heart
 rate significantly (P < 0.05) increased. Peak inspiratory gas
 flow increased significantly (P < 0.05) in later stages of
 anesthesia. There was a significant decrease in inspiratory
 time beginning at 4 hours. Although PaO2, and PaCO2, did not
 significantly change during the 12 hours of study, PVO2
 increased significantly P < 0.05) and progressively with time,
 beginning 6 hours after the beginning of constant conditions.
 Metabolic acidosis increased with time significantly [P <
 0.05] starting at 9 hours), despite supplemental IV
 administered NaHCO3. Plasma concentrations of eicosanoids: 6-
 ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha (PGF1 alpha, a stable metabolite of
 PGI2), PGF2 alpha, PGE, and thromboxane (TxB2, a stable
 metabolite of TxA2) were measured in 5 of the 8 horses before
 and during anesthesia. Significant changes from preanesthetic
 values were not Significant changes from preanesthetic values
 were not detected. Dynamic thoracic wall and lung compliances
 decreased with time.
 
 
 80                            NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 Clinical assessment of analgesic effects of butorphanol in
 cattle. Dodman, N.H.; Levine, H.; Court, M.H.
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p.
 396-399, 401; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle; Analgesics; Drug effects
 
 
 81                                     NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6
 Clinical evaluation of an infusion of xylazine, guaifenesin
 and ketamine for maintenance of anaesthesia in horses.
 Young, L.E.; Bartram, D.H.; Diamond, M.J.; Gregg, A.S.; Jones,
 R.S. Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1993 Mar.
 Equine veterinary journal v. 25 (2): p. 115-119; 1993 Mar. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Uk; Horses; Xylazine; Anesthesia; Guaifenesin;
 Ketamine; Surgery
 
 
 82                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46
 Clinical evaluation of detomidine hydrochloride for equine
 reproductive surgery.
 McKinnon, A.O.; Carnevale, E.M.; Squires, E.L.; Jochle, W.
 Manhattan, Kan. : The Association; 1989.
 Proceedings of the annual convention of the American
 Association of Equine Practitioners (34th): p. 563-568; 1989. 
 Meeting held December 4-7, 1988, San Diego, CA.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Surgical operations; Analgesics;
 Reproductive organs (animal)
 
 
 83                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Clinical evaluation of romifidine/ketamine/halothane
 anaesthesia in horses. Diamond, M.J.; Young, L.E.; Bartram,
 D.H.; Gregg, A.S.; Clutton, R.E.; Long, K.J.; Jones, R.S.
 London : The Association; 1993 Jun05.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 132 (23): p. 572-575; 1993 Jun05.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Preanesthetic medication
 
 
 84                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46
 Clinical experience with isoflurane anesthesia in foals and
 adult horses. Rose, J.A.; Rose, E.M.; Peterson, P.R.
 Manhattan, Kan. : The Association; 1989.
 Proceedings of the annual convention of the American
 Association of Equine Practitioners (34th): p. 555-561; 1989. 
 Meeting held December 4-7, 1988, San Diego, CA.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Foals; Anesthesia; Halothane; Anesthetics
 
 
 85                                    NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 Clinical investigations of halothane and isoflurane for
 induction and maintenance of foal anesthesia.
 Steffey, E.P.; Willits, N.; Wong, P.; Hildebrand, S.V.; Wheat,
 J.D.; Meagher, D.M.; Hodgson, D.; Pascoe, J.R.; Heath, R.B.;
 Dunlop, C.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1991 Sep.
 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 14 (3):
 p. 300-309; 1991 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Foals; Halothane; Inhaled anesthetics;
 Anesthesia; Safety; Heart rate; Drug effects
 
 
 86                                    NAL Call. No.: SF380.I52
 Clinical observations in Shami goat kids sedated with
 medetomidine. Mohammad, F.K.; Zangana, I.K.; Al-Kassim, N.A.
 New York : Elsevier; 1991 Jul.
 Small ruminant research v. 5 (1/2): p. 149-153; 1991 Jul. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kids; Anesthetics; Analgesics; Physiological
 functions; Heart rate; Respiration rate; Body temperature;
 Rumen motility
 
 
 87                                     NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6
 Clinical use of epidural xylazine in the horse.
 LeBlanc, P.H.; Caron, J.P.
 Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1990 May.
 Equine veterinary journal v. 22 (3): p. 180-181; 1990 May. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthetics; Conduction anesthesia;
 Xylazine
 
 
 88                                    NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47
 Clinical use of positive-pressure ventilation in the horse.
 Shawley, R.V.; Mandsager, R.E.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders; 1990 Dec.
 The Veterinary clinics of North America : equine practice v. 6
 (3): p. 575-585; 1990 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Ventilation; Equipment;
 Ventilators
 
 
 89                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Clinical use of the neuromuscular blocking agents atracurium
 and pancuronium for equine anesthesia.
 Hildebrand, S.V.; Holland, M.; Copland, V.S.; Daunt, D.;
 Brock, N. Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1989 Jul15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 195
 (2): p. 212-219; 1989 Jul15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Muscle relaxants; Drug
 effects; Surgical operations
 
 
 90                                    NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Closed-circuit liquid injection isoflurane anesthesia in the
 horse. Olson, K.N.; Klein, L.V.; Nann, L.E.; Soma, L.R.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1993 Jan.
 Veterinary surgery v. 22 (1): p. 73-78; 1993 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pennsylvania; Horses; Anesthesia; Closed systems;
 Injection; Liquids; Surgery
 
 
 91                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 A combination of methotrimeprazine, midazolam and
 guaiphenesin, with and without ketamine, in an anaesthetic
 procedure for horses. Luna, S.P.L.; Massone, F.; Castro, G.B.;
 Fantoni, D.T.; Hussni, C.A.; Aguiar, A.J.A.
 London : The Association; 1992 Jul11.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 131 (2): p. 33-35; 1992 Jul11.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Phenothiazines; Benzodiazepines;
 Guaifenesin; Ketamine; Anesthesia; Drug combinations;
 Preanesthetic medication; Halothane; Drug effects; Adverse
 effects; Cardiovascular system; Respiration
 
 
 92                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46
 Common complications associated with equine chemical restraint
 and anesthesia. Muir, W.W. III
 Manhattan, Kan. : The Association; 1990.
 Proceedings of the annual convention of the American
 Association of Equine Practitioners. p. 259-266; 1990. 
 Meeting held December 2-5, 1990, Lexington, KY.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Restraint of animals; Anesthesia;
 Postoperative complications
 
 
 93                                     NAL Call. No.: SF601.I4
 Common conditions of domestic pigeons.
 Wallis, A.S.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1991 May.
 In practice v. 13 (3): p. 95-100; 1991 May.  Literature
 review.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Racing pigeons; Animal health; Laboratory
 diagnosis; Parasites; Treatment; Drugs; Anesthetics; Symptoms
 
 
 94                                   NAL Call. No.: QP251.A1T5
 Comparative efficacy of FSH-P and PMSG on superovulation in
 Pashmina goats. Mahmood, S.; Koul, G.L.; Biswas, J.C.
 Stoneham, Mass. : Butterworth-Heinemann; 1991 Jun.
 Theriogenology v. 35 (6): p. 1191-1196; 1991 Jun.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Goats; Goat breeds; Superovulation; Fsh; Pmsg;
 Embryos; Isolation; Survival; Corpus luteum; Age; Conception;
 Embryo transfer; Anesthesia; Triflupromazine; Barbiturates
 
 Abstract:  Twenty-eight Pashmina goats were utilized to study
 the comparative effect of FSH-P and PMSG on superovulatory
 response. The effect of FSH-P marketed by two commercial firms
 was compared with respect to the number of corpora lutea and
 embryos recovered. The difference was found to be
 nonsignificant. Superovulatory responses with FSH-P (pooled)
 and PMSG were 16.55 +/- 6.13 and 11.70 +/- 8.07, respectively,
 and the difference was significant (P<0.02). Recovery of
 embryos was significantly higher (P<0.001) with FSH-P (4.72 +/-
  4.33) than with PMSG (2.50 +/- 5.02) treatment. The
 superovulatory response (number of corpora lutea) and the
 embryo recovery rate was better in higher age groups (4 to 6
 yr) than younger goats (1.5 to 3 yr). The embryo survival rate
 was higher (54.54%) for recipients operated on under a basal
 anaesthetics (Triflupromazine hydrochloride USP) than for
 those operated on under barbiturate anaesthesia (13.64%). The
 overall conception rate was 34.09%.
 
 
 95                                       NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 A comparative physiological and behavioral study of freeze and
 hot-iron branding using dairy cows.
 Lay, D.C. Jr; Friend, T.H.; Bowers, C.L.; Grissom, K.K.;
 Jenkins, O.C. Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal
 Science; 1992 Apr. Journal of animal science v. 70 (4): p.
 1121-1125; 1992 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Branding; Pain; Heart rate; Blood
 plasma; Hydrocortisone; Behavioral resistance; Animal welfare
 
 Abstract:  A public debate has recently arisen, largely
 surrounding the issue of pain, over whether freeze or hot-iron
 branding should be the preferred method of permanently
 identifying cattle. This study addressed that question by
 quantifying the following accepted measures of distress and
 pain over a 25-min sampling period: elevated heart rate,
 concentrations of cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine,
 and escape-avoidance reactions and vocalizations. Twenty-four
 dairy cows (15 Holsteins and 9 Jerseys) were assigned to one
 of three treatments: freeze-branded (F), hot-iron-branded (H),
 or sham-branded (S), in which a room-temperature brander was
 applied. Plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations
 showed no discernible trends. Plasma cortisol concentrations
 were elevated in the F and H cows from 5.5 min to 25.5 min
 postbranding (P = .04). Heart rate, analyzed as a proportion
 of the prebranding mean, showed that H cows had a greater,
 more acute, response than did F cows (P = .04), which
 exhibited a more prolonged response (P = .07). No cows
 vocalized during branding; however, H cows had a greater
 escape-avoidance reaction toward branding than did the F and S
 cows. Both methods of branding produced elevated heart rates
 and cortisol concentrations indicative of pain sensations.
 Because the cows exhibited a greater escape-avoidance reaction
 and heart rate proportions to hot-iron branding, freeze
 banding would be preferable to hot-iron branding when
 feasible.
 
 
 96                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46
 Comparative responses to anesthesia in the conditioned and
 nonconditioned Standardbred.
 Short, C.E.; Keegan, R.D.; Sanders, E.; Gleed, R.D.; Maylin,
 G.A.; Abdella, M.G.
 Lexington, Ky. : The Association; 1993.
 Proceedings of the annual convention of the American
 Association of Equine Practitioners. p. 51-67; 1993.  Meeting
 helding on November 29-December 2, 1992, Orlando, Florida. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia
 
 
 97                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Comparative study of continuous lumbar segmental epidural and
 subarachnoid analgesia in Holstein cows.
 Skarda, R.T.; Muir, W.W.; Hubbell, J.A.E.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1989 Jan. American journal of veterinary research v. 50 (1):
 p. 39-44. ill; 1989 Jan. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Analgesics; Procaine; Administration;
 Injections; Catheters; Holstein-friesian; Cardiovascular
 system; Respiratory system
 
 Abstract:  Eight adult Holstein cows were used to compare the
 effects of lumbar segmental epidural analgesia (SEA) and
 lumbar segmental subarachnoid analgesia (SSA). A modified 17-
 gauge Huber point (Tuohy) needle was used to place a catheter
 with stylet into either the epidural space at the
 thoracolumbar (T13-L1) intervertebral space or the
 tubarachnoid space at the lumbosacral intervertebral junction.
 The catheters were advanced so that their tips lay at the
 anterior lumbar (L1-L2) epidural space or at the thoracolumbar
 (T-13-L1) subarachnoid space. The position of the catheter was
 confirmed radiographically. A 5% solution of procaine HCl was
 used at mean doses of 300 mg (6 ml) to induce SEA and 84.4 +/-
 12.9 mg (1.7 +/-0.3 ml) to induce SSA. Onset of analgesia to
 superficial and deep muscular pinprick stimulation was
 significantly (P less than 0.05) faster in cows with SSA than
 in those with SEA (10.4 +/- 2.3 minutes vs 15.9 +/- 3.8
 minutes). Maximal thoracolumbar analgesia extended from spinal
 cord segments T12 to L4 on one or both sides of the vertebral
 column during SEA and from T10 to L3 on one or both sides
 during SSA. Duration of analgesia lasted significantly (P less
 than 0.05) longer in cows with SEA than in those with SSA
 (76.2 +/- 16.2 minutes vs 53.7 +/- 14.3 minutes). The
 advantages and disadvantages of the SEA catheter technique are
 discussed.
 
 
 98                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Comparative study of the pharmacokinetics of alfentanil in
 rabbits, sheep, and dogs.
 Ilkiw, J.E.; Benthuysen, J.A.; McNeal, D.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1991 Apr. American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (4):
 p. 581-584; 1991 Apr. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Sheep; Rabbits; Analgesics;
 Pharmacokinetics; Species differences; Anesthesia
 
 Abstract:  The central arterial pharmacokinetics of
 alfentanil, a short-acting opioid agonist, were studied in
 rabbits, sheep, and dogs after short-duration infusion of the
 drug. Alfentanil was infused until a set end point (high-
 amplitude, slow-wave activity on the EEG) was reached. This
 required a larger alfentanil dose and a higher alfentanil
 arterial concentration in sheep, compared with rabbits and
 dogs. The plasma concentration-time data for each animal were
 fitted, using nonlinear regression, and in all animals, were
 best described by use of a triexponential function. In this
 study, differences in the disposition kinetics of alfentanil
 among the 3 species were found for only distribution clearance
 and initial distribution half-life. In dogs, compared with
 rabbits and sheep, the first distribution half-life was
 longer, probably because of pronounced drug-induced
 bradycardia (mean +/- SD, 48 +/-21 beats/min). Distribution
 clearance was faster in sheep, compared with dogs, also
 probably because of better blood flow in sheep. Elimination
 half-life was similar in all species (rabbits, 62.4 +/- 11.3
 minutes; sheep, 65.1 +/- 27.1 minutes; dogs, 58.3 +/- 10.3
 minutes). This rapid half-life resulted from a small steady-
 state volume of distribution (rabbits, 908.3 +/- 269.0 ml/kg;
 sheep, 720.0 +/- 306.7 ml/kg; dogs, 597.7 +/- 290.2 ml/kg) and
 rapid systemic clearance (rabbits, 19.4 +/- 5.3 ml/min/kg;
 sheep, 13.3 +/- 3.0 ml/min/kg; dogs, 18.7 +/- 7.5 ml/min/kg).
 On the basis of these pharmacokinetic variables, alfentanil
 should have short duration of action in rabbits, sheep, and
 dogs. This may be beneficial in veterinary practice where
 rapid recovery would be expected after bolus administration
 for short procedures or after infusion for longer procedures.
 
 
 99                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Comparative study of ultrasonography and arteriography of the
 carotid artery of xylazine-sedated and halothane-anesthetized
 goats.
 Lee, S.W.; Hankes, G.H.; Purohit, R.C.; Bartels, J.E.; Cartee,
 R.E.; Pablo, L.; Conti, J.C.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1990 Jan. American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (1):
 p. 109-113. ill; 1990 Jan. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Goats; Ultrasound; Diagnostic techniques; Blood
 vessel disorders; Arteries; Neck; Diameter; Blood flow;
 Xylazine; Halothane
 
 Abstract:  The carotid artery of clinically normal goats was
 examined, using duplex ultrasonography and arteriography. The
 diameter of the carotid artery was measured by use of two-
 dimensional ultrasonography and Doppler ultrasonography,
 respectively, before and after xylazine administration. The
 diameter of the artery was also measured by use of an
 arteriography technique in halothane-anesthetized goats. There
 was no significant difference between the mean diameter of the
 carotid artery measured by ultrasonography in conscious
 nonsedated goats and that determined by arteriography in goats
 under halothane anesthesia. On the other hand, ultrasonography
 of xylazine-sedated goats revealed an increase of carotid
 artery diameter of 20 to 30%. There was no change in the
 velocity of blood flow after xylazine administration.
 
 
 100                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 C81
 A comparison of end-tidal halothane concentrations measured at
 proximal and distal ends of the endotracheal tube in the
 horse.
 Matthews, N.S.; Hartsfield, S.M.; Cornick, J.L.; Jacobson,
 J.D.; Williams, J.D.
 Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell Veterinarian, Inc; 1992 Jan.
 Cornell veterinarian v. 82 (1): p. 21-27; 1992 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Halothane; Anesthesia; Concentration;
 Measurement; Sampling
 
 
 101                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 A comparison of injectable anesthetic combinations in horses.
 Matthews, N.S.; Hartsfield, S.M.; Cornick, J.L.; Williams,
 J.D.; Beasley, A. Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company;
 1991 Jul.
 Veterinary surgery v. 20 (4): p. 268-273; 1991 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthetics; Injectable anesthetics;
 Xylazine; Drug combinations; Ketamine
 
 
 102                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3
 Comparison of lidocaine, xylazine, and xylazine/lidocaine for
 caudal epidural analgesia in horses.
 Grubb, T.L.; Riebold, T.W.; Huber, M.J.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1992 Oct15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 201
 (8): p. 1187-1190; 1992 Oct15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Lidocaine; Xylazine; Drug combinations;
 Conduction anesthesia; Duration; Catheters
 
 
 103                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 A comparison of methods for proximal palmar metacarpal
 analgesia in horses. Ford, T.S.; Ross, M.W.; Orsini, P.G.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1989 Mar.
 Veterinary surgery v. 18 (2): p. 146-150. ill; 1989 Mar. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Metacarpus; Carpus; Joints (animal);
 Anesthesia; Injections; Analgesics; Infiltration
 
 
 104                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3
 Comparison of recoveries from halothane vs isoflurane
 anesthesia in horses. Matthews, N.S.; Miller, S.M.;
 Hartsfield, S.M.; Slater, M.R. Schaumburg, Ill. : The
 Association; 1992 Aug15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 201
 (4): p. 559-563; 1992 Aug15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Halothane; Inhaled anesthetics;
 Anesthesia; Recovery; Time; Surgery
 
 
 105                                    NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6
 A comparison of responses to analgesia of the navicular bursa
 and intra-articular analgesia of the distal interphalagneal
 joint in 59 horses. Dyson, S.J.; Kidd, L.
 Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1993 Mar.
 Equine veterinary journal v. 25 (2): p. 93-98; 1993 Mar. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Uk; Horses; Lameness; Analgesics; Serous bursa;
 Joints (animal); Synovial fluid
 
 
 106                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Comparison of Telazol, Telazol-ketamine, Telazol-xylazine, and
 Telazol-ketamine-xylazine as chemical restraint and anesthetic
 induction combination in swine.
 Ko, J.C.H.; Williams, B.L.; Smith, V.L.; McGrath, C.J.;
 Jacobson, J.D. Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for
 Laboratory Animal Science; 1993 Oct. Laboratory animal science
 v. 43 (5): p. 476-480; 1993 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Anesthesia
 
 Abstract:  The use of Telazol (T, tiletamine and zolazepam,
 4.4 mg T/kg) alone, Telazol-ketamine (TK, 4.4 mg T/kg and 2.2
 mg K/kg), Telazol-xylazine (TX, 4.4 mg T/kg, 2.2 mg X/kg), and
 Telazol-ketamine-xylazine (TKX, 4.4 mg T/kg, 2.2 mg K/kg, and
 2.2 mg X/kg) as chemical restraint and anesthetic induction
 combination was compared in pigs. Forty mixed-breed healthy
 pigs (24.4 +/- 5.6 kg, mean +/- SD) were randomly assigned to
 the four treatment groups (T, TK, TX, TKX) with 10 pigs in
 each group. All the anesthetics were premixed by adding
 sterile water, ketamine, xylazine, or xylazine and ketamine
 directly into the Telazol vial and given as a single
 intramuscular injection. All four anesthetic combinations
 induced a rapid onset of sternal recumbency within 1.76 +/-
 1.0 minutes and lateral recumbency within 3.02 +/- 2.2 minutes
 in pigs after intramuscular injection; there was no
 significant difference among treatments. The combinations TX
 and TKX induced analgesia (as evident by a lack of response to
 needle prick in the middle portion of the pinna and flank
 regions) duration of 29.0 +/- 11.0 and 36.0 +/- 12.2 minutes,
 respectively, and ability to tolerate tracheal intubation (as
 evident by lack of coughing and chewing response to a
 laryngoscope) for a period of 34.0 +/-8.4 and 39.0 +/- 9.9
 minutes, respectively. The combinations T and TK did not
 induce analgesia nor conditions suitable for intubation.
 Duration of lateral recumbency was 29.9 +/- 10, 33.1 +/- 6.9,
 52.2 +/- 6.9, and 61.5 +/- 10.7 minutes in T-, TK-, TX-, and
 TKX-treated pigs, respectively. Recovery quality was roughest
 in T-treated pigs. It was somewhat improved in TK- and TKX-
 treated pigs. The smoothest recovery was observed in TX-
 treated pigs.We concluded that all four anesthetic
 combinations were suitable for chemical restraint in pigs, but
 only TKX and TX were suitable for either anesthetic induction
 or short-term anesthesia. The addition of ketamine to the TX
 combination (i.e., TKX) did not provide any significant
 advantages over TX alone when these agents were used for
 anesthetic induction or short-term anesthesia.
 
 
 107                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Comparison of the sedative effects of medetomidine and
 xylazine in horses. Bryant, C.E.; England, G.C.W.; Clarke,
 K.W.
 London : The Association; 1991 Nov09.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 129 (19): p. 421-423; 1991 Nov09.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Alpha-adrenergic receptors; Xylazine;
 Drug effects; Intravenous injection; Adverse effects
 
 
 108                                   NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 A comparison of the sedative effects of three alpha 2-
 adrenoceptor agonists (romifidine, detomidine and xylazine) in
 the horse.
 England, G.C.W.; Clarke, K.W.; Goossens, L.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1992 Jun.
 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 15 (2):
 p. 194-201; 1992 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Xylazine; Agonists; Anesthesia; Dosage;
 Intravenous injection; Adverse effects
 
 
 109                           NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 Comparison of the thermal and mechanical antiociceptive
 actions of opioids and alpha 2-adrenoreceptor agonists in
 sheep.
 Livingston, A.; Waterman, A.E.; Nolan, A.; Amin, A.
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p.
 372-377, 400; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sheep; Agonists; Opioids; Pain; Testing; Animal
 experiments; Alpha-adrenergic receptors; Analgesics; Xylazine;
 Fentanyl; Pethidine; Laboratory tests
 
 
 110                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Au72
 Comparison of tiletamine-zolazepam-ketamine and
 tiletamine-zolazepam-ketamine-xylazine anaesthesia in sheep.
 Lin, H.C. \u Auburn University, AL; Wallace, S.S.; Tyler,
 J.W.; Robbins, R.L.; Thurmon, J.C.; Wolfe, D.F.
 Brunswick, Vic. : Australian Veterinary Association, 1927-;
 1994 Aug. Australian veterinary journal v. 71 (8): p. 239-242;
 1994 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sheep; Anesthesia; Drug combinations; Injectable
 anesthetics; Xylazine; Heart rate; Respiration rate; Blood
 pressure; Electrocardiograms
 
 
 111                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 A comparison of xylazine-diazepam-ketamine and xylazine-
 guaifenesin-ketamine in equine anesthesia.
 Brock, N.; Hildebrand, S.V.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1990 Nov.
 Veterinary surgery v. 19 (6): p. 468-474; 1990 Nov.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthetics; Diazepam; Ketamine;
 Xylazine; Guaifenesin
 
 
 112                                   NAL Call. No.: SF895.P76
 Complications associated with alcohol tail-blocks in three
 horses. Stewart, R.H.; Reed, S.M.; Weisbrode, S.E.
 Washington, D.C. : Fidia Research Foundation; 1990.
 Progress in veterinary neurology v. 1 (4): p. 476-480; 1990. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Case reports; Complications; Ethanol;
 Injection; Tail; Conduction anesthesia
 
 
 113                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46
 Compressed spectral analysis of the EEG as an indicator of
 anesthetic quality during anesthesia for orthopedic surgery in
 the horses.
 Short, C.E.; Ekstrom, P.M.
 Lexington, Ky. : The Association; 1993.
 Proceedings of the annual convention of the American
 Association of Equine Practitioners. p. 69-80; 1993.  Meeting
 helding on November 29-December 2, 1992, Orlando, Florida. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia
 
 
 114                                    NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6
 A computer-derived protocol to aid in selecting medical versus
 surgical treatment of horses with abdominal pain.
 Ducharme, N.G.; Pascoe, P.J.; Lumsden, J.H.; Ducharme, G.R.
 Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1989 Nov.
 Equine veterinary journal v. 21 (6): p. 447-450; 1989 Nov. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Abdomen; Pain; Colic; Medical treatment;
 Surgery; Decision analysis; Computer analysis
 
 
 115                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C24
 A computer-derived protocol using recursive partitioning to
 aid in estimating prognosis of horses with abdominal pain in
 referral hospitals. Pascoe, P.J.; Ducharme, N.G.; Ducharme,
 G.R.; Lumsden, J.H. Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical
 Association; 1990 Jul. Canadian journal of veterinary
 research; Revue canadienne de recherche veterinaire v. 54 (3):
 p. 373-378; 1990 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Colic; Abdomen; Survival; Estimation;
 Computer analysis
 
 
 116                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Contribution of amino acid transmitters to epileptiform
 activity and reflex suppression in electrically head stunned
 sheep.
 Cook, C.J.; Devine, C.E.; Tavener, A.; Gilbert, K.V.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1992 Jan.
 Research in veterinary science v. 52 (1): p. 48-56; 1992 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sheep; Stunning; Electrical treatment; Gamma-
 aminobutyric acid; Amino acids; Receptors; Anesthetics;
 Reflexes; Convulsions
 
 Abstract:  In sheep, administration of a combination of
 zolazepam and tiletamine hydrochloride resulted in a dose
 dependent reduction in the duration of epileptic activity
 induced by an electric stun applied to the head. The compound
 also lengthened the normal period of reflex suppression that
 occurs after a stun. Excitatory amino acid receptor
 antagonists (2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic and 2-amino-5-
 phosphonovaleric acids) also reduced the duration of epileptic
 activity following an electric stun. These drugs did not alter
 the time of pedal and ear pinch reflex suppression.
 Administration of bicuculline (a gamma amino-4-butyric acid
 [GABA] receptor antagonist) reduced the period of stun induced
 reflex suppression and increased seizure duration.
 Administration of a GABA receptor agonist, baclofen, increased
 the duration of reflex suppression. The results suggest that
 the development of epileptiform-like activity following
 application of an electric current to the head is dependent
 upon excitatory amino acid receptors. The reflex suppression
 that also arises following an electric stun is contributed to
 by the activation of GABA receptor mechanisms.
 
 
 117                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Correlation between drug and metabolite concentrations in
 plasma and anesthetic action of ketamine in swine.
 Loscher, W.; Ganter, M.; Fassbender, C.P.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1990 Mar. American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (3):
 p. 391-398; 1990 Mar. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Ketamine; Anesthesia; Blood plasma;
 Metabolites; Administration; Pharmacokinetics;
 Pharmacodynamics
 
 Abstract:  Pharmacokinetic variables and metabolism of IM and
 IV administered ketamine (15 mg/kg of body weight) were
 determined in 8 swine (2 adult sows and 6 young pigs). After
 IM administration, maximal plasma concentration was rapidly
 reached, but peak concentration varied considerably, although
 comparison with IV data for the same swine indicated that the
 drug was almost completely absorbed from the musculature.
 After IV administration, ketamine kinetics followed a 3-term
 exponential decrease, indicating rapid initial distribution of
 the drug to highly vascular tissues including the brain,
 followed by redistribution into less vascular tissues, and
 elimination. Redistribution and elimination phases, with
 similar kinetics as those observed in the IV experiment, also
 were determined in the IM experiment. After both routes of
 administration, onset of anesthesia was rapid, and most swine
 recovered consciousness during the phase of redistribution,
 indicating that anesthesia is terminated by redistribution of
 drug from the brain into other tissues, whereas metabolism and
 excretion are less important for duration of anesthesia
 induced by ketamine. The time during which the swine resumed a
 lateral position (sleep time) was positively correlated with
 plasma ketamine concentration at onset of lateral recumbency,
 as well as with the area under the plasma concentration-time
 curve. The minimal plasma ketamine concentration for induction
 of immobilization was about 2 microgram/ml. In adult sows,
 ketamine induced profound analgesia, which was not obtained in
 young pigs; this difference in potency could not be related to
 pharmacokinetic differences between young and adult swine.
 With respect to metabolism of ketamine in swine, the major
 metabolite in plasma was norketamine (metabolite I), whereas a
 second metabolite (metabolite II) was detected only in low
 concentrations. Elimination half-life of ketamine was about 2
 hours after either IM or IV administration.
 
 
 118                                   NAL Call. No.: SF391.P55
 Creatine kinase activity in blood plasma and muscles of pigs
 susceptible and resistant to halothane anaesthesia.
 Poltarsky, J.; Kolataj, A.; Bulla, J.
 Wallingford : Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux; 1989 Dec. Pig
 news and information v. 10 (4): p. 469-472; 1989 Dec. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Creatine kinase; Enzyme activity; Blood
 plasma; Longissimus dorsi; Halothane; Drug resistance; Sex
 differences
 
 
 119                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69
 Critical care in adult horses: restraint, analgesia, and anti-
 inflammatory support.
 Bertone, J.J.
 Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Co; 1993 Nov.
 Veterinary medicine v. 88 (11): p. 1066-1073; 1993 Nov.  First
 of a series. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Intensive care; Restraint of animals;
 Anesthesia; Antiinflammatory agents; Drug therapy
 
 
 120                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Cushioning the effects of anaesthesia.
 Vogel, C.
 London : The Association; 1990 Oct20.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 127 (16): p. 394; 1990 Oct20.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Anesthetics
 
 
 121                                   NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47
 The decision process: standing surgery versus general
 anesthesia and recumbency.
 Bertone, A.L.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders; 1991 Dec.
 The Veterinary clinics of North America : equine practice v. 7
 (3): p. 485-488; 1991 Dec.  In the series analytic: Standing
 surgery / edited by Alicia L. Bertone.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Surgery; Anesthesia; Decision making;
 Restraint of animals; Risk; Safety; Time; Costs
 
 
 122                                    NAL Call. No.: 475 J824
 Determination of residues of carazolol and a number of
 tranquillizers in swine kidney by high-performance liquid
 chromatography with ultraviolet and fluorescence detection.
 Keukens, H.J.; Aerts, M.M.L.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers; 1989 Feb17.
 Journal of chromatography v. 464 (1): p. 149-161; 1989 Feb17. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Netherlands; Pigs; Kidneys; Drug residues;
 Neuroleptics; Determination; Liquid chromatography;
 Fluorescence; Ultraviolet spectroscopy
 
 
 123                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Determination of sensitivity to metocurine in exercised
 horses. White, D.A.; Hildebrand, S.V.; Jones, J.H.; Fung,
 D.L.; Gronert, G.A. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary
 Medical Association; 1992 May. American journal of veterinary
 research v. 53 (5): p. 757-761; 1992 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Muscle relaxants; Exercise;
 Pharmacokinetics; Pharmacodynamics
 
 Abstract:  On the basis of results in dogs, conditioning
 exercise may increase sensitivity to nondepolarizing muscle
 relaxants. Five Thoroughbreds were exercised/conditioned 3
 times weekly on a treadmill for 8 months. Increasing maximal
 rate of O2 consumption verified that the horses were
 responding to exercise conditioning. Six nonexercised
 Thoroughbreds served as the control group. Studies were done
 with horses under general anesthesia by use of halothane
 during partial paralysis by a brief constant-rate infusion
 with the muscle relaxant, metocurine iodide. Quantification of
 degree of paralysis of the hoof twitch (eg, digital extensor)
 occurred with simultaneous quantification of blood values of
 metocurine. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses of
 the data were done by a nonlinear regression program, using
 the Hill equation. There were no differences in findings
 between exercised and nonexercised horses. The mean blood
 concentration for the 50% paralyzing dose of metocurine was
 0.44 +/- 0.11 (SD) micrograms/ml in exercised horses, and 0.58
 +/- 0.22 micrograms/ml in nonexercised horses. Despite
 evidence for a response to conditioning, a significant change
 in the sensitivity of the neuromuscular junction to metocurine
 was not found.
 
 
 124                                    NAL Call. No.: 475 J824
 Determination of tranquilisers and carazolol residues in
 animal tissue using high-performance liquid chromatography
 with electrochemical detection. Rose, M.D.; Shearer, G.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers; 1992 Oct30.
 Journal of chromatography v. 624 (1/2): p. 471-477; 1992
 Oct30.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal tissues; Drug residues; Food analysis;
 Food contamination; Carazolol; Neuroleptics; Detection; Hplc
 
 
 125                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46
 Detomidine as a sedative and premedicant in the horse
 (1985-1990). Clarke, K.W.; Gerring, E.L.
 Manhattan, Kan. : The Association; 1990.
 Proceedings of the annual convention of the American
 Association of Equine Practitioners. p. 629-635; 1990. 
 Meeting held December 2-5, 1990, Lexington, KY.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Preanesthetic medication; Agonists
 
 
 126                                   NAL Call. No.: SF951.J65
 Detomidine hydrochloride versus xylazine plus morphine as
 sedative and analgesic agents for flank laparotomies and ovary
 and oviduct removal in standing mares.
 Jochle, W.; Woods, G.L.; Little, T.V.; Hillman, R.B.; Ball,
 B.A. Lake Elsinore, Calif. : William E. Jones, DVM; 1991 Jul.
 Journal of equine veterinary science v. 11 (4): p. 225-228;
 1991 Jul. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Mares; Reproductive disorders;
 Ovariectomy; Oviducts; Surgical operations; Analgesics;
 Xylazine; Morphine; Laparotomy
 
 
 127                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Detomidine-ketamine anaesthesia in chickens.
 Mohammad, F.K.; Al-Badrany, M.S.; Al-Hasan, A.M.
 London : The British Veterinary Association; 1993 Aug21.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 133 (8): p. 192; 1993 Aug21.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Chickens; Detomidine; Ketamine; Drug combinations
 
 
 128                         NAL Call. No.: KyUThesis 1992 Yang
 Development of ELISA tests for acepromazine, fluphenazine and
 detomidine tranquilizers in performance horses.
 Yang, Jyan-Ming,
 1992; 1992.
 x, 140 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.  Includes vita and abstract. 
 Includes bibliographic references (l. 124-136).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Radioimmunoassay; Drug testing; Race horses
 
 
 129                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 The development of pain in young pigs associated with
 castration and attempts to prevent castration-induced
 behavioral changes.
 McGlone, J.J.; Nicholson, R.I.; Hellman, J.M.; Herzog, D.N.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1993
 Jun. Journal of animal science v. 71 (6): p. 1441-1446; 1993
 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Pain; Castration; Analgesics; Animal
 welfare; Age differences; Animal behavior; Liveweight gain;
 Survival
 
 Abstract:  Four experiments were conducted to examine the
 development of castration-induced behavioral changes, the
 effects of castration age on pig weight gain, and the efficacy
 of common analgesics for use in castrated pigs. In Exp. 1,
 behavioral changes associated with castration of pigs at 1, 5,
 10, 15, or 20 d of age were evaluated. Castration caused
 measurable changes (reduced suckling, reduced standing, and
 increased lying times, P < .05) in the behavior of young pigs
 compared with that of intact pigs at all ages tested. Effects
 of age and interactions between age and castration treatment
 were not significant (P > .10) for any behaviors evaluated. In
 Exp. 2, the performance of pigs castrated at 1 d of age was
 compared with the performance of those castrated on d 14 and
 female littermates. Birth weights, weaning weights, and
 mortality were recorded. Pigs that were castrated on d 14 were
 heavier (P = .05) at weaning and had a higher (P < .05) weight
 gain during lactation compared to pigs castrated on d 1 of
 age. Pig mortality was similar among the treatments. In Exp. 3
 and 4, the efficacies of pain-reducing drugs (non-narcotic
 analgesics) were evaluated for effectiveness in reducing
 castration-induced behavioral changes in 8-wk-old pigs.
 Although castration reduced (P < .05) feeding time and weight
 gain, neither aspirin nor butorphanol influenced behavioral
 changes associated with castration. We conclude that pigs show
 similar behavioral changes (and probably pain perception) when
 castrated from 1 to 20 d of age. However, pig performance data
 favored castration at 14 d rather than at 1 d of age. Among
 older pigs, which show much greater behavioral effects of
 castration, analgesics (aspirin and butorphanol), used at
 recommended doses, provided no measurable effect on
 castration-induced behavioral changes.
 
 
 130                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Differential artificial ventilation in anesthetized horses
 positioned in lateral recumbency.
 Moens, Y.; Lagerweij, E.; Gootjes, P.; Poortman, J.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1994 Sep. American journal of veterinary research v. 55 (9):
 p. 1319-1326; 1994 Sep. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Lung ventilation; Gas exchange;
 Respiratory gases; Position; Anesthesia
 
 Abstract:  Effects of differential ventilation on gas exchange
 were studied in 7 isoflurane-anesthetized, laterally recumbent
 horses, and were compared with effects of conventional
 ventilation, using similar minute volume. A tracheal tube-in-
 tube intubation technique allowed each lung to be connected
 separately to an anesthetic circle system with a ventilator.
 Two distribution patterns of tidal volume were investigated;
 half the tidal volume was distributed to each lung and two-
 thirds the tidal volume was distributed to the dependent lung.
 Effects of the combination of these patterns with positive
 end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 10 and 20 cm of H20 to the
 dependent lung were investigated. Differential ventilation
 maintained PaCO2, but significantly increased PaO2, from 180
 to 270 mm of Hg (+44%) and decreased shunt perfusion from 22
 to 19% (-15%), regardless of the distribution pattern used.
 Mean airway pressure was lower than the value detected during
 conventional ventilation. The combination of differential
 ventilation with selective PEEP was followed by a decrease in
 PaCO2 and further increase of PaO2 and decrease of shunt,
 which were similar for both distribution patterns. Effects of
 PEEP of 20 cm of H2O were more pronounced than those of PEEP
 of 10 cm of H2O. Owing to the combined effects of differential
 ventilation and selective PEEP, PaO2 increased to 399 mm of Hg
 and shunt decreased to 15%. This represents increase of 112%
 and decrease of 33% respectively, compared with values for
 conventional ventilation. Mean airway pressure increased
 maximally to 23 cm of H2O, which was 11 cm of H2O greater than
 the value for conventional ventilation. During differential
 ventilation, alveolar dead space in the dependent lung became
 greater than that in the nondependent lung and maximum was
 39%. There were no significant changes in arterial blood
 pressure. Beneficial effects on gas exchange can be explained
 by improved matching of ventilation and perfusion, possibly
 attributable to reopening of previously dosed units in the
 dependent lung.
 
 
 131                                   NAL Call. No.: 442.8 Am3
 Dominant inheritance of overo spotting in paint horses.
 Bowling, A.T.
 New York, N.Y. : Oxford University Press; 1994 May.
 The Journal of heredity v. 85 (3): p. 222-224; 1994 May. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Paint; Color patterns; Inheritance;
 Autosomes; Dominance; Genes
 
 Abstract:  Analysis of selected studbook records of the
 American Paint Horse Association, consisting of 687 foals
 sired by 13 overo stallions from non-overo mares, supports the
 inheritance of overo spotting as an autosomal dominant gene.
 More than one gene may control patterns registered as overo.
 Additional studies are necessary to explain the sporadic
 occurrence of overo spotting from nonspotted quarter horse
 parents and to confirm the inheritance of overo spotting in
 other breeds.
 
 
 132                                   NAL Call. No.: SF951.J65
 Dose selection for detomidine as a sedative and analgesic in
 horses with colic from controlled and open clinical studies.
 Jochle, W.
 Lake Elsinore, Calif. : William E. Jones, DVM; 1990 Jan.
 Journal of equine veterinary science v. 10 (1): p. 6-11; 1990
 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Colic; Analgesics; Drug effects; Dosage
 effects; Duration
 
 
 133                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Dose-response relationship of atracurium besylate in the
 halothane-anaesthetised pig.
 Shorten, G.D.; Gibbs, N.M.
 London : British Veterinary Association, 1960-; 1993 Nov.
 Research in veterinary science v. 55 (3): p. 392-393; 1993
 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Muscle relaxants; Dosage; Halothane;
 Anesthesia
 
 Abstract:  The dose response relationship for the
 intermediate-acting non-depolarising muscle relaxant,
 atracurium besylate in the pig was determined using evoked
 electromyography. An incremental dose technique was used in
 seven Large White/Landrace crossbred pigs anaesthetised with
 nitrous oxide and halothane. ED50 and FD95 were 510 +/- 87
 micrograms kg-1 and 1150 +/- 270 micrograms kg-1,
 respectively. Although these values may represent an
 overestimate, they provide a reasonable guideline for the use
 of atracurium by veterinary anaesthetists.
 
 
 134                                    NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6
 Doxapram infusion during halothane anaesthesia in ponies.
 Taylor, P.M.
 Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1990 Sep.
 Equine veterinary journal v. 22 (5): p. 329-332; 1990 Sep.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Halothane; Doxapram;
 Analeptics; Respiratory system
 
 
 135                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Dynamic baroreflex sensitivity in anesthetized horses,
 maintained at 1.25 to 1.3 minimal alveolar concentration of
 halothane.
 Hellyer, P.W.; Dodam, J.R.; Light, G.S.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1991 Oct. American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (10):
 p. 1672-1675; 1991 Oct. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Heart rate; Blood pressure;
 Reflexes; Xylazine; Ketamine; Halothane; Vasoconstrictor
 agents
 
 Abstract:  Dynamic baroreflex sensitivity for increasing
 arterial pressure (DBSI) was used to quantitatively assess the
 effects of anesthesia on the heart rate/arterial pressure
 relationship during rapid (less than or equal to 2 minutes)
 pressure changes in the horse. Anesthesia was induced with IV
 administration of xylazine and ketamine and maintained with
 halothane at a constant end-tidal concentration of 1.1 to 1.2%
 (1.25 to 1.3 minimal alveolar concentration). Systolic
 arterial pressure (SAP) was increased a minimum of 30 mm of Hg
 in response to an IV bolus injection of phenylephrine HCl.
 Linear regression was used to determine the slope of the R-R
 interval/SAP relationship. During dynamic increases in SAP, a
 significant correlation between R-R interval and SAP was
 observed in 8 of 8 halothane-anesthetized horses. Correlation
 coefficients between R-R interval and sap were > 0.80 in 5 of
 8 horses. Mean (+/- SD) DBSI was 4.8 +/- 3.4 ms/mm of Hg in
 anesthetized horses. A significant correlation between R-R
 interval and SAP was observed in only 3 of 6 awake horses
 during dynamic increases in SAP. Lack of correlation between
 R-R interval and SAP in 3 of 6 awake horses indicated that
 rapidly increasing SAP with an IV phenylephrine bolus is a
 poor method to evaluate baroreceptor-mediated heart rate
 changes in awake horses. Reflex slowing of heart rate in
 response to a rising arterial pressure appeared to have been
 overridden by the effects of excitement. Mean (+/- SD) DBSI (3
 horses) was 7.3 +/- 3.3 ms/mm of Hg in awake horses.
 
 
 136                                   NAL Call. No.: 444.8 G28
 Dynorphin modulates prolactin secretion in the turkey.
 Youngren, O.M.; Silsby, J.L.; Phillips, R.E.; El Halawani,
 M.E. Orlando, Fla. : Academic Press; 1993 Aug.
 General and comparative endocrinology v. 91 (2): p. 224-231;
 1993 Aug. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Hens; Turkeys; Prolactin; Hormone secretion;
 Opioid peptides; Endorphins; Enkephalins; Hypothalamus;
 Infusion
 
 Abstract:  Big dynorphin (prodynorphin 209-240), dynorphin A
 (prodynorphin 209-225), dynorphin B (prodynorphin 228-240),
 beta-endorphin (beta-lipotrophin 61-90), or Met-enkephalin,
 each infused into the third ventricle, were tested for their
 effect on PRL release in the anesthetized turkey hen. Laying
 hens that received big dynorphin at the rate of 0.35 nmol/min
 showed a 5.1-fold increase in serum PRL at the end of a 30-min
 infusion period. In a second experiment, the big dynorphin-
 induced PRL increase was 2.6-fold. Nest-deprived, previously
 incubating hens that received big dynorphin displayed an 8.2-
 fold increase in serum PRL. Laying and nest-deprived
 incubating control birds infused with saline displayed no PRL
 increases. Laying hens that received dynorphin A (0.35
 nmol/min) showed a 1.5-fold increase in serum PRL after 30 min
 of infusion; after 40 min of infusion, this increase rose to
 2.7-fold. Infusions of beta-endorphin (0.35 nmol/min), or Met-
 enkephalin (0.35 nmol/min) failed to evoke PRL increases in
 either laying or nest-deprived incubating turkeys. Infusion of
 big dynorphin or dynorphin A for 120 min maintained an
 elevated PRL level across the period, a level equal to that
 evoked by electrical stimulation of the medial preoptic
 nucleus (ES/POM). Infusion of dynorphin B (0.48 nmol/min) or a
 reduced dose of dynorphin A (0.09 nmol/min) augmented the PRL
 response evoked by ES/POM. No augmentation was noted for beta-
 endorphin or Met-enkephalin, nor for saline-infused controls.
 The dynorphin-induced PRL response appeared to be dose-
 dependent. It appears that dynorphin is involved in the
 regulation of turkey PRL and that beta-endorphin and Met
 enkephalin, at the doses tested, are not.
 
 
 137                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Effect of a specific platelet-activating factor antagonist on
 cardiovascular and peripheral cellular responses to colonic
 ischemia and reperfusion in anesthetized ponies.
 Wilson, D.V.; Stick, J.A.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1993 Mar. American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (3):
 p. 443-448; 1993 Mar. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Platelets; Phospholipids; Antagonists;
 Torsion; Colon; Ischemia; Immune response; Cardiovascular
 system; Pathogenesis
 
 Abstract:  The role of platelet-activating factor in mediating
 the cardiovascular and peripheral cellular responses to large-
 colon ischemia and reperfusion, was explored in anesthetized
 ponies. A specific platelet. activating factor (PAF)
 antagonist (WEB 2086) was administered to a group of 6 ponies,
 and another 6 ponies (controls) were given an equivalent
 volume of saline solution, prior to 1 hour of large-colon
 torsion. After correction of the torsion, ponies were
 monitored during the reperfusion period. Significant (P <
 0.05) hypotension and metabolic acidosis developed in afl
 ponies after correction of colonic torsion, cardiac index
 increased initially, but then decreased significantly (P <
 0.05) over the study period. Mean times between correction of
 torsion and onset of cardiac failure and death were not
 different between groups. Significant (P < 0.05)
 thrombocytopenia developed during the reperfusion period in
 control ponies, but not in WEB-treated ponies. Blood leukocyte
 concentration in control ponies was more variable and
 significantly (P < 0.05) decreased immediately upon
 reperfusion, compared with that in WEB-treated ponies. We
 conclude that although the cardiovascular responses to colonic
 ischemia and reperfusion are not prevented by use of a
 specific PAF-antagonist, specific peripheral cellular
 responses are mediated by PAF.
 
 
 138                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Effect of body posture on cardiopulmonary function in horses
 during five hours of constant-dose halothane anesthesia.
 Steffey, E.P.; Kelley, A.B.; Hodgson, D.S.; Grandy, J.L.;
 Woliner, M.J.; Willits, N.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1990 Jan. American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (1):
 p. 11-16; 1990 Jan. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Posture; Halothane; Anesthesia;
 Cardiovascular system; Respiratory system
 
 Abstract:  Cardiovascular and respiratory functions were
 serially characterized in 7 healthy, spontaneously breathing,
 adult horses (from which food had been withheld) during 5
 hours of constant 1.06% alveolar halothane (end-expired
 halothane concentration of 1.06%; equivalent to 1.2 times the
 minimal alveolar anesthetic concentration for horses). To
 enable comparison of temporal results in relation to 2 body
 postures, horses were studied in lateral recumbency (LR) and
 dorsal recumbency (DR) on separate occasions. Temporal changes
 in results of measures of circulation previously reported from
 this laboratory for horses in LR were confirmed (ie, a time-
 related increase in systemic arterial blood pressure, cardiac
 output, stroke volume, and PCV). During DR, systemic arterial
 blood pressure was initially significantly (P < 0.05) greater
 and pulmonary artery pressure less than results at comparable
 periods during LR. Differences ceased to exist with duration
 of anesthesia. Except for a greater heart rate at hour 5 of
 DR, no other significant differences in circulation were found
 between LR and DR. In general, except for PaO2, measures of
 ventilation did not change with time in either LR or DR. The
 PaO2 was significantly greater during LR, compared with DR,
 but the average did not change significantly with time in
 either body posture.
 
 
 139                           NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 Effect of buffered lidocaine on epidural anesthesia in cattle.
 Riebold, T.W.; Hawkins, J.K.; Crisman, R.O.
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p.
 303-306, 313-315; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle; Anesthesia; Lidocaine; Local anesthetics
 
 
 140                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Effect of carbon dioxide stunning on somatosensory evoked
 potentials in hens. Mohan Raj, A.B.; Gregory, N.G.; Wotton,
 S.B.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1990 Nov.
 Research in veterinary science v. 49 (3): p. 355-359. ill;
 1990 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Fowls; Hens; Stunning; Carbon dioxide;
 Electroencephalograms; Convulsions; Animal welfare;
 Anesthesia; Consciousness
 
 
 141                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Effect of clenbuterol an arterial oxygen tension in the
 anaesthetised horse. Gleed, R.D.; Dobson, A.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1990 May.
 Research in veterinary science v. 48 (3): p. 331-337; 1990
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Oxygen; Arteries; Partial
 pressure; Position; Drugs
 
 
 142                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Effect of halothane, isoflurane, and pentobarbital anesthesia
 on myocardial irritability in chickens.
 Greenlees, K.J.; Clutton, R.E.; Larsen, C.T.; Eyre, P.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1990 May. American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (5):
 p. 757-758; 1990 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Chickens; Anesthesia; Halothane; Anesthetics;
 Pentobarbital; Myocardium; Adverse effects
 
 Abstract:  The relative myocardial irritant properties of
 halothane, isoflurane, and pentobarbital were evaluated in
 chickens. Sixteen adult male broiler chickens were randomly
 assigned to 1 of 3 groups: group-1 chickens were anesthetized
 with pentobarbital (30 mg/kg, IV), group-2 chickens were
 anesthetized with halothane (end tidal halothane 1.2%), and
 group-3 chickens were anesthetized with isoflurane (end tidal
 isoflurane 2.1%). Birds in any 2 of the 3 treatment groups
 were tested on any 1 day. Local anesthesia was induced, and
 blood pressure, heart rate, ECG, and blood gas variables were
 measured before general anesthesia was induced. Positive-
 pressure ventilation with an inspired O2 fraction > 0.95 was
 adjusted to result in an end tidal CO2 concentration that
 reflected a PaCO2 similar to that obtained prior to anesthesia
 and ventilation. All measurements were repeated. The threshold
 for ventricular fibrillation in response to electrical
 stimulation of the heart was then determined for all birds.
 Effects of anesthesia on hemodynamic and blood gas variables
 were similar in all 3 groups. Compared with halothane or
 pentobarbital, isoflurane anesthesia resulted in a
 significantly (P < 0.05) lower threshold for electrical
 fibrillation of the heart.
 
 
 143                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Effect of high PaCO2 and time on cerebrospinal fluid and
 intraocular pressure in halothane-anesthetized horses.
 Cullen, L.K.; Steffey, E.P.; Bailey, C.S.; Kortz, G.; Da Silva
 Curiel, J.; Bellhorn, R.W.; Woliner, M.J.; Elliott, A.R.;
 Jarvis, K.A. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical
 Association; 1990 Feb. American journal of veterinary research
 v. 51 (2): p. 300-304; 1990 Feb. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Halothane; Hypercapnia;
 Carbon dioxide; Partial pressure; Timing; Cerebrospinal fluid;
 Eyes (animal); Internal pressure
 
 Abstract:  The effects of different arterial carbon dioxide
 tensions (PaCO2) on cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) and
 intraocular pressure (IOP) were studied in 6 male
 halothaneanesthetized horses positioned in left lateral
 recumbency. Steady-state anesthetic conditions (1.06% end-
 tidal halothane concentration) commenced 60 minutes following
 anesthetic induction with only halothane in oxygen. During
 atracurium neuromuscular blockade, horses were ventilated, and
 respiratory rate and peak inspiratory airway pressure were
 maintained within narrow limits. The CSFP and IOP were
 measured at 3 different levels of PaCO2 (approx 40, 60, and 80
 mm of Hg). The PaCO2 sequence in each horse was determined
 from a type of switchback design with the initial PaCO2
 (period 1), established 30 minutes after the commencement of
 steady-state anesthesia, being repeated in the middle (period
 3) and again at the end (period 5) of the experiment.
 Measurements taken from the middle 3 periods (2, 3, and 4)
 would form a Latin square design replicated twice. The
 interval between each period was approximately 45 minutes.
 Data from periods 2, 3, and 4 indicated that CSFP (P < 0.05)
 and mean systemic arterial pressure increased significantly (P
 < 0.05) with high PaCO2. Mean central venous pressure, heart
 rate, and IOP did not change significantly during these same
 conditions. Measurements taken during periods 1, 3, and 5 were
 compared to assess the time-related responses to anesthesia
 and showed a significant increase in CSFP, a significant
 decrease in mean central venous pressure, and a small (but not
 statistically significant) increase in mean systemic arterial
 pressure.
 
 
 144                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Effect of hypercapnia on the arrhythmogenic dose of
 epinephrine in horses anesthetized with guaifenesin, thiamylal
 sodium, and halothane. Gaynor, J.S.; Bednarski, R.M.; Muir,
 W.W. III
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1993 Feb. American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (2):
 p. 315-321; 1993 Feb. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Hypercapnia; Epinephrine; Dosage;
 Anesthesia; Guaifenesin; Halothane; Inhaled anesthetics;
 Arrhythmia
 
 Abstract:  The effect of hypercapnia on the arrhythmogenic
 dose of epinephrine (ADE) was investigated in 14 horses.
 Anesthesia was induced with guaifenesin and thiamylal sodium
 and was maintained at an end-tidal halothane concentration
 between 0.86 and 0.92%. Base-apex ECG, cardiac output, and
 facial artery blood pressure were measured and recorded. The
 ADE was determined at normocapnia (arterial partial pressure
 of carbon dioxide [Pa(CO2)] = 35 to 45 mm of Hg), at
 hypercapnia (Pa(CO2) = 70 to 80 mm of Hg), and after return to
 normocapnia. Epinephrine was infused at arithmetically spaced
 increasing rates (initial rate = 0.25 micrograms/kg of body
 weight/min) for a maximum of 10 minutes. The ADE was defined
 as the lowest epinephrine infusion rate, to the nearest 0.25
 micrograms/kg/min, at which 4 premature ventricular complexes
 occurred in a 15-second period. The ADE (mean +/- SD) during
 hypercapnia (1.04 +/- 0.23 micrograms/kg/min) was
 significantly (P < 0.05) less than the ADE at normocapnia
 (1.35 +/- 0.38 micrograms/kg/min), whereas the ADE after
 return to normocapnia (1.17 +/- 0.22 micrograms/kg/min) was
 not significantly different from those during normocapnia or
 hypercapnia. Baseline systolic and diastolic arterial
 pressures and cardiac output decreased after return to
 normocapnia. Significant differences were not found in
 arterial partial pressure of O2 (Pa(O2)) or in base excess
 during the experiment. Two horses developed ventricular
 fibrillation and died during normocapnic determinations of
 ADE. Hypercapnia was associated with an increased risk of
 developing ventricular arrhythmias in horses anesthetized with
 guaifenesin, thiamylal sodium, and halothane.
 
 
 145                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Effect of hypercapnia or xylazine on lateral ventricle and
 lumbosacral cerebrospinal fluid pressures in pentobarbital-
 anesthetized horses. Moore, R.M.; Trim, C.M.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1993 Mar.
 Veterinary surgery v. 22 (2): p. 151-158; 1993 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Cerebrospinal fluid; Anesthesia
 
 
 146                                   NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 Effect of inhalation anaesthetics on total respiratory
 resistance in conscious ponies.
 Hall, L.W.; Young, S.S.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1992 Jun.
 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 15 (2):
 p. 174-179; 1992 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Inhaled anesthetics; Halothane;
 Respiration; Resistance
 
 
 147                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Effect of intramuscularly administered polysulfated
 glycosaminoglycan on articular cartilage from equine joints
 injected with methylprednisolone acetate.
 Fubini, S.L.; Boatwright, C.E.; Todhunter, R.J.; Lust, G.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1993 Aug. American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (8):
 p. 1359-1365; 1993 Aug. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Glycosaminoglycans; Intramuscular
 injection; Joints (animal); Prednisolone; Cartilage;
 Proteoglycans; Protein synthesis; Chondrocytes; Fibronectins
 
 Abstract:  Intra-articularly administered, long-acting
 corticosteroids are a beneficial treatment for many equine
 joint disorders because they alleviate inflammation and signs
 of pain, but they also exert detrimental effects on the
 biochemical composition and morphologic features of articular
 cartilage. Chondroprotective drugs have been shown to mitigate
 some of the deleterious effects of intra-articularly
 administered corticosteroids on articular cartilage of
 laboratory animals. Twenty-one ponies were assigned at random
 to receive 1 of 3 treatments in the right middle carpal joint.
 Group-1 ponies (n = 8) had methylprednisolone acetate (MPA;
 0.2 mg/kg of body weight) andsaline solution administered
 intra-articularly and IM, respectively. Group-2 ponies (n = 9)
 received MPA (0.2 mg/kg) and polysulfated glycosaminoglycan
 (GAG; 2 mg/kg). Group-3 ponies (control; n = 4) had saline
 solution administered intra-articularly and IM. The
 corticosteroid or saline solution was injected into the right
 middle carpal joint on day 1. The IM administered polysulfated
 GAG or saline solution was administered at the same time, then
 was repeated every 3 days for 20 days. Ponies were
 euthanatized 21 days after initial injection by overdose of
 pentobarbital sodium. The cartilage of younger ponies was
 significantly (P < 0.05) more responsive to the proteoglycan-
 depleting effects of MPA. Ponies < 10 years old of groups 1
 and 2 had significantly (P < 0.05) lower GAG content in the
 articular cartilage than did control ponies. Systemic
 treatment with polysulfated GAG did not result in a protective
 effect against proteoglycan loss from the articular cartilage.
 Twenty-one days after MPA injection, difference in
 [35S]sulfate incorporation into proteoglycan, between either
 MPA-treated group and the control group, was not significant.
 There was an approximate tenfold increase in keratan sulfate
 concentration in synovial fluid from MPA-treated joints,
 compared with control joints. Chondroprotective effect of
 polysulfated GAG on the basis of keratan sulfate release from
 the articular cartilage into the synovial fluid was not
 observed. Methylprednisolone acetate caused a decrease in the
 fibronectin content of articular cartilage, but there was no
 effect of polysulfated GAG on the fibronectin content of MPA-
 treated articular cartilage.
 
 
 148                                    NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6
 Effect of low-dose butorphanol on halothane minimum alveolar
 concentration in ponies.
 Matthews, N.S.; Lindsay, S.L.
 Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1990 Sep.
 Equine veterinary journal v. 22 (5): p. 325-327; 1990 Sep. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Halothane; Analgesics
 
 
 149                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Effect of preslaughter anesthesia on muscle metabolism and
 meat quality of pigs of different halothane genotypes.
 Klont, R.E.; Lambooy, E.; Logtestijn, J.G. van
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1993
 Jun. Journal of animal science v. 71 (6): p. 1477-1485; 1993
 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Porcine stress syndrome; Pigmeat; Meat
 quality; Genotypes; Halothane; Color; Postmortem changes;
 Muscle physiology; Blood chemistry; Metabolites; Enzyme
 activity
 
 Abstract:  Pigs of different halothane genotypes were
 anesthetized 45 min before slaughter. During the period of
 anesthesia blood samples and muscle biopsy samples were taken
 to investigate muscle energy metabolism by measuring different
 metabolites. After exsanguination, the same metabolites and
 some meat quality characteristics were determined. Minimal
 differences in resting muscle metabolism seemed to exist
 between the halothane genotypes. Some significant differences
 in ante- and postmortem metabolism were found, particularly in
 creatine and lactate concentrations, but these were not
 reflected in ultimate meat quality. None of the pigs showed
 PSE meat and there were no differences in muscle pH and
 temperature at 45 min and 18 h postmortem. However, rigor,
 drip loss, and color still showed a significant genotype
 effect. It was concluded that due to the method of anesthesia
 there were no differences in muscle metabolism at the moment
 of slaughter. This may have led to a more uniform ultimate
 meat quality between pigs differing in their genetic
 susceptibility toward stress. There were differences in color
 and drip loss between the halothane genotypes that cannot be
 explained by differences in pH and carcass temperature at 45
 min postmortem.
 
 
 150                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Effect of ranitidine on healing of experimentally induced
 gastric ulcers in ponies.
 MacAllister, C.G.; Sangiah, S.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1993 Jul. American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (7):
 p. 1103-1107; 1993 Jul. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Antihistaminics; Gastric ulcer;
 Induction; Flunixin; Healing; Oral administration
 
 Abstract:  Thirty young ponies were examined endoscopically
 for evidence of gastric ulceration. Seven ponies had
 noninduced gastric ulcers present at the initial examination
 and were eliminated from the study. In an attempt to induce
 gastric ulcers experimentally, flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg
 of body weight, IM, q 8 h) was administered for 7 days to the
 23 ponies with endoscopically normal gastric mucosa. During
 the 7 days of flunixin administration, 11 ponies developed
 gastric ulcers that were appropriate for study. The 11 ponies
 were randomly allotted to 2 groups. Group-A (n = 5) and group-
 B (n = 6) ponies received ranitidine (4.4 mg/kg, PO, q 8 h)
 and corn syrup, respectively, until ulcers healed or for a
 maximum of 40 days. General anesthesia was induced every 3 to
 5 days for visual evaluation of ulcer healing by use of a
 video endoscope. The earliest complete healing of gastric
 lesions observed in a corn syrup-treated pony was at 17 days.
 At 40 days, 3 of 5 and 3 of 6 ponies of the ranitidine and
 corn syrup-treated groups, respectively, had healed ulcers.
 Results of this study indicate that: noninduced gastric ulcers
 may be common in young ponies, flunixin meglumine may be
 effective in inducing gastric ulcers for gastric healing
 studies in young ponies, and ranitidine (4.4 mg/kg, q 8 h) is
 not significantly effective in accelerating healing of
 experimentally induced gastric ulcers in ponies under
 conditions of this study.
 
 
 151                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Effect of rate of induction of carbon dioxide anaesthesia on
 the time of onset of unconsciousness and convulsions.
 Mohan Raj, A.B.; Gregory, N.G.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1990 Nov.
 Research in veterinary science v. 49 (3): p. 360-363; 1990
 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Fowls; Hens; Broilers; Stunning; Carbon dioxide;
 Convulsions; Anesthesia; Animal welfare; Dosage effects;
 Consciousness
 
 
 152                                    NAL Call. No.: TP368.J6
 Effect of slaughter method on the progress of rigor of rainbow
 trout (Salmo gairdneri) as measured by an image processing
 system.
 Azam, K.; Strachan, N.J.C.; Mackie, I.M.; Smith, J.; Nesvadba,
 P. Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1990 Oct.
 International journal of food science and technology v. 25
 (5): p. 477-482; 1990 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Trout; Food storage; Carbon dioxide; Anesthetics;
 Electrocution; Cold storage; Ice; Imagery; Slaughter;
 Measurement
 
 
 153                                   NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 The effect of the organophosphate trichlorfon on the
 neuromuscular blocking activity of atracurium in halothane-
 anesthetized horses.
 Hildebrand, S.V.; Hill, T.; Holland, M.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1989 Sep.
 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 12 (3):
 p. 277-282; 1989 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Trichlorfon; Halothane; Anesthesia;
 Muscle relaxants
 
 
 154                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 The effect of thiopentone-sodium anesthesia and surgery,
 relocation, grouping, and hydrocortisone treatment on the
 blood levels of cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin, and
 catecholamines in pigs. Dalin, A.M.; Magnusson, U.; Haggendal,
 J.; Nyberg, L.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1993
 Jul. Journal of animal science v. 71 (7): p. 1902-1909; 1993
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Ovariectomy; Catecholamines; Anesthesia;
 Hydrocortisone; Epinephrine; Norepinephrine; Globulins
 
 Abstract:  Eight crossbred, ovariectomized gilts (Swedish
 Landrace X Swedish Yorkshire X Hampshire), with a mean age of
 7.5 mo, were studied during anesthesia and surgery, control-
 sampling, relocation, and grouping during a period of 3 wk.
 Acute treatment with a hydrocortisone injection (5 mg, i.v.)
 was also given. Blood samples were taken frequently (every 10
 min) during the intensive part of the experimental days. The
 blood samples were analyzed for catecholamines (CA),
 adrenaline (A) and noradrenaline (NA), cortisol, and
 corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG). The surgical period
 with anesthesia and surgery showed significant effects on CA,
 cortisol, and CBG. The A level increased immediately after the
 surgery. A biphasic increase in the cortisol level was
 observed on the day of surgery; the greatest increase was seen
 when the animals had regained consciousness after surgery but
 still were drowsy and staggering. The CBG level decreased on
 the day after the surgery. The study showed that the levels of
 the analyzed substances were back to normal 2 d after surgery.
 During relocation and grouping there was a short, significant
 increase in CA and cortisol levels, whereas the CBG level was
 not affected. Treatment with hydrocortisone significantly
 increased the cortisol level, but no change was seen in plasma
 CA or CBG levels. In conclusion, anesthesia and surgery
 induced significant effects on the levels of CA, cortisol, and
 CBG in gilts and the animals needed 2 d to recover before
 regaining their normal condition. During relocation and a
 limited grouping period, the significant increases in CA and
 cortisol levels were of short duration and CBG did not change.
 The animals returned to their normal condition again a few
 hours later.
 
 
 155                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Effect of xylazine on the arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine
 in thiamylal/halothane-anesthetized horses.
 Gaynor, J.S.; Bednarski, R.M.; Muir, W.W. III
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1992 Dec. American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (12):
 p. 2350-2354; 1992 Dec. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthetics; Drug combinations; Drug
 effects
 
 Abstract:  The effect of xylazine on the arrhythmogenic dose
 of epinephrine (ADE) was studied in 9 horses. Anesthesia was
 induced by administration of guaifenesin (50 mg/kg of body
 weight, IV) followed by thiamylal (4 to 6 mg/kg, IV) and was
 maintained at 1 minimal alveolar concentration MAC) of
 halothane (0.89%). Base apex ECG and facial artery pressure
 were recorded. Epinephrine was infused in a sequence of
 arithmetically spaced increasing rates (initial rate 0.25
 (Lg/kg/min) for a maximum of 10 minutes. The ADE was defined
 as the lowest epinephrine infusion rate to the nearest 0.25
 microgram/kg/min at which at least 4 premature ventricular
 depolarizations occurred in a 15-second period. Xylazine (1.1
 mg/kg, IV) was administered after the control ADE was
 determined. Xylazine did not significantly alter the ADE
 (control, 1.12 +/-0.38 microgram/kg/min; xylazine, 1.21 +/-
 0.46 microgram/kg/min). Blood pressure increased transiently
 for 8 minutes after xylazine administration. Baseline systolic
 and diastolic arterial pressures and heart rate were not
 significantly different from control baseline pressures and
 heart rate 15 minutes after xylazine administration. Blood
 pressure and heart rate increased significantly during control
 and xylazine ADE determinations. Significant differences in
 pH, PaO2, PaCO2, or base excess were not observed between
 baseline and ADE in the control or xylazine groups. One horse
 developed atrial fibrillation, and 2 horses developed
 ventricular fibrillation during ADE determinations.
 
 
 156                                   NAL Call. No.: SF380.I52
 Effect of yohimbine on xylazine-thiopental anaesthetized
 Creole goats. Mora, G.; Messen, J.; Cox, J.F.
 Amsterdam ; New York : Elsevier,; 1993 Jul.
 Small ruminant research : the journal of the International
 Goat Association v. 11 (2): p. 163-169; 1993 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Goats; Yohimbine; Anesthesia; Antagonists
 
 
 157                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 An effective combination of anaesthetics for 6-h
 experimentation in the golden Syrian hamster.
 Reid, W.D.; Davies, C.; Pare, P.D.; Pardy, R.L.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1989 Apr.
 Laboratory animals v. 23 (2): p. 156-162; 1989 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Golden hamster; Anesthetics; Drug combinations;
 Pentobarbital; Urethane; Chloralose; Anesthesia
 
 Abstract:  The anaesthetics described for use in hamsters to
 date are suitable for the perfomance of short-term
 experimentation. However, an anaesthetic regimen was required
 which would provide a stable preparation for 6 h and hence, a
 suitable combination was developed. In the first set of
 experiments, the effect of anaesthetics (chloralose, urethane,
 and pentobarbital) were examined alone and in combination on
 arterial blood measurements. In the second set of experiments
 the effect of the combination of anaesthetics on arterial
 blood measurements and minute ventilation was examined for up
 to 6 h. Chloralose, urethane and pentobarbital when used alone
 in the hamster were considered inadequate for our needs.
 Chloralose did not produce adequate surgical anaesthesia
 whereas urethane and pentobarbital resulted in marked
 respiratory depression. Urethane also produced a trend toward
 metabolic acidosis. In contrast, the combination of agents
 resulted in surgical anaesthesia and the arterial blood
 measurements were adequate. Further, the use of the
 combination of anaesthetics in hamsters resulted in a stable
 preparation where arterial blood measurements and minute
 ventilation were maintained in a good range for up to 6 h. The
 combination of chloralose, urethane and sodium pentobarbital
 in hamsters should prove useful in long-term non-recovery
 experimentation which requires early surgical intervention,
 minimal respiratory depression and an even depth of
 anaesthesia.
 
 
 158                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Effects of a highly concentrated hypertonic saline-dextran
 volume expander on cardiopulmonary function in anesthetized
 normovolemic horses. Moon, P.F.; Snyder, J.R.; Haskins, S.C.;
 Perron, P.R.; Kramer, G.C. Schaumburg, Ill. : American
 Veterinary Medical Association; 1991 Oct. American journal of
 veterinary research v. 52 (10): p. 1611-1618; 1991 Oct.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Fluid therapy; Saline water; Dextran;
 Solutions; Anesthesia; Cardiovascular system; Respiratory
 system; Adverse effects
 
 Abstract:  Conventional fluid resuscitation is unsatisfactory
 in a small percentage of equine emergency surgical cases
 because the large volumes of fluids required cannot be given
 rapidly enough to adequately stabilize the horse. In
 anesthetized horses, the volume expansion and cardiopulmonary
 effects of a small volume of highly concentrated hypertonic
 saline-dextran solution were evaluated as an alternative
 initial fluid choice. Seven halothane-anesthetized, laterally
 recumbent, spontaneously ventilating, normovolemic horses were
 treated with a 25% NaCl-24% dextran 70 solution (HSD) at a
 dosage of 1.0 ml/kg of body weight, IV, infused over 10
 minutes, and the effects were measured for 120 minutes after
 infusion. Plasma volume expansion was rapid and significant
 (from 36.6 +/- 4.6 ml/kg to 44.9 +/- 4.8 ml/kg) and remained
 significantly expanded for the duration of the experiment.
 Packed cell volume, total blood hemoglobin, and plasma protein
 concentrations significantly decreased, confirming rapid and
 sustained volume expansion with hemodilution. Cardiac index
 and stroke index immediately increased and remained high for
 the entire study (from 69.6 +/- 15.3 ml/min/kg to 106.6 +/-
 28.4 ml/min/kg, and from 1.88 t 0.49 ml/beat/kg to 2.50 +/-
 0.72 ml/beat/kg, respectively). Systemic vascular resistance
 significantly decreased immediately after HSD infusion and
 remained decreased for the duration of the study (from 1.41 +/-
  0.45 mm of Hg/ml/min/kg to 0.88 t 0.22 mm of Hg/ml/min/kg).
 Arterial and venous blood oxygen content decreased
 significantly because of hemodilution, but actual oxygen
 transport transiently increased at the 10-minute measurement
 before returning toward baseline. Plasma osmolality and sodium
 significantly increased and remained high for the entire 120
 minutes (from 293 +/- 2 osm/L to 326 +/- 9 mosm/L, and from
 142.8 +/- 3.3 mM/L to 159.0 +/- 6.2 mM/L, respectively). Urine
 output increased in 5 of 7 horses within minutes of HSD
 infusion, but the mean increase was
 
 
 159                           NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 The effects of alpha 2-adrenoreceptor agonist analgesia on the
 central nervous system in an equine model.
 Short, C.E.; Kallfelz, F.A.; Otto, K.; Otto, B.; Wallace, R.
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p.
 421-430, 433-434; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Pain; Models; Alpha-adrenergic receptors;
 Agonists; Analgesics; Drug effects
 
 
 160                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Effects of an infusion of dopamine on the cardiopulmonary
 effects of Escherichia coli endotoxin in anaesthetised horses.
 Trim, C.M.; Moore, J.N.; Hardee, M.M.; Hardee, G.E.; Slade,
 E.A. London : British Veterinary Association; 1991 Jan.
 Research in veterinary science v. 50 (1): p. 54-63; 1991 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Endotoxins; Escherichia coli; Dopamine;
 Halothane; Anesthesia; Cardiovascular system; Toxemia
 
 
 161                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Effects of anesthesia induced and maintained by continuous
 intravenous administration of guaifenesin, ketamine, and
 xylazine in spontaneously breathing sheep.
 Lin, H.C.; Tyler, J.W.; Welles, E.G.; Spano, J.S.; Thurmon,
 J.C.; Wolfe, D.F. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary
 Medical Association; 1993 Nov. American journal of veterinary
 research v. 54 (11): p. 1913-1916; 1993 Nov. Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sheep; Anesthesia; Guaifenesin; Ketamine;
 Xylazine; Intravenous injection; Respiratory gases
 
 Abstract:  Anesthesia was induced and maintained in 6 Suffolk
 wethers by continuous IV infusion of guaifenesin (50 mg/ml),
 ketamine (1 mg/ml), and xylazine (0.1 mg/ml) in 5% dextrose in
 water (triple drip) to assess the anesthetic and
 cardiopulmonary effects. All sheep were positioned in right
 lateral recumbency. Dosages of triple drip used for induction
 and maintenance of anesthesia were 1.2 +/- 0.02 ml/kg and 2.6
 ml/kg/h, respectively. Lack of gross purposeful movement of
 sheep to electrical stimulation indicated that analgesia and
 muscular relaxation induced by triple trip were adequate for
 surgical procedures. Heart rates and arterial blood pressure
 remained unchanged from baseline values during a 1-hour period
 of anesthesia. Arterial blood pressures were measured
 indirectly, using an inflation cuff placed over the metatarsal
 artery at the heart level. Significant decrease in arterial
 partial pressure of O2 (PaO2), coupled with an increase in
 arterial partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2), from baseline values
 was observed throughout the course of the study. Decrease in
 PaO2 was observed concomitantly with significant (P < 0.05)
 increase in respiration rate. Changes in arterial blood gas
 tensions observed in this study were attributed to respiratory
 depressant effect induced by anesthetic drugs and right-to-
 left shunting, perfusion/ventilation mismatch, or both caused
 by right lateral recumbency. Administration of 100% O2 via the
 endotracheal tube reduced the magnitude of the decrease in
 PaO2. All sheep recovered smoothly and stood within 96.3 +/-
 48.9 minutes after termination of triple drip administration.
 
 
 162                                    NAL Call. No.: 421 J828
 Effects of anesthetization and storage temperature on
 bluetongue virus recovery from Culicoides variipennis
 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and sheep blood.
 Work, T.M.; Sawyer, M.M.; Jessup, D.A.; Washino, R.K.; Osburn,
 B.I. Lanham, Md. : The Entomological Society of America; 1990
 May. Journal of medical entomology v. 27 (3): p. 331-333; 1990
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sheep; Cervidae; Infection; Bluetongue virus;
 Blood; Anesthesia; Field experimentation; Storage;
 Temperature; Culicoides variipennis; Disease vectors; Light
 traps
 
 
 163                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Effects of atipamezole on xylazine sedation in ponies.
 Luna, S.P.L.; Beale, N.J.; Taylor, P.M.
 London : The Association; 1992 Mar28.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 130 (13): p. 268-271; 1992 Mar28.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Xylazine; Anesthesia; Antagonists; Drug
 antagonism; Drug effects
 
 
 164                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Effects of atracurium administered by continuous intravenous
 infusion in halothane-anesthetized horses.
 Hildebrand, S.V.; Hill, T. III
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1989 Dec. American journal of veterinary research v. 50 (12):
 p. 2124-2126; 1989 Dec. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Muscle relaxants; Injections; Halothane;
 Anesthesia; Adverse effects
 
 Abstract:  Atracurium (0.4 mg/ml in isotonic NaCl solution)
 was administered by IV infusion to 7 healthy adult horses for
 2 hours. Over the 2-hour period, a 95 to 99% reduction of
 train-of-four hoof-twitch response was maintained by 0.17 +/-
 0.01 mg of atracurium/kg of body weight/h, for a total of 161 +/-
  6 mg of atracurium (mean +/- SEM) for horses 1 to 4, 6, and
 7. Horse 5, a mare in estrus, required 0.49 mg of
 atracurium/kg/h to maintain comparable relaxation. Hoof-twitch
 recovery time from 10 to 75% of baseline strength was 19.8 +/-
 2.5 minutes for all horses. The 10 to 75% recovery time for
 horse 5 was 18 minutes. Recovery time from discontinuation of
 halothane until standing was 86 +/- 14 minutes (range, 55 to
 165 minutes). Horse 5 had a 165-minute recovery. Regarding
 recovery from anesthesia, 3 recoveries were rated as
 excellent, 1 recovery good, and 2 recoveries as fair. Horse 5
 laid quietly until she stood with 1 strong, smooth effort.
 
 
 165                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Effects of atropine on the arrhythmogenic dose of dobutamine
 in xylazine-thiamylal-halothane-anesthetized horses.
 Light, G.S.; Hellyer, P.W.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1993 Dec. American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (12):
 p. 2099-2103; 1993 Dec. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Atropine; Antihypertensive agents;
 Arrhythmia; Halothane
 
 Abstract:  We investigated the influence of parasympathetic
 tone on the arrhythmogenic dose of dobutamine in horses
 premedicated with xylazine, anesthetized with guaifenesin and
 thiamylal, and maintained on halothane in oxygen. Six horses
 were used in 12 randomized trials. In each trial, after end-
 tidal halothane concentration was stabilized at 1.1% (1.25
 times minimum alveolar concentration [MAC]) in oxygen, either
 saline solution (0.02 ml/kg of body weight) or atropine (0.04
 mg/kg) was administered IV. Five minutes later, dobutamine
 infusion was started at dosage of 2.5 micrograms/kg/min, IV.
 The dobutamine infusion was continued for 10 minutes, or until
 4 or more premature ventricular complexes occurred within 15
 seconds, or sustained narrow-complex tachyarrhythmia clearly
 not sinus in nature occurred. If the criteria for termination
 were not met, dobutamine infusion was increased by 2.5
 micrograms/kg/min, after the hemodynamic variables had
 returned to baseline. The horses were allowed to recover, and
 were rested for at least 1 week before the second trial. The
 arrhythmogenic dose of dobutamine was calculated by
 multiplying the infusion rate by the elapsed time into
 infusion when arrhythmia occurred. There was significant
 difference between the arrhythmogenic dose of dobutamine (ADD)
 in saline-treated horses (mean +/-SEM, ADD 105.6 +/- 16.3
 micrograms/kg) and atropinized horses (ADD 36.2 +/-8.7
 micrograms/kg). There were no differences in the prearrhythmia
 or immediate postarrhythmia ventricular heart rate (HR) or
 systolic (SAP), diastolic (DAP), or mean (MAP) arterial
 pressures between treated and control groups. The change in
 hemodynamic variables from prearrhythmia to immediate
 postarrhythmia formation was not different between the 2
 groups. Ventricular beats were clearly evident in 8 of the 12
 arrhythmias meeting the criteria for establishing the ADD.
 These results indicate that atropine may lower the
 arrhythmogenic threshold for dobutamine in halothane-
 anesthetized horses.
 
 
 166                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Effects of butorphanol tartrate on arterial pressure, jejunal
 blood flow, vascular resistance, O2 extraction, and O2 uptake
 in halothane-anesthetized ponies.
 Stick, J.A.; Loeffler, B.S.; Arden, W.A.; Chou, C.C.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1989 Aug. American journal of veterinary research v. 50 (8):
 p. 1202-1206. ill; 1989 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Analgesics; Drug effects; Halothane;
 Blood flow; Blood pressure; Jejunum; Oxygen consumption
 
 Abstract:  The effects of butorphanol tartrate on arterial
 pressure, jejunal blood flow, vascular resistance, oxygen
 extraction, and oxygen uptake were determined in 10
 anesthetized ponies ventilated with a mixture of halothane and
 100% oxygen, using isolated autoperfused jejunal segments.
 Physiologic saline solution or butorphanol tartrate (0.2 mg/kg
 of body weight) was administered as a single bolus into the
 left jugular vein. By 2 minutes, butorphanol decreased
 arterial blood pressure and intestinal blood flow, and
 increased intestinal oxygen extraction. However, intestinal
 vascular resistance and oxygen uptake were unaffected. Results
 of this study indicate that butorphanol tartrate induces a
 hypotension that secondarily decreases intestinal blood flow,
 but intestinal vascular resistance and metabolism are not
 adversely affected. We conclude that butorphanol tartrate does
 not compromise intestinal viability in halothane-anesthetized
 ponies and, therefore, may be a good analgesic choice for the
 equid destined for abdominal surgery.
 
 
 167                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Effects of castration on behaviour and plasma cortisol
 concentrations in young lambs, kids and calves.
 Mellor, D.J.; Molony, V.; Robertson, I.S.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1991 Sep.
 Research in veterinary science v. 51 (2): p. 149-154; 1991
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Lambs; Kids; Calves; Castration; Hydrocortisone;
 Blood sampling; Handling; Stress; Corticotropin; Species
 differences; Adrenal glands; Pituitary
 
 Abstract:  Behavioural and cortisol responses to the husbandry
 practice of castration with tight rubber rings were
 investigated in lambs and kids one day after birth and in hand
 reared calves aged one to seven days. There were three
 treatments: control handling and blood sampling, castration
 and, in lambs and kids only, intravenous adrenocorticotrophin
 injection (ACTH). The integrated cortisol responses (area
 under the cortisol curve) in lambs and kids were least in
 control, intermediate in castrated and greatest in ACTH
 animals. No cortisol responses were detected in control or
 castrated calves. The incidences of behaviour used to assess
 the intensity of distress apparently experienced in the
 different species corresponded generally with the magnitudes
 of the cortisol responses. Behavioural and cortisol responses
 together suggested that the distress caused by castration was
 greatest in lambs, intermediate in kids and least but not
 necessarily absent in hand reared calves.
 
 
 168                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Effects of chronic lameness on the concentrations of cortisol,
 prolactin and vasopressin in the plasma of sheep.
 Ley, S.J.; Livingston, A.; Waterman, A.E.
 London : The Association; 1991 Jul20.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 129 (3): p. 45-47; 1991 Jul20.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sheep; Lameness; Hydrocortisone; Prolactin;
 Vasopressin; Blood plasma; Foot rot; Pain; Acute course;
 Chronic course
 
 
 169                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Effects of clenbuterol hydrochloride on pulmonary gas exchange
 and hemodynamics in anesthetized horses.
 Dodam, J.R.; Moon, R.E.; Olson, N.C.; Exposito, A.J.; Fawcett,
 T.A.; Huang, Y.C.; Theil, D.R.; Camporesi, E.; Swanson, C.R.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1993 May. American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (5):
 p. 776-782; 1993 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Clenbuterol; Gas exchange; Oxygen; Carbon
 dioxide; Hemodynamics; Anesthesia
 
 Abstract:  We evaluated the effects of clenbuterol HCl (0.8
 micrograms/kg, of body weight, IV), a beta 2, agonist, on
 ventilation-perfusion matching and hemodynamic variables in
 anesthetized (by IV route), laterally recumbent horses. The
 multiple inert gas elimination technique was used to assess
 pulmonary gas exchange. Clenbuterol HCl induced a decrease in
 arterial oxygen tension (from 57.0 +/- 1.8 to 49.3 +/- 1.2 mm
 of Hg; mean +/- SEM) as a result of increased shunt fraction
 (from 6.6 +/- 2.1 to 14.4 +/- 3.1%) and ventilation to regions
 with high ventilation-perfusion ratios. In contrast, no
 changes in these variables were found in horses given sterile
 water. In horses given clenbuterol HCl, O2 consumption
 increased from 2.23 +/- 0.18 to 2.70 +/-0.14 ml . min-1 .
 kg-1, and respiratory exchange ratio decreased from 0.80 +/-
 0.02 to 0.72 +/- 0.01. Respiratory exchange ratio and O2
 consumption were not significantly modified in sterile water-
 treated (control) horses. Clenbuterol HCl administration was
 associated with increased cardiac index (from 57.4 +/-4.0 to
 84.2 +/- 6.3 ml . min-1 . kg- 1), decreased total peripheral
 vascular resistance (from 108.3 +/- 9.3 to 47.6 +/- 2.8 mm of
 Hg . s . kg . ml-1), and decreased pulmonary vascular
 resistance (from 31.3 +/- 3.8 to 13.6 +/- 0.7 mm of Hg . s .
 kg . ml-1). Our findings indicated that clenbuterol HCl may
 potentiate hypoxemia as a result of increased shunt fraction
 in horses anesthetized by the IV route, and caused changes in
 hemodynamic variables that were consistent with its ability to
 stimulate beta 2-adrenergic receptors.
 
 
 170                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Effects of clinically occurring chronic lameness in sheep on
 the concentrations of plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline.
 Ley, S.J.; Livingston, A.; Waterman, A.E.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1992 Jul.
 Research in veterinary science v. 53 (1): p. 122-125; 1992
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sheep; Lameness; Epinephrine; Norepinephrine;
 Blood plasma; Foot rot; Pain
 
 Abstract:  Plasma adrenaline (AD) and noradrenaline (NA)
 concentrations were measured by high performance liquid
 chromatography with electrochemical detection in blood samples
 from control and lame sheep. The lame sheep suffered from
 naturally occurring foot rot and showed behavioural
 characteristics normally associated with chronic pain. The
 lame sheep were scored both for impairment of gait and
 pathology of the foot and divided into mild and severely
 affected groups. Both the mildly and severely lame group
 showed a significant increase in plasma AD and plasma NA which
 tended to persist even after clinical resolution of the
 condition. The measurement of plasma AD and NA may provide
 information which can be used to assess animals experiencing
 chronic pain, when taken in conjunction with other parameters,
 such as nociceptive thresholds and plasma hormone levels.
 
 
 171                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Effects of detomidine on equine oesophageal function as
 studied by contrast radiography.
 Watson, T.D.G.; Sullivan, M.
 London : The Association; 1991 Jul27.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 129 (4): p. 67-69; 1991 Jul27.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Analgesics; Esophagus; Deglutition;
 Transit time; Peristalsis; Grass sickness
 
 
 172                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3
 Effects of diazepam, acepromazine, detomidine, and xylazine on
 thiamylal anesthesia in horses.
 Muir, W.W. III; Mason, D.E.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1993 Oct01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 203
 (7): p. 1031-1038; 1993 Oct01.  Paper presented at the
 "Symposium on Disaster Medicine", Minneapolis, Minnesota. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Preanesthetic medication;
 Barbiturates; Diazepam; Detomidine; Xylazine; Drug effects;
 Cardiovascular system; Respiratory system
 
 
 173                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Effects of distention and neostigmine on jejunal vascular
 resistance, oxygen uptake, and intraluminal pressure changes
 in ponies.
 Parks, A.H.; Stick, J.A.; Arden, W.A.; Chou, C.C.; Hengemuhle,
 S.M. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical
 Association; 1989 Jan. American journal of veterinary research
 v. 50 (1): p. 54-58; 1989 Jan. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Intestinal diseases; Bloat; Neostigmine;
 Blood pressure; Oxygen consumption; Internal pressure;
 Intestines
 
 Abstract:  The influence of distention (high baseline
 intraluminal pressure) and neostigmine methylsulfate on
 intestinal vascular resistance, oxygen uptake, and
 intraluminal pressure changes (rhythmic contractions) was
 studied in terminal jejunal segments which were perfused at a
 constant rate, in 16 anesthetized ponies. When baseline
 intraluminal pressure was increased to 10 mm of Hg, the
 intestinal vascular resistance and amplitude of rhythmic
 contractions were increased. Neostigmine induced cyclic
 increases in amplitude of rhythmic contractions whether
 intraluminal pressure was 0 or 10 mm of Hg. Neostigmine also
 increased intestinal oxygen uptake at intraluminal pressures
 of 0 mm of Hg, but not at 10 mm of Hg, and vascular resistance
 was not altered at either intraluminal pressure. The results
 indicate that intestinal hemodynamics are adversely affected
 by distention. Further, neostigmine did not adversely affect
 intestinal hemodynamics while increasing rhythmic
 contractions, suggesting that neostigmine may be useful in the
 treatment of ileus in equids.
 
 
 174                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Effects of exploratory laparotomy on plasma and peritoneal
 coagulation/fibrinolysis in horses.
 Baxter, G.M.; Parks, A.K.; Prasse, K.W.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1991 Jul. American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (7):
 p. 1121-1127; 1991 Jul. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Laparotomy; Blood plasma; Body fluids;
 Blood coagulation; Fibrinolysis; Adhesions; Blood proteins;
 Anticoagulants; Plasminogen; Fibrinogen
 
 Abstract:  Plasma and peritoneal fluid samples were collected
 before and after surgery from 6 horses undergoing a ventral
 midline exploratory laparotomy and from 6 anesthetized control
 horses. Coagulation/fibrinolytic components measured in the
 plasma and peritoneal fluid of these horses included the
 functional activity of antithrombin III, alpha-2 antiplasmin,
 plasminogen, and protein C, and the concentrations of
 fibrinogen and fibrin degradation products. Peritoneal fluid
 antithrombin III, fibrin degradation products, and plasminogen
 values were significantly increased after surgery (over time)
 in principal horses. Compared with control horses,
 postoperative peritoneal fluid from horses undergoing
 laparotomy had significantly increased antithrombin-III
 activity at 12 and 72 hours, alpha-2 antiplasmin activity at
 24 hours, fibrin degradation product concentrations at 6, 12,
 24, 72, 96, and 144 hours, plasminogen activity at 6, 12, 24,
 48, 72, and 96 hours, and protein-C activity at 12, 24, 72,
 and 96 hours. There were no significant changes in the
 peritoneal fibrinogen concentration in principal horses.
 Plasma plasminogen activity was significantly decreased at 24
 hours after surgery in principal horses, compared with
 controls. Changes were minimal in the remaining plasma
 coagulation/fibrinolytic components of horses undergoing
 laparotomy. Plasma and peritoneal fluid values of anesthetized
 control horses did not change.
 
 
 175                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Effects of general anesthesia on myoelectric activity of the
 intestine in horses.
 Lester, G.D.; Bolton, J.R.; Cullen, L.K.; Thurgate, S.M.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1992 Sep. American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (9):
 p. 1553-1557; 1992 Sep. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Xylazine; Ketamine;
 Thiopental; Ileum; Cecum; Colon; Electrical activity; Muscles;
 Drug effects; Intestinal motility; Halothane; Guaifenesin
 
 
 176                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Effects of halothane and isoflurane on baroreflex sensitivity
 in horses. Hellyer, P.W.; Bednarski, R.M.; Hubbell, J.A.E.;
 Muir, W.W. III Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical
 Association; 1989 Dec. American journal of veterinary research
 v. 50 (12): p. 2127-2134; 1989 Dec. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Halothane; Anesthetics; Reflexes; Blood
 pressure
 
 Abstract:  Baroreflex sensitivity (BS) was used to
 quantitatively assess the effects of halothane and isoflurane
 on the heart rate/arterial pressure relationship during
 steady-state (10 minutes) and dynamic pressure changes in
 adult horses. Arterial pressure was decreased in response to
 nitroglycerin or sodium nitroprusside and increased in
 response to phenylephrine HCl. Mean (+/-SEM) BS in awake
 horses was 28.9 +/- 2.6 and 13.2 +/- 2.0 ms/mm of Hg during
 steady-state decreases and increases in systolic arterial
 pressure (SAP), respectively. Halothane and isoflurane either
 significantly (P < 0.05) decreased or eliminated BS during
 steady-state decreases in SAP, with no significant differences
 detected between anesthetic agents. During steady-state
 decreases in SAP, significant (P < 0.05) correlation between
 R-R interval and arterial pressure was not observed for 6 of
 10 and 4 of 11 halothane and isoflurane anesthesia periods,
 respectively. Halothane significantly (P < 0.05) decreased BS
 during steady-state increases in SAP to 7.9 +/- 0.6 and 6.5 +/-
  1.1 ms/mm of Hg during low and high minimal alveolar
 concentration (MAC) multiples, respectively. Isoflurane
 decreased BS during steady-state increases in SAP to 9.6 +/-
 1.5 and 6.6 +/- 1.1 ms/mm of Hg during low and high MAC
 anesthesia, respectively, with high MAC of isoflurane
 decreasing BS significantly (P < 0.05), compared with awake
 and low MAC values. Plasma catecholamine (epinephrine and
 norepinephrine) concentrations increased significantly (P <
 0.05), compared with baseline values during steady-state
 vasodilator infusions in halothane- and isoflurane-
 anesthetized horses. Steady-state infusions of phenylephrine
 in anesthetized horses resulted in arrhythmia development,
 with premature atrial and ventricular complexes seen in
 halothane-anesthetized horses and increased heart rate and
 atrial premature complexes seen less frequently in isoflurane-
 anesthetized horses. Dynamic BS was 25.0 +/- 4.5 and 20.1 +/-
 2.8 ms/mm of Hg f
 
 
 177                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.A47
 Effects of hepatic P-450 enzyme inhibitors and inducers on the
 duration of xylazine + ketamine anesthesis in broiler chickens
 and mice. Roder, J.D.; Akkaya, R.; Amouzadeh, H.R.; Sangiah,
 S.; Burrows, G.; Qualls, C.W. Jr
 Manhattan, Kan. : Kansas State University; 1993 Apr.
 Veterinary and human toxicology v. 35 (2): p. 116-118; 1993
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Broilers; Xylazine; Anesthesia; Agonists;
 Ketamine; Enzyme activators; Liver; Microsomes; Enzyme
 inhibitors; Mice
 
 
 178                                   NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 Effects of hypertonic saline on myocardial contractility in
 anaesthetized. Hellyer, P.W.; Meyer, R.E.
 Oxford [England] : Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1978-;
 1994 Jun. Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics
 v. 17 (3): p. 211-217; 1994 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Sodium chloride; Solutions; Heart; Muscle
 contraction; Anesthesia; Hemodynamics
 
 
 179                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.9 AM37
 The effects of intra-articular anesthesia on soft tissue- and
 bone-phase scintigraphy in the horse.
 Trout, D.R.; Hornof, W.J.; Fisher, P.E.
 Raleigh, N.C. : American College of Veterinary Radiology; 1991
 Sep. Veterinary radiology v. 32 (5): p. 251-255; 1991 Sep. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Scintigraphy; Local anesthesia
 
 
 180                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Effects of isoflurane anesthesia on glucose tolerance and
 insulin secretion in Yucatan minipigs.
 Laber-Laird, K.; Smith, A.; Swindle, M.M.; Colwell, J.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1992 Dec. Laboratory animal science v. 42 (6): p.
 579-581; 1992 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Miniature pigs; Inhaled anesthetics
 
 Abstract:  Isoflurane's effect on intravenous glucose
 tolerance and insulin secretion was studied in six Yucatan
 minipigs. Unanesthetized animals, with previously placed
 indwelling venous catheters, were tested while resting
 comfortably in slings. The same animals were then retested
 during isoflurane anesthesia. Serum glucose and insulin
 concentrations were measured at predetermined times in
 response to an intravenous bolus of dextrose. The glucose
 disappearance rate (k), baseline plasma insulin concentration,
 the area under the insulin response curve, and the
 insulinogenic index were significantly lower in the
 anesthetized animals than in controls. The results of this
 study indicate that anesthesia with isoflurane significantly
 alters the glucose/insulin response to an intravenous glucose
 tolerance test and, therefore, is unsuitable for studies when
 glucose tolerance is to be assessed.
 
 
 181                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Effects of ketamine infusion on halothane minimal alveolar
 concentration in horses.
 Muir, W.W. III; Sams, R.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1992 Oct. American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (10):
 p. 1802-1806; 1992 Oct. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Ketamine; Halothane; Requirements; Dosage
 effects; Hemodynamics; Anesthesia
 
 Abstract:  Eight adult horses were used in a study to
 determine ketamine's ability to reduce halothane requirement.
 To obtain steady-state plasma concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0,
 4.0, and 8.0 microg/ml, loading doses and constant infusions
 for ketamine were calculated for each horse on the basis of
 data from other studies in which the pharmacokinetic
 properties of ketamine were investigated. Blood samples for
 determination of plasma ketamine concentrations were collected
 periodically during each experiment. Plasma ketamine
 concentrations were determined by capillary gas
 chromatography/mass spectrometry under electron-impact
 ionization conditions, using lidocaine as the internal
 standard. Halothane minimal alveolar concentration (MAC;
 concentration at which half the horses moved in response to an
 electrical stimulus) and plasma ketamine concentration were
 determined after steady-state concentrations of each ketamine
 infusion had been reached. Plasma ketamine concentrations >
 1.0 microg/ml decreased halothane MAC. The degree of MAC
 reduction was correlated directly with the square root of the
 plasma ketamine concentration, reaching a maximum of 37%
 reduction at a plasma ketamine concentration of 10.8 +/- 2.7
 microg/ml. Heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, and the
 rate of increase of right ventricular pressure did not change
 with increasing plasma ketamine concentration and halothane
 MAC reduction. Cardiac output increased significantly during
 ketamine infusions and halothane MAC reduction. Our findings
 suggest that plasma ketamine concentrations > 1.0 microm/ml
 reduce halothane MAC and produce beneficial hemodynamic
 effects.
 
 
 182                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Effects of ketamine, xylazine, and a combination of ketamine
 and xylazine in Pekin ducks.
 Ludders, J.W.; Rode, J.; Mitchell, G.S.; Nordheim, E.V.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1989 Feb. American journal of veterinary research v. 50 (2):
 p. 245-249; 1989 Feb. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ducks; Ketamine; Xylazine; Drug combinations;
 Anesthesia; Adverse effects; Cardiovascular system;
 Respiratory system
 
 Abstract:  Effects of ketamine, xylazine, and a combination of
 ketamine and xylazine were studied in 12 male Pekin ducks (7
 to 12 weeks old; mean [+/- SD] body weight, 3.1 +/- 0.3 kg).
 After venous and arterial catheterization and fixation of a
 temperature probe in the cloaca, each awake duck was confined,
 but not restrained, in an open box in a dimly lit room. Blood
 pressure and lead-II ECG were recorded. Three arterial blood
 samples were collected every 15 minutes over a 45-minute
 period (control period) and were analyzed for pHa, Paco2 and
 Pao2. After the control period, each duck was assigned at
 random to 1 of 3 drug groups: (1) ketamine (KET; 20 mg/kg of
 body weight, IV), (2) xylazine (XYL; 1 mg/kg, IV), and (3) KET
 + XYL (KET 20 mg/kg and XYL, 1 mg/kg; IV). Measurements were
 made at 1, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90 minutes after drug
 administration. All ducks survived the drug study. Cloacal
 temperature was significantly (P less than or equal to 0.05)
 increased above control cloacal temperature at 90 minutes
 after the administration of ketamine, and from 10 through 90
 minutes after administration of ketamine plus xylazine. In
 ducks of the KET group, pHa, Paco2, and Pao2, remained
 unchanged after administration of the drug. In ducks of the
 XYL group, pHa and Pao2 decreased significantly (P less than
 or equal to 0.05) from control values for all time points up
 to and including 15 minutes after drug administration. In
 ducks of the KET + XYL group, pHa and Pa02 were significantly
 (P less than or equal to 0.05) decreased at all time points up
 to and including 45 and 15 minutes, respectively, after
 administration of the drugs. In ducks of the XYL group, Paco2
 increased significantly (P less than 0.05) during the first 15
 minutes after drug administration, and for 45 minutes after
 administration of KET + XYL. Results indicated that ketamine
 when given alone to ducks, was not associated with pulmonary
 depression. There was drug-associated respiratory depression
 after IV admini
 
 
 183                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Effects of local anaesthesia and intravenous naloxone on the
 changes in behaviour and plasma concentrations of cortisol
 produced by castration and tail docking with tight rubber
 rings in young lambs.
 Wood, G.N.; Molony, V.; Fleetwood-Walker, S.M.; Hodgson, J.C.;
 Mellor, D.J. London : British Veterinary Association; 1991
 Sep.
 Research in veterinary science v. 51 (2): p. 193-199; 1991
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Lambs; Castration; Docking; Hydrocortisone;
 Lidocaine; Naloxone; Behavior change; Blood plasma; Pain;
 Local anesthesia
 
 Abstract:  The reliability of some behavioural and
 physiological indices used for the recognition and assessment
 of acute pain in lambs after castration and tail docking has
 been examined. Changes in the indices were measured after
 blocking neural activity with local anaesthetic (lignocaine)
 and after an opioid antagonist (naloxone) was administered.
 Six lambs, aged less than one week, were allocated randomly to
 each of six treatments. (i) control handling and blood
 sampling; (ii) castration plus tail docking with tight rubber
 rings; (iii) local anaesthesia; (iv) local anaesthesia
 followed by castration and tail docking; (v) intravenous
 naloxone only (0.2 mg kg-1); and (vi) intravenous naloxone
 followed by castration and tail docking. Local anaesthesia
 eliminated the behavioural and plasma cortisol changes which
 usually follow castration and tail docking. Naloxone had a
 limited effect on the increase in cortisol but altered the
 behaviour. The results support the view that such indices are
 useful for assessment of the response to acute pain and that,
 although endogenous opioids do reduce pain in young lambs
 after castration and tail docking, the effect is small.
 
 
 184                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.9 AM37
 The effects of regional perineural anesthesia on soft tissue
 and bone phase scintigraphy in the horse.
 Trout, D.R.; Hornof, W.J.; Liskey, C.C.; Fisher, P.E.
 Raleigh, N.C. : American College of Veterinary Radiology; 1991
 May. Veterinary radiology v. 32 (3): p. 140-144; 1991 May. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Scintigraphy; Local anesthesia; Feet
 
 
 185                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Effects of sodium hyaluronate on tendon healing and adhesion
 formation in horses.
 Gaughan, E.M.; Nixon, A.J.; Krook, L.P.; Yeager, A.E.; Mann,
 K.A.; Mohammed, H.; Bartel, D.L.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1991 May. American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (5):
 p. 764-773; 1991 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Hyaluronic acid; Tendons; Healing;
 Adhesions; Synovial sheaths; Medicinal properties
 
 Abstract:  Sodium hyaluronate reduces adhesions after tendon
 repair in rodents and dogs, and has been used in limited
 clinical trials in people. To evaluate its effect on tendon
 healing and adhesion formation in horses and to compare these
 effects with those of a compound of similar viscoelastic
 properties, a study was performed in horses, using a model of
 collagenase injection in the flexor tendons within the digital
 sheath. Eight clinically normal horses were randomly allotted
 to 2 groups. Adhesion formation between the deep digital
 flexor tendon and the tendon sheath at the pastern region was
 induced in the forelimbs of all horses. Using tenoscopic
 control, a 20-gauge needle was inserted into the deep digital
 flexor tendon of horses under general anesthesia and 0.2 ml of
 collagenase (2.5 mg/ml) was injected. The procedure was
 repeated proximally at 2 other sites, spaced 1.5 cm apart. A
 biopsy forceps was introduced, and a 5-mm tendon defect was
 created at each injection site. Group-A horses had 120 mg of
 sodium hyaluronate (NaHA) gel injected into the tendon sheath
 of one limb. Group-B horses had methylcellulose gel injected
 at the same sites. The contralateral limbs of horses in both
 groups served as surgical, but noninjected, controls. Horses
 were euthanatized after 8 weeks of stall rest.
 Ultrasonographic evaluation revealed improved tendon healing
 after NaHA injection, but no difference in peritendinous
 adhesion formation. Tendon sheath fluid volume and hyaluronic
 acid (HA) content were greater in NaHA-treated limbs. Gross
 pathologic examination revealed considerably fewer and smaller
 adhesions when limbs were treated with NaHA. However,
 significant difference in pull-out strengths was not evident
 between NaHA-treated and control limbs. Histologically, the
 deep digital flexor tendon from the NaHA-treated limbs had
 reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, improved tendon
 structure, and less intratendinous hemorrhage. Treatment with
 methylcellulose had no significant effe
 
 
 186                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Effects of xylazine and/or butorphanol or neostigmine on
 myoelectric activity of the cecum and right ventral colon in
 female ponies.
 Rutkowski, J.A.; Ross, M.W.; Cullen, K.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1989 Jul. American journal of veterinary research v. 50 (7):
 p. 1096-1101. ill; 1989 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mares; Xylazine; Analgesics; Neostigmine; Drug
 effects; Cecum; Colon; Intestine motility; Muscles;
 Electromyography
 
 Abstract:  Effects of xylazine HCl (0.5 mg/kg of body weight,
 IV) and/or butorphanol tartrate (0.04 mg/kg, IV) or
 neostigmine methylsulfate (0.022 mg/kg, IV) on myoelectric
 activity of the cecum and right ventral colon were studied in
 4 conscious female ponies. Eight bipolar Ag/AgCl electrodes
 were sequentially placed on the seromuscular layer of the
 cecum (6 electrodes) and right ventral colon (2 electrodes).
 Recordings began 30 minutes before and continued for 90
 minutes after drug administration. Each drug or drug
 combination was studied on 2 occasions in each pony. Two major
 patterns of coordinated spike bursts were identified. A series
 of coordinated spike bursts began at the cecal base and was
 conducted to the cecal apex (pattern I). A series of
 coordinated spike bursts began at the cecal apex, traversed
 the cecum, cecocolic orifice, and right ventral colon and was
 termed a progressive pattern (pattern II). Xylazine
 administration caused a significant decrease in patterns I and
 II for 20 minutes (P less than 0.05). Butorphanol tartrate
 administration caused a significant decrease in the
 progressive pattern for 10 minutes (P less 0.05) without
 affecting the orally directed pattern. Administration of the
 combination of xylazine/butorphanol significantly decreased
 the frequency of pattern I for 40 minutes (P less than 0.05)
 and pattern II for 30 minutes (P less than 0.05). Neostigmine
 administration caused a significant increase in the frequency
 of pattern II for 30 minutes (P less than 0.05) without
 affecting pattern I (P greater than 0.05). Changes in
 conduction velocity of pattern I or II or the duration of
 spiking activity were not significantly different because of
 any treatment.
 
 
 187                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Effects of xylazine butorphanol on cecal arterial blood flow,
 cecal mechanical activity, and systemic hemodynamics in
 horses.
 Rutkowski, J.A.; Eades, S.C.; Moore, J.N.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1991 Jul. American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (7):
 p. 1153-1158; 1991 Jul. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Xylazine; Cecum; Blood flow; Blood
 pressure; Cardiac output; Heart rate; Motility; Hemodynamics;
 Analgesics
 
 Abstract:  A chronic model with an ultrasonic transit time
 blood flow probe and strain gauge force transducers implanted
 on the cecum was used to evaluate cecal mechanical activity
 and cecal arterial blood flow in 4 conscious adult horses.
 Intravenous administration of xylazine (1.1 mg/kg of body
 weight) significantly decreased heart rate and cardiac output,
 but significantly increased diastolic pulmonary arterial
 pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure, carotid arterial
 pressure, and central venous pressure. Lateral cecal arterial
 blood flow after xylazine administration was decreased
 substantially more than was cardiac output, suggesting that
 xylazine caused constriction of the cecal vasculature. This
 effect of xylazine may have resulted from either a direct
 effect of xylazine on the cecal vasculature or from reflex
 vasoconstriction attributable to reduced cardiac output.
 Intravenous administration of butorphanol tartrate (0.1 mg/kg)
 did not significantly alter the hemodynamic responses to
 xylazine. Cecal mechanical activity, as measured by the
 motility index, was decreased for 120 minutes after
 administration of xylazine and for 150 minutes after
 administration of xylazine/butorphanol.
 
 
 188                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Effects of xylazine on ventilation in horses.
 Lavoie, J.P.; Pascoe, J.R.; Kurpershoek, C.J.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1992 Jun. American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (6):
 p. 916-920; 1992 Jun. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Xylazine; Dosage; Heart rate; Respiration
 rate; Tidal volume; Lung ventilation; Adverse effects;
 Respiratory gases; Pressure
 
 Abstract:  The effects of 3 commonly used dosages (0.3, 0.5,
 and 1.1 mg/kg of body weight, IV) of xylazine on ventilatory
 function were evaluated in 6 Thoroughbred geldings. Altered
 respiratory patterns developed with all doses of xylazine, and
 horses had apneic periods lasting 7 to 70 seconds at the 1.1
 mg/kg dosage. Respiratory rate, minute volume, and partial
 pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2) decreased
 significantly (P < 0.001) with time after administration of
 xylazine, but significant differences were not detected among
 dosages. After an initial insignificant decrease at 1 minute
 after injection, tidal volume progressively increased and at 5
 minutes after injection, tidal volume was significantly (P <
 0.01) greater than values obtained before injection. Partial
 pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2) was
 insignificantly increased. After administration of xylazine at
 a dosage of 1.1 mg/kg, the mean maximal decrease in PaO2 was
 28.2 +/- 8.7 mm of Hg and 22.2 +/- 4.9 mm of Hg, measured with
 and without a respiratory mask, respectively. Similarly, the
 mean maximal increase in PaCO2 was 4.5 +/-2.3 mm of Hg and 4.2
 +/- 2.4 mm of Hg, measured with and without the respiratory
 mask, respectively. Significant interaction between use of
 mask and time was not detected, although the changes in PaO2
 were slightly attenuated when horses were not masked. The
 temporal effects of xylazine on ventilatory function in horses
 should be considered in selecting a sedative when ventilation
 is inadequate or when pulmonary function testing is to be
 performed.
 
 
 189                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Electroencephalographic power spectrum analysis as a monitor
 of anesthetic depth in horses.
 Otto, K.; Short, C.E.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1991 Sep.
 Veterinary surgery v. 20 (5): p. 362-371; 1991 Sep.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Electroencephalograms;
 Spectral analysis; Brain
 
 
 190                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Electroencephalography of detomidine-ketamine-halothane and
 detomidine-ketamine-isoflurane anesthetized horses during
 orthopedic surgery--a comparison.
 Ekstrom, P.M.; Short, C.E.; Geimer, T.R.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1993 Sep.
 Veterinary surgery v. 22 (5): p. 414-418; 1993 Sep.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Electroencephalograms; Anesthesia
 
 
 191                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Electromyography of some respiratory muscles in the horse.
 Hall, L.W.; Aziz, H.A.; Groenendyk, J.; Keates, H.; Rex,
 M.A.E. London : British Veterinary Association; 1991 May.
 Research in veterinary science v. 50 (3): p. 328-333; 1991
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Muscles; Diaphragm; Abdomen;
 Electromyography; Anesthesia
 
 Abstract:  To investigate activity in respiratory muscles,
 insulated wire electrodes were used to record
 electromyographic activity in the costal diaphragm and in the
 intercostal, serratus ventralis, internal abdominal oblique,
 transversalis and rectus abdominis muscles in conscious horses
 and in the same animals when anaesthetised. Electromyographic
 activity was related to respiratory phases as recorded by a
 stethograph around the chest wall. The costal diaphragm showed
 tonic and inspiratory activity in both conscious and
 anaesthetised animals. The principal muscle actively involved
 in expiration was the transversalis muscle. Intercostal muscle
 activity, and any increased activity in the second part of
 either inspiration or expiration recorded in the conscious
 animal, was absent under anaesthesia. The very marked tonic
 activity found in the serratus ventralis muscle in standing
 horses disappeared during anaesthesia. It was concluded that
 any stabilisation of the chest wall contributed by activity in
 the serratus ventralis and intercostal muscles in conscious,
 standing horses is greatly reduced during anaesthesia.
 
 
 192                                   NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 Eltenac, a new anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug for
 horses: clinical aspects.
 Prugner, W.; Huber, R.; Luhmann, R.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1991 Jun.
 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 14 (2):
 p. 193-199; 1991 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Antiinflammatory agents; Analgesics;
 Pharmacokinetics; Intravenous injection; Dosage; Drug effects;
 Pain; Inflammation
 
 
 193                           NAL Call. No.: SF604.R37  no.215
 Embryo transfer in sheep & goats 15-18 July, 1993.
 Jackson, Peter
 Sydney South, NSW, Australia : Post Graduate Committee in
 Veternary Science, University of Sydney,; 1993.
 vi, 126 p. : ill. ; 27 cm. (Refresher course for veterinarians
 ; Proceedings ; no. 215.).  Venue: Stephen Roberts Lecture
 Theatre, University of Sydney. Includes bibliographical
 references and index.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sheep; Goats
 
 
 194                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69
 Employing intra-articular anesthesia to detect joint lesions
 in lame horses. Gibson, K.T.; Stashak, T.S.
 Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Company; 1989
 Nov. Veterinary medicine v. 84 (11): p. 1088-1090, 1092. ill;
 1989 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Lameness; Joints (animal);
 Diagnostic techniques
 
 
 195                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 Endotracheal intubation of cattle under xylazine hydrochloride
 sedation in the field.
 Floyd, J.G. Jr; Randle, R.F.
 Lawrenceville, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company;
 1989 Oct. The Compendium on continuing education for the
 practicing veterinarian v. 11 (10): p. 1302-1305. ill; 1989
 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle; Anesthesia; Xylazine; Trachea; Tubes;
 Surgical operations
 
 
 196                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Enhancement of tetrathiomolybdate-induced biliary copper
 excretion in sheep by general anaesthesia and the effect on
 copper excretion in urine and bile. Ke, Y.; Symonds, H.W.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1989 May.
 Research in veterinary science v. 46 (3): p. 344-348; 1989
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sheep; Thiomolybdates; Copper; Excretion; Bile;
 Urine; Saliva; Anesthesia; Poisoning
 
 
 197                                 NAL Call. No.: SF780.9.S63
 Epidemiological aspects of the Confidential Enquiry of
 Perioperative Equine Fatalities (CEPEF) and some preliminary
 results.
 Johnston, G.M.
 Great Britain : The Society, 1983-; 1994.
 Proceedings of a meeting held at the ... on the ... /. p.
 174-184; 1994. Meeting held on April 13-15, 1994, Belfast. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Mortality; Postoperative complications;
 Longitudinal studies; Anesthesia; Sex differences; Risk;
 Surgical operations; Breed differences; Seasonal variation;
 Age differences; Anesthetics
 
 
 198                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Epidural analgesia with 0.75% bupivacaine for laparotomy in
 goats. Trim, C.M.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1989 May01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 194
 (9): p. 1292-1296; 1989 May01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Goats; Analgesics; Laparotomy; Lidocaine;
 Duration; Adverse effects
 
 
 199                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69
 Epidural injection of xylazine: A new operation for surgical
 analgesia of the bovine abdomen and udder.
 Zaugg, J.L.; Nussbaum, M.
 Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Company; 1990
 Sep. Veterinary medicine v. 85 (9): p. 1043-1046; 1990 Sep. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle; Xylazine; Conduction anesthesia; Abdomen;
 Udders; Surgical operations
 
 
 200                                   NAL Call. No.: SF951.E62
 Equine anesthesia: blood pressure and monitoring.
 Keegan, R.D.; Greene, S.A.
 Santa Barbara, Calif., : Veterinary Practice Pub. Co. : 1979-;
 1994 Jul. Equine practice v. 16 (7): p. 26-33; 1994 Jul. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Blood pressure; Monitoring;
 Measurement; Cardiovascular system; Cardiac output;
 Hypotension; Drug therapy
 
 
 201                              NAL Call. No.: SF951.E54 1991
 Equine anesthesia monitoring and emergency therapy.
 Muir, William,_1946-; Hubbell, John A. E.
 St. Louis : Mosby-Year Book,; 1991.
 xi, 515 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.  Includes index.  Includes
 bibliographical references and index.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Veterinary anesthesia
 
 
 202                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 Equine keratomycosis.
 Barton, M.H.
 Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company, Inc; 1992
 Jul. The Compendium on continuing education for the practicing
 veterinarian v. 14 (7): p. 936-944, 950; 1992 Jul.  Literature
 review.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Mycotic keratitis; Cornea; Drug therapy;
 Antifungal agents; Antibacterial agents; Symptoms; Diagnosis;
 Analgesics; Prognosis; Literature reviews
 
 
 203                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Equine postanaesthetic myositis: a possible role for free
 radical generation and membrane lipoperoxidation.
 Serteyn, D.; Mottart, E.; Deby, C.; Deby-Dupont, G.;
 Pincemail, J.; Philipart, C.; Lamy, M.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1990 Jan.
 Research in veterinary science v. 48 (1): p. 42-46; 1990 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Halothane; Adverse effects;
 Muscular diseases; Free radicals; Lipid peroxidation;
 Membranes; Blood plasma
 
 
 204                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 Equine postanesthetic myopathy: an update.
 Hennig, G.E.; Court, M.H.
 Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company, Inc; 1991
 Nov. The Compendium on continuing education for the practicing
 veterinarian v. 13 (11): p. 1709-1716; 1991 Nov.  Literature
 review.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Muscular diseases; Symptoms;
 Pathology; Postoperative care; Treatment; Drug therapy;
 Postoperative complications; Etiology; Prevention; Literature
 reviews
 
 
 205                                   NAL Call. No.: SF951.J65
 Equine sports therapy.
 Porter, M.
 Lake Elsinore, Calif. : William E. Jones, DVM; 1992 May.
 Journal of equine veterinary science v. 12 (3): p. 193-194;
 1992 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Sports medicine; Pain; Therapy
 
 
 206                                    NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6
 The equine stress response to anaesthesia.
 Muir, W.W.
 Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1990 Sep.
 Equine veterinary journal v. 22 (5): p. 302-303; 1990 Sep. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Stress response; Drug therapy
 
 
 207                                   NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47
 Equipment for inhalation anesthesia.
 Eicker, S.W.; Cuvelliez, S.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders; 1990 Dec.
 The Veterinary clinics of North America : equine practice v. 6
 (3): p. 543-555; 1990 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Inhaled anesthetics;
 Equipment; Catheters; Ventilators; Oxygen transport; Halothane
 
 
 208                              NAL Call. No.: DISS  F1993130
 Erfolgskontrolle der intraartikularen
 Natriumhyaluronatbehandlung bei Pferden mit positiver tiefer
 Palmarnervenanasthesie anhand der Hufgelenksdruckmessung mit
 dem Stryker-Intra-Compartmental-Pressure-Monitor-System 
 [Controlling the success of intraarticular treatment with
 sodium hyaluronate in horses with positive deep anaesthesia of
 the nervi digitales palmares by pressure measurement in the
 coffin joint with the Stryker intracompartmental pressure
 monitor system].
 Rupp, Andreas
 Hannover : [s.n.],; 1993.
 104 p. : ill. ; 21 cm.  Summary in English.  Includes
 bibliographical references (p. 80-104).
 
 Language:  German
 
 
 209                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Evaluation of 25%, 50%, and 67% nitrous oxide with halothane-
 oxygen for general anesthesia in horses.
 Testa, M.; Raffe, M.R.; Robinson, E.P.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1990 Jul.
 Veterinary surgery v. 19 (4): p. 308-312; 1990 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthetics; Nitrous oxide; Halothane;
 Oxygen
 
 
 210                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.B6
 Evaluation of a xylazine-butorphanol combination for use
 during standing laparotomy in dairy cattle.
 Levine, H.D.; Dodman, N.H.; Court, M.H.; Hustead, D.
 Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Publishing
 Company; 1992 Jul. Agri-Practice v. 13 (7): p. 19-23; 1992
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Massachusetts; Dairy cattle; Laparotomy;
 Xylazine; Anesthesia; Surgery
 
 
 211                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3
 Evaluation of lidocaine, xylazine, and a combination of
 lidocaine and xylazine for epidural analgesia in llamas.
 Grubb, T.L.; Reibold, T.W.; Huber, M.J.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1993 Nov15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 203
 (10): p. 1441-1444; 1993 Nov15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Llamas; Lidocaine; Xylazine; Drug combinations;
 Conduction anesthesia; Duration; Pulse rate; Respiration rate
 
 
 212                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Evaluation of pentobarbital as a drug for standing sedation in
 cattle. Valverde, A.; Doherty, T.J.; Dyson, D.; Valliant, A.E.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1989 May.
 Veterinary surgery v. 18 (3): p. 235-238; 1989 May.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle; Anesthesia; Pentobarbital; Evaluation
 
 
 213                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Evaluation of quantitative acid-base balance and determination
 of unidentified anions in swine.
 Frischmeryer, K.J.; Moon, P.F.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1994 Aug. American journal of veterinary research v. 55 (8):
 p. 1153-1157; 1994 Aug. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Acid base equilibrium; Hemorrhage;
 Anesthesia; Blood; Gases; Sodium; Potassium; Lactic acid;
 Chloride; Blood proteins; Hydrogen ions; Equations; Models;
 Accuracy; Ions; Anions
 
 Abstract:  Arterial blood samples were collected from 19
 anesthetized pigs before and after hemorrhage was induced.
 Blood gas tensions and concentrations of sodium, potassium,
 chloride, lactate, and total protein were measured. Results
 indicated that hydrogen ion (H+) concentration calculated from
 a specific formula was a biased and imprecise estimate of
 measured H+ concentration. The bias was 5.45 nEq/L, with
 limits of agreement from -7.92 to 18.83 nEq/L. Because albumin
 is the fraction of plasma protein most important in acid-base
 balance, the agreement between predicted and measured H+
 concentration was reevaluated, using an albumin charge
 estimate and a reference swine albumin-to-globulin ratio. This
 improved the ability of the formula to predict H+
 concentration; the bias decreased to 1.33 nEq/L with limits of
 agreement from -12.16 to 9.49 nEq/L. The formula and a
 simplified approach for clinical application were biased and
 unacceptably imprecise estimators of lactate (L-)
 concentration. The formula approach underestimated L-
 concentration by 2.8 (-12.4, 6.7) mEq/L, whereas the
 simplified method overestimated L- concentration by 5.0 (-3.8,
 13.9) mEq/L.
 
 
 214                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.B6
 Evaluation of sedative and analgesic properties of detomidine
 in goats. Clark, T.P.; Purohit, R.C.; Wilson, R.C.
 Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Publishing
 Company; 1993 Apr. Agri-Practice v. 14 (4): p. 29-33; 1993
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alabama; Goats; Analgesics; Adverse effects
 
 
 215                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Evaluation of the effect of alfentanil on the minimum alveolar
 concentration of halothane in horses.
 Pascoe, P.J.; Steffey, E.P.; Black, W.D.; Claxton, J.M.;
 Jacobs, J.R.; Woliner, M.J.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1993 Aug. American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (8):
 p. 1327-1332; 1993 Aug. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Opioids; Dosage; Halothane;
 Concentration; Dosage effects; Anesthesia; Pharmacokinetics;
 Blood pressure; Body temperature
 
 Abstract:  The effect of 3 plasma concentrations of alfentanil
 on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of halothane in
 horses was evaluated. Five healthy geldings were anesthetized
 on 3 occasions, using halothane in oxygen administered through
 a mask. After induction of anesthesia, horses were
 instrumented for measurement of blood pressure, airway
 pressure, and end-tidal halothane concentrations. Blood
 samples, for measurement of pH and blood gas tensions, were
 taken from the facial artery. Positive pressure ventilation
 was begun, maintaining PaCO2 at 49.1 +/- 3.3 mm of Hg and
 airway pressure at 20 +/- 2 cm of H2O. The MAC was determined
 in triplicate, using a supramaximal electrical stimulus of the
 oral mucous membranes. Alfentanil infusion was then begun,
 using a computer-driven infusion pump to achieve and maintain
 1 of 3 plasma concentrations of alfentanil. Starting at 30
 minutes after the beginning of the infusion, MAC was
 redetermined in duplicate. Mean +/- SD measured plasma
 alfentanil concentration during the infusions were 94.8 +/-
 29.0, 170.7 +/- 29.2 and 390.9 +/- 107.4 ng/ml. Significant
 changes in MAC were not observed for any concentration of
 alfentanil. Blood pressure was increased by infusion of
 alfentanil and was dose-related, but heart rate did not
 change. Pharmacokinetic variables of alfentanil weredetermined
 after its infusion and were not significantly different among
 the 3 doses.
 
 
 216                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 External thoracic duct-venous shunt in conscious pigs for long
 term studies of connective tissue metabolites in lymph.
 Jensen, L.T.; Olesen, P.; Risteli, J.; Lorenzen, I.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1990 Nov. Laboratory animal science v. 40 (6): p.
 620-624; 1990 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Animal models; Lymph; Metabolites; Blood
 serum; Connective tissue; Surgical operations; Thoracic duct;
 Collagen; Animal proteins
 
 Abstract:  An experimental animal model for lymph studies is
 described. Thoracic duct-venous shunt was established in 12
 pigs. Shunt patency averaged 5.5 days. The composition of
 connective tissue metabolites in lymph and serum were
 investigated during a standardized surgical operation
 (thoracotomy) under general anesthesia. We measured the
 carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), the
 aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP)
 hyaluronan (HA) and total protein. During surgery/anesthesia
 lymph PICP (p < 0.04), lymph PIIINP (p < 0.03) and serum
 PIIINP (p < 0.01) and serum PIIINP (p < 0.03) increased. The
 changes may be explained by the inactive physical state of the
 animals. HA showed wide variations, with a tendency like
 PIIINP In conscious animals the lymph/serum ratio of PIIINP
 and HA were 10 and 35, respectively, indicating that lymph is
 a major route of tissue clearance for these components. The
 lymph/serum ratio of PICP was 1.0 in conscious pigs,
 indicating a direct release into the circulation. Total
 protein in lymph decreased (p < 0.04) during
 surgery/anesthesia, whereas no changes were observed in serum.
 Pigs can be used instead of dogs and sheep in studies on
 lymph. The effect of surgery/anesthesia must be taken into
 consideration.
 
 
 217                                    NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6
 Factors influencing the outcome of equine anaesthesia: a
 review of 1,314 cases.
 Young, S.S.; Taylor, P.M.
 Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1993 Mar.
 Equine veterinary journal v. 25 (2): p. 147-151; 1993 Mar. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Uk; Horses; Surgery; Anesthesia; Muscular
 diseases
 
 
 218                                    NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6
 Failure of intra-articular anaesthesia of the
 antebrachiocarpal joint to abolish lameness associated with
 chip fracture of the distal radius. Shepherd, M.C.; Pilsworth,
 R.C.
 Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1993 Sep.
 Equine veterinary journal v. 25 (5): p. 458-461; 1993 Sep. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Bone fractures; Local anesthesia
 
 
 219                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R3224
 Fatal body positioning during epidural anesthesia in a ewe.
 Clutton, R.E.; Boyd, C.; Ward, J.L.; Sponenberg, D.P.
 Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1989 Sep.
 The Canadian veterinary journal v. 30 (9): p. 748-750; 1989
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ewes; Conduction anesthesia; Hypotension; Death;
 Lidocaine; Caesarean section; Venous circulation; Case reports
 
 
 220                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 Field management of simple intestinal obstruction in horses.
 Doran, R.
 Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company; 1993 Mar.
 The Compendium on continuing education for the practicing
 veterinarian v. 15 (3): p. 463-471, 482; 1993 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Intestinal obstruction; Stomach;
 Analgesics; Colic
 
 
 221                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46
 Fluid therapy in the acutely injured of exhausted horse.
 Becht, J.L.
 Manhattan, Kan. : The Association; 1989.
 Proceedings of the annual convention of the American
 Association of Equine Practitioners (34th): p. 505-508; 1989. 
 Meeting held December 4-7, 1988, San Diego, CA.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Fluids; Therapy; Shock; Exhaustion;
 Dehydration (physiological); Analgesics; Trauma; Injuries;
 Rehydration
 
 
 222                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46
 Foal Anesthesia.
 Hodgson, D.S.
 Manhattan, Kan. : The Association; 1989.
 Proceedings of the annual convention of the American
 Association of Equine Practitioners (34th): p. 549-554; 1989. 
 Meeting held December 4-7, 1988, San Diego, CA.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Foals; Anesthesia; Neonates; Techniques;
 Anesthetics
 
 
 223                                    NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6
 From ethnobotanical uses of Strychnos henningsii to
 antiinflammatories, analgesics and antispasmodics.
 Tits, M.; Damas, J.; Quetin-Leclercq, J.; Angenot, L.
 Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Sep.
 Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 34 (2/3): p. 261-267; 1991
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Africa; Strychnos henningsii; Traditional
 medicines; Ethnobotany; Antiinflammatory agents; Analgesics;
 Spasms; Pharmacology; Bark; Rats
 
 Abstract:  Strychnos henningsii Gilg is used in African
 traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments,
 including rheumatism, gastrointestinal complaints and snake
 bites. Different preliminary pharmacological experiments are
 described. The results show that some of the reported folk
 medicinal applications of S. henningsii can be at least
 partially explained by the presence of retuline-like
 alkaloids, whose use could lead to new antinociceptive
 (antiinflammatory and analgesic) and antispasmodic drugs.
 
 
 224                                   NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 Further studies on the antinociceptive activity and
 respiratory effects of buprenorphine in sheep.
 Waterman, A.E.; Livingston, A.; Amin, A.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1991 Sep.
 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 14 (3):
 p. 230-234; 1991 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sheep; Analgesics; Dosage; Drug effects; Stimuli;
 Respiratory gases
 
 
 225                                    NAL Call. No.: 475 J824
 Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric investigation of
 Dextromoramide (Palfium) metabolism in the horse.
 Reilly, P.J.; Suann, C.J.; Duffield, A.M.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers; 1990 Jan05.
 Journal of chromatography v. 498 (1): p. 35-40; 1990 Jan05. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Analgesics; Metabolism; Urine; Detection;
 Gas chromatography; Mass spectrometry
 
 
 226                                   NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47
 General anesthesia for horses with specific problems.
 Hodgson, D.S.; Dunlop, C.I.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders; 1990 Dec.
 The Veterinary clinics of North America : equine practice v. 6
 (3): p. 625-650; 1990 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Surgical operations;
 Laparotomy; Castration; Neoplasms; Ovariectomy; Ovaries;
 Caesarean section; Gastrointestinal diseases; Orthopedics; Eye
 diseases; Fractures; Larynx; Radiography
 
 
 227                                   NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47
 General clinical considerations for anesthesia of the horse.
 Thurmon, J.C.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders; 1990 Dec.
 The Veterinary clinics of North America : equine practice v. 6
 (3): p. 485-494; 1990 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Respiratory system
 
 
 228                                   NAL Call. No.: 60.18 J82
 Grazing effects and range trend assessment on California
 bighorn sheep range. Wikeem, B.M.; Pitt, M.D.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1991 Sep.
 Journal of range management v. 44 (5): p. 466-470; 1991 Sep. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: British Columbia; Ovis canadensis; Grazing
 effects; Grasslands; Botanical composition; Plant ecology;
 Plant communities; Community ecology; Feeding preferences;
 Vigor; Feces composition; Plant succession; Forage; Grasses;
 Shrubs
 
 Abstract:  This study investigated the effect of grazing by
 California bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis californiana) on
 plant community structure. Over 28 months from 1977 to 1979,
 bighorn diet consisted of 79 species, including 14 grasses, 47
 forbs and bryophytes, plus 18 trees and shrubs. Grasses,
 forbs, and shrubs comprised 66.6, 18.9, and 14.5% of the diet,
 respectively. Three years of bighorn sheep grazing reduced (P
 < 0.05) leaf and culm lengths of bluebunch wheatgrass
 (Agropyron spicatum (Pursh) Scribn. & Smith). Grazing
 generally reduced leaf length, basal diameter, culm (stem)
 length, and culm (stem) numbers of prairie Junegrass (Koeleria
 cristata Pers.), Sandberg's bluegrass (Poa sandbergii Vasey),
 needle-and-thread (Stipa comata Trin. & Rupr.), Thompson's
 paintbrush (Castilleja thompsonii Pennell), silky lupine
 (Lupinus sericeus Pursh), and snow buckwheat (Eriogonum niveum
 Dougl.). Vigor of arrowleaf balsamroot (Balsamorhiza sagittata
 (Pursh) Nutt.) was unaffected by grazing, despite its dietary
 importance. Total plant frequency remained unchanged between
 1976 and 1983 in areas grazed by bighorn sheep, and in grazing
 exclosures. Total grass frequency declined from 46.5 to 30.8%
 within the exclosures, but increased from 44.7 to 48.8% in
 response to bighorn sheep grazing. Forb frequency remained
 unchanged after 7 years of bighorn sheep grazing while
 frequency of yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) increased more
 inside exclosures than on the grazed area. Botanical
 composition of shrubs increased on grazed and ungrazed areas
 from 1976 to 1983, but frequency was unaffected by bighorn
 sheep grazing. Snow buckwheat and Wyeth buckwheat (Eriogonum
 heracleoides Nutt.) declined in response to bighorn sheep
 grazing. Successional trends caused by California bighorn
 sheep grazing differed from trends expected from cattle
 grazing.
 
 
 229                                   NAL Call. No.: SF951.J65
 Guaifenesin-ketamine-xylazine anesthesia for castration in
 ponies: Acomparative study with two different doses of
 ketamine.
 Lin, H.C.; Thurmon, J.C.; Benson, G.J.; Tranquilli, W.J.;
 Olson, W.A. Lake Elsinore, Calif. : William E. Jones, DVM;
 1993 Jan.
 Journal of equine veterinary science v. 13 (1): p. 29-32; 1993
 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Illinois; Horses; Ketamine; Castration; Surgery;
 Anesthesia
 
 
 230                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 C81
 Halothane-sparing effect of benzodiazepines in ponies.
 Matthews, N.S.; Dollar, N.S.; Shawley, R.V.
 Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell Veterinarian, Inc; 1990 Jul.
 Cornell veterinarian v. 80: p. 259-265; 1990 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Halothane; Diazepam; Benzodiazepines;
 Anesthesia
 
 
 231                                   NAL Call. No.: SF951.J65
 Hematomyelia in a colt: a post anesthesia/surgery
 complication. Wan, P.Y. \u Chino Valley Equine Hospital,
 Chino, CA; Latimer, F.G.; Silva-Krott, I.; Goble, D.O.
 Lake Elsinore, Calif. : William E. Jones, DVM; 1994 Sep.
 Journal of equine veterinary science v. 14 (9): p. 495-497;
 1994 Sep. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Colts; Postoperative complications; Neuromuscular
 diseases; Anesthesia; Surgery; Case reports
 
 
 232                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Hemodynamic and respiratory responses to variable arterial
 partial pressure of oxygen in halothane-anesthetized horses
 during spontaneous and controlled ventilation.
 Steffey, E.P.; Willits, N.; Woliner, M.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1992 Oct. American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (10):
 p. 1850-1858; 1992 Oct. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Halothane; Anesthesia; Lung ventilation;
 Oxygen; Internal pressure; Hemodynamics
 
 Abstract:  Cardiovascular and respiratory responses to
 variable PaO2 were measured in 6 horses anesthetized only with
 halothane during spontaneous (SV) and controlled (CV)
 ventilation. The minimal alveolar concentration (MAC) for
 halothane in oxygen was determined in each spontaneously
 breathing horse prior to establishing PaO2 study conditions--
 mean +/- SEM, 0.95 +/- 0.03 vol%. The PaO2 conditions of >
 250, 120, 80, and 50 mm of Hg were studied in each horse
 anesthetized at 1.2 MAC of halothane and positioned in left
 lateral recumbency. In response to a decrease in PaO2, total
 peripheral resistance and systolic and distolic arterial blood
 pressure decreased (P < 0.05) during SV. Cardiac output tended
 to increase because heart rate increased (P < 0.05) during
 these same conditions. During CV, cardiovascular function was
 usually less than it was at comparable PaO2 during SV (P <
 0.05). Heart rate, cardiac output, and left ventricular work
 increased (P < 0.05) in response to a decrease in PaO2,
 whereas total peripheral resistance decreased (P < 0.05).
 During SV, cardiac output and stroke volume increased and
 arterial blood pressure and total peripheral resistance
 decreased with duration of anesthesia at PaO2 > 250 mm of Hg.
 During SV, minute expired volume increased (P < 0.05) because
 respiratory frequency tended to increase as PaO2 decreased.
 Decrease in PaCO2 (P < 0.05) also accompanied these
 respiratory changes. Although oxygen utilization was nearly
 constant over all treatment periods, oxygen delivery decreased
 (P < 0.05) with decrease in PaO2, and was less (P < 0.05)
 during CV, compared with SV, for comparable PaO2 values.
 Muscle and hepatic-derived serum biochemical values were
 substantially increased and evidence of depressed renal
 function was observed in these horses immediately after
 anesthesia recovery. These serum biochemical changes exceeded
 values in horses previously studied during prolonged halothane
 anesthesia in the absence of low PaO2.
 
 
 233                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Hemodynamic effects of carbon dioxide during intermittent
 positive-pressure ventilation in horses.
 Wagner, A.E.; Bednarski, R.M.; Muir, W.W. III
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1990 Dec. American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (12):
 p. 1922-1929; 1990 Dec. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Carbon dioxide; Artificial
 respiration; Hemodynamics; Catecholamines; Hypercapnia;
 Propranolol; Cardiovascular system
 
 Abstract:  The hemodynamic effects of high arterial carbon
 dioxide pressure (PaCO2) during anesthesia in horses were
 studied. Eight horses were anesthetized with xylazine,
 guaifenesin, and thiamylal, and were maintained with halothane
 in oxygen (end-tidal halothane concentration = 1.15%).
 Baseline data were collected while the horses were breathing
 spontaneously; then the horses were subjected to intermittent
 positive-pressure ventilation, and data were collected during
 normocapnia (PaCO2, 35 to 45 mm of Hg), moderate hypercapnia
 (PaCO2, 60 to 70 mm of Hg), and severe hypercapnia (PaCO2, 75
 to 85 mm of Hg). Hypercapnia was induced by adding carbon
 dioxide to the inspired gas mixture. Moderate and severe
 hypercapnia were associated with significant (P < 0.05)
 increases in aortic blood pressure, left ventricular systolic
 pressure, cardiac output, stroke volume, maximal rate of
 increase and decrease in left ventricular pressure (positive
 and negative dP/dtmax, respectively), and median arterial
 blood flow, and decreased time constant for ventricular
 relaxation. These hemodynamic changes were accompanied by
 increased plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine
 concentrations. Administration of the beta-blocking drug,
 propranolol hydrochloride, markedly depressed the response to
 hypercapnia. This study confirmed that in horses, hypercapnia
 is associated with augmentation of cardiovascular function.
 
 
 234                                   NAL Call. No.: SF951.J65
 Hemodynamic parameters and tissue oxygenation during halothane
 anesthesia in normal horses and those experiencing post
 anesthetic lameness. Branson, K.R.; Benson, G.J.; Thurmon,
 J.C.; Olson, W.A.; Tranquilli, W.J.; Dorner, J.L.
 Lake Elsinore, Calif. : William E. Jones, DVM; 1992 May.
 Journal of equine veterinary science v. 12 (3): p. 153-159;
 1992 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Halothane; Lameness;
 Hemodynamics; Tissues; Oxygen
 
 
 235                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Hemodynamic parameters of anesthetized pigs: a comparative
 study of farm piglets and Gottingen and Yucatan miniature
 swine.
 Benharkate, M.; Zanini, V.; Blanc, R.; Boucheix, O.; Coyez,
 F.; Genevois, J.P.; Pairet, M.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1993 Feb. Laboratory animal science v. 43 (1): p.
 68-72; 1993 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Piglets; Miniature pigs; Anesthesia; Hemodynamics
 
 Abstract:  We studied the evolution in time of the main
 hemodynamic parameters in farm piglets and Gottingen and
 Yucatan miniature swine anesthetized with droperidol,
 flunitrazepam, and alpha-chloralose. Measurements included
 arterial pressure, heart rate, intraventricular pressure, and
 maximum rate of increase during contraction (dp/dt max). For
 each parameter and each strain of swine, we determined the
 mean stability period defined as the longest period of time
 during which the observed values ranged between their mean
 value +/-15% and the mean absolute values during the stability
 period. In our experimental conditions, the parameters
 remained constant for 2 to 3.5 hours. Only minor interstrain
 variations were noticed.
 
 
 236                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Hemodynamic responses of the equine digit to intravenous and
 digital arterial infusion of dopamine.
 Hunt, R.J.; Moore, J.N.; ALlen, D.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1990 Apr. American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (4):
 p. 567-570. ill; 1990 Apr. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Dopamine; Phalanges; Pentobarbital; Blood
 vessels; Detoxicants
 
 Abstract:  In 6 adult horses anesthetized with pentobarbital,
 the hemodynamic responses of the equine digit to infusion of
 dopamine were evaluated by use of an isolated extra corporeal
 pump perfused digital preparation. Digital blood flow was
 maintained at a constant rate that was independent of systemic
 hemodynamic changes. Three sequential experiments were
 performed on each horse. In the first experiment (n = 6),
 dopamine was infused IV at rates of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0
 microgram/kg/min. For the second experiment (n = 5), dopamine
 (400 microgram/ml) was infused into the digital artery at the
 rates of 0.07, 0.7, and 1.2 ml/min. The third experiment (n =
 5) consisted of a 5-minute intra-arterial infusion of
 phentoalamine followed by the intra-arterial infusion of
 dopamine while continuing the infusion of phentolamine.
 Digital venous, arterial, and capillary pressures, total
 digital vascular resistance, and precapillary to postcapillary
 resistance ratios were determined in each experiment. Systemic
 infusion of dopamine did not induce changes in the
 hemodynamics of the digital vasculature. Digital arterial
 infusion of dopamine alone resulted in a dose-dependent
 increase in arterial pressure, total digital vascular
 resistance, and an increase in the precapillary to
 postcapillary resistance ratio. Phentolamine attenuated the
 vasoconstrictive response elicited by intra-arterial infusion
 of dopamine.
 
 
 237                                   NAL Call. No.: SF951.J65
 The hemodynamic, tissue oxygenation, and selected biochemical
 effects of isoflurane and halothane anesthesia in horses.
 Branson, K.R.; Benson, G.J.; Thurmon, J.C.; Olson, W.A.;
 Tranquilli, W.J.; Dorner, J.L.
 Lake Elsinore, Calif. : William E. Jones, DVM; 1993 Jul.
 Journal of equine veterinary science v. 13 (7): p. 396-409;
 1993 Jul. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia
 
 
 238                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 C81
 Hemorrhagic myelomalacia following general anesthesia in a
 horse. Lerche, E.; Laverty, S.; Blais, D.; Sauvageau, R.;
 Cuvelliez, S. Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell Veterinarian, Inc; 1993
 Oct.
 The Cornell veterinarian v. 83 (4): p. 267-273; 1993 Oct. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Complications
 
 
 239                                    NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6
 High frequency jet ventilation in horses: an experimental
 study. Dunlop, C.I.; Hodgson, D.S.; Watson, J.W.; Gillespie,
 J.R.; Steffey, E.P.; Jackson, A.C.
 Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1989 Sep.
 Equine veterinary journal v. 21 (5): p. 342-346. ill; 1989
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Ventilators; Lung
 ventilation; Artificial respiration; Oxygen; Carbon dioxide
 
 
 240                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V643
 Histopathology of intact and docked pigtails.
 Simonsen, H.B.; Klinken, L.; Bindseil, E.
 London : Bailliere Tindall; 1991 Sep.
 British veterinary journal v. 147 (5): p. 407-412; 1991 Sep. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Piglets; Pigs; Tail; Docking; Peripheral nerves;
 Histology; Histopathology; Tail biting
 
 Abstract:  A histological examination was performed on tails
 from three groups of pigs, comprising 10 amputated tail tips
 from day-old piglets, 10 tails from undocked fattening pigs
 and 20 tails from docked fattening pigs. The investigation
 demonstrated that peripheral nerves could be traced to the tip
 of the tails of day-old piglets as well as of fattening pigs.
 In the docked fattening pigs, the peripheral nerves were
 unevenly distributed and showed regressive changes. In some
 cases traumatic neuromas were found, indicating an increased
 sensitivity to pain in the amputation stump. It was,
 surprisingly, demonstrated that widespread inflammatory
 reactions could be found in the apparently healthy tails of
 both categories of fattening pigs, presumably due to pen-
 mates' chewing activities.
 
 
 241                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Ibuprofen treatment of endotoxin-induced mastitis in cows.
 DeGraves, F.J.; Anderson, K.L.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1993 Jul. American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (7):
 p. 1128-1132; 1993 Jul. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Analgesics; Bovine mastitis;
 Experimental infections; Escherichia coli; Endotoxins; Disease
 course; Blood; Milk; Drug effects; Non-steroidal
 antiinflammatory agents
 
 Abstract:  Ibuprofen treatment was compared with saline
 solution treatment in an endotoxin-induced experimental model
 of bovine mastitis. Acute mastitis was induced in healthy
 lactating Holstein cows (n = 12) by intrammamary inoculation
 of 1 mg of Escbericbia coli 026:B6 lipopolysaccharide in a
 single quarter per cow. Cows were assigned at random to
 ibuprofen (25 mg/kg of body weight, IV, n = 6) or 0.9% sodium
 chloride solution control (1.25 ml/kg, IV, n = 6) treatment
 groups. Ibuprofen or saline solution was administered once, 2
 hours after endotoxin administration. The clinical course of
 endotoxin-induced mastitis and hematologic, clinical
 biochemical, and plasma mineral changes were monitored and
 compared between ibuprofen-treated and control cows. Clinical
 monitoring and blood sample collection were performed at 0, 2,
 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48, 96, and 192 hours after endotoxin
 challenge. Rectal temperature and heart and respiratory rates
 were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in saline treated
 cows, compared with cows treated with ibuprofen, Blood
 eosinophil count and serum phosphorus, sodium, and total
 carbon dioxide concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05)
 decreased in saline-treated cows, compared with cows treated
 with ibuprofen. Ibuprofen treatment did not significantly
 change ruminations per minute, electrical conductivity of
 milk, quarter size, or quarter inflammation. The remaining
 hematologic, serum biochemical, plasma mineral, and
 coagulation values also were not changed significantly in
 response to ibuprofen treatment. Untoward effects attributed
 to ibuprofen administration were not observed. These results
 indicate that ibuprofen may provide empiric relief of clinical
 signs of coliform-induced mastitis.
 
 
 242                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3
 Immunocytochemical and dye distribution studies of nerves
 potentially desensitized by injections into the distal
 interphalangeal joint or the navicular bursa of horses.
 Bowker, R.M.; Rockershouser, S.J.; Vex, K.B.; Sonea, I.M.;
 Caron, J.P.; Kotyk, R.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1993 Dec15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 203
 (12): p. 1708-1714; 1993 Dec15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Peripheral nerves; Joints (animal);
 Serous bursa; Phalanges; Bones; Ligaments; Injectable
 anesthetics; Dyes; Latex
 
 
 243                                  NAL Call. No.: 47.8 AM33P
 An improved procedure for intramagnal insemination of the
 chicken. Engel, H.N.; Froman, D.P.; Kirby, J.D.
 Champaign, Ill. : Poultry Science Association; 1991 Sep.
 Poultry science v. 70 (9): p. 1965-1969; 1991 Sep.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Hens; Artificial insemination; Laparotomy;
 Xylazine; Anesthetics; Ketamine; Laying performance
 
 Abstract:  Intramagnal insemination is a useful technique in
 the analysis of spermatozoal function. Precise deposition of
 spermatozoa requires the use of laparotomy. However, hen-day
 egg production can be adversely affected by such a procedure.
 The present work demonstrates that postoperative hen-day egg
 production is affected by choice of anesthetic. Hens
 anesthetized with a mixture of ketamine and xylazine prior to
 laparotomy laid 14% fewer eggs (P < .05) when compared with
 intact controls. In contrast, the postoperative hen-day egg
 production of hens anesthetized with xylazine alone was
 comparable with that of intact controls (P > .05).
 Furthermore, the use of xylazine alone increased the case of
 handling sedated hens and decreased recovery time. Therefore,
 xylazine is recommended for anesthetizing hen prior to
 laparotomy.
 
 
 244                                  NAL Call. No.: QD415.A1X4
 The in vitro blood, fat and muscle concentrations of
 lignocaine and bupivacaine in the hindquarters of sheep.
 Upton, R.N.; Nancarrow, C.; McLean, C.F.; Mather, L.E.;
 Runciman, W.B. London : Taylor & Francis; 1991 Jan.
 Xenobiotica v. 21 (1): p. 13-22; 1991 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sheep; Lidocaine; Local anesthetics; Uptake;
 Blood; Skeletal muscle; Fat; Rump
 
 Abstract:  1. A method was developed for sampling muscle and
 fat from the hindquarters of sheep undergoing spinal
 anaesthesia. The method was used to measure the concentrations
 of lignocaine and bupivacaine in the blood, muscle and fat of
 the hindquarters of sheep during and after 180 min constant-
 rate infusions of the drugs. 2. For both drugs the muscle drug
 concentrations were a relatively constant ratio of the
 simultaneous arterial blood drug concentrations during and
 after the infusion. 3. There was uptake of both lignocaine and
 bupivacaine into subcutaneous fat during the infusions. At the
 end of the infusion the ratio of the fat: arterial blood drug
 concentrations were 1.54 (SD =0.57, n = 4) and 3.1 (SD = 1.4,
 n = 4) for lignocaine and bupivacaine, respectively. 4. The
 drug concentrations in fat declined relatively slowly after
 the infusion. The ratio of the fat: arterial blood drug
 concentrations 180 min after the end of the infusion was 21.5
 (SD 4.0, n = 3) and for lignocaine, and 120 min after the end
 of the infusion was 9.54 (SD 5.2, n = 3) for bupivacaine. 5.
 It was concluded that the concentrations of lignocaine and
 bupivacaine in muscle were essentially in equilibrium with the
 arterial concentrations during and after the infusion.
 However, the concentrations of lignocaine and bupivacaine in
 fat were not in equilibrium with the arterial concentrations
 in the post-infusion period.
 
 
 245                                    NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6
 In vitro responses of equine digital vessels to dopamine and
 fenoldopam. Baxter, G.M.; Moore, J.N.; Tackett, R.L.
 Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1991 Jan.
 Equine veterinary journal v. 23 (1): p. 48-52; 1991 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Dopamine; Dosage effects; In
 vitro; Cardiovascular system
 
 
 246                                  NAL Call. No.: QD415.A1X4
 The in vitro uptake and metabolism of lignocaine, procainamide
 and pethidine by tissues of the hindquarters of sheep.
 Upton, R.N.; Mather, L.E.; Runciman, W.B.
 London : Taylor & Francis; 1991 Jan.
 Xenobiotica v. 21 (1): p. 1-12; 1991 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sheep; Lidocaine; Pethidine; Local anesthetics;
 Uptake; In vitro; Drug metabolism; Animal tissues; Liver;
 Skeletal muscle; Body fat; Skin; Blood; Rump; Limbs
 
 Abstract:  1. In vitro studies using tissue slices or tissue
 homogenates of liver, skeletal muscle, fat skin and blood were
 conducted to determine whether the uptake of procainamide,
 lignocaine and pethidine into the hindquarters of sheep was
 due to distribution or metabolism. Both homogenates and slice
 preparations of liver showed significant metabolism or uptake,
 confirming the viability of the preparations. 2. None of the
 drugs was metabolized in blood and there was minimal uptake of
 the drugs into the skin. 3. There was metabolism of pethidine
 in skeletal muscle and substantial uptake of pethidine into
 fat, indicating that the rapid rate of uptake and prolonged
 elution of pethidine in the hindquarters was due to both
 distribution and metabolism. 4. No metabolism of lignocaine in
 muscle was found, but there was substantial uptake into fat,
 indicating that the rapid rate of uptake and prolonged elution
 of lignocaine in the hindquarters was due to its distribution
 into fat. 5. There was negligible uptake of procainamide into
 either muscle or fat, presumably due to its relatively low
 lipophilicity.
 
 
 247                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 In vivo muscle 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
 during treatment of halothane-sensitive and halothane-
 nonsensitive pigs.
 Geers, R.; Decanniere, C.; Ville, H.; Hecke, P. van;
 Goedseels, V.; Vanstapel, F.; Bosschaerts, L.; Ley, J. de;
 Zhang, W.; Janssens, S.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1992 Apr. American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (4):
 p. 613-616; 1992 Apr. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Halothane; Atp; Phosphocreatine; Muscles;
 Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; Prediction
 
 Abstract:  In vivo muscle 31P nuclear magnetic resonance
 spectroscopy was performed on 10 female pigs originating from
 a homozygous halothane-sensitive line and on 10 female pigs
 from a homozygous halothane-nonsensitive fine. The mean
 concentration of phosphocreatine in the biceps femoris muscle
 of the anesthetized pigs decreased to 86% of the initial value
 after 11 minutes of halothane exposure (3%, oxygen flow 3
 L/min). After the next 5.6 minutes, phosphocreatine
 concentration reached a minimal value of 52%, followed by a
 mean recovery to 76% of the initial value during the ensuing
 11 minutes. Response was not observed in anesthetized
 homozygous halothane-nonsensitive pigs. Thus, a decrease to
 86% of the initial value of phosphocreatine was 100%
 predictive for homozygous halothane-sensitive pigs with body
 weight ranging from 10 to 18 kg.
 
 
 248                                    NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6
 Indirect doppler ultrasonic measurement of arterial blood
 pressure results in a large measurement error in dorsally
 recumbent anaesthetised horses. Bailey, J.E.; Dunlop, C.I.;
 Chapman, P.L.; Demme, W.C.; Allen, S.L.; Heath, R.B.; Crump,
 K.T.; Golden, C.S.; Wagner, A.E.
 Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1994 Jan.
 Equine veterinary journal v. 26 (1): p. 70-73; 1994 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Blood pressure; Ultrasonics; Anesthesia
 
 
 249                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Induction of equine postanesthetic myositis after halothane-
 induced hypotension.
 Lindsay, W.A.; Robinson, G.M.; Brunson, D.B.; Majors, L.J.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1989 Mar. American journal of veterinary research v. 50 (3):
 p. 404-410; 1989 Mar. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Halothane; Anesthesia; Hypotension;
 Muscles; Inflammation; Adverse effects; Nervous system
 diseases
 
 Abstract:  Wick catheters were used to measure
 intracompartmental pressures of the extensor carpi radialis
 muscles and long heads of the triceps brachii muscles of 7
 horses maintained under halothane anesthesia during controlled
 ventilation. Horses were positioned in left lateral recumbency
 on a water bed for 4 hours. Using a crossover design, 6 of the
 7 horses were subjected to normotensive and hypotensive
 anesthesia on separate occasions. Hypotension was achieved by
 increasing the inspired halothane concentration. Hematologic
 and biochemical measurements were determined at designated
 intervals before, during and for 7 days after each anesthetic
 episode. Under hypotensive conditions, 2 horses developed
 severe, generalized myositis and were euthanatized. Three of
 the 5 other horses developed swelling of the downside masseter
 muscle, 4 demonstrated mild extensor deficits of the downside
 forelimb, and 1 had a severe extensor deficit of the uppermost
 hind limb. As a group, the hypotensive horses had markedly
 increased activities of serum enzymes (creatine kinase,
 aspartate transaminase, and blood lactate) and abnormalities
 in calcium-phosphorus homeostasis. Lameness or enzyme
 alterations were not observed in normotensive horses. Altough
 the intracompartmental pressure values were markedly increased
 in the muscle bellies of the compressed limbs of all horses,
 there was a statistically significant difference in
 intracompartmental pressures between the downside or
 compressed muscle compartments of the extensor carpi radialis
 of hypotensive and normotensive horses. High concentrations of
 halothane may predispose anesthetized horses to postanesthetic
 myositis, even when protective padding is used.
 Intracompartmental muscle pressure, as measured by the wick
 catheter, may not be a reliable predictor of equine
 postanesthetic lameness.
 
 
 250                                   NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 The influence of chronic pain on the analgesic effects of the
 alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, xylazine, in sheep.
 Ley, S.; Waterman, A.; Livingston, A.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1991 Jun.
 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 14 (2):
 p. 141-144; 1991 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sheep; Xylazine; Pain; Drug effects; Local
 anesthesia; Foot rot; Duration
 
 
 251                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 The influence of detomidine and epinephrine on heart rate,
 arterial blood pressure, and cardiac arrhythmia in horses.
 Raekallio, M.; Vainio, O.; Karjalainen, J.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1991 Nov.
 Veterinary surgery v. 20 (6): p. 468-473; 1991 Nov.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthetics; Epinephrine; Heart rate;
 Blood pressure; Arrhythmia; Cardiovascular system
 
 
 252                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Influence of preinduction methoxamine, lactated Ringer
 solution, or hypertonic saline solution infusion or
 postinduction dobutamine infusion on anesthetic-induced
 hypotension in horses.
 Dyson, D.H.; Pascoe, P.J.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1990 Jan. American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (1):
 p. 17-21; 1990 Jan. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthetics; Guaifenesin; Halothane;
 Hypotension; Methoxamine; Solutions; Saline water;
 Cardiovascular agents
 
 Abstract:  A controlled study of the cardiovascular responses
 in horses anesthetized with acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg of body
 weight, IV), guaifenesin (100 mg/kg, IV), thiamylal (5.0
 mg/kg, IV), and halothane in O2 (1.2 to 1.4% end-expired
 concentration) was performed to determine whether hypotension
 could be prevented by use of various treatments. Six horses
 were given 5 treatments in a randomized sequence: no treatment
 (control), methoxamine (0.04 mg/kg IV), lactated Ringer
 solution (20.0 ml/kg, IV), 7.5% hypertonic saline solution
 (4.0 ml/kg, IV), or constant infusion of dobutamine (5.0
 mg/kg/min, IV) during anesthesia. Heart rate, ECG, blood
 pressure, central venous pressure, cardiac output, blood gas
 analysis, PCV, and plasma total protein concentration were
 measured during the study. Compared with the control value, an
 increase in blood pressure during halothane administration was
 observed after administration of lactated Ringer solution,
 hypertonic saline solution, or dobutamine (P < 0.05). The
 improved blood pressure response to hypertonic saline solution
 and dobutamine was related to an increase in cardiac output,
 which was statistically significant (P < 0.05) Other
 statistically significant differences in cardiopulmonary
 responses among treatments were not observed during
 anesthesia. The PCV was increased in response to dobutamine
 infusion, and plasma total protein concentration was reduced
 in response to administration of hypertonic saline or lactated
 Ringer solution.
 
 
 253                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Influence of tolazoline on caudal epidural administration of
 xylazine in cattle.
 Skarda, R.T.; St Jean, G.; Muir, W.W. III
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1990 Apr. American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (4):
 p. 556-560; 1990 Apr. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cows; Xylazine; Detoxicants; Drug antagonism;
 Respiratory system; Central nervous system; Cardiovascular
 system; Stomach motility
 
 Abstract:  Eight adult female cattle (6 Holstein, 1 Jersey, 1
 Brown Swiss) were used to determine the antagonistic effects
 of tolazoline, an alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, on
 xylazine-induced (via caudal epidural administration)
 depression of CNS, respiratory, and cardiovascular activity
 and rumen motility. A 2% solution of xylazine HCl was injected
 into the epidural space at the first coccygeal interspace,
 using a dosage of 0.05 mg/kg of body weight, diluted to a 5-ml
 volume with sterile water, and administered at a rate of
 approximately 1 ml/30 s. Eight minutes after xylazine
 injection, either tolazoline (0.3 mg/kg) or saline solution (4
 ml) was administered IV. All 8 cattle were treated, using both
 regimens in a random sequence; at least 1 week elapsed between
 treatments. Epidurally administered xylazine induced caudal
 analgesia (S3 to coccyx), as evaluated by no response to
 superficial and deep muscular pinprick, and induced sedation,
 cardiopulmonary depression, and inhibition of rumen motility,
 but all cattle remained standing. Tolazoline effectively
 reversed xylazine-induced rumen hypomotility, and partially
 antagonized xylazine-induced cardiopulmonary depression
 without affecting sedation and desirable local (S3 to coccyx)
 analgesic effects.
 
 
 254                                   NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 Influence of yohimbine and tolazoline on the cardiovascular ,
 respiratory, and sedative effects of xylazine in the horse.
 Kollias-Baker, C.A.; Court, M.H.; Williams, L.L.
 Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1993 Sep.
 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 16 (3):
 p. 350-358; 1993 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Xylazine
 
 
 255                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46
 Injectable anesthesia in horses.
 Thurmon, J.C.
 Manhattan, Kan. : The Association; 1989.
 Proceedings of the annual convention of the American
 Association of Equine Practitioners (34th): p. 529-541; 1989. 
 Meeting held December 4-7, 1988, San Diego, CA.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Muscle relaxants; Analgesics;
 Anesthetics
 
 
 256                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 Injectable regimens for standing restraint and anesthesia.
 Tranquilli, W.J.
 Lawrenceville, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company;
 1989 Oct. The Compendium on continuing education for the
 practicing veterinarian v. 11 (10): p. 1283-1285; 1989 Oct. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Injections;
 Restraint
 
 
 257                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Inotropic mechanisms of dopexamine hydrochloride in horses.
 Muir, W.W. III
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1992 Aug. American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (8):
 p. 1343-1346; 1992 Aug. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Dopamine; Analogs; Dosage; Heart rate;
 Cardiac output; Blood pressure; Muscle contraction
 
 Abstract:  Mechanisms responsible for the positive inotropic
 effects of dopexamine were investigated in 8 halothane-
 anesthetized horses. The hemodynamic effects of increasing
 infusions of dopexamine (5, 10, 15 microgram/kg of body
 weight/min) were determined before and after sequential
 administration of specific antagonists. Using glycopyrrolate
 and chlorisondamine, and atenolol and ICI 118,551, muscarinic
 and nicotinic ganglionic, and beta, and beta-adrenergic
 receptor blockade, respectively, was induced. Dopexamine
 infusions induced increase in heart rate, cardiac output,
 systolic and mean arterial blood pressure, and maximal rate of
 left ventricular pressure development (+dP/dt(max)). Right
 atrial pressure and systemic vascular resistance decreased.
 Parasympathetic and ganglionic blockade attenuated cardiac
 output, systolic and mean aortic blood pressures, and
 +dP/dt(max) responses to dopexamine infusion. Dopexamine-
 induced increase in heart rate was potentiated by
 parasympathetic and ganglionic blockade. beta-Adrenergic
 receptor blockade decreased heart rate, cardiac output,
 arterial blood pressure, and +dP/dt(max) from baseline values
 and markedly reduced the response to dopexamine infusion.
 beta-Adrenergic receptor blockade induced further decrease in
 hemodynamic variables from baseline values and completely
 abolished the cardiostimulatory effects of dopexamine on
 +dP/dt(max) These data indicate that baroreflex activity,
 beta- and beta 2-adrenergic receptor stimulation may be an
 important cause of dopexamine's positive inotropic effects in
 horses.
 
 
 258                                    NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6
 Interaction of gentamycin and atracurium in anaesthetised
 horses. Hildebrand, S.V.; Hill, T. III
 Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1994 May.
 Equine veterinary journal v. 26 (3): p. 209-211; 1994 May. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Gentamicin; Muscle relaxants;
 Interactions; Anesthesia; Drug effects
 
 
 259                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Intraosseous cannulation and drug administration for induction
 of anesthesia in chickens.
 Valverde, A.; Bienzle, D.; Smith, D.A.; Dyson, D.H.; Valliant,
 A.E. Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders Company; 1993 May.
 Veterinary surgery v. 22 (3): p. 240-244; 1993 May.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Chickens; Anesthesia; Cannulation; Ketamine;
 Thiopental; Bones; Injection
 
 
 260                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 C81
 Intra-osseous pressure and pressure pulse gradients along the
 equine third metatarsal bone.
 Stolk, P.W.T.; Firth, E.C.
 Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell Veterinarian, Inc; 1990 Oct.
 Cornell veterinarian v. 80 (4): p. 317-328. ill; 1990 Oct. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Metatarsus; Internal pressure; Gradients;
 Anesthesia; Age
 
 
 261                           NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 Intraspinal alpha 2-adrenergic analgesia in sheep.
 Eisenach, J.C.
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p.
 277-280, 311-312; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sheep; Analgesics; Agonists; Spinal cord; Drug
 effects; Hypotension; Toxicity; Testing; Anesthesia
 
 
 262                                   NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47
 Intravenous anesthesia.
 Benson, G.J.; Thurmon, J.C.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders; 1990 Dec.
 The Veterinary clinics of North America : equine practice v. 6
 (3): p. 513-528; 1990 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Injectable
 anesthetics; Neuroleptics; Atropine; Phenothiazines; Diazepam;
 Chloral hydrate; Xylazine; Barbiturates; Guaifenesin;
 Ketamine; Drug combinations
 
 
 263                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69
 Intravenous regional anesthesia of the bovine digit.
 Weaver, A.D.
 Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Co; 1991 Dec.
 Veterinary medicine v. 86 (12): p. 1227-1229; 1991 Dec. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle; Digits; Local anesthesia; Injectable
 anesthetics
 
 
 264                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69
 Investigating xylazine's utility when used with Telazol in
 equine anesthesia. Short, C.E.; Tracy, C.H.; Sanders, E.
 Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Company; 1989
 Feb. Veterinary medicine v. 84 (2): p. 228-233; 1989 Feb. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Neuroleptics;
 Xylazine; Drug combinations; Adverse effects; Heart rate;
 Respiration rate; Duration
 
 
 265                                    NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6
 An investigation of injection techniques for local analgesia
 of the equine distal tarsus and proximal metatarsus.
 Dyson, S.J.; Romero, J.M.
 Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1993 Jan.
 Equine veterinary journal v. 25 (1): p. 30-35; 1993 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Spain; Horses; Tarsus; Analgesics; Injection;
 Joints (animal); Metatarsus; Pain
 
 
 266                                   NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 Investigations into the effect of two sedatives on the stress
 response in cattle.
 Brearley, J.C.; Dobson, H.; Jones, R.S.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1990 Dec.
 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 13 (4):
 p. 367-377; 1990 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cows; Antagonists; Xylazine; Stress;
 Intramuscular injection; Transport of animals; Hydrocortisone;
 Blood plasma; Blood sugar; Gases
 
 
 267                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R3224
 Isoflurane as an inhalational anesthetic agent in clinical
 practice. Dohoo, S.E.
 Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1990 Dec.
 The Canadian veterinary journal v. 31 (12): p. 847-850; 1990
 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Inhaled anesthetics; Anesthesia; Veterinary
 medicine; Physicochemical properties; Pharmacokinetics;
 Safety; Horses; Birds
 
 
 268                                    NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6
 Jet anaesthesia in horses.
 Young, S.S.
 Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1989 Sep.
 Equine veterinary journal v. 21 (5): p. 319-320; 1989 Sep. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Ventilators; Lung
 ventilation; Artificial respiration
 
 
 269                                    NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6
 Jugular thrombophlebitis resulting from an anaesthetic
 induction technique in the horse.
 Dickson, L.R.; Badcoe, L.M.; Burbidge, H.; Kannegieter, N.J.
 Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1990 May.
 Equine veterinary journal v. 22 (3): p. 177-179; 1990 May. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Thrombosis; Phlebitis; Anesthetics;
 Anesthesia; Pathology
 
 
 270                                     NAL Call. No.: QL55.I5
 Laboratory swine--principles of husbandry and research
 techniques. Dopson, D.C. \u Brompton Hospital, London
 Sussex : The Institute; 1993 Dec.
 Animal technology : journal of the Institute of Animal
 Technicians v. 44 (3): p. 175-200; 1993 Dec.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Laboratory animals; Animal husbandry; Pig
 housing; Handling; Anesthesia; Miniature pigs; Strain
 differences; Veterinary medicine; Animal models
 
 Abstract:  Pigs are anatomically and physiologically similar
 to man in many ways. A fact which is supported by many and
 diverse scientific studies. However, they may be overlooked as
 research models for reasons of the presumed difficulties to be
 encountered in maintaining and handling animals of potentially
 great size. In fact, the type of pig available in the United
 Kingdom ranges from the Large White or Yorkshire pig which may
 weigh > 200 kg to the Yucatan Miniature Pig which is
 considerably smaller and lighter at < 70 kg. There are a
 number of possible advantages to using pigs over other species
 in the laboratory and some selected points will be considered
 in this paper. The requirements for routine care and
 techniques for minor regulated procedures are also described.
 Emphasis is also placed on current perspectives in cardio-
 respiratory research for which the pig is a particularly
 suitable animal model.
 
 
 271                                    NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6
 Lameness due to pain associated with the distal
 interphalangeal joint: 45 cases.
 Dyson, S.J.
 Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1991 Mar.
 Equine veterinary journal v. 23 (2): p. 128-135; 1991 Mar. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Lameness; Joints (animal); Pain; Joint
 diseases; Case reports; Radiography; Treatment; Anesthesia
 
 
 272                                NAL Call. No.: aHV4701.A952
 Large animal anesthesia.
 Shawley, R.V.
 Beltsville, MD : National Agricultural Library, AWIC, 1990-;
 1994. Animal Welfare Information Center newsletter v. 5 (1):
 p. 8-10; 1994.  In the special issue: Farm animals in research
 and teaching.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle; Sheep; Goats; Pigs; Anesthesia;
 Anesthetics; Young animals; Complications; Adverse effects;
 Preanesthetic medication; Drug combinations
 
 
 273                                     NAL Call. No.: QL55.I5
 The Large White female pig in research related to cancer
 treatment: general husbandry and anaesthesia.
 Dickinson, F.; Hubbard, N.
 Sussex : The Institute; 1990 Apr01.
 Animal technology : journal of the Institute of Animal
 Technology v. 41 (1): p. 35-41. ill; 1990 Apr01.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Animal experiments; Laboratory rearing;
 Anesthesia
 
 Abstract:  This paper is the accumulation of twenty years
 experience in the husbandry and anaesthesia of large swine and
 describes the methods we have adopted for the ease of carrying
 out the described procedures.
 
 
 274                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Laryngotomy as a treatment for chronic laryngeal obstruction
 in cattle: a review of 130 cases.
 Gasthuys, F.; Verschooten, F.; Parmentier, D.; Moor, A. de;
 Steenhaut, M. London : The Association; 1992 Mar14.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 130 (11): p. 220-223; 1992 Mar14.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle; Larynx; Blockage; Surgical operations;
 Anesthesia; Survival; Postoperative complications; Double
 muscling
 
 
 275                                    NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6
 Laryngotracheal lesions following routine orotracheal
 intubation in the horse. Heath, R.B.; Steffey, E.P.; Thurmon,
 J.C.; Wertz, E.M.; Meagher, D.M.; Hyyppa, T.; Van Slyke, G.L.
 Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1989 Nov.
 Equine veterinary journal v. 21 (6): p. 434-437. ill; 1989
 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Tubes; Trachea; Mouth; Inhaled
 anesthetics; Lesions; Complications; Iatrogenic diseases
 
 
 276                                  NAL Call. No.: SF601.V535
 Llama anesthetic programs.
 Heath, R.B.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders Company; 1989 Mar.
 The Veterinary clinic of North America : food animal practice
 v. 5 (1): p. 71-80. ill; 1989 Mar.  In the series analytic:
 Llama medicine / edited by LaRue W. Johnson.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Llamas; Anesthesia; Management; Anesthetics
 
 
 277                                   NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47
 Local anesthetic techniques for diagnosis of lameness.
 Schmotzer, W.B.; Timm, K.I.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders; 1990 Dec.
 The Veterinary clinics of North America : equine practice v. 6
 (3): p. 705-728; 1990 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Local anesthesia; Lameness;
 Diagnosis; Anesthetics; Nervous system; Joints (animal); Limbs
 
 
 278                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Local anesthetics and nuclear medical bone images of the
 equine fore limb. Gaughan, E.M.; Wallace, R.J.; Kallfelz, F.A.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1990 Mar.
 Veterinary surgery v. 19 (2): p. 131-135. ill; 1990 Mar. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Local anesthesia; Local anesthetics;
 Radiography; Technetium
 
 
 279                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 A long-term perfusion test to measure net absorption in the
 small intestine of weaned pigs.
 Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Hoogendoorn, A.; Zijderveld, F.G. van; Klis,
 J.D. van der London : British Veterinary Association, 1960-;
 1993 Jul. Research in veterinary science v. 55 (1): p.
 108-114; 1993 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Postweaning interval; Small intestine;
 Intestinal absorption; Perfusion; Tests; Bacteria; Anesthesia;
 Animal welfare
 
 Abstract:  To study the effects of bacteria on net absorption
 of fluid and electrolytes in the small intestine of newly
 weaned pig, a more comprehensive and ethical alternative to
 the ligated loop test was developed. Five paired segments,
 located at 10, 25, 50, 75 and 95 per cent sites along the
 small intestine, were cannulated at both ends and solutions
 perfused continuously through the segments for 10 hours. Net
 absorption was determined by both a volume method and a method
 using a non-absorbable marker. Net absorption of fluid,
 sodium, potassium and chloride was significantly less in
 segments infected with an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli
 than in control segments. This method was superior to the
 ligated loop test because (i) it was performed entirely under
 anaesthesia, (ii) the small intestine did not distend during a
 test, (iii) net absorption was determined per cm 2 and along
 the whole length of the small intestine. Net absorption
 determined by the nonabsorbable marker was significantly less
 than that determined by the volume method.
 
 
 280                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Lung compliance, lung volume and transfer factor for carbon
 monoxide in anaesthetised sheep: normal values and
 reproducibility of measurements. Collie, D.D.S.; Watt, N.J.;
 Warren, P.M.; Begara, I.; Lujan, L. London : British
 Veterinary Association, 1960-; 1993 Sep. Research in
 veterinary science v. 55 (2): p. 137-143; 1993 Sep.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ewes; Anesthesia; Respiration; Texel; Normal
 values; Regression analysis; Body weight
 
 Abstract:  Measurements of quasistatic compliance (Cqst),
 effective alveolar volume (VA,eff) and single-breath transfer
 factor for carbon monoxide (TL,CO,'sb') were completed in 16
 normal, anaesthetized. adult Texel ewes. Regression equations
 were computed for these variables as a function of bodyweight
 and the optimal equations selected. The 95 per cent prediction
 intervals for the equations were calculated such that normal
 lung function in similar sheep could be accurately predicted.
 The long term reproducibility of these measurements was
 assessed in nine sheep, measured at monthly intervals over a
 period of rive months. Although measurements made in
 individual sheep were often highly variable, the variation
 between repeated measurements on the separate days for the
 group was insignificant.
 
 
 281                                   NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47
 Management of anesthesia in the foal.
 Tranquilli, W.J.; Thurmon, J.C.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders; 1990 Dec.
 The Veterinary clinics of North America : equine practice v. 6
 (3): p. 651-663; 1990 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Foals; Anesthesia; Inhaled anesthetics;
 Injectable anesthetics; Newborn animals; Therapy; Monitoring
 
 
 282                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Measurements of blood flow and xanthine oxidase activity
 during postischemic reperfusion of the large colon of ponies.
 Wilkins, P.A.; Ducharme, N.G.; Lowe, J.E.; Schwark, W.S.;
 Meschter, C.; Erb, H.N.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1994 Aug. American journal of veterinary research v. 55 (8):
 p. 1168-1177; 1994 Aug. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Colon; Blood flow; Xanthine oxidase;
 Enzyme activity; Intestinal obstruction; Ischemia; Xanthine
 dehydrogenase; Trauma
 
 Abstract:  To assess right colic artery blood flow and
 relevance of xanthine dehydrogenase/xanthine oxidase after
 experimentally induced strangulation obstruction and
 reperfusion of the colon, 5 ponies were subjected to 2.5 hours
 of complete ischemia of the left dorsal and ventral colons,
 allowed to recover from surgery, and monitored during a 48-
 hour reperfusion period. Five ponies were subjected to sham
 surgery and served as controls. All ponies had a Doppler
 ultrasound blood flow monitor implanted on the right colic
 artery near the pelvic flexure 10 to 14 days prior to the
 ischemic period. Colic artery blood flow was monitored prior
 to, during, and for 4 hours after surgery. Blood samples from
 the right colic artery and vein distal to the obstruction site
 were collected during surgery (prior to ischemia, after 1 and
 2 hours of ischemia, and after 10 and 60 minutes of
 reperfusion) for determination of arterial and venous blood
 gas tensions and electrolytes. Prior to surgery, blood
 selenium and plasma vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol)
 concentrations and blood glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity
 were determined to assess the status of endogenous
 antioxidants. Combined xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) plus
 xanthine oxidase (XO) activity, and XO activity alone
 (nanomoles per minute per gram of tissue) were determined,
 using a dual-spectrophotometric technique. Xanthine
 dehydrogenase and oxidase activities were determined prior to
 ischemia, after 1 and 2 hours of ischemia, and at 1 and 48
 hours after reperfusion. Median blood flow in the experimental
 and control groups (156 ml/min and 110 ml/min, respectively)
 was not statistically different before surgery, and was
 significantly (P < 0.02) lower in the experimental (4 ml/min)
 vs the control group (72.5 ml/min) during the ischemic period.
 Experimental ponies had significantly (P < 0.03) lower right
 colic artery blood flow during the 4 hours immediately after
 recovery from anesthesia. Significant difference was not
 observed in right colonic venous bicarbonate concentration
 between groups at any time. Median right colonic venous
 P(CO2), pH, and standard base excess were different (P <
 0.001) between groups during the ischemic period only. Median
 venous oxygen saturation and median venous P(O2) were
 significantly (P < 0.001) lower in the experimental ponies at
 the end of 2 hours of ischemia, but were significantly (P <
 0.05) increased during the reperfusion phase. Median venous
 potassium concentration was significantly (P < 0.01) higher in
 experimental ponies during the ischemic and reperfusion
 phases. Vitamin E and GPX values were within normal limits for
 all ponies. Median selenium concentration was < 15
 microgram/dl; however, there were no significant differences
 between control and experimental ponies. Only 3 of 10 ponies
 had measurable XHH/XO activity at the beginning of the
 experiment. Enzyme activity was detected in 1 additional pony
 during the ischemic period. However, in all 4 ponies in wh
 
 
 283                                    NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6
 Metabolic and hormonal changes associated with arthroscopic
 surgery in the horse.
 Robertson, S.A.; Steele, C.J.; Chen, C.L.
 Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1990 Sep.
 Equine veterinary journal v. 22 (5): p. 313-316; 1990 Sep. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Surgical operations; Anesthesia;
 Xylazine; Hormones; Metabolism
 
 
 284                           NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 Metabolic and hormonal changes associated with general
 anesthesia and surgery in horses.
 Robertson, S.A.
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p.
 326-330, 359; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Surgical operations;
 Metabolism; Hormones; Stress; Postoperative care
 
 
 285                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3
 Methemoglobinemia induced by a benzocaine-based topically
 administered anesthetic in eight sheep.
 Lagutchik, M.S.; Mundie, T.G.; Martin, D.G.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1992 Nov01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 201
 (9): p. 1407-1410; 1992 Nov01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sheep; Benzocaine; Topical application; Nose;
 Adverse effects; Methemoglobinemia; Case reports
 
 
 286                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Methods of stimulating acupuncture points for treatment of
 chronic back pain in horses.
 Klide, A.M.; Martin, B.B. Jr
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1989 Nov15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 195
 (10): p. 1375-1379. ill; 1989 Nov15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Acupuncture; Pain; Back
 
 
 287                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Minimal anesthetic concentration and cardiopulmonary dose
 response of isoflurane in ducks.
 Ludders, J.W.; Mitchell, G.S.; Rode, J.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1990 Jul.
 Veterinary surgery v. 19 (4): p. 304-307; 1990 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ducks; Anesthetics
 
 
 288                                   NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47
 Monitoring equine anesthesia.
 Riebold, T.W.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders; 1990 Dec.
 The Veterinary clinics of North America : equine practice v. 6
 (3): p. 607-624; 1990 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Monitoring; Cardiovascular
 system; Respiratory system; Central nervous system; Equipment;
 Blood pressure; Pulse; Electrocardiography
 
 
 289                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46
 Monitoring the equine emergency patient.
 Hubbell, J.A.E.
 Manhattan, Kan. : The Association; 1990.
 Proceedings of the annual convention of the American
 Association of Equine Practitioners. p. 255-257; 1990. 
 Meeting held December 2-5, 1990, Lexington, KY.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Blood pressure
 
 
 290                                   NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 Morphine-isoflurane interaction in dogs, swine and Rhesus
 monkeys. Steffey, E.P.; Baggot, J.D.; Eisele, J.H.; Willits,
 N.; Woliner, M.J.; Jarvis, K.A.; Elliott, A.R.; Tagawa, M.
 Oxford [England] : Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1978-;
 1994 Jun. Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics
 v. 17 (3): p. 202-210; 1994 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Pigs; Macaca mulatta; Morphine; Inhaled
 anesthetics; Species differences; Interactions;
 Pharmacokinetics; Anesthesia; Pharmacodynamics
 
 
 291                                    NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6
 Naloxone-induced abdominal distress in the horse.
 Kamerling, S.G.; Hamra, J.G.; Bagwell, C.A.
 Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1990 Jul.
 Equine veterinary journal v. 22 (4): p. 241-243; 1990 Jul. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Horse diseases; Colic; Digestive
 disorders; Naloxone; Abdomen; Pain; Opioid peptides
 
 
 292                                    NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6
 Narcotics analgesics, their detection and pain measurement in
 the horse: a review.
 Kamerling, S.; Wood, T.; DeQuick, D.; Weckman, T.J.; Tai, C.;
 Blake, J.W.; Tobin, T.
 London : British Equine Veterinary Association; 1989 Jan.
 Equine veterinary journal v. 21 (1): p. 4-12. ill; 1989 Jan. 
 Literature review.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Analgesics; Detection; Pain; Measurement;
 Pharmacodynamics; Receptors; Screening
 
 
 293                                   NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47
 Narcotics and local anesthetics.
 Kammerling, S.G.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders; 1993 Dec.
 The Veterinary clinics of North America. Equine practice v. 9
 (3): p. 605-620; 1993 Dec.  In the series analytic: Drug use
 in performance horses / edited by Kenneth W. Hinchcliff and
 Richard A. Sams.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Opioids; Local anesthetics
 
 
 294                           NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 Neurologic evaluation during isoflurane anesthesia.
 Short, C.E.; Otto, K.; Abdella, M.
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p.
 330-338, 359-361; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Physiological functions;
 Central nervous system; Drug effects
 
 
 295                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Neuromuscular and cardiovascular effects of atracurium in
 isoflurane-anesthetized chickens.
 Nicholson, A.; Ilkiw, J.E.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1992 Dec. American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (12):
 p. 2337-2342; 1992 Dec. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Fowls; Muscle relaxants
 
 Abstract:  Atracurium besylate, a nondepolarizing
 neuromuscular blocking agent, was administered to 24
 isoflurane-anesthetized domestic chickens. Birds were randomly
 assigned to 4 groups, and atracurium was administered at
 dosage of 0.15, 0.25, 0.35 or 0.45 mg/kg of body weight. The
 time of onset of twitch depression, the amount of maximal
 twitch depression, and the duration of muscular relaxation
 were recorded. After return to control twitch height,
 atracurium was further administered to achieve > 75% twitch
 depression. When twitch depression reached 75% during
 noninduced recovery, 0.5 mg of edrophonium/kg was administered
 to reverse the muscle relaxation. Throughout the experimental
 period, cardiovascular, arterial blood gas, and acid-base
 variables were monitored. The effective dosage of atracurium
 to result in 95% twitch depression in 50% of birds,
 (ED95/9595) was calculated, using probit analysis, to be 0.25
 mg/kg, whereas the ED95/95 the dosage of atracurium to result
 in 95% twitch depression in 95% of birds, was calculated by
 probit analysis to be 0.46 mg/kg. The total duration of action
 at dosage of 0.25 mg/kg was 34.5 +/- 5.8 minutes; at the
 highest dosage (0.45 mg/kg), total duration increased to 47.8 +/-
  10.3 minutes. The return to control twitch height was greatly
 hastened by administration of edrophonium. Small, but
 statistically significant changes in heart rate and systolic
 blood pressure, were associated with administration of
 atracurium and edrophonium. These changes would not be
 clinically relevant. In this study, atracurium was found to be
 safe and reliable for induction of muscle relaxation in
 isoflurane anesthetized chickens.
 
 
 296                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Neuromuscular blockade by use of atracurium in anesthetized
 llamas. Hildebrand, S.V.; Hill, T. III
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1993 Mar. American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (3):
 p. 429-433; 1993 Mar. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Llamas; Anesthesia; Muscle relaxants; Dosage;
 Boluses; Intravenous injection; Adverse effects
 
 Abstract:  Anesthesia was induced in 8 healthy llamas by
 administration of guaifenesin and ketamine, and was maintained
 with halothane in oxygen. On 2 separate experimental days,
 atracurium was given to induce 95 to 99% reduction of evoked
 hind limb digital extensor tension (twitch). For the first
 part of the study, atracurium was given iv as repeat boluses,
 with muscle twitch strength being allowed to return without
 intervention to 75% of baseline after each bolus before the
 subsequent bolus was given. A total of 5 bolus doses of
 atracurium was given. For the first bolus, 0.15 mg/kg of body
 weight iv, and for subsequent boluses, 0.08 mg/kg, induced
 desired relaxation. Onset of relaxation was slightly more
 rapid for repeat, compared with initial, bolus. Duration of
 relaxation and recovery time were similar to initial and
 repeat doses. Maximal twitch reduction was observed in 4 +/-
 0.2 minutes (mean +/-SEM). Duration from maximal twitch
 reduction to 10% recovery was 6.3 +/- 0.4 minutes. Twitch
 recovery from 10 to 50% of baseline took 11.6 +/- 0.6 minutes.
 Twitch recovery from 10 to 75% recovery took 19.5 +/- 1.1
 minutes. Recovery from 10% twitch to 50% fade took 12.8 +/-
 0.5 minutes. Fade at 50% recovery of twitch was 39 +/- 0.02%.
 Significant (P < 0.05) animal-to-animal variation was observed
 in twitch recovery times. For the second part of the study,
 atracurium was initially given IV as a 0.15-mg/kg bolus,
 followed by infusion for 1 to 2 hours. Infusion rate required
 some early adjustment to maintain desired relaxation, but the
 rate that prevailed was 1.07 +/- 0.07 ml/kg/h (0.4 mg of
 atracurium/ml of saline solution). Recovery of muscle twitch
 was similar to that previously mentioned for repeat bolus
 administration, At the end of the study, edrophonium (0.5
 mg/kg) with atropine (0.01 mg/kg, IV) was effective in
 antagonizing residual neuromuscular blockade by atracurium.
 All llamas recovered without injury from anesthesia, although
 1 llama had a rough recovery. It was concl
 
 
 297                                   NAL Call. No.: 391.8 T66
 Neuromuscular blocking activity of a glycosidic extract of the
 plant Sarcolobus globosus.
 Mustafa, M.R.; Hadi, A.H.A.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1990.
 Toxicon v. 28 (10): p. 1237-1239; 1990.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Asclepiadaceae; Plant composition; Seeds; Plant
 extracts; Glycosides; Nerve tissue; Muscle tissue;
 Neurophysiology; Paralysis; Rats; Chicks; Frogs
 
 Abstract:  Crude glycoside extracts from the plant. Sarcolobus
 globosus, were tested on the rat phrenic nerve diaphragm,
 chick biventer cervicis and frog rectus abdominis
 preparations. Nerve-stimulated twitches were inhibited by the
 extract. The muscle paralysis was not similar to that by
 curare-like blockers as it was not reversed by neostigmine or
 by a tetanus. Although contractures to acetylcholine or
 carbachol were not affected by 0.6 mg/ml of the extract,
 higher concentration of the extracts (3 mg/ml) depressed the
 log dose response curve of acetylcholine and carbachol. The
 results suggest that the neuromuscular blocking effect of the
 extracts is either dose-dependent or due to a mixture of
 toxins with presynaptic or postsynaptic actions.
 
 
 298                                   NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47
 Neuromuscular blocking agents in equine anesthesia.
 Hildebrand, S.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders; 1990 Dec.
 The Veterinary clinics of North America : equine practice v. 6
 (3): p. 587-606; 1990 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Muscle relaxants
 
 
 299                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Normal physiologic values of neonatal pigs and the effects of
 isoflurane and pentobarbital anesthesia.
 Eisenhauer, C.L.; Matsuda, L.S.; Uyehara, C.F.T.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1994 Jun. Laboratory animal science v. 44 (3): p.
 245-252; 1994 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Piglets; Animal models; Newborn animals; Animal
 physiology; Inhaled anesthetics; Pentobarbital; Anesthesia
 
 Abstract:  The newborn piglet is becoming increasingly popular
 as a model for neonatal studies. However data on normal
 physiologic baseline values and the influence of anesthesia on
 these values are scarce. In this study, we describe husbandry,
 surgical, and experimental methods used to establish a
 conscious, chronically catheterized neonatal piglet model,
 which enabled study of unrestrained piglets recovered from
 surgery and anesthesia, for up to 10 days after separation
 from the sow Chronic catheterization allowed repeated
 experiments to be performed in the same animals, reducing the
 number of animals needed for study. Presented herein are
 baseline resting hemodynamic and blood chemistry data and
 circulating hormone measurements of vasopressin, plasma renin
 activity, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, cortisol, epinephrine,
 norepinephrine, and dopamine for piglets in the first 2 weeks
 of life. Also, in two series of experiments, the effects of
 the gas anesthetic isoflurane and the injectable anesthetic
 pentobarbital on these baseline values were investigated.
 Results indicate that both pentobarbital and isoflurane elicit
 changes in blood pressure, heart rate, vasopressin, plasma
 renin activity and ventilatory drive that should be considered
 when using either of these anesthetic agents in acute studies.
 
 
 300                                   NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47
 Ophthalmic procedures and surgery in the standing horse.
 Wilkie, D.A.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders; 1991 Dec.
 The Veterinary clinics of North America : equine practice v. 7
 (3): p. 535-547; 1991 Dec.  In the series analytic: Standing
 surgery / edited by Alicia L. Bertone.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Eyes; Surgery; Eyelids; Lacrimal
 apparatus; Cornea; Anesthesia
 
 
 301                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46
 Osteoarthritis in the horses: the role of the nervous system.
 Caron, J.P.; Bowker, R.M.; Toppin, D.S.
 Lexington, Ky. : The Association; 1993.
 Proceedings of the annual convention of the American
 Association of Equine Practitioners. p. 13-20; 1993.  Meeting
 helding on November 29-December 2, 1992, Orlando, Florida. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Osteoarthritis; Pain
 
 
 302                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 SO8
 Ostrich (Struthio camelus) immobilisation using carfentanil
 and xylazine and reversal with yohimbine and naltrexone.
 Raath, J.P.; Quandt, S.K.F.; Malan, J.H.
 Pretoria : The Association; 1992 Dec.
 Journal of the South African Veterinary Association v. 63 (4):
 p. 138-140; 1992 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ostriches; Anesthesia
 
 
 303                           NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 Pain research and therapy: history, current status, and future
 goals. Bonica, J.J.
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p.
 1-29; 1992. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animals; Pain; Research; Therapy; Drug therapy;
 Analgesics; Livestock; Laboratory animals; Surgical
 operations; Anesthesia
 
 
 304                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Parasympathetic influence on the arrhythmogenicity of graded
 dobutamine infusions in halothane-anesthetized horses.
 Light, G.S.; Hellyer, P.W.; Swanson, C.R.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1992 Jul. American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (7):
 p. 1154-1160; 1992 Jul. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Halothane; Cardiovascular agents;
 Autonomic nervous system; Hemodynamics; Dosage; Arrhythmia
 
 Abstract:  We investigated the influence of parasympathetic
 tone on the arrhythmogenicity of graded dobutamine infusions
 in horses anesthetized under clinical conditions. Six horses
 were used in 9 trials. Two consecutive series of graded
 dobutamine infusions were given IV; each continuous graded
 dobutamine infusion was administered for 20 minutes. The
 dobutamine infusion dosage (5, 10, 15, and 20 microgram/kg of
 body weight/min) was increased at 5-minute intervals.
 Isovolumetric saline solution vehicle (v) or atropine (A; 0.04
 mg(kg) was administered IV, or bilateral vagotomy (VG) was
 performed as a treatment before the second series of
 dobutamine infusions. Treatment was not administered prior to
 the first dobutamine infusion. Significant interaction between
 treatment and dosage of dobutamine infusion existed for
 differences from baseline for mean arterial pressure, systolic
 arterial pressure, diastolic arterial pressure, heart rate,
 and cardiac index at dosages of 5 and 10 micrograms of
 dobutamine/kg/min, given IV and for heart rate at dosage of 15
 micrograms of dobutamine/kg/min, given IV. Results for group-V
 horses were different from those for group-A and group-VG
 horses, but were not different between group-A and group-VG
 horses in all aforementioned cases, except for heart rate and
 cardiac index at dosage of 5 micrograms of dobutamine/kg/min,
 given IV. Normal sinus rhythm, second-degree atrioventricular
 block, and bradyarrhythmias predominated during low dobutamine
 infusion rates during the first infusion series (nontreated
 horses) and in group-V horses during the second infusion
 series. Only tachyarrhythmias were observed during the second
 infusion series in the horses of the A and VG groups. The
 modulating influence of parasympathetic nervous system
 activity on hemodynamics and development of arrhythmia was
 conspicuous during low dobutamine infusion rates. Significant
 differences were not observed in hemodynamic responses to
 dobutamine, with respect to parasympathet
 
 
 305                                    NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6
 Paravertebral thoracolumbar anaesthesia in 10 horses.
 Moon, P.F.; Suter, C.M.
 Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1993 Jul.
 Equine veterinary journal v. 25 (4): p. 304-308; 1993 Jul. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia
 
 
 306                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V643
 Pentobarbitone inhibits the stress response to transport in
 male goats. Sanhouri, A.A.; Jones, R.S.; Dobson, H.
 London : Bailliere Tindall; 1991 Jan.
 British veterinary journal v. 47 (1): p. 42-48; 1991 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Goats; Stress; Pentobarbital; Transport of
 animals; Anesthesia; Hydrocortisone; Blood plasma; Blood
 sugar; Heart rate; Respiration rate
 
 Abstract:  Pentobarbitone (20 mg/kg i.v.) blocked plasma
 cortisol release when administered either before a 20 min
 journey or during a 2 h journey. This confirms that
 pentobarbitone can block stimulated, as well as resting,
 cortisol secretion. In general, blood glucose concentrations
 were not increased above 90 mg/100 ml until at least 30 min
 after the start of transport; however, this increase was also
 blocked by pentobarbitone administered 30 min into the 2 h
 journey. Significant increases in respiratory and heart rates
 occurred within 15 min of the start of transport;
 pentobarbitone caused an immediate decrease in these
 parameters. In conclusion, pentobarbitone was shown to reverse
 many metabolic changes induced by transport.
 
 
 307                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Performance and health of weanling bulls after butorphanol and
 xylazine administration at castration.
 Faulkner, D.B.; Eurell, T.; Tranquilli, W.J.; Ott, R.S.; Ohl,
 M.W.; Cmarik, G.F.; Zinn, G.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1992
 Oct. Journal of animal science v. 70 (10): p. 2970-2974; 1992
 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Calves; Steers; Castration; Analgesics;
 Liveweight gain; Feed intake; Feed conversion; Blood serum;
 Hydrocortisone; Haptoglobins
 
 Abstract:  A total of 268 crossbred, 6- to 9-mo-old, bull
 calves (214 +/- 19 kg) were used in two separate 27-d
 experiments to assess the effects of butorphanol and xylazine
 administration (BXA) on the subsequent performance and health
 of beef calves. In each experiment, calves were randomly
 allotted to four treatment groups: 1) castration with BXA, 2)
 castration without BXA, 3) no castration with BXA, and 4) no
 castration without BXA. There were two replicates within each
 experiment. The intravenous administration of .07 mg/kg of
 butorphanol and .02 mg/kg of xylazine occurred 90 s before
 tail hold and castration procedures. Calves were placed in a
 squeeze chute and manually restrained by tail elevation. In
 Exp. 2, the cattle also were scored for chute activity (on a 1
 to 5 scale with 5 being the most active). Cattle were weighed
 at the beginning and end of the experiment, feed intake was
 recorded daily, and cattle were monitored daily for
 respiratory disease. There were no castration X BXA
 interactions (P > .51). Castration reduced (P < .01) daily
 gain and gain/feed and tended (P = .13) to reduce feed intake.
 The administration of BXA had no effect (P > .05) on gain or
 gain/feed but did tend (P = .13) to reduce feed intake. No
 differences (P > .45) were observed in morbidity or mortality
 due to either BXA or castration. Castration and BXA increased
 (P < .01) blood cortisol levels on d 3, whereas control
 animals had reduced cortisol levels. Castration increased (P <
 .05) haptoglobin levels on d 3, but BXA had no effect (P >
 .05) on serum haptoglobin concentrations on d 3. Chute
 activity was reduced (P < .05) by castration and BXA. In this
 study, animal performance was reduced by castration. The
 administration of BXA did not alter stress indicators or
 improve performance of castrated bull calves. Serum
 haptoglobin may be a more specific indicator of the
 inflammatory process in cattle, whereas serum cortisol may be
 an indicator of the whole-body stress response.
 
 
 308                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69
 Performing epidural anesthesia in swine.
 Branson, K.R.; Thurmon, J.C.
 Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Co; 1990 Dec.
 Veterinary medicine v. 85 (12): p. 1345, 1348-1350. ill; 1990
 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Conduction anesthesia; Injectable
 anesthetics; Techniques; Complications
 
 
 309                                   NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47
 Perineural and spinal anesthesia.
 Gaynor, J.S.; Hubbell, J.A.E.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders; 1991 Dec.
 The Veterinary clinics of North America : equine practice v. 7
 (3): p. 501-519; 1991 Dec.  In the series analytic: Standing
 surgery / edited by Alicia L. Bertone.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Local anesthesia; Anesthesia; Spinal
 cord; Neurons; Body regions
 
 
 310                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Peritracheolaryngeal abscess: an iatrogenic complication of
 endotracheal intubation in swine.
 Iliff-Sizemore, S.A.; Chrisp, C.E.; Rush, H.G.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1989 Sep. Laboratory animal science v. 39 (5): p.
 455-458. ill; 1989 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Trachea; Larynx; Abscesses; Bacteria;
 Anesthesia; Tubes
 
 
 311                                   NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 The pharmacokinetics and locomotor activity of alfentanil in
 the horse. Pascoe, P.J.; Black, W.D.; Claxton, J.M.; Sansom,
 R.E.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1991 Sep.
 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 14 (3):
 p. 317-325; 1991 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Analgesics; Opioids; Pharmacokinetics;
 Dosage; Locomotion
 
 
 312                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of acepromazine in
 horses. Marroum, P.J. \u US Food and Drug Administration,
 Rockville, MD; Webb, A.I.; Aeschbacher, G.; Curry, S.H.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1994 Oct. American journal of veterinary research v. 55 (10):
 p. 1428-1433; 1994 Oct. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Neuroleptics; Pharmacokinetics;
 Pharmacodynamics; Drug effects; Blood pressure; Heart rate;
 Hematocrit; Respiration; Blood; Gases; Ph
 
 Abstract:  A specific, sensitive, reverse-phase high-
 performance liquid chromatographic assay for acepromazine,
 with analytic sensitivity as low as 5 ng/ml of plasma, and
 electrochemical detection with an oxidation potential of 0.7
 V, was used to study the pharmacokinetics of acepromazine
 given at a dosage of 0.15 mg/kg of body weight in horses. The
 relation between effect and pharmacokinetics of the drug was
 examined. The effects studied included those on blood
 pressure, pulse, PCV, measures of respiration function, and
 sedation. Intravenously administered doses led to a biphasic
 concentration decay pattern with an alpha-phase distribution
 half-life of < 3 minutes. The beta-phase half-life was in the
 range of 50 to 150 minutes. The CNS effects peaked at 20
 minutes after administration, and the hemodynamic effects
 peaked at 100 minutes. In all horses, the most sensitive
 variable was the PCV, which decreased by up to 20% (P <
 0.0001). Systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressures
 decreased (P < 0.0001); heart rate was unchanged (P > 0.05).
 Neither blood gas tensions nor blood pH changed noticeably (P
 > 0.05). In all horses studied, acepromazine had a significant
 (P < 0.0001) sedative effect, as observed by posture and
 alertness. None of the observed pharmacodynamic effects
 correlated well with plasma acepromazine concentration. These
 effects persisted beyond the time of detectable acepromazine
 concentration, indicating that they might be caused by active
 metabolites, or that their timing could result from complex
 pharmacokinetic compartment influences.
 
 
 313                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Pharmacokinetics of ibuprofen in lactating dairy cows.
 DeGraves, F.J.; Anderson, K.L.; Aucoin, D.P.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1993 Jul. American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (7):
 p. 1133-1135; 1993 Jul. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Lactating females; Analgesics; Non-
 steroidal antiinflammatory agents; Pharmacokinetics;
 Intravenous injection; Oral administration; Blood serum; Milk;
 Adverse effects
 
 Abstract:  The pharmacokinetics of ibuprofen were studied in 6
 adult lactating dairy cows after a single iv or oral
 administration of ibuprofen (25 mg/kg of body weight).
 lbuprofen concentrations in milk and serum were analyzed by
 use of high-performance liquid chromatography. The lower limit
 of detection of the ibuprofen assay was 50 ng/ml. Serum
 ibuprofen concentration-time curves after IV administration
 best fit an open two-compartment model. Harmonic mean volume
 of distribution at steady state was 0.14 (range, 0.12 to 0.17)
 L/kg, elimination half-life was 1.55 (range, 1.33 to 1.73)
 hours, and total clearance was 86.2 (range, 68.8 to 106.2)
 ml/kg/h. Harmonic mean oral bioavailability was 99% (range, 79
 to 112). Adverse effects were not observed in cows given
 ibuprofen.
 
 
 314                                   NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47
 The pharmacology of local anesthetics.
 Day, T.K.; Skarda, R.T.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders; 1991 Dec.
 The Veterinary clinics of North America : equine practice v. 7
 (3): p. 489-500; 1991 Dec.  In the series analytic: Standing
 surgery / edited by Alicia L. Bertone.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Local anesthetics; Local anesthesia;
 Electrophysiology; Pharmacodynamics; Pharmacokinetics
 
 
 315                           NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 Physiologic responses after caudal epidural administration of
 detomidine in horses and xylaxine in cattle.
 Skarda, R.T.; Muir, W.W. III
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p.
 292-302, 312-313; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Cattle; Xylazine; Analgesics; Drug
 effects; Physiological functions; Cardiovascular system;
 Respiratory system; Statistical analysis
 
 
 316                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Physiological responses of sheep to two hours anaesthesia with
 diazepam-ketamine.
 Coulson, N.M.; Januszkiewicz, A.J.; Ripple, G.R.
 London : The Association; 1991 Oct12.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 129 (15): p. 329-332; 1991 Oct12.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sheep; Anesthesia; Diazepam; Ketamine; Drug
 combinations; Respiration; Cardiovascular system; Adverse
 effects
 
 
 317                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V643
 Plasma concentrations of cortisol, testosterone, glucose and
 blood gases in male goats during anaesthesia with
 pentobarbitone sodium. Sanhouri, A.A.; Jones, R.S.; Dobson, H.
 London : Bailliere Tindall; 1990 Jan.
 British veterinary journal v. 146 (1): p. 36-42; 1990 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Goats; Male animals; Anesthesia; Pentobarbital;
 Cortisol; Testosterone; Blood glucose; Gases; Blood; Fasting
 
 
 318                                    NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6
 Plasma histamine levels during exploratory laparotomies in
 suspected equine grass sickness cases.
 Hodson, N.; Hunt, J.; Causon, R.C.
 Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1990 Sep.
 Equine veterinary journal v. 22 (5): p. 362-363; 1990 Sep. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Grass sickness; Digestive disorders;
 Anesthesia; Histamine; Laparotomy; Blood plasma
 
 
 319                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Postanesthetic equine myopathy suggestive of malignant
 hyperthermia: a case report.
 Klein, L.; Ailes, N.; Fackelman, G.E.; Kellon, E.; Rosenberg,
 H. Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1989 Nov.
 Veterinary surgery v. 18 (6): p. 479-482; 1989 Nov.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Muscular diseases; Hyperthermia; Case
 studies; Halothane; Anesthesia; Etiology
 
 
 320                                   NAL Call. No.: SF778.J68
 Postanesthetic pulmonary edema in an Arab stallion.
 Day, T.K.; Holcombe, S.; Muir, W.W. III
 San Antonio, Tx. : Veterinary Emergency & Critical Care
 Society; 1993 Jul. Journal of veterinary emergency and
 critical care v. 3 (2): p. 90-95; 1993 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Stallions; Anesthesia; Complications; Lungs;
 Edema; Trauma; Treatment; Pathogenesis; Case reports
 
 
 321                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3
 Postanesthetic recumbency associated with hyperkalemic
 periodic paralysis in a Quarter horse.
 Robertson, S.A.; Green, S.L.; Carter, S.W.; Bolon, B.N.;
 Brown, M.P.; Shields, R.P.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1992 Oct15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 201
 (8): p. 1209-1212; 1992 Oct15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Hyperkalemia; Anesthesia; Complications;
 Case reports
 
 
 322                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Postoperative analgesia using phenylbutazone, flunixin or
 carprofen in horses. Johnson, C.B.; Taylor, P.M.; Young, S.S.;
 Brearley, J.C.
 London : The British Veterinary Association; 1993 Oct02.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 133 (14): p. 336-338; 1993 Oct02.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Analgesics; Postoperative care
 
 
 323                                NAL Call. No.: aHV4701.A952
 Post-operative care and analgesia of farm animals used in
 biomedical research. Randolph, M.M.
 Beltsville, MD : National Agricultural Library, AWIC, 1990-;
 1994. Animal Welfare Information Center newsletter v. 5 (1):
 p. 11-13; 1994.  In the special issue: Farm animals in
 research and teaching.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Postoperative care; Medical research;
 Analgesics; Pain; Animal welfare
 
 
 324                                   NAL Call. No.: SF951.J65
 Preliminary studies on the use of plasma beta-endorphin in
 horses as an indicator of stress and pain.
 McCarthy, R.N.; Jeffcott, L.B.; Clarke, I.J.
 Lake Elsinore, Calif. : William E. Jones, DVM; 1993 Apr.
 Journal of equine veterinary science v. 13 (4): p. 216-219;
 1993 Apr. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Endorphins
 
 
 325                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Preliminary studies on the use of propofol in the domestic
 pigeon (Columba livia).
 Fitzgerald, G.; Cooper, J.E.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1990 Nov.
 Research in veterinary science v. 49 (3): p. 334-338; 1990
 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigeons; Injectable anesthetics; Intravenous
 injection; Safety; Ketamine
 
 
 326                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Premature ventricular contractions and apparent hypertension
 during anesthesia in an ostrich.
 Matthews, N.S.; Burba, D.J.; Cornick, J.L.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1991 Jun01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 198
 (11): p. 1959-1961; 1991 Jun01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ostriches; Anesthesia; Hypertension; Ventricles;
 Contraction; Anesthetics; Adverse effects; Case reports
 
 
 327                          NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47 v.6 no.3
 Principles and techniques of equine anesthesia.
 Riebold, T. W.
 Philadelphia : Saunders,; 1990.
 x p., p. 485-741 : ill. ; 24 cm. (Veterinary clinics of North
 America. Equine practice, 6, no. 3).  December 1990.  Includes
 bibliographical references and index.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Veterinary anesthesia
 
 
 328                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69
 Problems encountered when anesthetizing potbellied pigs.
 Ko, J.C.H.; Thurmon, J.C.; Tranquilli, W.A.; Benson, G.J.;
 Olson, W.A. Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Co;
 1993 May05. Veterinary medicine v. 88 (5): p. 435-437, 440;
 1993 May05.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Miniature pigs; Anesthesia; Intramuscular
 injection; Intravenous injection; Inhalation; Animal anatomy
 
 
 329                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Prolongation of anesthesia with xylazine, ketamine, and
 guaifenesin in horses: 64 cases (1986-1989).
 McCarty, J.E.; Trim, C.M.; Ferguson, D.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1990 Dec15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 197
 (12): p. 1646-1650; 1990 Dec15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Duration; Xylazine; Ketamine;
 Guaifenesin; Adverse effects
 
 
 330                                    NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6
 Prolongation of xylazine/ketamine induced recumbency time with
 temazepam in horses.
 Matthews, N.S.; Dollars, N.S.; Young, D.B.; Shawley, R.V.
 Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1991 Jan.
 Equine veterinary journal v. 23 (1): p. 8-10; 1991 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Xylazine; Ketamine;
 Benzodiazepines; Drug combinations
 
 
 331                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Prophylactic use of dantrolene associated with prolonged
 postanesthetic recumbency in a horse.
 Valverde, A.; Boyd, C.J.; Dyson, D.H.; Pascoe, P.J.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1990 Oct15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 197
 (8): p. 1051-1053; 1990 Oct15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Postoperative complications;
 Muscle relaxants; Chemoprophylaxis; Muscular diseases; Case
 studies
 
 
 332                                   NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 Propofol as an induction agent in the goat: a pharmacokinetic
 study. Reid, J.; Nolan, A.M.; Welsh, E.
 Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1993 Dec.
 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 16 (4):
 p. 488-493; 1993 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Goats; Pharmacokinetics; Injectable anesthetics
 
 
 333                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Pulse oximetry in horses.
 Whitehair, K.J.; Watney, G.C.G.; Leith, D.E.; Debowes, R.M.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1990 May.
 Veterinary surgery v. 19 (3): p. 243-248. ill; 1990 May. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Oxygen; Hemoglobin; Saturation;
 Measurement; Anesthesia; Instruments; Ears; Tongue
 
 
 334                                NAL Call. No.: aHV4701.A952
 Recognition of pain in farm animals.
 Breazile, J.E.
 Beltsville, MD : National Agricultural Library, AWIC, 1990-;
 1994. Animal Welfare Information Center newsletter v. 5 (1):
 p. 5-7; 1994.  In the special issue: Farm animals in research
 and teaching.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Pain; Animal welfare
 
 
 335                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Recovery of horses from inhalation anesthesia.
 Whitehair, K.J.; Steffey, E.P.; Willitis, N.H.; Woliner, M.J.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1993 Oct. American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (10):
 p. 1693-1702; 1993 Oct. includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Inhaled anesthetics; Halothane; Recovery;
 Time; Animal behavior; Blood pressure; Heart rate; Respiration
 rate; Respiratory gases; Hematocrit; Blood protein
 
 Abstract:  To study behavioral and cardiopulmonary
 characteristics of horses recovering from inhalation
 anesthesia, 6 nonmedicated horses were anesthetized under
 laboratory conditions on 3 different days, with either
 halothane or isoflurane in O2. Anesthesia was maintained at
 constant dose (1.5 times the minimum alveolar concentration
 [MAC]) of halothane in O2 for 1 hour (H1), halothane in O2 for
 3 hours (H3), or isoflurane in O2 for 3 hours (13). The order
 of exposure was set up as a pair of Latin squares to account
 for horse and trial effects. Circulatory (arterial blood
 pressure and heart rate) and respiratory (frequency, PaCO2,
 PaO, pHa) variables were monitored during anesthesia and for
 as long as possible during the recovery period. End-tidal
 percentage of the inhaled agent was measured every 15 seconds
 by automated mass spectrometry, then by hand-sampling after
 horses started moving. Times of recovery events, including
 movement of the eyelids, ears, head, and limbs, head lift,
 chewing, swallowing, first sternal posture and stand attempts,
 and the number of sternal posture and stand attempts, were
 recorded. The washout curve or the ET ratio (end-tidal
 percentage of the inhaled agent at time t to end-tidal
 percentage of the inhaled agent at the time the anesthesia
 circuit was disconnected from the tracheal tube) plotted
 against time was similar for HI and H3. The slower, then
 faster (compared with halothane groups) washout curve of
 isoflurane was explainable by changes in respiratory frequency
 as horses awakened and by lower blood/gas solubility of
 isoflurane. The respiratory depressant effects of isoflurane
 were marked and were more progressive than those for halothane
 at the same 1.5 MAC dose. During the first 15 minutes of
 recovery, respiratory frequency for group-13 horses increased
 significantly (P < 0.05), compared with that for the halothane
 groups. For all groups, arterial blood pressure increased
 throughout the early recovery period and heart rate remained
 constant. Preanesthesia temperament of horses and the
 inhalation agent used did not influence the time of the early
 recovery events (movement of eyelids, ears, head, and limbs),
 except for head lift. For events that occurred at anesthetic
 end-tidal percentage < 0.20, or when horses were awake,
 temperament was the only factor that significantly influenced
 the nature of the recovery (chewing P = 0.04, extubation P =
 0.001, first stand attempt P = 0.008, and standing P = 0.005).
 The quality of the recoveries did not differ significantly
 among groups (H1, H3, I3) or horses; however 5 of 6 horses
 recovering from the H1 exposure had ideal recovery. During
 recovery, the anesthetic end-tidal percentage did not differ
 significantly among groups. However, when concentrations were
 compared on the basis of anesthetic potency (ie, MAC multiple)
 a significantly (P < 0.05) lower MAC multiple of isoflurane
 was measured for the events ear moveme
 
 
 336                                   NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47
 Regional anesthesia.
 LeBlanc, P.H.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders; 1990 Dec.
 The Veterinary clinics of North America : equine practice v. 6
 (3): p. 693-704; 1990 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Local anesthesia; Peripheral
 nerves
 
 
 337                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Relation between body temperature and dexmedetomidine-induced
 minimum alveolar concentration and respiratory changes in
 isoflurane-anesthetized miniature swine.
 Vainio, O.M.; Bloor, B.C.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1994 Jul. American journal of veterinary research v. 55 (7):
 p. 1000-1006; 1994 Jul. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Miniature pigs; Body temperature; Medetomidine;
 Isomers; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Requirements; Cardiovascular
 system; Respiratory system
 
 Abstract:  Dexmedetomidine (Dex), an alpha 2-receptor agonist,
 is the pharmacologically active d-isomer of medetomidine, a
 compound used as a sedative in veterinary medicine. Isoflurane
 anesthetic requirement (minimum alveolar concentration; MAC),
 rectal temperature, and cardiorespiratory variables were
 studied in chronically instrumented Yucatan miniature swine
 during DEX (20 micrograms/kg of body weight)-induced changes
 in body temperature. All studies were performed at room
 temperature of 22 C. The DEX was given as a 2-minute infusion
 into the left atrium. Each pig was studied twice. For protocol
 1, the core temperature of the pigs was maintained at (mean +/-
  SD) 38.2 +/- 0.5 C by use of a thermostatically controlled
 water blanket and a heating lamp. For protocol 2, the core
 temperature was not externally manipulated and it decreased
 from 38.2 +/- 0.4 C to 32.2 +/- 1.2 C during the more than 3
 hours of the protocol. Control isoflurane MAC was 1.66 +/-
 0.2% and was 1.74 +/- 0.3% for protocols 1 and 2,
 respectively; DEX decreased MAC by 34 and 44%, respectively.
 For protocol 1, reduction in MAC after DEX administration
 returned by 50 and 80% at 84 and 138 minutes, respectively. If
 rectal temperature was not maintained (eg, allowed to
 decrease), MAC was reduced by 57% at the same time as the
 return to 80% in the swine with maintained body temperature.
 Respiratory rate and minute ventilation were significantly
 higher in swine with maintained temperature. The PaCO2 was
 lower and, accordingly, pH was higher in these swine. Blood
 pressure and heart rate were not affected by temperature
 changes.
 
 
 338                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 The reliability of endoscopic examination in assessment of
 arytenoid cartilage movement in horses. II. Influence of side
 of examination, reexamination, and sedation.
 Ducharme, N.G.; Hackett, R.P.; Fubini, S.L.; Erb, H.N.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1991 May.
 Veterinary surgery v. 20 (3): p. 180-184; 1991 May.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Larynx; Respiratory system; Endoscopy;
 Evaluation; Video recordings; Analgesics; Xylazine
 
 
 339                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 C81
 Repetitive injectable anesthesia in a 27-year-old horse.
 Matthews, N.S.; Hartsfield, S.M.; Sanders, E.A.; Light, G.S.;
 Walker, M.A. Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell Veterinarian, Inc; 1993
 Jul.
 The Cornell veterinarian v. 83 (3): p. 219-225; 1993 Jul. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Geriatrics
 
 
 340                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46
 The responses to detomidine usage as a sole agent or in
 combination in the horse.
 Short, C.E.; Otto, K.; Gilbert, M.; Maylin, G.A.
 Manhattan, Kan. : The Association; 1989.
 Proceedings of the annual convention of the American
 Association of Equine Practitioners (35th): p. 153-166; 1989. 
 Meeting held December 3-6 1989, Boston, Massachusetts. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Analgesics; Safety; Anesthetics;
 Anesthesia
 
 
 341                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Resuscitation of anesthetized endotoxemic pigs by use of
 hypertonic saline solution containing dextran.
 Hellyer, P.W.; Meyer, R.E.; Olson, N.C.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1993 Feb. American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (2):
 p. 280-286; 1993 Feb. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Endotoxemia; Endotoxins; Escherichia coli;
 Resuscitation; Dextran; Solutions; Sodium chloride;
 Hemodynamics; Drug effects
 
 Abstract:  We evaluated the biochemical and hemodynamic
 response to hypertonic saline solution plus dextran in
 isoflurane-anesthetized pigs infused IV with Escherichia coli
 endotoxin (5 micrograms/kg of body weight for 0 to 1 hour + 2
 micrograms/kg for 1 to 4 hours). After 120 minutes of
 endotoxemia, pigs were treated with a bolus (4 ml/kg over 3
 minutes) of either normal saline solution (NSS; 0.9% NaCl), or
 hypertonic saline solution plus dextran (HSSD; 7.5% NaCl + 6%
 dextran-70). Administration of HSSD significantly (P < 0.05)
 increased serum osmolality and concentrations of sodium and
 chloride for approximately 2 hours during endotoxemia. Plasma
 total protein concentration decreased significantly (P < 0.05)
 for 2 hours after treatment with HSSD, indicating hemodilution
 and increased plasma volume. Although HSSD transiently
 increased cardiac index (CI) for approximately 15 minutes,
 this effect was not sustained; however, the endotoxin-induced
 decrease in CI was ameliorated from 120 to 180 minutes. In
 pigs of the endotoxin + NSS group from 180 to 240 minutes, CI
 decreased significantly (P < 0.05), compared with baseline and
 control values. The endotoxin-induced increases in mean
 pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance
 were not attenuated by HSSD. At 135 minutes, total peripheral
 vascular resistance was transiently lower (for approx 15
 minutes) in pigs treated with HSSD, compared with control
 pigs. The endotoxin-induced increase in plasma lactate
 concentration was not attenuated by HSSD, indicating continued
 peripheral O2 debt. We conclude that, despite sustained
 increases in serum osmolality and concentrations of sodium and
 chloride, HSSD has only transiently beneficial cardiopulmonary
 effects during endotoxemia in pigs.
 
 
 342                                   NAL Call. No.: SF951.E62
 A review of chemical restraint for standing procedures in the
 horse. Moll, H.D.; Pablo, L.S.; Purohit, R.C.
 Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Publishing
 Company; 1989 Jun. Equine practice v. 11 (6): p. 25-30; 1989
 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Restraint of animals; Anesthetics;
 Neuroleptics
 
 
 343                           NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 A review of equine pain models.
 Matthews, N.S.
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p.
 403-407, 430-432; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Pain; Models; Analgesics; Evaluation
 
 
 344                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.A47
 Role of socialization, stress and sex of chickens on response
 to anesthesia and on response to an organophosphate
 neurotoxicant.
 Odom, A.; Gross, W.B.; Ehrich, M.
 Manhattan, Kan. : Kansas State University; 1992 Apr.
 Veterinary and human toxicology v. 34 (2): p. 134-137; 1992
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Fowls; Stress; Pentobarbital; Neurotoxins
 
 
 345                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Salmonella typhimurium abscess as a postoperative complication
 in a horse with colic.
 Blikslager, A.T.; Wilson, D.A.; Taylor, D.S.; MacFadden, K.E.;
 Fischer, J.R.; Fales, W.H.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1991 Dec15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 199
 (12): p. 1757-1759; 1991 Dec15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Colic; Postoperative complications;
 Abscesses; Salmonella typhimurium; Intramuscular injection;
 Analgesics; Case reports
 
 
 346                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46
 Sedation, analgesia, and anesthesia in equine practice.
 Short, C.E.
 Lexington, Ky. : The Association; 1993.
 Proceedings of the annual convention of the American
 Association of Equine Practitioners. p. 37-49; 1993.  Meeting
 helding on November 29-December 2, 1992, Orlando, Florida. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Drug effects
 
 
 347                                   NAL Call. No.: SF951.J65
 Sedation and analgesia with Dormosedan (detomidine
 hydrochloride) or acepromazine for suturing of the vulvar lips
 in mares (Caslick's surgery). Hamm, D.; Jochle, W.
 Lake Elsinore, Calif. : William E. Jones, DVM; 1991 Mar.
 Journal of equine veterinary science v. 11 (2): p. 86-88; 1991
 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mares; Analgesics; Neuroleptics; Dosage; Vulva;
 Suture; Anesthesia; Drug effects
 
 
 348                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46
 Sedation and anesthesia of the mare during obstetric
 manipulation. LeBlanc, M.M.; Norman, W.M.
 Lexington, Ky. : The Association; 1993.
 Proceedings of the annual convention of the American
 Association of Equine Practitioners. p. 619-622; 1993. 
 Meeting helding on November 29-December 2, 1992, Orlando,
 Florida.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mares; Anesthetics; Dystocia
 
 
 349                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Sedation of horses with romifidine and butorphanol.
 Browning, A.P.; Collins, J.A.
 London : The British Veterinary Association; 1994 Jan22.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 134 (4): p. 90-91; 1994 Jan22.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Analgesics
 
 
 350                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Sedative and cardiovascular effects of midazolam in swine.
 Smith, A.C.; Zellner, J.L.; Spinale, F.G.; Swindle, M.M.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1991 Apr. Laboratory animal science v. 41 (2): p.
 157-161; 1991 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Benzodiazepines; Dosage effects;
 Cardiovascular system; Heart rate; Respiration rate
 
 Abstract:  The ability to reliably produce sedation in swine
 is hampered by the paucity of agents available. This project
 examined the use of a new water soluble benzodiazepine,
 midazolam, as a sedative in swine. Echocardiographic studies
 were performed on thirty 23 to 30 kg Yorkshire swine before
 and 20 minutes after each animal received a single
 intramuscular dose of 100 micrograms/kg midazolam. Heart rate
 and respiratory rate decreased significantly compared to
 nonsedated values (93 +/- 7 versus 117 +/- 2 bpm and 10 +/- 1
 versus 20 +/- 1 breaths/min, respectively [p < 0.05]).
 However, there was no effect on left ventricular fractional
 shortening (29.9 > 0.05 versus 29.5 +/- 0.05% [p > 0.05]). An
 additional five pigs were instrumented for a dose response
 study in order to collect hemodynamic data and blood gas
 values at baseline, and 15 min after the intravenous
 administration of incremental doses of midazolam (100 to 1,000
 micrograms/kg). Despite a significant decrease in heart rate
 and respiratory rate, cardiac output, blood gases, and pH
 remained within normal ranges at all dosage levels. Both
 routes of administration produced sedation for 20 min in all
 animals. Midazolam is an effective swine sedative that is
 associated with stable cardiac function.
 
 
 351                                   NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47
 Sedatives, tranquilizers, and stimulants.
 Dyke, T.M.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders; 1993 Dec.
 The Veterinary clinics of North America. Equine practice v. 9
 (3): p. 621-634; 1993 Dec.  In the series analytic: Drug use
 in performance horses / edited by Kenneth W. Hinchcliff and
 Richard A. Sams.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Neuroleptics; Stimulants; Barbiturates;
 Benzodiazepines; Chloral hydrate; Agonists
 
 
 352                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46
 Selected problems in the draft horse.
 Goble, D.O.
 Manhattan, Kan. : The Association; 1989.
 Proceedings of the annual convention of the American
 Association of Equine Practitioners (34th): p. 607-610; 1989. 
 Meeting held December 4-7, 1988, San Diego, CA.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Draft animals; Feet; Hooves; Anesthesia;
 Laminitis; Osteochondritis; Horse diseases
 
 
 353                           NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 The sheep as a model for experimental pain studies.
 Livingston, A.; Waterman, A.E.; Nolan, A.; Morris, R.; Ley,
 S.J.; Headley, P.M.
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p.
 364-371, 399; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sheep; Pain; Animal experiments; Models;
 Analgesics; Testing; Morphology; Laboratory tests
 
 
 354                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V643
 Short latency auditory evoked potentials recorded from non-
 anaesthetized thoroughbred horses.
 Mayhew, I.G.; Washbourne, J.R.
 London : Bailliere Tindall; 1992 Jul.
 British veterinary journal v. 148 (4): p. 315-327; 1992 Jul. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Brain stem; Bioelectric potential;
 Hearing; Normal values; Recordings
 
 Abstract:  The Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential (BAEP) is a
 recording of the electrical activity of the brainstem
 following an acoustic stimulation. Up to seven peaks may be
 identified within 10 ms, and are labelled I to VII. The first
 five of these peaks are of most clinical importance, and in
 normal horses, peaks I, III and V are always present at
 stimulus intensities of 70-100 dB. Repeated sampling of
 clinically normal subjects at different stimulus intensities
 has enabled mean latency values to be determined for the
 ipsilateral and contralateral peaks I, III and V, and also for
 the interpeak latencies (IPLs) at each intensity. The maximum,
 normal, absolute latency for ipsilateral peak I was 1.86 ms,
 for peak III, 3.53 ms and for peak V, 5.52 ms. The equivalent
 contralateral values were 2.50 ms, 4.44 ms and 5.59 ms. The
 maximum, normal, contralateral IPL, for I-III was 1.78 ms,
 that for III-V was 2.26 ms and for I-V was 3.76 ms. The
 maximum, normal, contralateral IPLs were 2.17 ms for I-III,
 1.41 ms for III-V and 3.32 ms for I-V. If a peak or peaks are
 absent or delayed, or the IPL is greater than expected, the
 patient can be determined to have abnormal brainstem or
 auditory nerve conduction. The amplitudes of peaks I and V
 were measured, and the ratio of amplitudes was determined, to
 find the normal V:I values. At a stimulus intensity of 100 dB,
 the ipsilateral ratio was 0.49+/-0.19, and the contralateral
 value 1.49+/-0.48. Dispersal values were also calculated, by
 dividing the height of the III-V complex by its duration. For
 a stimulus intensity of 100 dB, the ipsilateral dispersal
 value was 0.416+/-0.104 microvolts/ms, and the contralateral
 value of 0.473+/-0.074 microvolts/ms. A range of normal values
 for both V:I ratio and dispersal were calculated. Height,
 weight and inter-aural distance were measured, and the
 relationship of the various peaks and IPLs to these variables
 was ascertained by statistical analysis. For the ipsilateral
 values, the correlation between
 
 
 355                                  NAL Call. No.: QP251.A1T5
 A simplified laparoscopy technique for repeated ovarian
 observation in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).
 Ambrose, J.D.; Manik, R.S.; Singla, S.K.; Madan, M.L.
 Stoneham, Mass. : Butterworth-Heinemann; 1993 Sep.
 Theriogenology v. 40 (3): p. 487-496; 1993 Sep.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Buffaloes; Laparoscopy; Corpus luteum
 
 Abstract:  A simplified technique of laparoscopy was developed
 for ovarian observation in the riverine buffalo, through a
 right paralumbar incision. The technique differed from
 previously described ones in that it involved only a single
 puncture and required no abdominal insufflation. A Hopkins 0
 degree forward viewing endoscope (5.5 mm X 500 mm) in
 combination with an endoscope sheath having a built-in
 instrument channel, and a long flexible forceps (630 mm) were
 used. Of the 23 observation attempts on 13 buffalo, 21
 successful observations were conducted. Laparoscopies were
 performed using a combination of Xylazine, local infiltration
 and epidural anesthesia in a standing position. Six repeated
 observations were made within a 21-day period on 1 buffalo,
 with no postoperative complications. Observation of both left
 and right ovaries was possible through the same puncture. The
 technique was useful in buffalo to confirm ovarian structures
 which could not be determined with certainty through palpation
 per rectum. Our results suggest that the single puncture
 laparoscopy technique can be safely used for repeated ovarian
 examination in the water buffalo.
 
 
 356                                   NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 Single-dose pharmacokinetics of detomidine in the horse and
 cow. Salonen, J.S.; Vaha-Vahe, T.; Vainio, O.; Vakkuri, O.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1989 Mar.
 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 12 (1):
 p. 65-72; 1989 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Cows; Analgesics; Dosage effect;
 Pharmacokinetics; Radioimmunoassay
 
 
 357                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69
 Small intestinal diseases of horses: diagnosis and surgical
 intervention. Mueller, P.O.E.; Parks, A.H.; Baxter, G.M.
 Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Co; 1992 Oct.
 Veterinary medicine v. 87 (10): p. 1030-1036; 1992 Oct. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Intestinal diseases; Small intestine;
 Diagnosis; Surgery; Symptoms; Physiopathology; Abdomen; Pain
 
 
 358                                   NAL Call. No.: SF951.E62
 Standing castration of the llama using butorphanol tartrate
 and local anesthesia.
 Barrington, G.M.; Meyer, T.F.; Parish, S.M.
 Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Publishing
 Company; 1993 May. Equine practice v. 15 (5): p. 35-39; 1993
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Llamas; Castration; Local anesthesia
 
 
 359                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.I4
 Standing chemical restraint in the horse.
 Munroe, G.; Young, L.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1991 Jul.
 In practice v. 13 (4): p. 163-166; 1991 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia
 
 
 360                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Steady-state response characteristics of a pulse oximeter on
 equine intestine. Schmotzer, W.B.; Riebold, T.W.; Rowe, K.E.;
 Scott, E.A.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1991 Apr. American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (4):
 p. 619-626; 1991 Apr. Literature review.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Intestines; Viability; Oxygen;
 Saturation; Blood flow; Instruments; Hemoglobin; Absorption
 
 Abstract:  The steady-state response characteristics of a
 pulse oximeter were evaluated on intestinal segments of seven
 clinically normal halothane-anesthetized horses. Arterial
 oxygen tension > 200 mm of Hg, end tidal carbon dioxide from
 30 to 35 mm of Hg, and systemic mean arterial pressure > 70 mm
 of Hg were maintained throughout the recording periods. Values
 for percentage of pulse oximeter oxygen saturation, pulsatile
 blood flow, and percentage of signal strength were recorded
 from jejunum, ileum, cecum, left ventral colon, left dorsal
 colon, and descending colon. Probe placement on intestinal
 segments was recorded as over or not over visible subserosal
 or transmural vessels. There was no significant difference
 between median values on the basis of vessel codes for pulse
 oximeter oxygen saturations, pulsatile flow, and signal
 strength. Median values recorded for pulse oximeter oxygen
 saturation were 93% from jejunum and ileum and 95% from cecum,
 left ventral colon, left dorsal colon, and descending colon;
 median values for pulsatile flow were 576 from jejunum, 560
 from ileum, 560 from cecum, 574 from left ventral colon, 578
 from left dorsal colon, and 560 from descending colon; median
 values for signal strength were 50% from jejunum, 67.5% from
 ileum, 60% from cecum, 75% from left ventral colon, 50% from
 left dorsal colon, and 52.5% from descending colon. Median
 values obtained from each anatomic location were not
 significantly different for pulsatile flow or signal strength.
 Median pulse oximetry oxygen values recorded from jejunum and
 ileum were significantly lower than values obtained from other
 intestinal segments. When calculated arterial oxygen
 saturation was compared with oxygen saturation determined by
 the pulse oximeter, pulse oximeter oxygen saturation was
 consistently lower by 6.7% (jejunum and ileum) and 4.7%
 (cecum, left ventral colon, left dorsal colon, and descending
 colon). Equine and human absorption spectra were generated and
 compared for reduced hemog
 
 
 361                                      NAL Call. No.: QP1.P4
 Stereotypic behavior, endogenous opioids, and postfeeding
 hypoalgesia in pigs. Rushen, J.; Passille, A.M.B. de;
 Schouten, W.
 Elmsford, N.Y. : Pergamon Press; 1990 Jul.
 Physiology & behavior v. 48 (1): p. 91-96; 1990 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Tethering; Animal behavior; Feeding; Pain;
 Stress; Naloxone
 
 Abstract:  Tethered sows, some of which performed marked
 behavioral stereotypies after feeding, were injected IM with 1
 mg/kg of naloxone 30 min before feeding (with 2 saline control
 days). Tail-flick latencies on a pain-sensitivity test were
 recorded before and after feeding. On control days, tail-flick
 latencies after feeding were longer than those before feeding,
 and this effect was abolished by naloxone pretreatment. Thus,
 there is an opioid-based hypoalgesia after feeding. However,
 sows with marked behavioral stereotypies had shorter tail-
 flick latencies after feeding. Thus, we have no evidence that
 performance of behavioral stereotypies results in increased
 opioid activity. Naloxone reduced the time spent in behavioral
 stereotypies by approximately 30% but this may be due to a
 reduction in time spent active. Naloxone increased the
 frequency and reduced the mean duration of bouts of chain
 manipulating, operating the drinker and rooting. We suggest
 that endogenous opioids are involved in the positive feedback
 that maintains the persistence of behavior and inhibits
 switching between different activities.
 
 
 362                                    NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6
 The stress response to anaesthesia in ponies: barbiturate
 anaesthesia. Taylor, P.M.
 Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1990 Sep.
 Equine veterinary journal v. 22 (5): p. 307-312; 1990 Sep. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Stress response; Respiratory
 system; Barbiturates; Thiopental; Pentobarbital
 
 
 363                           NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 Stress responses to anesthesia in horses.
 Taylor, P.M.
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p.
 322-325, 358-359; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Drug effects; Stress
 
 
 364                                   NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47
 Supportive therapy in the anesthetized horse.
 Daunt, D.A.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders; 1990 Dec.
 The Veterinary clinics of North America : equine practice v. 6
 (3): p. 557-574; 1990 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Therapy; Equipment;
 Respiratory system; Fluid therapy; Cardiovascular system;
 Sodium bicarbonate; Hypotension; Sympathomimetics;
 Norepinephrine; Ephedrine; Dopamine; Isoprenaline; Calcium
 
 
 365                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 Surgical correction of impaction of the proventriculus in
 ostriches. Gamble, K.C.; Honnas, C.M.
 Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company; 1993 Feb.
 The Compendium on continuing education for the practicing
 veterinarian v. 15 (2): p. 235-245; 1993 Feb.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ostriches; Proventriculus; Surgical operations;
 Anesthesia
 
 
 366                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3
 Suspected malignant hypertermia syndrome in a miniature pot-
 bellied pig anesthetized with isoflurane.
 Claxton-Gill, M.S.; Cornick-Seahorn, J.L.; Gamboa, J.C.;
 Boatright, B.S. Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1993
 Nov15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 203
 (10): p. 1434-1436; 1993 Nov15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Miniature pigs; Anesthesia; Inhaled anesthetics;
 Complications; Hyperthermia; Case reports
 
 
 367                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Teaching standard agricultural practices that are known to be
 painful. McGlone, J.J.; Hicks, T.A.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1993
 Apr. Journal of animal science v. 71 (4): p. 1071-1074; 1993
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal welfare; Teaching; Pain; Stress;
 Castration
 
 Abstract:  Animal science faculty teach, demonstrate, and ask
 students to perform procedures that are known to be painful.
 Potentially painful procedures include castration, branding,
 dehorning, ear notching, teeth clipping, beak trimming, comb
 and wattle removal, and tail docking. In each case, the degree
 of pain experienced by an animal is generally not known.
 Furthermore, the consequences of animals having to endure pain
 are also not fully understood. A survey was conducted of
 animal science faculty to identify current departmental
 policies and practices related to castration in beef and swine
 production classes. Departments vary in what they require of
 students. Departments should set a policy to address 1) which
 (and how) potentially painful procedures are taught and 2) how
 the faculty deal with students who refuse to participate in
 putatively painful procedures. The institutional animal care
 and use committee should approve potentially painful teaching
 procedures after instructor and department have concluded that
 teaching such procedures is essential to a complete
 educational experience.
 
 
 368                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 A technique for liver biopsy performed in Pekin ducks using
 anesthesia with Telazol.
 Carp, N.Z.; Saputelli, J.; Halbherr, T.C.; Mason, W.S.;
 Jilbert, A.R. Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for
 Laboratory Animal Science; 1991 Oct. Laboratory animal science
 v. 41 (5): p. 474-475; 1991 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ducks; Liver; Biopsy; Anesthesia; Lidocaine;
 Injectable anesthetics; Safety; Duck hepatitis virus
 
 Abstract:  Infection of Pekin ducks with duck hepatitis B
 virus is a useful model for studying the hepadenoviruses, of
 which human hepatitis B virus is the prototype. The utility of
 this model has been limited, however, by the difficulties
 associated with anesthetizing and obtaining liver biopsies
 from ducks. We developed a technique using Telazol, (13 mg/kg)
 to anesthetize ducks before surgical biopsy of the liver in
 ducks infected with duck hepatitis B virus. Eight Pekin ducks
 infected with duck hepatitis B virus underwent serial biopsies
 at 4- to 5-week intervals. There was one perioperative death
 in 34 surgical procedures with no evidence on intra-abdominal
 sepsis or wound complications. Telazol can be used safely and
 humanely to anesthetize ducks without the need for general
 endotracheal anesthesia.
 
 
 369                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 C81
 Telazol and xylazine anesthesia in sheep.
 Lin, H.C.; Tyler, J.W.; Wallace, S.S.; Thurmon, J.C.; Wolfe,
 D.F. Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell Veterinarian, Inc; 1993 Apr.
 Cornell veterinarian v. 83 (2): p. 117-124; 1993 Apr. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sheep; Anesthesia
 
 
 370                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Temporary bilateral laryngeal paralysis in a horse associated
 with general anaesthesia and post anaesthetic myositis.
 Dixon, P.M.; Railton, D.I.; McGorum, B.C.
 London : The Association; 1993 Jan09.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 132 (2): p. 29-32; 1993 Jan09.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Adverse effects
 
 
 371                                      NAL Call. No.: QP1.C6
 Thyroid regulation of body temperature in anaesthetized
 chickens. Lam, S.K.; Harvey, S.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1990.
 Comparative biochemistry and physiology : A : Comparative
 physiology v. 95 (3): p. 435-439; 1990.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Chickens; Anesthesia; Thyroid function; Body
 temperature; Blood plasma; Triiodothyronine; Thyroxine;
 Somatostatin
 
 
 372                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 SO8
 Tiletamine hydrochloride in combination with zolazepam
 hydrochloride as an anaesthetic agent in sheep.
 Taylor, J.H.; Botha, C.J.; Swan, G.E.; Mulders, M.S.G.;
 Grobler, M.J. Pretoria : The Association; 1992 Jun.
 Journal of the South African Veterinary Association v. 63 (2):
 p. 63-65; 1992 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sheep; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Drug
 formulations; Dosage; Atropine; Preanesthetic medication;
 Blood pressure; Heart rate
 
 
 373                                      NAL Call. No.: QP1.C6
 Tissue blood content in anaesthetised sheep and horses.
 Weaver, B.M.Q.; Staddon, G.E.; Pearson, M.R.B.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1989.
 Comparative biochemistry and physiology : A : Comparative
 physiology v. 94 (3): p. 401-404. ill; 1989.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sheep; Horses; Tissues; Anesthesia; Erythrocytes;
 Blood volume
 
 
 374                                      NAL Call. No.: QP1.C6
 Tissue perfusion in anaesthetised sheep.
 Weaver, B.M.Q.; Staddon, G.E.; Pearson, M.R.B.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1990.
 Comparative biochemistry and physiology : A : Comparative
 physiology v. 95 (3): p. 359-361; 1990.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sheep; Anesthesia; Tissue analysis;
 Radioactivity; Heart output; Blood flow
 
 
 375                                    NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6
 A tracheal tube-in-tube technique for functional separation of
 the lungs in the horse.
 Moens, Y.; Gootjes, P.; Lagerweij, E.
 Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1992 Mar.
 Equine veterinary journal v. 24 (2): p. 103-106; 1992 Mar. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Lungs; Anesthesia; Trachea; Tubes;
 Bronchi; Fiber optics
 
 
 376                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Transport of pigs different with respect to the halothane
 gene: stress assessment.
 Geers, R. \u Catholic University, Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium;
 Bleus, E.; Schie, T. van; Gerard, H.; Janssens, S.; Nackaerts,
 G.; Decuypere, E.; Jourquin, J. Champaign, Ill. : American
 Society of Animal Science; 1994 Oct. Journal of animal science
 v. 72 (10): p. 2552-2558; 1994 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Transport of animals; Halothane
 susceptibility; Heart rate; Body temperature; Hydrocortisone;
 Endorphins; Fasting; Genotypes; Stress; Animal welfare
 
 Abstract:  Two transport experiments were carried out with 18
 pigs each. These pigs originated from three genetic lines
 (homozygous halothane-positive and -negative and
 heterozygotes). Half the pigs were unfed for 12 h before
 transport. All pigs were transported twice for 2 h. Before and
 after transport pigs were anesthetized to take blood samples
 from the jugular vein and biopsies from the biceps femoris. At
 the same time equipment to measure body temperature and heart
 rate were attached or detached. Plasma cortisol and beta-
 endorphin concentrations were measured as well as the glycogen
 concentration in the muscle sample. Line differences were
 detected with respect to body temperature (P < .04)7 heart
 rate (P < .05), and cortisol (P < .01). The withholding of
 feed influenced (P < .04) plasma beta-endorphin concentration.
 Body temperature (P < .02), heart rate (P < .001), cortisol (P
 < .01), and beta-endorphin (P < .001) were different before
 and after transport, whereas a training effect of the
 transport number was observed for heart rate (P < .07) and
 plasma beta-endorphin (P < .02). No interactions between
 treatments were observed. The relationship between cortisol
 and beta-endorphin suggests a nonconcomitant release of ACTH
 and beta-endorphin.
 
 
 377                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 An unusual cause of increasing airway pressure during
 anesthesia. Klein, L.V.; Wilson, D.V.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1989 May.
 Veterinary surgery v. 18 (3): p. 239-241. ill; 1989 May. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mares; Anesthesia; Halothane; Defects; Partial
 pressure
 
 
 378                                    NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6
 Urticarial response during anesthesia in a horse.
 Matthews, N.S.; Light, G.S.; Sanders, E.A.; Hartsfield, S.M.;
 Hustead, D.R. Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1993 Nov.
 Equine veterinary journal v. 25 (6): p. 555-556; 1993 Nov. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Urticaria; Guaifenesin
 
 
 379                           NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 Use of acupuncture for the control of chronic pain and for
 surgical analgesia. Klide, A.M.
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p.
 249-257; 1992. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animals; Horses; Pain; Laminitis; Surgical
 operations; Analgesics; Treatment; Acupuncture
 
 
 380                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V6456
 The use of detomidine as a premedicant and sedative in horses.
 Jones, R.S.
 London : Wright; 1989.
 The Veterinary annual (29): p. 175-177; 1989.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Preanesthetic medication; Agonists;
 Neuroleptics; Analgesics; Anesthesia; Pharmacokinetics;
 Dosage; Adverse effects
 
 
 381                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Use of end-tidal CO2 tension to predict arterial CO2 values in
 isoflurane-anesthetized equine neonates.
 Geiser, D.R.; Rohrbach, B.W.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1992 Sep. American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (9):
 p. 1617-1621; 1992 Sep. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Newborn animals; Carbon dioxide; Blood;
 Anesthesia; Inhaled anesthetics; Lung ventilation
 
 
 382                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R3224
 Use of epidural morphine to relieve pain in a horse.
 Valverde, A.; Little, C.B.; Dyson, D.H.; Motter, C.H.
 Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1990 Mar.
 The Canadian veterinary journal v. 31 (3): p. 211-212; 1990
 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Pain; Conduction anesthesia; Morphine;
 Case reports
 
 
 383                                   NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47
 Use of halothane and isoflurane in the horse.
 Brunson, D.B.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders; 1990 Dec.
 The Veterinary clinics of North America : equine practice v. 6
 (3): p. 529-541; 1990 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Halothane; Nitrous oxide;
 Inhaled anesthetics; Respiratory system; Cardiovascular system
 
 
 384                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.J62
 Use of inhalation anesthesia to facilitate surgical training
 on swine farms. Riebold, T.W.; Ferries, J.V.; Crisman, R.O.
 Blacksburg, Va. : The Association of American Veterinary
 Medical Colleges; 1989.
 Journal of veterinary medical education v. 16 (2): p. 50-52.
 ill; 1989. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Veterinary education; Surgical operations;
 Anesthesia; Apparatus; Halothane; Hyperthermia
 
 
 385                                   NAL Call. No.: SF951.J65
 The use of tiletamine-zolazepam for "darting" feral horses.
 Matthews, N.S.; Myers, M.M.
 Lake Elsinore, Calif. : William E. Jones, DVM; 1993 May.
 Journal of equine veterinary science v. 13 (5): p. 264-267;
 1993 May. Proceedings of the First International Conference on
 Equine Rescue, February 6-7, 1993, Santa Barbara, California. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Carolina; Horses; Feral herds; Anesthesia;
 Restraint of animals
 
 
 386                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69
 Using injectable anesthetic drugs safely in horses.
 Matthews, N.S.; Hartsfield, S.M.
 Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Co; 1993 Feb.
 Veterinary medicine v. 88 (2): p. 154-159; 1993 Feb.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Injectable anesthetics; Anesthesia;
 Preoperative care; Safety
 
 
 387                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69
 Using perineural anesthesia to localize equine lameness.
 Gibson, K.T.; Stashak, T.S.
 Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Company; 1989
 Nov. Veterinary medicine v. 84 (11): p. 1082, 1084-1086; 1989
 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Legs; Lameness; Diagnostic
 techniques
 
 
 388                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69
 Using Telazol-ketamine-xylazine anesthesia for castration of
 cryptorchid pigs. Ko, J.C.H.; Thurmon, J.C.; Benson, G.J.;
 Tranquilli, W.J. Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing
 Co; 1994 Oct. Veterinary medicine v. 89 (10): p. 999-1002;
 1994 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Cryptorchidism; Castration; Anesthesia;
 Injectable anesthetics; Ketamine; Xylazine; Drug combinations;
 Adverse effects
 
 
 389                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Variation in the analgesic effects of xylazine in different
 breeds of sheep. Ley, S.; Waterman, A.; Livingston, A.
 London : The Association; 1990 May19.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 126 (20): p. 508; 1990 May19.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sheep; Xylazine; Breed differences; Clun forest;
 Swaledale; Welsh mountain; Drug effects
 
 
 390                               NAL Call. No.: DISS F1992212
 Ventilation and gas exchange in each lung of the anaesthetised
 horse the influence of body position and mechanical
 ventilation = Ventilatie en gasuitwisseling in iedere long bij
 het geanaestheseerde paarde : invloed van de lichaamspositie
 en van mechanische beademing..  Ventilatie en gasuitwisseling
 in iedere long bij het geanaestheseerde paarde, invloed van de
 lichaamspositie en van mechanische beademing
 Moens, Y.
 Utrecht? : s.n.,; 1992.
 203 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.  Thesis statement, summary, afterword,
 and vita in Dutch.  Includes bibliographical references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 
 391                                    NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6
 Ventilation-perfusion relationships in the anaesthetised
 horse. Nyman, G.; Hedenstierna, G.
 Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1989 Jul.
 Equine veterinary journal v. 21 (4): p. 274-281; 1989 Jul. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Ventilation; Statistical
 analysis
 
 
 392                      NAL Call. No.: 41.2 H198 1989 [no.60]
 Versuche zur Entwicklung einer intramuskularen
 Injektionsananthesie beim Schwein mit Kombinationen von
 Phenothiazinen, Phencyclidinien, Benzodiazepinen,
 Imidazolidinderivaten und morphinahnlichen Analgetika [Trials
 to develop an intramuscular injectable anesthesia with
 combinations of phenothiazines, phencyclidines,
 benzodiazephines, imadazolidine derivatives and morphine-like
 analgesics in swine].
 Ruppert, Konstanze
 Hannover : [s.n.],; 1989.
 175 p. : ill. ; 21 cm.  English summary.  Includes
 bibliographical references (p.163-175).
 
 Language:  German
 
 
 393                           NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 Visceral and peripheral pain detection models in the horse,
 using flunixin and carprofen.
 Schatzmann, U.; Gugelmann, M.; Cranach, J. von; Ludwig, B.M.;
 Rehm, W.F.; Baumgartner, T.; Stauffer, J.L.
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p.
 411-420, 432-433; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Pain; Detection; Models; Antiinflammatory
 agents; Flunixin; Testing; Balloons; Pharmacokinetics;
 Analgesics
 
 
 394                                   NAL Call. No.: SF951.E62
 Waste anesthetic gases in the operating room.
 Greene, S.; Keegan, R.
 Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Publishing
 Company; 1989 Oct. Equine practice v. 11 (9): p. 25-28. ill;
 1989 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthetics; Wastes; Health protection;
 Health hazards; Veterinarians; Abortion; Leakage
 
 
 395                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.I4
 Welfare aspects of castration and tail docking of lambs.
 Wood, G.; Molony, V.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1992 Jan.
 In practice v. 14 (1): p. 2-4, 6-7; 1992 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Uk; Lambs; Castration; Docking; Vasoconstriction;
 Infections; Pain; Local anesthesia; Blood plasma; Animal
 welfare; Complications; Veterinary equipment; Animal behavior;
 Hydrocortisone
 
 
 396                               NAL Call. No.: S13.A53 nr.76
 Wymiana gazowa i hemodynamika koni znieczulanych halotanem z
 oddechem spontaniczym i kontrolowanym = Gas exchange and
 hemodynamics of halothane anesthetized horses with spontaneous
 and controlled ventilation..  Gas exchange and hemodynamics of
 halothane anesthetized horses with spontaneous and controlled
 ventilation
 Ratajczak, Kornel
 Wroclaw : Wydawn. Akademii Rolniczej we Wroclawiu, Katedra i
 Klinika Chirurgii,; 1989.
 69 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. (Zeszyty naukowe Akademii Rolniczej we
 Wroclawiu. Rozprawy, nr. 76).  Summary and subcaptions in
 English.  Includes bibliographical references (p. 63-68).
 
 Language:  Polish
 
 
 397                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Xylazine and tiletamine-zolazepam anesthesia in horses.
 Hubbell, J.A.E.; Bednarski, R.M.; Muir, W.W.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1989 May. American journal of veterinary research v. 50 (5):
 p. 737-742; 1989 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Xylazine; Anesthetics; Anesthesia;
 Cardiovascular system; Respiratory system
 
 Abstract:  The cardiopulmonary and anesthetic effects of
 xylazine in combination with a 1:1 mixture of tiletamine and
 zolazepam were determined in 6 horses. Each horse was given
 xylazine IV or IM, as well as tiletamine-zolazepam IV on 4
 randomized occasions. Anesthetics were administered at the
 rate of 1.1 mg of xylazine/kg of body weight, IV, 1.1 mg of
 tiletamine-zolazepam/kg, IV (treatment 1); 1.1 mg of
 xylazine/kg, IV, 1.65 mg of tiletamine-zolazepam/kg, IV
 (treatment 2); 1.1 mg of xylazine/kg, IV, 2.2 mg of
 tiletamine-zolazepam/kg, IV (treatment 3); and 2.2 mg of
 xylazine/kg, IM, 1.65 mg of tiletamine-zolazepam/kg, IV
 (treatment 4). Tiletamine-zolazepam doses were the sum of
 tiletamine plus zolazepam. Xylazine, when given IV, was given
 5 minutes before tiletamine-zolazepam. Xylazine, when given
 IM, was given 10 minutes before tiletamine-zolazepam.
 Tiletamine-zolazepam induced recumbency in all horses.
 Duration of recumbency in group 1 was 31.9 +/- 7.2 (mean +/- 1
 SD) minutes. Increasing the dosage of tiletamine-zolazepam
 (treatments 2 and 3) significantly (P less than 0.05)
 increased the duration of recumbency. Xylazine caused
 significant (P less than 0.05) decreases in heart rate and
 cardiac output and significant (P less than 0.05) increases in
 central venous pressure and mean pulmonary artery pressure 5
 minutes after administration. Respiratory rate was decreased.
 Arterial blood pressures increased significantly (P less than
 0.05) after xylazine was administered IV in treatments 1 and
 3, but the increases were not significant in treatment 2.
 Xylazine administered IM caused significant (P less than 0.05)
 increases in central venous pressure and significant (P less
 than 0.05) decreases in cardiac output. Tiletamine-zolazepam
 administration caused significant (P less than 0.05) decreases
 in arterial partial pressure of oxygen and arterial pH and
 significant (P less than 0.05) increases in arterial partial
 pressure of carbon dioxide. These changes persisted for the
 durati
 
 
 398                                    NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6
 Xylazine and tiletamine-zolazepam for induction of anaesthesia
 maintained with halothane in 19 horses.
 Abrahamsen, E.J.; Hubbell, J.A.E.; Bednarski, R.M.; Muir,
 W.W.; Macioce, B.A. Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1991 May.
 Equine veterinary journal v. 23 (3): p. 224-225; 1991 May. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Xylazine; Halothane; Blood
 pressure
 
 
 399                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R3224
 Xylazine epidural analgesia for cesarean section in cattle.
 Caulkett, N.; Cribb, P.H.; Duke, T.
 Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association, c1978-; 1993
 Nov. The Canadian veterinary journal; La revue veterinaire
 canadienne v. 34 (11): p. 674-676; 1993 Nov.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle; Caesarean section; Xylazine
 
 
 400                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 Xylazine hydrochloride epidural analgesia: a method of
 providing sedation and analgesia to facilitate castration of
 mature bulls.
 Caulkett, N.A.; Macdonald, D.G.; Janzen, E.D.; Cribb, P.N.;
 Fretz, P.B. Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems
 Company; 1993 Aug. The Compendium on continuing education for
 the practicing veterinarian v. 15 (8): p. 1155-1159; 1993 Aug. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Bulls; Pain; Analgesics; Conduction anesthesia
 

Go to: Author Index | Subject Index | Top of Document

Author Index

 Abdella, M. 294
 Abdella, M.G. 96
 Abrahamsen, E.J. 45, 398
 Adams, J.G. 62
 Aerts, M.M.L. 122
 Aeschbacher, G. 312
 Aguiar, A.J.A. 91
 Ahern, T.J. 70
 Ailes, N. 319
 Akkaya, R. 177
 Al-Badrany, M.S. 127
 Al-Hasan, A.M. 127
 Al-Kassim, N.A. 86
 ALlen, D. 236
 Allen, S.L. 248
 Allen, T. 14
 Allen, W.C. 50
 Ambrose, J.D. 355
 Amin, A. 8, 109, 224
 Amouzadeh, H.R. 177
 Anderson, K.L. 241, 313
 Angenot, L. 223
 Antognini, J.F. 26
 Archer, R.M. 23, 24
 Arden, W.A. 166, 173
 Aucoin, D.P. 313
 Azam, K. 152
 Aziz, H.A. 191
 Badcoe, L.M. 269
 Baggot, J.D. 290
 Bagwell, C.A. 291
 Bailey, C.S. 143
 Bailey, J.E. 248
 Ball, B.A. 126
 Barrington, G.M. 358
 Bartel, D.L. 185
 Bartels, J.E. 99
 Barton, M.H. 202
 Bartram, D.H. 81, 83
 Baumgartner, T. 393
 Baxter, G.M. 174, 245, 357
 Beale, N.J. 163
 Beasley, A. 101
 Beatty, E.R. 36
 Becht, J.L. 221
 Beck, E. 1
 Bednarski, R.M. 45, 144, 155, 176, 233, 397, 398
 Begara, I. 280
 Bellhorn, R.W. 143
 Benharkate, M. 235
 Benson, G.J. 229, 234, 237, 262, 328, 388
 Benthuysen, J.A. 98
 Berkan, T. 29
 Bertone, A.L. 121
 Bertone, J.J. 119
 Betley, M. 10
 Bhattacharya, S.K. 32
 Bienzle, D. 259
 Bindseil, E. 240
 Biswas, J.C. 94
 Black, W.D. 215, 311
 Blais, D. 238
 Blake, J.W. 292
 Blanc, R. 235
 Bleus, E. 376
 Blikslager, A.T. 345
 Bloor, B.C. 61, 337
 Boatright, B.S. 366
 Boatwright, C.E. 147
 Bobilya, D.J. 50
 Bohanon, T.C. 45
 Bolon, B.N. 321
 Bolton, J.R. 175
 Bonica, J.J. 303
 Bosschaerts, L. 247
 Botha, C.J. 372
 Boucheix, O. 235
 Bouchenafa, O. 31
 Bowers, C.L. 41, 95
 Bowker, R.M. 242, 301
 Bowling, A.T. 131
 Boyd, C. 219
 Boyd, C.J. 331
 Brandt, S. 72
 Branson, K.R. 234, 237, 308
 Braun, W. Jr 27
 Brearley, J.C. 266, 322
 Breazile, J.E. 334
 Brewer, T.G. 44
 Brismar, B. 38
 Brock, N. 48, 89, 111
 Brown, M.P. 321
 Browning, A.P. 349
 Brunson, D.B. 60, 249, 383
 Bryant, C.E. 107
 Bulla, J. 118
 Burba, D.J. 326
 Burbidge, H. 269
 Burrows, G. 177
 Camporesi, E. 169
 Carnevale, E.M. 82
 Caron, J.P. 68, 87, 242, 301
 Carp, N.Z. 368
 Cartee, R.E. 99
 Carter, S.W. 57, 321
 Castro, G.B. 91
 Caulkett, N. 399
 Caulkett, N.A. 400
 Causon, R.C. 318
 Chambers, J.P. 11
 Chapman, P.L. 52, 55, 248
 Chen, C.L. 283
 Chou, C.C. 166, 173
 Chrisp, C.E. 310
 Clark, T.P. 214
 Clarke, I.J. 324
 Clarke, K.W. 107, 108, 125
 Claxton, J.M. 215, 311
 Claxton-Gill, M.S. 366
 Clutton, R.E. 83, 142, 219
 Cmarik, G.F. 307
 Collie, D.D.S. 280
 Collins, J.A. 349
 Colwell, J. 180
 Conti, J.C. 99
 Cook, C.J. 116
 Cooper, J.E. 325
 Copland, V.S. 48, 89
 Cordell, C. 71
 Cornick, J.L. 100, 101, 326
 Cornick, J.L. \u Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA
 25
 Cornick-Seahorn, J.L. 366
 Coulson, N.M. 316
 Court, M.H. 80, 204, 210, 254
 Cox, J.F. 156
 Coyez, F. 235
 Cranach, J. von 393
 Cribb, P.H. 6, 399
 Cribb, P.N. 400
 Crisman, R.O. 139, 384
 Crump, K.T. 248
 Cullen, K. 186
 Cullen, L.K. 46, 79, 143, 175
 Curry, S.H. 312
 Curtis, M.B. 23
 Curtis, M.B. \u University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI
 24
 Cuvelliez, S. 207, 238
 Cuvelliez, S.G. 60
 Da Silva Curiel, J. 143
 Daels, P.F. 2
 Dalin, A.M. 154
 Damas, J. 223
 Daunt, D. 89
 Daunt, D.A. 2, 364
 Davies, C. 157
 Davis, J.A. 44
 Day, T.K. 314, 320
 DeBowes, R.M. 4
 Debowes, R.M. 333
 Deby, C. 203
 Deby-Dupont, G. 203
 Decanniere, C. 247
 Decuypere, E. 376
 DeGraves, F.J. 241, 313
 Demme, W.C. 248
 DeQuick, D. 292
 Devine, C.E. 116
 Diamond, M.J. 81, 83
 Dickinson, F. 273
 Dickson, L.R. 269
 Dixon, P.M. 370
 Dobson, A. 141
 Dobson, H. 266, 306, 317
 Dodam, J.R. 135, 169
 Dodd, K.T. 51
 Dodman, N.H. 80, 210
 Doherty, T.J. 212
 Dohoo, S.E. 267
 Dollar, N.S. 230
 Dollars, N.S. 330
 Donaldson, L.L. 39
 Dopson, D.C. \u Brompton Hospital, London 270
 Doran, R. 220
 Dorner, J.L. 234, 237
 Doxey, D.L. 74
 Ducharme, G.R. 114, 115
 Ducharme, N.G. 114, 115, 282, 338
 Duff, S.R.I. 36
 Duffield, A.M. 225
 Duke, T. 399
 Duncan, I.J.H. 36
 Dunlop, C. 85
 Dunlop, C.I. 20, 46, 52, 55, 79, 226, 239, 248
 Dyke, T.M. 351
 Dyson, D. 212
 Dyson, D.H. 252, 259, 331, 382
 Dyson, S.J. 105, 265, 271
 Eades, S.C. 187
 Eberhart, S.W. 53, 64
 Ehrich, M. 344
 Eicker, S.W. 23, 24, 60, 207
 Eisele, J.H. 290
 Eisele, P.H. 26
 Eisenach, J.C. 261
 Eisenhauer, C.L. 299
 Ekstrom, P.M. 113, 190
 El Halawani, M.E. 136
 Elliott, A.R. 79, 143, 290
 Engel, H.N. 243
 England, G.C.W. 107, 108
 Erb, H.N. 282, 338
 Eurell, T. 307
 Evans, N.P. 7
 Ewing, K.K. 19
 Exposito, A.J. 169
 Eyre, P. 142
 Fackelman, G.E. 319
 Fales, W.H. 345
 Fantoni, D.T. 91
 Faraj, E. 75
 Fassbender, C.P. 117
 Faulkner, D.B. 307
 Fawcett, T.A. 169
 Ferguson, D. 329
 Ferries, J.V. 384
 Firth, E.C. 260
 Fischer, J.R. 345
 Fisher, P.E. 179, 184
 Fitzgerald, G. 325
 Fleetwood-Walker, S.M. 183
 Floyd, J.G. Jr 195
 Ford, T.S. 103
 Fretz, P.B. 400
 Friend, T.H. 41, 95
 Frischmeryer, K.J. 213
 Froman, D.P. 243
 Frostell, C. 38
 Fubini, S.L. 147, 338
 Fung, D.L. 123
 Funkquist, B. 38
 Gamble, K.C. 365
 Gamboa, J.C. 366
 Ganter, M. 117
 Gasthuys, F. 274
 Gaughan, E.M. 4, 185, 278
 Gaynor, J.S. 144, 155, 309
 Geers, R. 247
 Geers, R. \u Catholic University, Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium
 376
 Geimer, T.R. 190
 Geiser, D.R. 76, 77, 381
 Genevois, J.P. 235
 Gentle, M.J. 42
 Gerard, H. 376
 Gerring, E.L. 125
 Gibbs, N.M. 133
 Gibson, K.T. 194, 387
 Gilbert, K.V. 116
 Gilbert, M. 340
 Gillespie, J.R. 239
 Gilmour, J.S. 74
 Giri, S.N. 46, 79
 Glatz, P.C. 12
 Gleed, R.D. 96, 141
 Goble, D.O. 231, 352
 Goedseels, V. 247
 Golden, C.S. 248
 Goodship, A.E. 11
 Goossens, L. 9, 108
 Gootjes, P. 130, 375
 Grandy, J.L. 52, 138
 Gray, P.R. 64
 Green, S.L. 321
 Greene, S. 394
 Greene, S.A. 200
 Greenfield, R.E. 44
 Greenlees, K.J. 142
 Gregg, A.S. 81, 83
 Gregoricka, M.J. 10
 Gregory, N.G. 140, 151
 Grissom, K.K. 41, 95
 Grobler, M.J. 372
 Groenendyk, J. 191
 Gronert, G.A. 123
 Grospitch, B.J. 54
 Gross, W.B. 344
 Grubb, T.L. 102, 211
 Gugelmann, M. 393
 Guilbault, L.A. 33
 Hackett, R.P. 338
 Hadi, A.H.A. 297
 Haggendal, J. 154
 Haibel, G.K. 33
 Halbherr, T.C. 368
 Hall, L.W. 146, 191
 Hamm, D. 347
 Hamra, J.G. 291
 Hancock, D. 71
 Hankes, G.H. 99
 Hardee, G.E. 160
 Hardee, M.M. 160
 Harris, T. 67
 Harrison, I.W. 65
 Hartsfield, S.M. 100, 101, 104, 339, 378, 386
 Harvey, S. 371
 Haskins, S.C. 158
 Hawkins, J.K. 139
 Headley, P.M. 353
 Heath, R.B. 52, 85, 248, 275, 276
 Hecke, P. van 247
 Hedenstierna, G. 38, 391
 Hellman, J.M. 129
 Hellyer, P.W. 135, 165, 176, 178, 304, 341
 Hengemuhle, S.M. 173
 Hennig, G.E. 204
 Herzog, D.N. 129
 Hicks, T.A. 367
 Hildebrand, S. 298
 Hildebrand, S.V. 48, 85, 89, 111, 123, 153, 164, 258, 296
 Hill, T. 153
 Hill, T. III 48, 164, 258, 296
 Hillerton, J.E. 47
 Hillman, R.B. 126
 Hinchcliff, K.W. 58
 Hocking, P.M. 36, 37
 Hodgson, D. 85
 Hodgson, D.R. 71
 Hodgson, D.S. 22, 46, 52, 55, 79, 138, 222, 226, 239
 Hodgson, J.C. 74, 183
 Hodson, N. 318
 Hoffsis, G.F. 69
 Holcombe, S. 320
 Holland, M. 39, 89, 153
 Honnas, C.M. 365
 Hoogendoorn, A. 279
 Hornof, W.J. 179, 184
 Hoskinson, J.J. 4
 Howard, B.W. 63
 Huang, Y.C. 169
 Hubbard, N. 273
 Hubbell, J.A.E. 45, 97, 176, 289, 309, 397, 398
 Hubbell, John A. E. 201
 Huber, M.J. 102, 211
 Huber, R. 192
 Hunt, J. 318
 Hunt, R.J. 236
 Hunter, L.N. 42
 Hussni, C.A. 91
 Hustead, D. 210
 Hustead, D.R. 378
 Hyyppa, T. 275
 Iliff-Sizemore, S.A. 310
 Ilkiw, J.E. 98, 295
 Irwin-Davies, J. 75
 Jackson, A.C. 239
 Jackson, Peter 193
 Jacobs, J.R. 215
 Jacobson, J.D. 100, 106
 Janssens, S. 247, 376
 Januszkiewicz, A.J. 51, 63, 316
 Janzen, E.D. 400
 Jarvis, K.A. 79, 143, 290
 Jeffcott, L.B. 324
 Jenkins, O.C. 41, 95
 Jensen, J. 25
 Jensen, L.T. 216
 Jessup, D.A. 162
 Jilbert, A.R. 368
 Jochle, W. 82, 126, 132, 347
 Johnson, C.B. 13, 322
 Johnston, G.M. 197
 Jones, J.H. 123
 Jones, R.B. 42
 Jones, R.S. 81, 83, 266, 306, 317, 380
 Jourdenais, D.A. 57
 Jourquin, J. 376
 Kallfelz, F.A. 159, 278
 Kalsbeek, H.C. 9
 Kamerling, S. 292
 Kamerling, S.G. 291
 Kammerling, S.G. 293
 Kaneps, A.J. 18
 Kannegieter, N.J. 269
 Karjalainen, J. 251
 Ke, Y. 196
 Keates, H. 191
 Keegan, R. 394
 Keegan, R.D. 96, 200
 Kelley, A.B. 138
 Kellon, E. 319
 Kent, J.E. 43, 73
 Keukens, H.J. 122
 Kidd, L. 105
 Kim, C. 61
 Kirby, J.D. 243
 Klein, L. 21, 319
 Klein, L.V. 90, 377
 Klide, A.M. 3, 286, 379
 Klinken, L. 240
 Klis, J.D. van der 279
 Klont, R.E. 149
 Knight, C.H. 47
 Ko, J.C.H. 106, 328, 388
 Koch, S.A. 39
 Kolataj, A. 118
 Kollias-Baker, C.A. 254
 Komsthoft, Ute 49
 Kortz, G. 143
 Kotyk, R. 242
 Koul, G.L. 94
 Kramer, G.C. 158
 Krook, L.P. 185
 Kurpershoek, C.J. 188
 Kvart, C. 38
 Kyles, A. 31
 Kyles, A.E. 30
 Laber-Laird, K. 180
 Lagerweij, E. 130, 375
 Lagutchik, M.S. 51, 63, 285
 Lam, S.K. 371
 Lambooy, E. 149
 Lamy, M. 203
 Larsen, C.T. 142
 Latimer, F.G. 231
 Laverty, S. 238
 Lavoie, J.P. 188
 Lay, D.C. Jr 41, 95
 LeBlanc, M.M. 348
 Leblanc, P.H. 53
 LeBlanc, P.H. 68, 78, 87, 336
 Lee, S.W. 99
 Leith, D.E. 333
 Lerche, E. 238
 Lermioglu, F. 29
 Lester, G.D. 175
 Levine, H. 80
 Levine, H.D. 210
 Ley, J. de 247
 Ley, S. 250, 389
 Ley, S.J. 72, 168, 170, 353
 Light, G.S. 135, 165, 304, 339, 378
 Lin, H.C. 65, 161, 229, 369
 Lin, H.C. \u Auburn University, AL 110
 Lindsay, S.L. 148
 Lindsay, W.A. 23, 24, 249
 Liskey, C.C. 184
 Little, C.B. 382
 Little, T.V. 126
 Livingston, A. 8, 11, 30, 31, 72, 109, 168, 170, 224, 250,
 353, 389
 
 Loeffler, B.S. 166
 Logtestijn, J.G. van 149
 Long, K.J. 83
 Lorenzen, I. 216
 Loscher, W. 117
 Lowe, J.E. 40, 282
 Ludders, J.W. 182, 287
 Ludwig, B.M. 393
 Luhmann, R. 192
 Lujan, L. 280
 Lumsden, J.H. 114, 115
 Luna, S.P.L. 91, 163
 Lundh, B. 38
 Lundquist, H. 38
 Lust, G. 147
 MacAllister, C.G. 150
 Macdonald, D.G. 400
 MacFadden, K.E. 345
 Macioce, B.A. 398
 Mackie, I.M. 152
 Madan, M.L. 355
 Magnusson, U. 154
 Mahmood, S. 94
 Majors, L.J. 249
 Malan, J.H. 302
 Mandsager, R.E. 88
 Manik, R.S. 355
 Mann, K.A. 185
 Marroum, P.J. \u US Food and Drug Administration, Rockville,
 MD 312
 
 Martin, B.B. Jr 3, 286
 Martin, D.G. 51, 63, 285
 Mason, D.E. 172
 Mason, W.S. 368
 Massone, F. 91
 Mather, L.E. 244, 246
 Matsuda, L.S. 299
 Matthews, N.S. 100, 101, 104, 148, 230, 326, 330, 339, 343,
 378, 385, 386
 Maurizi, M.G. 50
 Mayhew, I.G. 354
 Maylin, G.A. 96, 340
 McCarthy, R.N. 324
 McCarty, J.E. 329
 McGlone, J.J. 129, 367
 McGorum, B.C. 370
 McGrath, C.J. 106
 McKinnon, A.O. 82
 McLauchlan, C. 60
 McLean, C.F. 244
 McMurphy, R.M. 6
 McNeal, D. 98
 McNeilly, J.R. 7
 Meagher, D.M. 85, 275
 Mellor, D.J. 167, 183
 Meschter, C. 282
 Messen, J. 156
 Meyer, R.E. 178, 341
 Meyer, T.F. 358
 Miller, S.M. 104
 Mitchell, G.S. 182, 287
 Mitra, S.K. 32
 Moens, Y. 35, 130, 375, 390
 Mohammad, F.K. 86, 127
 Mohammed, H. 185
 Mohan Raj, A.B. 140, 151
 Moll, H.D. 342
 Molony, V. 5, 43, 73, 167, 183, 395
 Moon, P.F. 158, 213, 305
 Moon, R.E. 169
 Moor, A. de 274
 Moore, J.N. 160, 187, 236, 245
 Moore, R.M. 145
 Mora, G. 156
 Morris, R. 353
 Mosier, D.A. 4
 Mottart, E. 203
 Motter, C.H. 382
 Mueller, P.O.E. 357
 Muir, W.W. 58, 69, 97, 206, 397, 398
 Muir, W.W. III 17, 45, 54, 66, 92, 144, 155, 172, 176, 181,
 233, 253, 257, 315, 320
 Muir, William,_1946- 201
 Mulders, M.S.G. 372
 Mundie, T.G. 285
 Munroe, G. 359
 Murphy, L.B. 12
 Murray, R.C. \u Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 4
 Mustafa, M.R. 297
 Myers, M.M. 385
 Nabuurs, M.J.A. 279
 Nackaerts, G. 376
 Nancarrow, C. 244
 Nann, L.E. 90
 Nesvadba, P. 152
 Nicholson, A. 295
 Nicholson, R.I. 129
 Nixon, A.J. 185
 Nolan, A. 109, 353
 Nolan, A.M. 332
 Nordheim, E.V. 182
 Norman, W.M. 1, 348
 Nussbaum, M. 199
 Nyberg, L. 154
 Nyman, G. 38, 391
 Odom, A. 344
 Ohl, M.W. 307
 Olesen, P. 216
 Olson, K.N. 90
 Olson, N.C. 169, 341
 Olson, W.A. 229, 234, 237, 328
 Orsini, P.G. 103
 Osburn, B.I. 162
 Ott, R.S. 307
 Otto, B. 159
 Otto, K. 159, 189, 294, 340
 Ozer, A. 29
 Pablo, L. 99
 Pablo, L.S. 342
 Pairet, M. 235
 Pardy, R.L. 157
 Pare, P.D. 157
 Parish, S.M. 358
 Parks, A.H. 173, 357
 Parks, A.K. 174
 Parmentier, D. 274
 Parry, B.W. 71
 Pascoe, J.R. 2, 85, 188
 Pascoe, P.J. 114, 115, 215, 252, 311, 331
 Passille, A.M.B. de 361
 Pearson, M.R.B. 373, 374
 Pemberton, A.D. 74
 Penny, C.D. 34
 Perron, P.R. 158
 Peterson, P.R. 84
 Philipart, C. 203
 Phillips, R.E. 136
 Pilsworth, R.C. 218
 Pincemail, J. 203
 Pirie, R.S. 34
 Pitt, M.D. 228
 Pollet, R.A. 10
 Poltarsky, J. 118
 Poortman, J. 130
 Porter, M. 205
 Prasse, K.W. 174
 Preston, A.P. 12
 Prugner, W. 192
 Purohit, R.C. 99, 214, 342
 Qualls, C.W. Jr 177
 Quandt, S.K.F. 302
 Quetin-Leclercq, J. 223
 Raath, J.P. 302
 Raekallio, M. 251
 Raffe, M.R. 209
 Railton, D.I. 370
 Randel, R.D. 41
 Randle, R.F. 195
 Randolph, M.M. 323
 Ratajczak, Kornel 396
 Reed, S.M. 112
 Rehm, W.F. 393
 Reibold, T.W. 211
 Reid, J. 332
 Reid, W.D. 157
 Reilly, P.J. 225
 Rex, M.A.E. 191
 Rice, R. 64
 Riebold, T. W. 327
 Riebold, T.W. 16, 18, 102, 139, 288, 360, 384
 Ripple, G.R. 316
 Risteli, J. 216
 Robbins, R.L. 65, 110
 Robertson, I.S. 73, 167
 Robertson, S.A. 57, 283, 284, 321
 Robinson, E.P. 209
 Robinson, G.M. 249
 Robinson, N.E. 64
 Rockershouser, S.J. 242
 Rode, J. 182, 287
 Roder, J.D. 177
 Roelvink, M.E.J. 9
 Rohrbach, B.W. 381
 Rollin, B. 28
 Romero, J.M. 265
 Rose, E.M. 84
 Rose, J.A. 84
 Rose, M.D. 124
 Rosenberg, H. 319
 Ross, M.W. 103, 186
 Rowe, K.E. 360
 Runciman, W.B. 244, 246
 Rupp, Andreas 208
 Ruppert, Konstanze 392
 Rush, H.G. 310
 Rushen, J. 361
 Rutkowski, J.A. 186, 187
 Salonen, J.S. 356
 Samour, J.H. 75
 Sams, R. 181
 Sanders, E. 96, 264
 Sanders, E.A. 339, 378
 Sangiah, S. 150, 177
 Sanhouri, A.A. 306, 317
 Sansom, R.E. 311
 Saputelli, J. 368
 Sargison, N.D. 34
 Sauvageau, R. 238
 Sawyer, M.M. 162
 Schatzmann, U. 393
 Schie, T. van 376
 Schmotzer, W.B. 16, 18, 277, 360
 Schouten, W. 361
 Schumacher, J.P. 1
 Schwark, W.S. 282
 Scott, E.A. 360
 Scott, P.R. \u Veterinary Field Station, Midlothian, Scotland
 34
 Serteyn, D. 203
 Shawley, R.V. 88, 230, 272, 330
 Shearer, G. 124
 Shepherd, M.C. 218
 Shields, R.P. 321
 Short, C.E. 96, 113, 159, 189, 190, 264, 294, 340, 346
 Shorten, G.D. 133
 Silsby, J.L. 136
 Silva-Krott, I. 231
 Simonsen, H.B. 240
 Singla, S.K. 355
 Skarda, R.T. 66, 69, 97, 253, 314, 315
 Slade, E.A. 160
 Slater, M.R. 104
 Smith, A. 180
 Smith, A.C. 350
 Smith, C.M. 79
 Smith, D.A. 259
 Smith, J. 152
 Smith, J.A. 55
 Smith, V.L. 106
 Snyder, J.R. 158
 Soma, L.R. 56, 90
 Sonea, I.M. 242
 Spano, J.S. 161
 Spinale, F.G. 350
 Sponenberg, D.P. 219
 Springbett, A.J. 7
 Squires, E.L. 82
 St Jean, G. 69, 253
 Staddon, G.E. 373, 374
 Stashak, T.S. 194, 387
 Stauffer, J.L. 393
 Steel, C.J. 57
 Steele, C.J. 283
 Steenhaut, M. 274
 Steffey, E.P. 2, 46, 79, 85, 138, 143, 215, 232, 239, 275,
 290, 335
 
 Stewart, R.H. 112
 Stick, J.A. 137, 166, 173
 Stolk, P.W.T. 260
 Strachan, N.J.C. 152
 Strandberg, A. 38
 Suann, C.J. 225
 Sullivan, M. 171
 Suter, C.M. 305
 Sutherland, S.F. 10
 Swan, G.E. 372
 Swanson, C.R. 169, 304
 Swindle, M.M. 15, 180, 350
 Symonds, H.W. 196
 Tackett, R.L. 245
 Tagawa, M. 290
 Tai, C. 292
 Tavener, A. 116
 Taylor, D.S. 345
 Taylor, J.H. 372
 Taylor, P.M. 13, 134, 163, 217, 322, 362, 363
 Testa, M. 209
 Teverson, R.M. 47
 Thatcher, W.W. 33
 Theil, D.R. 169
 Thurgate, S.M. 175
 Thurmon, J.C. 65, 110, 161, 227, 229, 234, 237, 255, 262, 275,
 281, 308, 328, 369, 388
 Timm, K.I. 277
 Tits, M. 223
 Tobin, T. 292
 Todhunter, R.J. 147
 Tokics, L. 38
 Toppin, D.S. 301
 Tracy, C.H. 264
 Tranquilli, W.A. 328
 Tranquilli, W.J. 229, 234, 237, 256, 281, 307, 388
 Trim, C.M. 62, 145, 160, 198, 329
 Trout, D.R. 179, 184
 Tyler, J.W. 110, 161, 369
 Tyler, L.M. 55
 Upton, R.N. 244, 246
 Ustunes, L. 29
 Uyehara, C.F.T. 299
 Vaha-Vahe, T. 356
 Vainio, O. 251, 356
 Vainio, O.M. 61, 337
 Vakkuri, O. 356
 Valliant, A.E. 212, 259
 Valverde, A. 212, 259, 331, 382
 Van Slyke, G.L. 275
 Vanstapel, F. 247
 Verschooten, F. 274
 Veum, T.L. 50
 Vex, K.B. 242
 Ville, H. 247
 Villeneuve, P. 33
 Vogel, C. 120
 Waddington, D. 42
 Wagner, A.E. 20, 54, 58, 233, 248
 Walker, M.A. 339
 Wallace, R. 159
 Wallace, R.J. 278
 Wallace, S.S. 65, 110, 369
 Wallis, A.S. 93
 Wan, P.Y. \u Chino Valley Equine Hospital, Chino, CA 231
 Ward, J.L. 219
 Warren, P.M. 280
 Washbourne, J.R. 354
 Washino, R.K. 162
 Waterman, A. 250, 389
 Waterman, A.E. 8, 11, 30, 31, 72, 109, 168, 170, 224, 353
 Watney, G.C.G. 1, 333
 Watson, J.W. 239
 Watson, T.D.G. 171
 Watt, N.J. 280
 Weaver, A.D. 263
 Weaver, B.M.Q. 373, 374
 Webb, A.I. 312
 Webb, R. 7
 Weckman, T.J. 292
 Weisbrode, S.E. 112
 Welles, E.G. 161
 Welsh, E. 332
 Wensing, T. 9
 Wertz, E.M. 275
 Wheat, J.D. 85
 White, D.A. 123
 White, K.K. 71
 Whitehair, K.J. 333, 335
 Wikeem, B.M. 228
 Wilkie, D.A. 300
 Wilkins, P.A. 282
 Williams, B.L. 106
 Williams, J.D. 100, 101
 Williams, L.L. 254
 Willitis, N.H. 335
 Willits, N. 2, 46, 79, 85, 138, 232, 290
 Wilson, D.A. 345
 Wilson, D.V. 56, 64, 137, 377
 Wilson, R.C. 214
 Winter, A. 47
 Wolfe, D.F. 110, 161, 369
 Woliner, M. 232
 Woliner, M.J. 79, 138, 143, 215, 290, 335
 Wong, P. 48, 85
 Wood, G. 395
 Wood, G.N. 5, 183
 Wood, T. 292
 Woods, G.L. 126
 Work, T.M. 162
 Wotton, S.B. 140
 Yang, Jyan-Ming, 128
 Yeager, A.E. 185
 Young, D.B. 330
 Young, L. 359
 Young, L.E. 81, 83
 Young, S.S. 13, 59, 146, 217, 268, 322
 Youngren, O.M. 136
 Zangana, I.K. 86
 Zanini, V. 235
 Zaugg, J.L. 199
 Zellner, J.L. 350
 Zhang, W. 247
 Zijderveld, F.G. van 279
 Zinn, G. 307
 


Go to: Author Index | Subject Index | Top of Document


Subject Index

 Abdomen 33, 40, 114, 115, 191, 199, 291, 357
 Abortion 394
 Abscesses 310, 345
 Absorption 360
 Accuracy 1, 213
 Acid base equilibrium 213
 Acupuncture 3, 286, 379
 Acute course 168
 Adhesions 174, 185
 Administration 97, 117
 Adrenal glands 167
 Adverse effects 6, 26, 44, 45, 46, 56, 69, 91, 107, 108, 142,
 158, 164, 182, 188, 198, 203, 214, 249, 264, 272, 285, 296,
 313, 316, 326, 329, 370, 380, 388
 Africa 223
 Age 94, 260
 Age differences 37, 43, 73, 129, 197
 Agonists 31, 58, 108, 109, 125, 159, 177, 261, 351, 380
 Alabama 214
 Alpha-adrenergic receptors 58, 107, 109, 159
 Amino acids 116
 Analeptics 134
 Analgesics 8, 10, 12, 14, 15, 19, 29, 31, 53, 57, 58, 74, 76,
 80, 82, 86, 97, 98, 103, 105, 109, 126, 129, 132, 148, 159,
 166, 171, 186, 187, 192, 198, 202, 214, 220, 221, 223, 224,
 225, 241, 255, 261, 265, 292, 303, 307, 311, 313, 315, 322,
 323, 338, 340, 343, 345, 347, 349, 353, 356, 379, 380, 393,
 400
 Analogs 257
 Anesthesia 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22,
 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 31, 35, 38, 39, 45, 46, 48, 51, 52, 56,
 59, 60, 62, 65, 66, 67, 70, 75, 76, 77, 79, 81, 84, 85, 88,
 89, 90, 91, 92, 94, 96, 98, 100, 103, 104, 106, 108, 110, 113,
 117, 119, 120, 121, 130, 133, 134, 135, 138, 139, 140, 141,
 142, 143, 144, 145, 151, 153, 154, 156, 157, 158, 160, 161,
 162, 163, 164, 169, 172, 175, 177, 178, 181, 182, 189, 190,
 191, 194, 195, 196, 197, 200, 203, 204, 206, 207, 210, 212,
 213, 215, 217, 222, 226, 227, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234,
 235, 237, 238, 239, 245, 248, 249, 255, 256, 258, 259, 260,
 261, 262, 264, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 276,
 277, 279, 280, 281, 283, 284, 288, 289, 290, 294, 296, 298,
 299, 300, 302, 303, 305, 306, 309, 310, 316, 317, 318, 319,
 320, 321, 326, 328, 329, 330, 331, 333, 336, 337, 339, 340,
 346, 347, 352, 359, 362, 363, 364, 365, 366, 368, 369, 370,
 371, 372, 373, 374, 375, 377, 378, 380, 381, 383, 384, 385,
 386, 387, 388, 391, 397, 398
 Anesthetics 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 25, 27, 58, 61, 63, 71,
 76, 77, 84, 86, 87, 93, 101, 111, 116, 120, 142, 152, 155,
 157, 176, 197, 209, 222, 243, 251, 252, 255, 256, 262, 264,
 269, 272, 276, 277, 287, 326, 337, 340, 342, 348, 372, 394,
 397
 Animal anatomy 328
 Animal behavior 28, 37, 43, 129, 335, 361, 395
 Animal experiments 72, 109, 273, 353
 Animal health 93
 Animal husbandry 270
 Animal models 50, 216, 270, 299
 Animal physiology 299
 Animal proteins 216
 Animal research 28
 Animal tissues 124, 246
 Animal welfare 12, 28, 37, 41, 95, 129, 140, 151, 279, 323,
 334, 367, 376, 395
 Animals 303, 379
 Anions 213
 Antagonists 64, 137, 156, 163, 266
 Anthelmintics 62
 Antibacterial agents 202
 Anticoagulants 174
 Antifungal agents 202
 Antihistaminics 150
 Antihypertensive agents 165
 Antiinflammatory agents 9, 10, 29, 119, 192, 223, 393
 Antipyretics 29
 Anxiety 32
 Aorta 33
 Apparatus 40, 384
 Arrhythmia 144, 165, 251, 304
 Arteries 33, 35, 99, 141
 Artificial insemination 243
 Artificial respiration 233, 239, 268
 Asclepiadaceae 297
 Ataxia 66, 69
 Atelectasis 38
 Atp 247
 Atropine 165, 262, 372
 Autonomic nervous system 304
 Autosomes 131
 Back 286
 Bacteria 279, 310
 Balloons 40, 393
 Barbiturates 94, 172, 262, 351, 362
 Bark 223
 Beef cattle 41
 Behavior 32
 Behavior change 42, 183
 Behavioral resistance 95
 Benzocaine 44, 285
 Benzodiazepines 91, 230, 330, 350, 351
 Betamethasone 36, 37
 Bile 196
 Bioelectric potential 354
 Biopsy 47, 50, 368
 Birds 267
 Bloat 173
 Blockage 274
 Blood 1, 25, 26, 54, 162, 213, 241, 244, 246, 312, 317, 381
 Blood chemistry 2, 46, 149
 Blood coagulation 174
 Blood flow 55, 99, 166, 187, 282, 360, 374
 Blood glucose 317
 Blood ph 54
 Blood plasma 41, 73, 95, 117, 118, 168, 170, 174, 183, 203,
 266, 306, 318, 371, 395
 Blood pressure 2, 16, 25, 48, 52, 53, 54, 59, 62, 64, 110,
 135, 166, 173, 176, 187, 200, 215, 248, 251, 257, 288, 289,
 312, 335, 372, 398
 Blood protein 335
 Blood proteins 20, 174, 213
 Blood sampling 167
 Blood serum 74, 216, 307, 313
 Blood specimen collection 33
 Blood sugar 266, 306
 Blood vessel disorders 99
 Blood vessels 236
 Blood volume 20, 373
 Bluetongue virus 162
 Body fat 246
 Body fluids 174
 Body regions 309
 Body temperature 86, 215, 337, 371, 376
 Body weight 280
 Boluses 296
 Bone fractures 218
 Bones 50, 242, 259
 Botanical composition 228
 Bovine mastitis 241
 Brain 189
 Brain stem 354
 Branding 41, 95
 Breed differences 197, 389
 British Columbia 228
 Broilers 37, 151, 177
 Bronchi 375
 Buffaloes 355
 Bulls 400
 Caesarean section 22, 34, 219, 226, 399
 Calcium 364
 Calves 167, 307
 Cannulation 33, 259
 Carazolol 124
 Carbon dioxide 2, 35, 140, 143, 151, 152, 169, 233, 239, 381
 Cardiac output 52, 187, 200, 257
 Cardiac rhythm 21
 Cardiovascular agents 252, 304
 Cardiovascular system 21, 26, 53, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61,
 62, 69, 79, 91, 97, 137, 138, 158, 160, 172, 182, 200, 233,
 245, 251, 253, 288, 315, 316, 337, 350, 364, 383, 397
 Carpus 71, 103
 Cartilage 147
 Case reports 23, 24, 39, 65, 112, 219, 231, 271, 285, 320,
 321, 326, 345, 366, 382
 Case studies 45, 319, 331
 Castration 5, 28, 43, 73, 129, 167, 183, 226, 229, 307, 358,
 367, 388, 395
 Catecholamines 154, 233
 Catheterization 31
 Catheters 33, 97, 102, 207
 Cats 20
 Cattle 33, 54, 80, 139, 195, 199, 212, 263, 272, 274, 315, 399
 Cecum 175, 186, 187
 Central nervous system 72, 253, 288, 294
 Cerebrospinal fluid 143, 145
 Cervidae 162
 Chemoprophylaxis 331
 Chickens 127, 142, 259, 371
 Chicks 297
 Chloral hydrate 76, 262, 351
 Chloralose 157
 Chloride 213
 Chondrocytes 147
 Chronic course 168
 Clenbuterol 169
 Closed systems 90
 Clun forest 389
 Cold storage 152
 Colic 9, 10, 114, 115, 132, 220, 291, 345
 Collagen 216
 Colon 137, 175, 186, 282
 Color 149
 Color patterns 131
 Colts 231
 Community ecology 228
 Complications 21, 25, 112, 238, 272, 275, 308, 320, 321, 366,
 395
 Computed tomography 38
 Computer analysis 114, 115
 Concentration 100, 215
 Conception 94
 Conduction anesthesia 34, 53, 66, 68, 87, 102, 112, 199, 211,
 219, 308, 382, 400
 Connective tissue 216
 Consciousness 140, 151
 Contraction 326
 Convulsions 116, 140, 151
 Copper 196
 Cornea 202, 300
 Corpus luteum 94, 355
 Corticotropin 167
 Cortisol 317
 Costs 121
 Cows 55, 68, 69, 253, 266, 356
 Creatine kinase 118
 Cryptorchidism 388
 Culicoides variipennis 162
 Cutting 5
 Dairy cattle 210
 Dairy cows 47, 95, 97, 241, 313
 Death 219
 Debeaking 12, 42
 Decision analysis 114
 Decision making 121
 Defects 377
 Degeneration 36
 Deglutition 171
 Dehydration (physiological) 221
 Depth 16
 Detection 124, 225, 292, 393
 Determination 122
 Detomidine 11, 66, 127, 172
 Detoxicants 236, 253
 Dextran 158, 341
 Diagnosis 202, 277, 357
 Diagnostic techniques 99, 194, 387
 Diameter 99
 Diaphragm 191
 Diazepam 32, 63, 76, 111, 172, 230, 262, 316
 Digestive disorders 291, 318
 Digits 263
 Disease course 241
 Disease vectors 162
 Docking 43, 73, 183, 240, 395
 Dogs 20, 98, 290
 Dominance 131
 Dopamine 160, 236, 245, 257, 364
 Dosage 8, 26, 30, 31, 64, 68, 108, 133, 144, 188, 192, 215,
 224, 257, 296, 304, 311, 347, 372, 380
 Dosage effect 356
 Dosage effects 7, 132, 151, 181, 215, 245, 350
 Double muscling 274
 Doxapram 134
 Draft animals 76, 77, 352
 Drinking water 42
 Droperidol 30
 Drug antagonism 163, 253
 Drug combinations 9, 30, 65, 78, 91, 101, 102, 110, 127, 155,
 157, 182, 211, 262, 264, 272, 316, 330, 388
 Drug effects 4, 5, 9, 10, 26, 31, 58, 66, 69, 80, 85, 89, 91,
 107, 132, 155, 159, 163, 166, 172, 175, 186, 192, 224, 241,
 250, 258, 261, 294, 312, 315, 341, 346, 347, 363, 389
 Drug formulations 372
 Drug metabolism 246
 Drug residues 122, 124
 Drug resistance 118
 Drug testing 128
 Drug therapy 119, 200, 202, 204, 206, 303
 Drugs 78, 93, 141
 Duck hepatitis virus 368
 Ducks 182, 287, 368
 Duration 2, 46, 68, 79, 102, 132, 198, 211, 250, 264, 329
 Dyes 242
 Dystocia 22, 65, 348
 Ears 333
 Edema 320
 Electrical activity 175
 Electrical stimulation 59
 Electrical treatment 116
 Electrocardiograms 110
 Electrocardiography 288
 Electrocution 152
 Electroencephalograms 13, 140, 189, 190
 Electromyography 186, 191
 Electrophysiology 314
 Embryo transfer 94
 Embryos 94
 Endorphins 136, 324, 376
 Endoscopy 338
 Endotoxemia 341
 Endotoxins 160, 241, 341
 Enkephalins 136
 Enzyme activators 177
 Enzyme activity 46, 118, 149, 282
 Enzyme inhibitors 177
 Ephedrine 52, 364
 Epinephrine 41, 144, 154, 170, 251
 Equations 213
 Equipment 21, 88, 207, 288, 364
 Erythrocytes 373
 Escherichia coli 160, 241, 341
 Esophagus 171
 Estimation 115
 Estradiol 33
 Ethanol 112
 Ethnobotany 223
 Etiology 74, 204, 319
 Etorphine 5, 75
 Evaluation 212, 338, 343
 Ewes 34, 63, 67, 219, 280
 Excretion 196
 Exercise 123
 Exhaustion 16, 221
 Experimental infections 241
 Eye diseases 226
 Eyelids 300
 Eyes 39, 300
 Eyes (animal) 143
 Failure 21
 Fasting 317, 376
 Fat 244
 Feces composition 228
 Feed conversion 307
 Feed intake 12, 307
 Feeding 361
 Feeding preferences 228
 Feet 184, 352
 Fentanyl 30, 109
 Feral herds 385
 Fiber optics 375
 Fibrinogen 174
 Fibrinolysis 174
 Fibronectins 147
 Field experimentation 162
 Fluid therapy 158, 364
 Fluids 16, 221
 Flunixin 10, 150, 393
 Fluorescence 122
 Foaling 22
 Foals 57, 84, 85, 222, 281
 Food analysis 124
 Food contamination 124
 Food storage 152
 Foot rot 168, 170, 250
 Forage 228
 Fowls 12, 140, 151, 295, 344
 Fractures 226
 Free radicals 203
 Freezing 41
 Frogs 297
 Fsh 94
 Gamma-aminobutyric acid 116
 Gas chromatography 225
 Gas exchange 38, 130, 169
 Gases 25, 26, 54, 213, 266, 312, 317
 Gastric ulcer 150
 Gastrointestinal diseases 226
 Genes 131
 Genotypes 149, 376
 Gentamicin 258
 Gentianaceae 29
 Geriatrics 339
 Globulins 154
 Glycosaminoglycans 147
 Glycosides 297
 Gnrh 7
 Goat breeds 94
 Goats 19, 26, 94, 99, 156, 193, 198, 214, 272, 306, 317, 332
 Golden hamster 157
 Gradients 260
 Grass sickness 74, 171, 318
 Grasses 228
 Grasslands 228
 Grazing effects 228
 Guaifenesin 65, 81, 91, 111, 144, 161, 175, 252, 262, 329, 378
 Halothane 2, 13, 26, 35, 39, 46, 52, 59, 60, 79, 84, 85, 91,
 99, 100, 104, 118, 133, 134, 135, 138, 142, 143, 144, 146,
 148, 149, 153, 160, 164, 165, 166, 175, 176, 181, 203, 207,
 209, 215, 230, 232, 234, 247, 249, 252, 304, 319, 335, 377,
 383, 384, 398
 Halothane susceptibility 376
 Handling 167, 270
 Haptoglobins 307
 Healing 150, 185
 Health hazards 394
 Health protection 394
 Hearing 354
 Heart 51, 178
 Heart output 374
 Heart rate 25, 41, 54, 58, 59, 85, 86, 95, 110, 135, 187, 188,
 251, 257, 264, 306, 312, 335, 350, 372, 376
 Heat tolerance 8
 Hematocrit 20, 312, 335
 Hematology 46
 Hemodynamics 17, 26, 55, 66, 169, 178, 181, 187, 232, 233,
 234, 235, 304, 341
 Hemoglobin 333, 360
 Hemorrhage 20, 213
 Hens 42, 136, 140, 151, 243
 Hips 36
 Histamine 318
 Histology 240
 Histopathology 240
 Holstein-friesian 97
 Hooves 352
 Hormone secretion 7, 136
 Hormones 283, 284
 Horse diseases 291, 352
 Horses 1, 3, 4, 6, 9, 10, 11, 13, 16, 17, 20, 21, 23, 24, 28,
 35, 38, 40, 45, 46, 48, 52, 53, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 62, 64,
 65, 70, 71, 74, 76, 77, 78, 79, 81, 82, 83, 84, 87, 88, 89,
 90, 91, 92, 96, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 107, 108, 111,
 112, 113, 114, 115, 119, 120, 121, 123, 125, 126, 130, 131,
 132, 134, 135, 137, 138, 141, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148,
 150, 153, 155, 158, 159, 160, 163, 164, 165, 166, 169, 171,
 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 179, 181, 184, 185, 187, 188, 189,
 190, 191, 192, 194, 197, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206,
 207, 209, 215, 217, 218, 220, 221, 225, 226, 227, 229, 230,
 232, 233, 234, 236, 237, 238, 239, 242, 245, 248, 249, 251,
 252, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 260, 262, 264, 265, 267, 268,
 269, 271, 275, 277, 278, 281, 282, 283, 284, 286, 288, 289,
 291, 292, 293, 294, 298, 300, 301, 304, 305, 309, 311, 312,
 314, 315, 318, 319, 321, 322, 324, 327, 329, 330, 331, 333,
 335, 336, 338, 339, 340, 342, 343, 345, 346, 349, 351, 352,
 354, 356, 357, 359, 360, 362, 363, 364, 370, 373, 375, 378,
 379, 380, 381, 382, 383, 385, 386, 387, 391, 393, 394, 397,
 398
 Hplc 124
 Hyaluronic acid 4, 185
 Hydrocortisone 41, 73, 74, 95, 154, 167, 168, 183, 266, 306,
 307, 376, 395
 Hydrogen ions 213
 Hypercapnia 143, 144, 233
 Hyperkalemia 321
 Hypertension 326
 Hyperthermia 21, 319, 366, 384
 Hypotension 21, 64, 200, 219, 249, 252, 261, 364
 Hypothalamus 7, 136
 Hypothermia 21
 Hypoxia 6, 21
 Iatrogenic diseases 275
 Ice 152
 Ileum 175
 Illinois 229
 Imagery 152
 Immobilization 75
 Immune response 137
 In vitro 245, 246
 Induction 150
 Infection 162
 Infections 395
 Infiltration 103
 Inflammation 4, 192, 249
 Infusion 4, 136
 Inhalation 328
 Inhaled anesthetics 2, 26, 85, 104, 144, 146, 180, 207, 267,
 275, 281, 290, 299, 335, 366, 381, 383
 Inheritance 131
 Injectable anesthetics 7, 51, 59, 101, 110, 242, 262, 263,
 281, 308, 325, 332, 368, 386, 388
 Injection 30, 66, 90, 112, 259, 265
 Injections 71, 97, 103, 164, 256
 Injuries 221
 Instruments 1, 333, 360
 Intensive care 119
 Interactions 258, 290
 Internal pressure 143, 173, 232, 260
 Intestinal absorption 279
 Intestinal diseases 173, 357
 Intestinal motility 175
 Intestinal obstruction 220, 282
 Intestine motility 186
 Intestines 173, 360
 Intramuscular injection 147, 266, 328, 345
 Intravenous injection 30, 107, 108, 161, 192, 296, 313, 325,
 328
 Ions 213
 Ischemia 137, 282
 Isolation 94
 Isomers 337
 Isoprenaline 364
 Jejunum 166
 Joint diseases 36, 271
 Joints (animal) 71, 103, 105, 147, 194, 242, 265, 271, 277
 Ketamine 63, 65, 81, 91, 101, 111, 117, 127, 135, 161, 175,
 177, 181, 182, 229, 243, 259, 262, 316, 325, 329, 330, 388
 Kidneys 122
 Kids 86, 167
 Laboratory animals 28, 44, 270, 303
 Laboratory diagnosis 93
 Laboratory rearing 273
 Laboratory tests 72, 109, 353
 Lacrimal apparatus 300
 Lactating females 313
 Lactic acid 213
 Lambs 5, 7, 43, 73, 167, 183, 395
 Lameness 105, 168, 170, 194, 234, 271, 277, 387
 Laminitis 352, 379
 Laparoscopy 355
 Laparotomy 23, 24, 126, 174, 198, 210, 226, 243, 318
 Larynx 45, 226, 274, 310, 338
 Latex 242
 Laying performance 243
 Leakage 394
 Legs 11, 387
 Lesions 275
 Lh 7
 Lidocaine 34, 71, 102, 139, 183, 198, 211, 219, 244, 246, 368
 Ligaments 242
 Light traps 162
 Limbs 246, 277
 Line differences 7
 Lines 7
 Lipid peroxidation 203
 Liquid chromatography 122
 Liquids 90
 Literature reviews 202, 204
 Liver 177, 246, 368
 Liver function 46
 Livestock 14, 303, 323, 334
 Liveweight gain 129, 307
 Llamas 18, 39, 211, 276, 296, 358
 Local anesthesia 5, 179, 183, 184, 218, 250, 263, 277, 278,
 309, 314, 336, 358, 395
 Local anesthetics 139, 244, 246, 278, 293, 314
 Locomotion 37, 311
 Longissimus dorsi 118
 Longitudinal studies 197
 Losses 20
 Lung ventilation 59, 130, 188, 232, 239, 268, 381
 Lungs 38, 51, 320, 375
 Lymph 216
 Macaca mulatta 290
 Male animals 317
 Male fertility 37
 Mammary glands 47
 Management 276
 Mares 2, 22, 66, 126, 186, 347, 348, 377
 Mass spectrometry 225
 Massachusetts 210
 Measurement 1, 100, 152, 200, 292, 333
 Meat quality 149
 Mechanical stimulation 8
 Medetomidine 337
 Medical research 323
 Medical treatment 10, 20, 114
 Medicinal properties 185
 Membranes 203
 Metabolism 225, 283, 284
 Metabolites 117, 149, 216
 Metacarpus 103
 Metatarsus 260, 265
 Methemoglobinemia 44, 285
 Methodology 43, 73
 Methoxamine 252
 Mice 177
 Microsomes 177
 Milk 241, 313
 Milk yield 47
 Miniature pigs 15, 27, 61, 180, 235, 270, 328, 337, 366
 Mobilization 70
 Models 40, 159, 213, 343, 353, 393
 Monitoring 16, 200, 281, 288
 Morphine 5, 76, 126, 290, 382
 Morphology 353
 Mortality 197
 Motility 187
 Mouth 59, 275
 Mucosa 59
 Muscle contraction 178, 257
 Muscle physiology 149
 Muscle relaxants 89, 123, 133, 153, 164, 255, 258, 295, 296,
 298, 331
 Muscle tissue 297
 Muscles 175, 186, 191, 247, 249
 Muscular diseases 21, 203, 204, 217, 319, 331
 Mycotic keratitis 202
 Myocardium 142
 Naloxone 5, 37, 183, 291, 361
 Neck 99
 Neonates 222
 Neoplasms 4, 226
 Neostigmine 173, 186
 Nerve tissue 4, 297
 Nervous system 277
 Nervous system diseases 249
 Netherlands 122
 Neurectomy 4
 Neuroleptics 16, 30, 76, 78, 122, 124, 262, 264, 312, 342,
 347, 351, 380
 Neuromuscular diseases 231
 Neurons 309
 Neurophysiology 297
 Neurotoxins 74, 344
 Newborn animals 50, 281, 299, 381
 Nitrous oxide 209, 383
 Non-steroidal antiinflammatory agents 241, 313
 Norepinephrine 41, 154, 170, 364
 Normal values 280, 354
 North Carolina 385
 Nose 285
 Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy 247
 Opioid peptides 37, 136, 291
 Opioids 31, 76, 109, 215, 293, 311
 Opium 78
 Oral administration 150, 313
 Orthopedics 226
 Osteoarthritis 301
 Osteochondritis 352
 Ostriches 25, 75, 302, 326, 365
 Ovariectomy 126, 154, 226
 Ovaries 226
 Oviducts 126
 Ovis canadensis 228
 Oxygen 1, 2, 6, 39, 56, 60, 141, 169, 209, 232, 234, 239, 333,
 360
 Oxygen consumption 166, 173
 Oxygen transport 207
 Pain 3, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 28, 30, 36, 37, 40, 41, 42, 43,
 59, 70, 72, 73, 95, 109, 114, 129, 159, 168, 170, 183, 192,
 205, 250, 265, 271, 286, 291, 292, 301, 303, 323, 334, 343,
 353, 357, 361, 367, 379, 382, 393, 395, 400
 Paint 131
 Panax pseudoginseng 32
 Paralysis 45, 297
 Parasites 93
 Parasympatholytics 9
 Paresis 34
 Partial pressure 6, 56, 141, 143, 377
 Pathogenesis 137, 320
 Pathology 204, 269
 Pennsylvania 90
 Pentobarbital 142, 157, 212, 236, 299, 306, 317, 344, 362
 Perfusion 279
 Perineum 68
 Peripheral nerves 45, 240, 242, 336
 Peristalsis 171
 Pethidine 76, 109, 246
 Ph 312
 Phalanges 236, 242
 Pharmacodynamics 117, 123, 290, 292, 312, 314
 Pharmacokinetics 98, 117, 123, 192, 215, 267, 290, 311, 312,
 313, 314, 332, 356, 380, 393
 Pharmacology 29, 223
 Phenothiazines 91, 262
 Phlebitis 269
 Phosphocreatine 247
 Phospholipids 64, 137
 Physical activity 36
 Physical therapy 70
 Physicochemical properties 267
 Physiological functions 51, 86, 294, 315
 Physiopathology 357
 Pig housing 270
 Pigeons 325
 Piglets 50, 235, 240, 299
 Pigmeat 149
 Pigs 106, 117, 118, 122, 129, 133, 149, 154, 178, 213, 216,
 240, 247, 270, 272, 273, 279, 290, 308, 310, 341, 350, 361,
 376, 384, 388
 Pituitary 7, 167
 Plant communities 228
 Plant composition 297
 Plant ecology 228
 Plant extracts 29, 297
 Plant succession 228
 Plasminogen 174
 Platelets 64, 137
 Pmsg 94
 Poisoning 196
 Porcine stress syndrome 149
 Position 54, 55, 130, 141
 Postmortem changes 149
 Postoperative care 204, 284, 322, 323
 Postoperative complications 4, 17, 23, 24, 34, 92, 197, 204,
 231, 274, 331, 345
 Posture 138
 Postweaning interval 279
 Potassium 213
 Preanesthetic medication 34, 83, 91, 125, 172, 272, 372, 380
 Prediction 247
 Prednisolone 147
 Pregnancy 2, 55
 Preoperative care 386
 Pressure 188
 Prevention 204
 Procaine 97
 Progesterone 33
 Prognosis 202
 Prolactin 136, 168
 Promazine 76
 Propranolol 233
 Protein synthesis 147
 Proteoglycans 147
 Proventriculus 365
 Pulse 288
 Pulse rate 211
 Rabbits 98
 Race horses 128
 Racing pigeons 93
 Radioactivity 374
 Radiography 226, 271, 278
 Radioimmunoassay 128, 356
 Rams 7, 34
 Rats 32, 223, 297
 Receptors 116, 292
 Recordings 13, 354
 Recovery 2, 104, 335
 Reflexes 116, 135, 176
 Regression analysis 280
 Rehydration 221
 Renal function 46
 Reproductive disorders 126
 Reproductive organs (animal) 82
 Requirements 181, 337
 Research 303
 Resistance 146
 Respiration 91, 146, 280, 312, 316
 Respiration rate 2, 25, 54, 86, 110, 188, 211, 264, 306, 335,
 350
 Respiratory disorders 38
 Respiratory gases 8, 56, 130, 161, 188, 224, 335
 Respiratory system 26, 55, 58, 59, 60, 69, 79, 97, 134, 138,
 158, 172, 182, 227, 253, 288, 315, 337, 338, 362, 364, 383,
 397
 Responses 59
 Restraint 256
 Restraint of animals 76, 77, 78, 92, 119, 121, 342, 385
 Restricted feeding 37
 Resuscitation 341
 Risk 121, 197
 Roots 32
 Rumen motility 69, 86
 Rump 244, 246
 Safety 85, 121, 267, 325, 340, 368, 386
 Saline water 158, 252
 Saliva 196
 Salmonella typhimurium 345
 Sampling 100
 Saturation 333, 360
 Scintigraphy 179, 184
 Screening 292
 Seasonal variation 197
 Seeds 297
 Serous bursa 105, 242
 Sex differences 118, 197
 Sexual behavior 37
 Sheep 8, 19, 30, 31, 51, 72, 98, 109, 110, 116, 161, 162, 168,
 170, 193, 196, 224, 244, 246, 250, 261, 272, 285, 316, 353,
 369, 372, 373, 374, 389
 Shock 221
 Shrubs 228
 Skeletal muscle 244, 246
 Skeletomuscular anomalies 37
 Skin 246
 Skin temperature 41
 Slaughter 152
 Small intestine 279, 357
 Sodium 213
 Sodium bicarbonate 364
 Sodium chloride 178, 341
 Solutions 158, 178, 252, 341
 Somatostatin 371
 Spain 265
 Spasms 9, 223
 Species differences 44, 98, 167, 290
 Spectral analysis 189
 Spinal cord 261, 309
 Spine 70
 Sports medicine 205
 Stallions 320
 Statistical analysis 315, 391
 Steers 307
 Stimulants 351
 Stimuli 224
 Stomach 220
 Stomach motility 253
 Storage 162
 Strain differences 270
 Stress 41, 167, 266, 284, 306, 344, 361, 363, 367, 376
 Stress response 206, 362
 Strychnos henningsii 223
 Stunning 116, 140, 151
 Superovulation 94
 Surgery 20, 43, 48, 73, 81, 90, 104, 114, 121, 210, 217, 229,
 231, 300, 357
 Surgical equipment 40
 Surgical operations 27, 39, 40, 82, 89, 126, 195, 197, 199,
 216, 226, 274, 283, 284, 303, 365, 379, 384
 Survival 94, 115, 129, 274
 Suture 347
 Suxamethonium 28
 Swaledale 389
 Swelling 4
 Sympathomimetics 364
 Symptoms 93, 202, 204, 357
 Synovial fluid 71, 105
 Synovial sheaths 185
 Tail 5, 112, 240
 Tail biting 240
 Tarsus 265
 Teaching 367
 Technetium 278
 Techniques 22, 222, 308
 Temperature 42, 162
 Tendons 11, 185
 Tension 35
 Testing 31, 72, 109, 261, 353, 393
 Testosterone 317
 Tests 279
 Tethering 361
 Texel 280
 Therapy 6, 205, 221, 281, 303, 364
 Thiomolybdates 196
 Thiopental 175, 259, 362
 Thoracic duct 216
 Thrombosis 269
 Thyroid function 371
 Thyroxine 371
 Tidal volume 59, 188
 Time 104, 121, 335
 Timing 143
 Tissue analysis 374
 Tissues 234, 373
 Tongue 333
 Topical application 44, 285
 Torsion 137
 Toxemia 160
 Toxicity 261
 Trachea 195, 275, 310, 375
 Traditional medicines 223
 Transit time 171
 Transport of animals 266, 306, 376
 Trauma 11, 70, 221, 282, 320
 Treatment 93, 204, 271, 320, 379
 Trichlorfon 62, 153
 Triflupromazine 94
 Triiodothyronine 371
 Trout 152
 Tubes 195, 275, 310, 375
 Turkey 29
 Turkeys 36, 136
 Udders 199
 Uk 81, 105, 217, 395
 Ultrasonics 248
 Ultrasound 99
 Ultraviolet spectroscopy 122
 Uptake 244, 246
 Urethane 157
 Urine 196, 225
 Urticaria 378
 Uterus 55
 Vasectomy 34
 Vasoconstriction 64, 395
 Vasoconstrictor agents 135
 Vasopressin 168
 Venous circulation 219
 Ventilation 21, 88, 391
 Ventilators 88, 207, 239, 268
 Ventricles 326
 Veterinarians 394
 Veterinary anesthesia 201, 327
 Veterinary education 384
 Veterinary equipment 43, 48, 73, 395
 Veterinary medicine 267, 270
 Viability 360
 Video recordings 338
 Vigor 228
 Vulva 347
 Wastes 394
 Welsh mountain 389
 Xanthine dehydrogenase 282
 Xanthine oxidase 282
 Xylazine 5, 31, 34, 53, 57, 58, 65, 68, 69, 76, 81, 87, 99,
 101, 102, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 126, 135, 161, 163, 172,
 175, 177, 182, 186, 187, 188, 195, 199, 210, 211, 243, 250,
 253, 254, 262, 264, 266, 283, 315, 329, 330, 338, 388, 389,
 397, 398, 399
 Yohimbine 156
 Young animals 272
 


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https://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/pubs/oldbib/qb9513.htm, April 19, 1998