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Anesthesia and Analgesia for Companion and Laboratory Animals

Animal Welfare Information Center
United States Department of Agriculture
National Agricultural Library

ISSN: 1052-5378

Quick Bibliography Series, QB 95-12
January 1989 - January 1995

Updates QB 94-18

362 citations in English from AGRICOLA
March 1995

Compiled By:
Tim Allen
Animal Welfare Information Center, Information Centers Branch
National Agricultural Library, Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture
10301 Baltimore Ave., Beltsville, Maryland 20705-2351


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National Agricultural Library Cataloging Record:

 Allen, Tim
   Anesthesia and analgesia for companion and laboratory
 animals : January 1989-January 1995.
   (Quick bibliography series ; 95-12)
   1. Animal anesthesia--Bibliography. 2. Laboratory animals--
 Bibliography. I. Title.
 aZ5071.N3 no.95-12
 

Search Strategy

   Line Description
   ---- -----------
   1.   anesthe? or anasthe? or anaesthe? or analges? or pain?
        or distress or tranquil? or anxiolytic? or
        neuroleptanalges? or paralytic? or hypnotic? or
        sedative? or neuromuscular(W)block? or hypothermia
   2.   rabbit? or dog or dogs or cat? or puppy or puppies or
        kitten? or rat or rats or mouse or mice or
        guinea(W)pig? or hamster? or gerbil? or ferret? or
        vole? or rodent? or primate? or monkey? or squirrel? or
        fish? or frog? or amphibian? or xenopus or bufo
   3.   (S1 and S4)/title
   4.   S4 and PY=1989:1995
   5.   S4 and LA=English
 

 1                                     NAL Call. No.: SF601.P76
 Acupuncture-produced surgical analgesia--physiology,
 indications, techniques, and limitations.
 Klide, A.M.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Co; 1992 Mar.
 Problems in veterinary medicine v. 4 (1): p. 200-206; 1992
 Mar.  In the series analytic: Veterinary acupuncture / edited
 by A. M. Schoen.  Literature review.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Domestic animals; Anesthesia; Surgery; Mode
 of action; Acupuncture; Restraint of animals
 
 
 2                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Acute effects of a gamma-glutamylated derivate of
 S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine on renal function and
 ultrasturcture in pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs: site-
 specific toxicity involving S1 and S2 cells of the proximal
 tubule.
 Ridgewell, R.E.; Krejci, M.E.; Koechel, D.A.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1992 May. American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (5):
 p. 840-846; 1992 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cysteine; Derivatives; Renal function;
 Ultrastructure; Kidneys; Toxins; Toxicity
 
 Abstract:  It has been established that L-gamma-glutamylated
 derivatives of alpha-amino acids are delivered more
 efficiently to the kidneys than are the parent alpha-amino
 acids. Therefore, we synthesized
 L-gamma-glutamyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (L-gamma-
 glutamyl-L-DCVC), the simplest L-gamma-glutamylated derivative
 of the nephrotoxic alpha-amino acid S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-
 cysteine (L-DCVC), and investigated its effects on renal
 function and ultrastructure in pentobarbital-anesthetized
 dogs. Intravenous doses of 23.15 and 92.60 micromoles of L-
 gamma-glutamyl-L-DCVC/kg of body weight induced significant
 increases in urinary protein output and significant decreases
 in the clearance of inulin during the 6-hour post-injection
 period. Changes were not observed in any of the other 13 renal
 function variables or in the 11 plasma and blood variables
 that were monitored throughout the same period. Both doses of
 L-gamma-glutamyl-L-DCVC induced renal ultrastructural lesions
 in the S1 and S2 cells of the canine proximal tubule; the
 remaining 8 cell types downstream and the glomeruli were not
 damaged. The onset and magnitude of renal function changes and
 the cell types affected by L-gamma-glutamyl-L-DCVC were
 virtually identical to those observed previously following IV
 administration of equivalent doses of L-DCVC to pentobarbital-
 anesthetized dogs. Rapid removal of the L-gamma-glutamyl group
 from L-gamma-glutamyl-L-DCVC (ie, deglutamylation) resulting
 in formation of the parent alpha-amino acid, L-DCVC, can best
 explain the extreme similarity in the nephrotoxic profiles of
 these 2 toxicants.
 
 
 3                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis in a dog after halothane
 anaesthesia and administration of flunixin meglumine and
 trimethoprim-sulphadiazine. McNeil, P.E.
 London : The Association; 1992 Aug15.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 131 (7): p. 148-151; 1992 Aug15.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Postoperative complications; Nephritis;
 Renal failure; Halothane; Anesthesia; Flunixin; Trimethoprim;
 Sulfadiazine; Ischemia; Case reports
 
 
 4                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Adaptation of human oscillometric blood pressure monitors for
 use in dogs. Hunter, J.S. Jr; McGrath, C.J.; Thatcher, C.D.;
 Remillard, R.L.; McCain, W.C. Schaumburg, Ill. : American
 Veterinary Medical Association; 1990 Sep. American journal of
 veterinary research v. 51 (9): p. 1439-1442; 1990 Sep.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Monitors; Blood pressure; Measurement;
 Modification; Veterinary equipment
 
 Abstract:  Two digital oscillometric human blood pressure
 measuring devices were modified and evaluated as blood
 pressure monitors in 12 healthy anesthetized dogs. Direct
 arterial pressures were measured via cannulation of the dorsal
 pedal artery and were correlated with indirect measurements
 through an inflatable cuff placed over the dorsal pedal artery
 below the hock joint of the contralateral limb. Direct and
 indirect measurements were compared for systolic, diastolic,
 and calculated mean arterial pressures. Blood pressure ranges
 between 215/145 mm of Hg and 65/30 mm of Hg were obtained,
 using combinations of halothane, phenylephrine, calcium, and
 IV administered fluids. Machine A was found to be insufficient
 for clinical application, on the basis of correlation
 coefficients between direct and indirect pressures of 0.78,
 0.65, and 0.74 for systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial
 pressures, respectively. Higher correlation coefficients
 between direct and indirect pressures (0.77, 0.87, and 0.87,
 respectively) were obtained with machine B. The results of the
 study reported here suggest machine B may be an effective
 blood pressure monitoring device in anesthetized dogs.
 
 
 5                                      NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Adverse effects of administration of propofol with various
 preanesthetic regimens in dogs.
 Smith, J.A.; Gaynor, J.S.; Bednarski, R.M.; Muir, W.W.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1993 Apr01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 202
 (7): p. 1111-1115; 1993 Apr01.  Paper presented at the
 symposium on "Animals and the environment: Impacts on
 veterinary medicine," Boston, Massachusetts.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Preanesthetic medication; Anesthetics;
 Adverse effects; Diazepam; Anesthesia
 
 
 6                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 alpha 2-Adrenergic receptor agonist effects on
 supraventricular and ventricular automaticity in dogs with
 complete atrioventricular block. Day, T.K.; Muir, W.W. III
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1993 Jan. American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (1):
 p. 136-141; 1993 Jan. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Alpha-adrenergic receptors; Agonists;
 Narcotic antagonists; Xylazine; Ventricles
 
 Abstract:  Complete atrioventricular block was induced in 26
 pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs to determine the effects of
 the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor agonists, xylazine and
 medetomidine, on supraventricular and ventricular
 automaticity. Prazosin and atipamezole, alpha-adrenoceptor
 antagonists, were administered to isolate alpha 1- or alpha 2-
 adrenoceptor effects. Six dogs served as controls and were
 given glycopyrrolate (0.1 mg/kg of body weight, IV) and
 esmolol (50 to 75 microgram/kg/min, IV) to induce
 parasympathetic and beta 1-adrenergic blockade, respectively.
 Eight dogs were given sequentially increasing doses of
 xylazine (n = 5), 0.000257 mg (10(-9)M) to 25.7 mg (10(-4)M)
 and medetomidine (n = 3), 0.000237 mg (10(-9)M) to 2.37 mg
 (10(-5) < M) after parasympathetic and beta 1-adrenergic
 blockade. Twelve dogs were given xylazine (n = 6, 1.1 mg/kg,
 IV) or medetomidine (n = 6, 0.05 mg/kg, IV) after
 parasympathetic and beta 1-adrenergic blockade. Three dogs
 given xylazine and 3 dogs given medetomidine were administered
 prazosin (0.1 mg/kg, IV) followed by atipamezole (0.3 mg/kg,
 IV). The order of prazosin and atipamezole was reversed in the
 remaining 3 dogs given either xylazine or medetomidine.
 Complete atrioventricular block and administration of
 glycopyrrolate and esmolol resulted in stable supraventricular
 and ventricular rates over a 4-hour period. Increasing
 concentration of xylazine or medetomidine did not cause
 significant changes in supraventricular or ventricular rate.
 Xylazine and medetomidine, in the presence of the alpha-
 adrenoceptor antagonists, prazosin (alpha(1)) and atipamezole
 (alpha(2)), did not cause significant changes in
 supraventricular or ventricular rate. alpha 2-Adrenoceptor
 agonists do not induce direct alpha 1-or alpha 2-adrenoceptor-
 mediated depression of supraventricular or ventricular rate in
 dogs with complete atrioventricular block.
 
 
 7                                  NAL Call. No.: RA1270.P35A1
 Alteration in the tranquilizing potency of chlorpromazine in
 rats exposed chronically to the insecticide, endosulfan.
 Paul, V.; Balasubramaniam, E.; Kazi, M.
 New York : Springer-Verlag, 1966-; 1994 Nov.
 Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology v. 53
 (5): p. 655-662; 1994 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Endosulfan; Chlorpromazine; Exposure;
 Interactions; Neurophysiology; Animal behavior; Rats
 
 
 8                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Alterations in the arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine after
 xylazine or medetomidine administration in halothane-
 anesthetized dogs. Lemke, K.A.; Tranquilli, W.J.; Thurmon,
 J.C.; Benson, G.J.; Olson, W.A. Schaumburg, Ill. : American
 Veterinary Medical Association; 1993 Dec. American journal of
 veterinary research v. 54 (12): p. 2132-2138; 1993 Dec.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Epinephrine; Arrhythmia; Xylazine;
 Medetomidine; Halothane; Parasympatholytics
 
 Abstract:  Eight dogs (12.5 to 21.5 kg) were assigned at
 random to each of 3 groups that were not given glycopyrrolate
 (HS, HX, HM) and to each of 3 groups that were given
 glycopyrrolate (HGS, HGX, HGM). Dogs were anesthetized with
 halothane (1.31% end-tidal concentration), and ventilation was
 controlled (P(CO2) 35 to 40 mm of Hg end-tidal concentration).
 Glycopyrrolate was administered IV and IM at a dosage of 11
 micrograms/kg of body weight, each. Saline solution, xylazine
 (1.1 mg/kg, IM), or medetomidine (15 micrograms/ kg, IM) was
 administered 10 minutes after baseline arrhythmogenic dose of
 epinephrine (ADE) determination. Redetermination of the ADE at
 the same infusion rate was started 10 minutes after drug
 administration. Arrhythmogenic dose was determined by constant
 infusion of epinephrine at rates of 1.0 and 2.5
 micrograms/kg/min. The ADE was defined as the total dose of
 epinephrine inducing at least 4 ectopic ventricular
 depolarizations within 15 seconds during a 3-minute infusion
 or within 1 minute after the end of the infusion. Total dose
 was calculated as the product of infusion rate and time to
 arrhythmia. Statistical analysis of the differences between
 baseline ADE and posttreatment ADE for groups HS, HX, and HM
 was performed by use of one-way ANOVA. Mean +/- SEM baseline
 ADE values for groups HS, HX, and HM were 1.50 +/- 0.11, 1.49
 +/- 0.10, and 1.57 +/- 0.22 micrograms/kg, respectively, and
 for groups HGS, HGX, and HGM were 3.37 +/- 0.61, 3.10 +/-
 0.75, and 3.04 +/-0.94 micrograms/kg, respectively.
 Differences for groups HS, HX, and HM were -0.02 +/- 0.15,
 -0.00 +/- 0.14, and -0.21 0.17 micrograms/kg, respectively,
 and for groups HGS, HGX, and HGM, were -0.59 +/- 0.26, -0.41 +/-
  0.15, and -0.58 +/- 0.20 micrograms/kg, respectively.
 Differences among groups HS, HX, and HM, or among groups HGS,
 HGX, and HGM were not significant. We conclude that without
 and with cholinergic blockade in halothane-anesthetized dogs:
 preanesthetic dosages of xylazine (1.1 mg/kg, IM) or
 medetomidine (15 micrograms/kg, IM) do not enhance
 arrhythmogenicity, and at these dosages, there is no
 difference in the arrhythmogenic potential of either alpha 2-
 adrenoceptor agonist.
 
 
 9                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Alterations in the arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine after
 xylazine or medetomidine administration in isoflurane-
 anesthetized dogs. Lemke, K.A.; Tranquilli, W.J.; Thurmon,
 J.C.; Benson, G.J.; Olson, W.A. Schaumburg, Ill. : American
 Veterinary Medical Association; 1993 Dec. American journal of
 veterinary research v. 54 (12): p. 2139-2144; 1993 Dec.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Epinephrine; Arrhythmia; Xylazine;
 Medetomidine; Parasympatholytics; Inhaled anesthetics
 
 Abstract:  Eight dogs (body weight, 12.5 to 21.5 kg) were
 assigned at random to each of 3 treatment groups (IS, IX, IM)
 that were not given glycopyrrolate and to each of 3 groups
 that were given glycopyrrolate (IGS, IGX, IGM). Dogs, were
 anesthetized with isoflurane (1.95% end-tidal concentration),
 and ventilation was controlled (PCO2, 35 to 40 mm of Hg end-
 tidal concentration). Glycopyrrolate was administered IV and
 IM at a dosage of 11 micrograms/kg of body weight, each.Saline
 solution, xylazine (1.1 mg/kg, IM), or medetomidine (15
 micrograms/kg, IM) was administered 10 minutes after baseline
 ADE determination. Redetermination of the ADE at the same
 infusion rate was started 10 minutes after drug
 administration. Arrhythmogenic dose was determined by constant
 infusion of epinephrine at rates of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0
 micrograms/kg/min. The ADE was defined as the total dose of
 epinephrine that induced at least 4 ectopic ventricular
 depolarizations within 15 seconds during a 3-minute infusion,
 or within 1 minute after the end of the infusion. Total dose
 was calculated as the product of infusion rate and time to
 arrhythmia. Statistical analysis of the differences between
 baseline and treatment ADE values was performed by use of one-
 way ANOVA. Mean +/- SEM baseline ADE values for groups IS, IX,
 and IM were 1.55 +/- 0.23, 1.61 +/-0.28, and 1.95 +/- 0.65
 micrograms/kg, respectively. Differences for groups IS, IX,
 and IM were -0.12 +/- 0.05, -0.31 +/- 0.40, and -0.17 +/-
 0.26, respectively. Differences for groups IGS, IGX, and IGM
 could not be calculated because arrhythmias satisfying the ADE
 criteria were not observed at the maximum infusion rate of 5.0
 micrograms/kg/min. Differences among groups IS, IX, and IM
 were not significant. We conclude that in isoflurane-
 anesthetized dogs: preanesthetic dosages of xylazine (1.1
 mg/kg, IM) or medetomidine (15 micrograms/kg, IM) do not
 enhance arrhythmogenicity, and at these dosages, there is no
 difference in the arrhythmogenic potential of either alpha 2-
 adrenergic receptor agonist.
 
 
 10                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69
 An alternative drug combination for use in declawing and
 castrating cats. Ko, J.C.H.; Thurmon, J.C.; Tranquilli, W.J.
 Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Co; 1993 Nov.
 Veterinary medicine v. 88 (11): p. 1061-1065; 1993 Nov. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Anesthesia; Drug combinations; Anesthetics;
 Intramuscular injection; Castration; Claws; Surgical
 operations
 
 
 11                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V643
 Anaesthesia and central nervous system disease in small
 animals. I. general considerations.
 Court, M.H.; Dodman, N.H.; Norman, W.M.; Seeler, D.C.
 London : Bailliere Tindall; 1990 Jul.
 British veterinary journal v. 146 (4): p. 285-295; 1990 Jul. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cat; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Central
 nervous system; Nervous system diseases; Hypertension;
 Surgical operations; Physiopathology; Blood flow; Treatment
 
 
 12                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V643
 Anaesthesia and central nervous system disease in small
 animals. II. anaesthetic management for specific diseases and
 procedures. Court, M.H.; Dodman, N.H.; Norman, W.M.; Seeler,
 D.C.
 London : Bailliere Tindall; 1990 Jul.
 British veterinary journal v. 146 (4): p. 296-308; 1990 Jul. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cat; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Nervous
 system diseases; Central nervous system; Neoplasms; Head;
 Injuries; Spinal diseases; Diagnostic techniques
 
 
 13                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V643
 Anaesthesia for small animal patients with disease of the
 hepatic, renal or gastrointestinal system.
 Dodman, N.H.; Seeler, D.C.; Court, M.H.; Norman, W.M.
 London : Bailliere Tindall; 1989 Jan.
 British veterinary journal v. 145 (1): p. 3-22; 1989 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cat; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Liver
 diseases; Kidney diseases; Digestive system diseases
 
 
 14                                    NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 Anaesthetic effects of chloral hydrate, pentobarbitone and
 urethane in adult male rats.
 Field, K.J.; White, W.J.; Lang, C.M.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1993 Jul.
 Laboratory animals v. 27 (3): p. 258-269; 1993 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Anesthetics
 
 Abstract:  Chloral hydrate, pentobarbitone and urethane were
 evaluated and compared for onset, duration and depth of
 anaesthesia, cardiovascular and respiratory effects,
 nociception and mortality in adult male rats. Chloral hydrate
 (300 and 400 mg/kg) severely depressed the cardiovascular and
 respiratory systems. Duration of anaesthesia was linearly
 related to dose, and anaesthetic depth and analgesia were
 excellent. Pentobarbital (40 mg/kg) produced a short period
 light surgical anaesthesia. Moderate to severe respiratory and
 cardiovascular depression occurred. Duration of anaesthesia
 was not related to dose. Urethane (1.2 and 1.5 g/kg) caused
 moderate cardiovascular depression. In addition, mortality was
 high at the 1.5 g/kg dose. Duration of anaesthesia was greater
 than 24 h for most animals. Anaesthesia depth and analgesia
 were excellent.
 
 
 15                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V643
 Anaesthetic management of the traumatized small animal
 patient. Norman, W.M.; Dodman, N.H.; Court, M.H.; Seeler, D.C.
 London : Bailliere Tindall; 1989 Sep.
 British veterinary journal v. 145 (5): p. 410-425; 1989 Sep. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cat; Trauma; Anesthesia; Physiopathology;
 Respiratory system; Cardiovascular system; Central nervous
 system
 
 
 16                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 J8292
 Anaesthetic regimes for cataract removal in the dog.
 Young, S.S.; Barnett, K.C.; Taylor, P.M.
 London : British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 1991
 May. The Journal of small animal practice v. 32 (5): p.
 236-240; 1991 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cataract; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Muscle
 relaxants; Halothane; Nitrous oxide; Thiopental; Preoperative
 care; Surgery
 
 
 17                                    NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Analgesia after lateral thoracotomy in dogs: epidural morphine
 vs. intercostal bupivacaine.
 Pascoe, P.J.; Dyson, D.H.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1993 Mar.
 Veterinary surgery v. 22 (2): p. 141-147; 1993 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Pain; Analgesics
 
 
 18                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Analgesia and behavioral responses of dogs given oxymorphone-
 acepromazine and meperidine-acepromazine after methoxyflurane
 and halothane anesthesia. Sawyer, D.C.; Rech, R.H.; Adams, T.;
 Durham, R.A.; Richter, M.A.; Striler, E.L.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1992 Aug. American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (8):
 p. 1361-1368; 1992 Aug. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Pethidine; Analgesics; Anesthesia;
 Halothane; Methoxyflurane; Pain; Drug effects; Blood pressure;
 Pulse rate
 
 Abstract:  This study was designed to test analgesia,
 duration, and cardiovascular changes induced by meperidine
 (MEP) and oxymorphone (OXY) following methoxyflurane (MOF) and
 halothane (HAL) anesthesia. Eight healthy dogs were given
 atropine and acepromazine, and anesthesia was induced with
 thiamylal and maintained with 1.5 minimal alveolar
 concentration of MOF or HAL for 1 hour during controlled
 ventilation. Eight treatments were given with each anesthetic:
 3 with MEP (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg, IV), 3 with oxymorphone
 (OXY; 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg, IV), and 2 placebos with
 sterile water. Test drugs were given at the end of anesthesia
 when early signs of recovery were evident. Minimal threshold
 stimulus/response nociception was assessed by use of an
 inflatable soft plastic colonic balloon. Blood pressures and
 pulse rate were measured with a noninvasive monitor.
 Meperidine and OXY were found to be effective analgesics and
 could be reversed with naloxone. Intravenous administration of
 2.0 mg of MEP/kg provided analgesia for 36 +/- 6 minutes and
 39 +/- 15 minutes after MOF and HAL, respectively. In
 contrast, OXY was effective at all 3 doses with effects of IV
 administration of 0.2 mg of OXY/kg lasting 154 +/- 13 minutes
 and 152 +/- 12 minutes, after MOF and HAL, respectively.
 Analgesia could not be demonstrated after anesthesia for
 acepromazine, MOF, or HAL. Blood pressure was not changed by
 either anesthetic nor was it influenced by MEP or OXY. Pulse
 rate was significantly depressed by the higher doses of OXY
 following HAL, but was not changed by MEP following either
 anesthetic. This study demonstrated the longer duration of
 analgesia of OXY. In addition, we could not find that
 analgesia was provided by either MOF or HAL following recovery
 from anesthesia.
 
 
 19                                    NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Analgesia in dogs after intercostal thoracotomy: a clinical
 trial comparing intravenous buprenorphine and interpleural
 bupivacaine.
 Conzemius, M.G.; Brockman, D.J.; King, L.G.; Perkowski, S.Z.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders Company; 1994 Jul.
 Veterinary surgery v. 23 (4): p. 291-298; 1994 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Analgesics; Safety; Efficacy; Pain;
 Surgical operations; Intravenous injection; Injection; Heart
 rate; Respiration rate; Blood pressure; Blood; Gases; Body
 temperature; Electrocardiograms
 
 
 20                                    NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Analgesia in dogs after intercostal thoracotomy: a comparison
 of morphine, selective intercostal nerve block, and
 interpleural regional analgesia with bupivacaine.
 Thompson, S.E.; Johnson, J.M.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1991 Jan.
 Veterinary surgery v. 20 (1): p. 73-77; 1991 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Analgesics; Postoperative care; Morphine;
 Pain; Blood; Ph; Gases
 
 
 21                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Analgesic activity and respiratory effects of butorphanol in
 sheep. Waterman, A.E.; Livingston, A.; Amin, A.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1991 Jul.
 Research in veterinary science v. 51 (1): p. 19-23; 1991 Jul. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sheep; Analgesics; Dosage; Pain; Respiratory
 gases; Mechanical stimulation; Heat tolerance
 
 Abstract:  The analgesic drug butorphanol tartrate has proved
 useful clinically in horses and dogs but its analgesic profile
 had not yet been investigated in sheep. This study was
 initiated to determine the thermal and mechanical
 antinociceptive activity of butorphanol (at the dose rates
 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg kg-1) in sheep. The drug produced
 significant analgesia in the thermal lest system, the duration
 of which was dose related but no significant elevation in
 mechanical pressure thresholds could be detected. In a further
 set of experiments the dose rate was increased to 0.4 mg kg-1
 and mechanical testing was repeated. There was still no
 clinically significant elevation in pressure thresholds. At a
 dose rate of 0.2 mg kg-1 the drug had no detectable effect on
 respiratory blood gas tensions. Behavioural changes were
 severe if a dose rate of 0.2 mg kg-1 was exceeded.
 
 
 22                                     NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6
 Analgesic activity of certain flavone derivatives: a
 structure-activity study. Thirugnanasambantham, P.;
 Viswanathan, S.; Mythirayee, C.; Krishnamurty, V.;
 Ramachandran, S.; Kameswaran, L.
 Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1990 Feb.
 Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 28 (2): p. 207-214; 1990 Feb. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Flavonoids; Derivatives; Structure activity
 relationships; Analgesics; Mice
 
 
 23                                    NAL Call. No.: RS164.P59
 Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the crude
 hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the bark of Hymenaea
 martiana.
 Neves, M.C.A.; Neves, P.C.A.; Zanini, J.C. Jr; Medeiros, Y.S.;
 Yunes, R.A.; Calixto, J.B.
 Sussex : John Wiley & Sons; 1993 Sep.
 Phytotherapy research : PTR v. 7 (5): p. 356-362; 1993 Sep. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Hymenaea; Medicinal plants; Plant extracts; Bark;
 Pharmaceutical products; Medicinal properties; Inflammation;
 Edema; Pain; Blood vessels; Rats
 
 
 24                                    NAL Call. No.: RS164.P59
 Analgesic and antiinflammatory activity in acute and chronic
 conditions of Trema guineense (Schum. et Thonn.) Ficalho and
 Trema micrantha Blume extracts in rodents.
 Barbera, R.; Trovato, A.; Rapisarda, A.; Ragusa, S.
 Sussex : John Wiley & Sons; 1992 May.
 Phytotherapy research : PTR v. 6 (3): p. 146-148; 1992 May. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Trema; Plant extracts; Analgesics;
 Antiinflammatory agents; Pharmacology; Rats
 
 
 25                                    NAL Call. No.: RS160.I47
 Analgesic and antiinflammatory effects of chasmanthera
 dependens. Onabanjo, A.O.; John, T.A.; Sokale, A.A.; Samuel,
 O.T.
 Lisse, Netherlands : Swets & Zeitlinger; 1991 Feb.
 International journal of pharmacognosy v. 29 (1): p. 24-28;
 1991 Feb. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Menispermaceae; Medicinal plants; Pharmaceutical
 products; Plant extracts; Alkaloids; Tannins; Cardiac
 glycosides; Medicinal properties; Analgesics; Antiinflammatory
 agents; Drug toxicity; Mice
 
 
 26                                    NAL Call. No.: RS164.P59
 Analgesic and antiinflammatory properties of Scoparia dulcis
 L. extracts and glutinol in rodents.
 Freire, S.M. de F.; Emim, J.A. da S.; Lapa, A.J.; Souccar, C.;
 Torres, L.M.B. Sussex : John Wiley & Sons; 1993 Nov.
 Phytotherapy research : PTR v. 7 (6): p. 408-414; 1993 Nov. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Scoparia dulcis; Medicinal plants; Plant
 extracts; Flavonoids; Pharmaceutical products; Triterpenoids;
 Medicinal properties; Inflammation; Pain; Fever; Rats; Mice
 
 
 27                                    NAL Call. No.: RS160.I47
 Analgesic and antipyretic effects of Mucuna pruriens.
 Iauk, L.; Galati, E.M.; Kirjavainen, S.; Forestieri, A.M.;
 Trovato, A. Lisse, Netherlands : Swets & Zeitlinger; 1993 Aug.
 International journal of pharmacognosy v. 31 (3): p. 213-216;
 1993 Aug. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mucuna pruriens; Medicinal properties; Plant
 extracts; Leaves; Fruits; Trichomes; Analgesics; Antipyretics;
 Pain; Fever; Inflammation; Rats; Mice
 
 
 28                                     NAL Call. No.: 450 P697
 Analgesic and behavioural effects of Morinda citrifolia.
 Younos, C.; Rolland, A.; Fleurentin, J.; Lanhers, M.C.;
 Misslin, R.; Mortier, F.
 Stuttgart, W. Ger. : Georg Thieme Verlag; 1990 Oct.
 Planta medica v. 56 (5): p. 430-434; 1990 Oct.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Morinda citrifolia; Roots; Plant extracts;
 Analgesics; Pharmaceutical products; Medicinal properties;
 Mice; Naloxone
 
 
 29                                     NAL Call. No.: 450 P697
 Analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties of
 Euphorbia hirta. Lanhers, M.C.; Fleurentin, J.; Dorfman, P.;
 Mortier, F.; Pelt, J.M. Stuttgart, W. Ger. : Georg Thieme
 Verlag; 1991 Jun.
 Planta medica v. 57 (3): p. 225-231; 1991 Jun.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Euphorbia hirta; Plant extracts; Pharmaceutical
 products; Mice; Rats; Analgesics; Antipyretics;
 Antiinflammatory agents
 
 
 30                                     NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6
 Analgesic effect of Momordica charantia seed extract in mice
 and rats. Biswas, A.R.; Ramaswamy, S.; Bapna, J.S.
 Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Jan.
 Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 31 (1): p. 115-118; 1991 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Momordica charantia; Medicinal plants; Plant
 extracts; Analgesics; Mice; Rats
 
 
 31                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 J8292
 Analgesic effects of acupuncture in thoracolumbar disc disease
 in dogs. Still, J.
 London : British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 1989
 May. The Journal of small animal practice v. 30 (5): p.
 298-301. ill; 1989 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Acupuncture; Spinal diseases; Pain
 
 
 32                                    NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 The analgesic effects of administering fentanyl or
 medetomidine in the lumbosacral epidural space of cats.
 Duke, T.; Komulainen Cox, A.M.; Remedios, A.M.; Cribb, P.H.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders Company; 1994 Mar.
 Veterinary surgery v. 23 (2): p. 143-148; 1994 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Fentanyl; Medetomidine; Drug effects;
 Conduction anesthesia; Efficacy; Pain; Limbs; Vomiting;
 Adverse effects
 
 
 33                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 Analgesic therapy.
 Hansen, B.D.
 Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company; 1994 Jul.
 The Compendium on continuing education for the practicing
 veterinarian v. 16 (7): p. 868-875; 1994 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Pain; Analgesics; Drug therapy;
 Dosage; Agonists; Postoperative care; Osteoarthritis
 
 
 34                            NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 Anesthesia and control of pain responses during surgery of the
 eye. Hartsfield, S.M.
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p.
 338-347, 361; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cataract; Surgical operations; Anesthesia;
 Anesthetics; Pain; Eyes; Analgesics; Opioids; Drugs; Dosage;
 Muscle relaxants; Postoperative care; Postoperative
 complications; Inhaled anesthetics
 
 
 35                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.V523
 Anesthesia and pain control.
 Bednarski, R.M.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders Company; 1989 Nov.
 The Veterinary clinics of North America : Small animal
 practice v. 19 (6): p. 1223-1238; 1989 Nov.  In the series
 analytic: Critical care / edited by R.B. Kirby and G.L. Stamp. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cat; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Pain;
 Emergencies
 
 
 36                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.P76
 Anesthesia for head and neck surgery.
 Hartsfield, S.M.; Jacobson, J.D.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Co; 1991 Jun.
 Problems in veterinary medicine v. 3 (2): p. 123-141; 1991
 Jun.  In the series analytic: Head and Neck Surgery / edited
 by C.S. Hedlund.  Literature review. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Anesthesia; Surgical operations;
 Head; Neck; Preoperative care; Fasting; Preanesthetic
 medication; Anesthetics; Analgesics; Respiration; Air flow;
 Tubes; Postoperative care; Monitoring
 
 
 37                               NAL Call. No.: SF914.A53 1990
 Anesthesia of amphibians and reptiles.
 Bush, M.
 Columbia, Md. : American College of Laboratory Animal
 Medicine, 1990? :.; 1990.
 Anesthesia and analgesia in laboratory animals : proceedings -
 - 1990 Forum, American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine,
 Columbia Inn, Columbia, Maryland, May 3-6, 1990. p. 103-105;
 1990.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Amphibia; Reptiles; Anesthesia
 
 
 38                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Anesthesia of pups and kittens.
 Grandy, J.L.; Dunlop, C.I.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1991 Apr01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 198
 (7): p. 1244-1249; 1991 Apr01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pups; Kittens; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Age
 differences; Pharmacokinetics; Respiratory system;
 Cardiovascular system; Liver; Kidneys; Thermoregulation
 
 
 39                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Anesthetic and medical management of acute hemorrhage during
 surgery. Wagner, A.E.; Dunlop, C.I.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1993 Jul01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 203
 (1): p. 40-45; 1993 Jul01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Horses; Hemorrhage; Surgery;
 Anesthesia; Medical treatment; Blood volume; Losses;
 Hematocrit; Blood proteins
 
 
 40                                    NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Anesthetic and nephrotoxic effects of Telazol in New Zealand
 white rabbits. Brammer, D.W.; Doerning, B.J.; Chrisp, C.E.;
 Rush, H.G.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1991 Oct. Laboratory animal science v. 41 (5): p.
 432-435; 1991 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Injectable anesthetics; Intramuscular
 injection; Renal failure; Toxicity; Anesthesia; Complications
 
 Abstract:  Telazol was evaluated as an anesthetic for rabbits.
 Two groups of five rabbits each were injected intramuscularly
 with 32 or 64 mg/kg of Telazol, and the depth and duration of
 anesthesia period monitored. At both doses, the righting
 reflex was lost within 2 minutes postinjection. Animals in
 both groups responded to noxious stimuli for the duration of
 the anesthesia. Hematology and urinalyses were performed daily
 for 7 days postinjection. Hematologic parameters remained
 unchanged in both groups. In the high-dose group, blood urea
 nitrogen and serum creatinine levels increased 1 day
 postinjection and continued steadily throughout the week.
 Elevations in urine protein and the presence of casts
 correlated with this increase. In the low-dose group, blood
 urea nitrogen and creatinine levels increased and protein was
 present in the urine of four of five rabbits beginning
 approximately 5 days postinjection. Histologically, severe
 renal tubular necrosis was evident 7 days postinjection in all
 high-dose rabbits and in three rabbits in the low-dose group.
 Our results indicate that Telazol does not produce analgesia
 in rabbits and is nephrotoxic at both 32 and 64 mg/kg. We
 conclude that Telazol is contraindicated for use in rabbits.
 
 
 41                                     NAL Call. No.: SF601.A5
 Anesthetic and surgical management of intrathoracic segmental
 tracheal stenosis utilizing high-frequency jet ventilation.
 Whitfield, J.B.; Graves, G.M.; Lappin, M.R.; Toombs, J.P.;
 Crowe, D.T.; Bjorling, D.E.
 Golden, Colo. : The Association; 1989 Jul.
 The Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association v. 25
 (4): p. 443-446. ill; 1989 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cat; Anesthesia; Trachea; Thorax;
 Abnormalities; Resection
 
 
 42                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 Anesthetic breathing circuits for cats and small dogs.
 Romatowski, J.
 Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company; 1990 Feb.
 The Compendium on continuing education for the practicing
 veterinarian v. 12 (2): p. 183-187, 190-193. ill; 1990 Feb. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cat; Anesthesia; Apparatus; Tubes;
 Circuits; Breathing; Resistance to air flow; Air flow; Heat
 loss
 
 
 43                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.V523
 Anesthetic considerations for the geriatric patient.
 Paddleford, R.R.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders Company; 1989 Jan.
 The Veterinary clinics of North America : Small animal
 practice v. 19 (1): p. 13-31; 1989 Jan.  In the series
 analytic: Geriatrics and gerontology / edited by R.T.
 Goldston.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cat; Geriatrics; Anesthetics;
 Pharmacokinetics; Pharmacodynamics; Anesthesia
 
 
 44                                    NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Anesthetic requirement of isoflurane is reduced in
 spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar-Kyoto rats.
 Cole, D.J.; Marcantonio, S.; Drummond, J.C.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1990 Sep. Laboratory animal science v. 40 (5): p.
 506-509; 1990 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Anesthetics; Anesthesia; Hypertension
 
 Abstract:  The isoflurane requirement to keep 50% of rats
 (Rattus norvegicus) unresponsive to noxious stimuli (MAC) was
 determined in age matched Sprague-Dawley (SD, n = 8),
 Spontaneously Hypertensive (SHR, n = 8) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY,
 n = 8) strains. Following induction and orotracheal
 intubation, each rat received isoflurane (1.65% end-tidal) for
 120 minutes. Physiologic parameters were similar except for
 expected differences in mean arterial pressure (148 +/-
 13mmHg-SHR group, 101 +/- 10mmHg-SD group and 94 +/- 12mmHg-
 WKY group [mean +/- standard deviation]). Anesthetic
 equilibration was verified by infrared analysis of end-tidal
 gases. MAC was then determined in each rat by the tail clamp
 method and a group MAC calculated.
 
 
 45                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Anesthetic techniques for neutering 6- to 14-week-old kittens.
 Faggella, A.M.; Aronsohn, M.G.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1993 Jan01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 202
 (1): p. 56-62; 1993 Jan01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kittens; Castration; Ovariectomy; Anesthesia;
 Guidelines; Safety; Adverse effects; Anesthetics
 
 
 46                               NAL Call. No.: SF914.A53 1990
 Anesthetics and analgesics in rabbits.
 Hobbs, B.A.
 Columbia, Md. : American College of Laboratory Animal
 Medicine, 1990? :.; 1990.
 Anesthesia and analgesia in laboratory animals : proceedings -
 - 1990 Forum, American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine,
 Columbia Inn, Columbia, Maryland, May 3-6, 1990. p. 64, 63,
 62, 61; 1990.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Anesthetics; Analgesics
 
 
 47                     NAL Call. No.: 41.2 G3642 1989 [no. 16]
 Antagonisation der Xylazin-Ketamin Neuroleptanalgesie und
 ihrer Nebenwirkungen durch Yohimbin und 4-aminopyridin bei der
 Katz / eingereicht von Jurgen Wittker  [Antagonization of
 Zylazine/Ketamine neurleptanalgesia and its side effects
 through yohimbin and 4-amino pyridin in cats].
 Wittker, Jurgen
 Giessen : [s.n.]; 1989.
 98 p. : ill. ; 21 cm.  English summary.  Includes
 bibliographical references (p. 81-98).
 
 Language:  German
 
 
 48                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Antagonism by flumazenil of midazolam-induced changes in
 quantitative electroencephalographic data from isoflurane-
 anesthetized dogs. Keegan, R.D.; Greene, S.A.; Moore, M.P.;
 Gallagher, L.V.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1993 May. American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (5):
 p. 761-765; 1993 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Benzodiazepines; Narcotic antagonists;
 Anesthetics; Electroencephalography
 
 Abstract:  Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) was
 assessed in 5 dogs anesthetized with 1.6% end-tidal
 concentration of isoflurane and after subsequent
 administration of the benzodiazepine midazolam (0.2 mg/kg of
 body weight, IV). Ventilation was controlled to maintain
 normocapnia. Effect of the benzodiazepine antagonist,
 flumazenil (0.04 mg/kg, IV), on QEEG in midazolam-isoflurane-
 anesthetized dogs was determined. Heart rate, arterial blood
 pressure, esophageal temperature, arterial pH and blood gas
 tensions, end-tidal CO2 concentration, and end-tidal
 isoflurane concentration were monitored throughout the study.
 A 21-lead linked-ear montage was used for recording the EEG
 data. Quantitative EEG data were stored on an optical disk for
 later analysis. Values for absolute power of EEG were
 determined for delta, theta, alpha, and beta-frequencies.
 Cardiovascular variables remained stable throughout the study.
 Midazolam administration was associated with decreased
 absolute power in all frequencies of EEG at all electrode
 sites. Administration of flumazenil antagonized midazolam-
 induced decreased absolute power of EEG in all frequencies at
 all electrode sites. We conclude that QEEG provides a
 noninvasive, objective measure of midazolam- and flumazenil-
 induced changes in cortical activity during isoflurane
 anesthesia.
 
 
 49                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Antagonism of ketamine-xylazine anesthesia in rats by
 administration of yohimbine, tolazoline, or 4-aminopyridine.
 Komulainen, A.; Olson, M.E.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1991 Apr. American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (4):
 p. 585-588; 1991 Apr. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Anesthesia; Ketamine; Xylazine; Yohimbine;
 4-aminopyridine; Drug antagonism; Dosage; Adverse effects
 
 Abstract:  Antagonism of ketamine-xylazine (85 mg of
 ketamine/kg of body weight and 15 mg of xylazine/kg, IM)
 anesthesia in rats by yohimbine (YOH; 1, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg,
 IP), tolazoline (TOL; 10, 20, or 50 mg/kg, IP), 4-
 aminopyridine 4-AP; 1 or 5 mg/kg, IP), or a combination of
 yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine (YOH:4-AP, 1 mg/kg:1 mg/kg or 5
 mg/kg:1 mg/kg, IP) was studied. All dosages of YOH, TOL, 4-Ap,
 and YOH:4-AP reduced the time to appearance of corneal and
 pedal reflexes. Only TOL was effective in reducing time to
 appearance of the crawl reflex and recovery time. Yohimbine,
 4-AP, YOH:4-AP, and TOL were effective in reversing
 respiratory depression caused by ketamine-xylazine anesthesia,
 but anesthetic-induced hypothermia was not antagonized. When
 given to non-anesthetized rats, the antagonists had little
 influence on respiratory rate, but all antagonists caused
 significant (P < 0.05) reduction in core body temperature for
 at least 90 minutes. When YOH was used as an anesthetic
 antagonist at dosage of 20 mg/kg, 20% mortality was observed
 and was attributable to acute respiratory arrest. The use of
 4-AP and YOH:4-AP at the dosages studied induced moderate to
 severe muscular tremors. In conclusion, TOL at dosage of 20
 mg/kg given IP, appears to be an appropriate antagonist for
 ketamine-xylazine anesthesia in rats.
 
 
 50                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Antagonistic activities of atipamezole, 4-aminopyridine and
 yohimbine against medetomidine/ketamine-induced anaesthesia in
 cats.
 Verstegen, J.; Fargetton, X.; Zanker, S.; Donnay, I.; Ectors,
 F. London : The Association; 1991 Jan.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 128 (3): p. 57-60; 1991 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Anesthesia; Drug antagonism; Narcotic
 antagonists; Yohimbine; 4-aminopyridine; Anesthetics; Ketamine
 
 
 51                                     NAL Call. No.: 450 P697
 Anti-infammatory and analgesic effects of an aqueous extract
 of Harpagophytum procumbens.
 Lanhers, M.C.; Fleurentin, J.; Mortier, F.; Vinche, A.;
 Younos, C. Stuttgart, W. Ger. : Georg Thieme Verlag; 1992 Apr.
 Planta medica v. 58 (2): p. 117-123; 1992 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Harpagophytum procumbens; Plant extracts;
 Pharmaceutical products; Antiinflammatory agents; Analgesics;
 Rats; Mice
 
 
 52                                    NAL Call. No.: RS160.I47
 Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and antibacterial
 activity of Astragalus siculus Biv.
 Bisignano, G. \u University of Messina, Messina, Italy; Iauk,
 L.; Kirjavainen, S.; Galati, E.M.
 Lisse, Netherlands : Swets & Zeitlinger B.V., 1991-; 1994 Oct.
 International journal of pharmacognosy : a journal of crude
 drug research v. 32 (4): p. 400-405; 1994 Oct.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Astragalus; Medicinal plants; Medicinal
 properties; Plant extracts; Antibacterial properties;
 Inflammation; Pain; Fever; Rats; Mice
 
 
 53                                     NAL Call. No.: 500 N484
 Antinociceptive effects of pyridoxine, thiamine, and
 cyanocobalamin in rats. Bartoszyk, G.D.; Wild, A.
 New York, N.Y. : The Academy; 1990.
 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences v. 585: p. 473-476;
 1990.  In the series analytic: Vitamin B6 / edited by K.
 Dakshinamurti.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cyanocobalamin; Pyridoxine; Thiamin; Dosage
 effects; Pain; Rats
 
 
 54                                    NAL Call. No.: RS164.P59
 Antioedema and analgesic actions of Diodia scandens extracts
 in rats and mice. Akah, P.A.; Okogun, J.I.; Ekpendu, T.O.
 Sussex : John Wiley & Sons; 1993 Jul.
 Phytotherapy research : PTR v. 7 (4): p. 317-319; 1993 Jul. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rubiaceae; Medicinal plants; Pharmaceutical
 products; Plant extracts; Leaves; Medicinal properties;
 Inflammation; Edema; Analgesics; Pain; Mice; Rats
 
 
 55                                     NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6
 Anxiolytic activity of Panax ginseng roots: an experimental
 study. Bhattacharya, S.K.; Mitra, S.K.
 Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Aug.
 Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 34 (1): p. 87-92; 1991 Aug. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Panax pseudoginseng; Roots; Diazepam; Anxiety;
 Behavior; Rats
 
 Abstract:  The putative anxiolytic activity of the white and
 red varieties of ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng, was
 investigated in rats and mice using a number of experimental
 paradigms of anxiety and compared with that of diazepam. Pilot
 studies indicated that single-dose administration of ginseng
 had little to no acute behavioral effects, hence the two
 varieties of ginseng were administered orally at two dose
 levels twice daily for 5 days, while diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.)
 was administered acutely. White and red varieties of ginseng
 (20 and 50 mg/kg) showed positive results when tested against
 several paradigms of experimental anxiety. Both were effective
 in the open-field and elevated plus-maze tests and reduced
 conflict behaviour in thirsty rats and footshock-induced
 fighting in paired mice. Ginseng also attenuated
 pentylenetetrazole-induced decrease in rat brain MAO activity,
 confirming its anxiolytic activity since this has been
 proposed to be an endogenous marker for anxiety. The effects
 induced by white and red ginseng (50 mg/kg X 5 days) were
 comparable to those induced by diazepam (1 mg/kg).
 
 
 56                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V6425
 Aquarium fish medicine.
 Carter, C.J.; Nieves, M.A.
 Ames : Iowa State University, 1959-; 1993.
 Iowa State University veterinarian v. 55 (1): p. 10-16; 1993. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ornamental fishes; Aquarium fishes; Pets; Pet
 care; Diagnostic techniques; Fish diseases; Anesthesia; Drug
 therapy
 
 
 57                            NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 Assessment of analgesia by catecholamine analysis: resopnse to
 onychectomy in cats.
 Benson, G.J.; Lin, H.C.; Thurmon, J.C.; Olson, W.A.;
 Tranquilli, W.J. New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p.
 436-439, 476-477; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Analgesics; Catecholamines; Postoperative
 care; Surgical operations; Drug effects
 
 
 58                                    NAL Call. No.: QL55.L342
 Assessment of discomfort in laboratory rodents.
 Beynen, A.C.; Baumans, V.; Herck, H. van; Stafleu, F.R.
 Potters Bar : Universities Federation for Animal Welfare;
 1989. Laboratory animal welfare research : rodents : proc of a
 symposium organized by Universities Federation for Animal
 Welfare, held at the Royal Holloway and Bedford New College,
 Univ of London, Egham, Surrey, 22nd April 1988. p. 64-70;
 1989.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rodents; Laboratory animals; Animal welfare;
 Pain; Clinical examination
 
 
 59                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 J8292
 Assessment of methadone as an anaesthetic premedicant in cats.
 Dobromylskyj, P.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1993 Dec.
 The Journal of small animal practice v. 34 (12): p. 604-608;
 1993 Dec. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Preanesthetic medication; Methadone;
 Dosage; Dosage effects; Duration; Adverse effects; Respiration
 rate; Heart rate; Respiration
 
 
 60                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1I43
 The assessment of pain in the burned child and associated
 studies in the laboratory rat.
 Osgood, P.F.
 Washington, D.C. : Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources,
 National Research Council; 1991.
 I.L.A.R. news v. 33 (1/2): p. 13-18; 1991.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Children; Pain; Evaluation
 
 
 61                                    NAL Call. No.: RS164.P59
 Assessment of the hypnotic/sedative effects and toxicity of
 Passiflora edulis aqueous extract in rodents and humans.
 Maluf, E.; Barros, H.M.T.; Frochtengarten, M.L.; Benti, R.;
 Leite, J.R. Sussex : John Wiley & Sons; 1991 Dec.
 Phytotherapy research : PTR v. 5 (6): p. 262-266; 1991 Dec. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Passiflora edulis; Leaves; Plant extracts;
 Medicinal properties; Drug toxicity; Folk medicine; Mice;
 Rats; Man
 
 
 62                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Atracurium administration, as an infusion, to induce
 neuromuscular blockade in clinically normal and temporarily
 immune-suppressed cats. Ilkiw, J.E.; Forsyth, S.F.; Hill, T.;
 Gregory, C.R.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1990 Nov01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 197
 (9): p. 1153-1156; 1990 Nov01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Muscle relaxants; Infusion;
 Immunosuppression; Cyclosporins; Prednisolone; Drug
 combinations
 
 
 63                                    NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Atraumatic endotracheal intubation in small rabbits.
 Conlon, K.C.; Corbally, M.T.; Bading, J.R.; Brennan, M.F.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1990 Mar. Laboratory animal science v. 40 (2): p.
 221-222. ill; 1990 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Trachea; Tubes; Inhaled anesthetics;
 Anesthesia; Laboratory methods
 
 
 64                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Atrial fibrillation in halothane- and isoflurane-anesthetized
 dogs. Freeman, L.C.; Ack, J.A.; Fligner, M.A.; Muir, W.W. III
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1990 Jan. American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (1):
 p. 174-177; 1990 Jan. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Halothane; Anesthetics; Anesthesia; Heart
 diseases
 
 Abstract:  Programmed electrical stimulation techniques were
 used to evaluate the effects of halothane and isoflurane on
 induction of atrial fibrillation in anesthetized dogs.
 Experiments were performed in 16 dogs anesthetized with alpha-
 chloralose. Critically timed premature stimuli were applied to
 the right atrial appendage and Bachmann bundle to determine
 the atrial fibrillation threshold, defined as the minimal
 current required to induce rapid, irregular atrial electrical
 activity of at least 8 seconds' duration. Atrial fibrillation
 thresholds were determined at baseline (0.0% inhalational
 anesthetic), 0.5 minimal alveolar concentration (MAC), and 1.0
 MAC of halothane (n = 8) and isoflurane (n = 8). In the
 absence of inhalation anesthetic, it was significantly (P <
 0.01) easier to induce atrial fibrillation at the Bachmann
 bundle vs the right atrial appendage. Atrial fibrillation
 threshold at the Bachmann bundle was not affected by
 increasing concentrations of halothane, but was increased by
 1.0 MAC of isoflurane (P < 0.05). It was concluded that at 1.0
 MAC isoflurane, but not halothane, has antifibrillatory
 effects in atrial tissue.
 
 
 65                                    NAL Call. No.: RB127.P34
 Attempts to gauge the relative importance of pre- and
 postsynaptic effects of morphine on the transmission of
 noxious messages in the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord.
 Lombard, M.C.; Besson, J.M.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers; 1989 Jun.
 Pain : the journal of the International Association for the
 Study of Pain v. 37 (3): p. 335-345. ill; 1989 Jun.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Spinal cord; Morphine; Neurophysiology;
 Neurons; Pain
 
 
 66                                    NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Autonomic and cardiovascular effects of neuromuscular blockade
 antagonism in the dog.
 Clutton, R.E.; Boyd, C.; Flora, R.; Payne, J.; McGrath, C.J.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1992 Jan.
 Veterinary surgery v. 21 (1): p. 68-75; 1992 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Nervous system; Drug
 combinations; Cardiovascular system; Drug effects
 
 
 67                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3
 Barotrauma in a cat.
 Manning, M.M.; Brunson, D.B.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1994 Jul01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 205
 (1): p. 62-64; 1994 Jul01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Lungs; Trauma; Internal pressure;
 Anesthesia; Lung ventilation; Accidents; Case reports
 
 
 68                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Benzocaine-induced methemoglobinemia attributed to topical
 application of the anesthetic in several laboratory animal
 species.
 Davis, J.A.; Greenfield, R.E.; Brewer, T.G.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1993 Aug. American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (8):
 p. 1322-1326; 1993 Aug. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Laboratory animals; Benzocaine; Adverse effects;
 Topical application; Methemoglobinemia; Species differences
 
 Abstract:  In a screening study, a common benzocaine-
 containing anesthetic was topically applied to the following
 species: dogs (n = 11), domestic shorthair cats (n = 38),
 Long-Evans rats (n = 22), Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 11),
 ferrets (n = 6), rhesus monkeys (n = 10), cynomolgus monkeys
 (n = 10), owl monkeys (n = 10), New Zealand White rabbits (n =
 18), miniature pigs (n = 9), ICR mice (n = 4), C3H mice (n =
 4), and C57BL/10SnJ mice (n = 24). All animals, except mice
 and rats, received a 2-second spray to the mucous membranes of
 the nasopharynx for an estimated dose of 56 mg. A 2-second
 spray to rodents' oral mucous membranes delivered too great a
 volume of fluid for these animals; therefore, an equivalent
 dose was applied to the oral mucosa membranes by use of a 23-
 gauge needle and syringe. Initial (baseline) blood samples, as
 well as 4 blood samples taken every 15 minutes after drug
 application, were analyzed for methemoglobin (MHb), using an
 oximeter. Positive MHb response (> 3 SD above baseline) was
 seen in individuals of all groups. The study was repeated in
 dogs several months later to confirm low response. Response to
 benzocaine spray was observed in most animals tested, with
 response peaking between 15 and 30 minutes after dosing.
 Positive MHb response ranged from 3.5 to 38%, was detected in
 > 95% of individual animals, and ranged from 15 to 60 minutes
 after drug administration. Responses were variable because of
 the screening nature of the study and the topical route of
 drug administration, but the highest responses were observed
 in rabbits and cats, and the lowest were seen in mice and
 dogs. Methemoglobin could be a confounding variable for
 several types of studies; investigators should consider this
 toxicity of benzocaine-containing topical anesthetics and use
 appropriate alternative methods or drugs (ie, lidocaine).
 
 
 69                                    NAL Call. No.: 447.8 Am3
 Blunted effect of ANP on hematocrit and plasma volume in
 streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in rats.
 Valentin, J.P.; Sechi, L.A.; Humphreys, M.H.
 Bethesda, Md. : American Physiological Society, 1898-; 1994
 Feb. American journal of physiology v. 266 (2,pt.2): p. R584-
 R591; 1994 Feb. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Diabetes mellitus; Experimental diabetes;
 Peptides; Hematocrit; Blood volume; Blood pressure; Blood
 sugar; Guanosine monophosphate; Rats
 
 Abstract:  Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) infusion increases
 hematocrit and decreases plasma volume by inducing a transfer
 of plasma fluid from the vascular to the interstitial
 compartment. Diabetes mellitus is associated with resistance
 to the renal actions of ANP. We explored the possibility that
 the extrarenal responses to ANP may also be altered in the
 diabetic state by measuring changes in arterial pressure and
 hematocrit during infusion of ANP (1 microgram.kg-1.min-1 for
 45 min) into anesthetized, acutely nephrectomized rats 2-3 wk
 after induction of diabetes from intravenous streptozotocin
 (STZ) injection (60 mg/kg). Blood glucose was significantly
 elevated in diabetic rats when compared with control and
 insulin-treated diabetic rats. Arterial pressure during ANP
 infusion decreased similarly in control, diabetic, and
 insulin-treated diabetic rats (by 7.6 +/- 1.6, 9.6 +/- 1.9,
 and 8.2 +/- 2% respectively; all P < 0.002). In control rats,
 hematocrit increased progressively to a maximum value of 9.5
 +/- 0.9% as a result of the infusion, corresponding to a
 decrease in plasma volume of 16.3 +/- 1.3%. In contrast, the
 ANP-induced increase in hematocrit was markedly blunted in
 diabetic rats (1.6 +/- 0.8%; P < 0.0001 vs. ANP infusion in
 control rats). Reducing the hyperglycemia in diabetic rats by
 insulin therapy restored the increase in hematocrit in
 response to ANP (8.5 +/- 1.1%; P < 0.0001 vs. ANP infusion in
 diabetic rats and P = NS vs. control rats). ANP infusion
 increased plasma ANP levels to the same extent in the three
 groups, whereas plasma guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate
 (cGMP) was significantly less in diabetic as compared with
 control and insulin-treated diabetic rats. Acute reduction of
 hyperglycemia did not restore the ANP-induced increase in
 hematocrit (1.3 +/-2.2%; P = NS vs. ANP infusion in diabetic
 rats). This study demonstrates that 1) the effect of ANP on
 hematocrit and fluid distribution is blunted in STZ-induced
 diabetes, while its hypotensive action is preserved, and 2)
 restoring the glucose levels to normal in diabetic rats by
 chronic but not by acute insulin treatment normalizes the
 hemoconcentrating effect of exogenously administered ANP. Such
 a defect is reflected in a blunted plasma cGMP concentration
 after ANP infusion in STZ-diabetic rats and may contribute to
 the altered body fluid physiology in this condition.
 
 
 70                                    NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Butorphanol does not reduce the minimum alveolar concentration
 of halothane in dogs.
 Quandt, J.E.; Raffe, M.R.; Robinson, E.P.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders Company; 1994 Mar.
 Veterinary surgery v. 23 (2): p. 156-159; 1994 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Opioids; Halothane susceptibility; Drug
 effects; Dosage effects; Heart rate; Blood pressure;
 Cardiovascular system; Respiratory system; Anesthesia
 
 
 71                                     NAL Call. No.: 428 C763
 Carbon dioxide: an alternative to ether as an anesthetic in a
 plague surveillance program.
 Ramirez, J.A.; Hall, F.; Fujioka, K.K.
 Sacramento, Calif. : The Association; 1991.
 Proceedings and papers of the annual conference of the
 California Mosquito and Vector Control Association v. 59: p.
 86-88; 1991.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Spermophilus beecheyi; Disease
 vectors; Anesthetics; Carbon dioxide; Monitoring; Rodent
 control
 
 
 72                                    NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 Carbon dioxide as a short-term restraint anaesthetic in rats
 with subclinical respiratory disease.
 Fenwick, D.C.; Blackshaw, J.K.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1989 Jul.
 Laboratory animals v. 23 (3): p. 220-228; 1989 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Inhaled anesthetics; Oxygen; Anesthesia;
 Carbon dioxide; Respiratory diseases; Safety; Restraint of
 animals
 
 Abstract:  The use of carbon dioxide (CO2) with, and without,
 oxygen (O2) as a short-term restraint anaesthetic for Wistar
 rats in which subclinical respiratory disease was endemic, was
 assessed in 3 separate experiments. In the first, rats were
 placed in a CO2 atmosphere generated from solid CO2 chips in a
 701 plastic bin, and removed at time intervals ranging from 0
 to 120 s after disappearance of the pedal reflex. Eight of 25
 rats died, including 2 which were removed immediately the
 pedal reflex disappeared; it was concluded that CO2 without O2
 was not a suitable short-term anaesthetic for rats. In a
 second study, rats were anaesthetized in atmospheres of 50:50
 and 80:20 (CO2:O2) provided from commercially available
 cylinders, in 2 different environments--a 3.41 glass jar and a
 171 plastic bin. Rats became excited in the plastic bin but
 not the glass jar. Rats in the glass jar displayed visible
 depression and cessation of whiskers movement significantly
 more quickly in the 80:20 (CO2:O2) than in the 50:50 mixture
 (4.2 +/- 0.98 s, n = 6, and 66.0 +/- 4.9 s, n = 6 vs 13.8 +/-
 2.77 s, n = 5 and 152.0 +/- 20.8 s, n = 5, respectively). Rats
 in the 171 plastic bin lost their pedal reflexes in a mean
 41.5 +/- 4.55 s (n = 11) in the 50:50 mixture and in a mean
 30.9 +/- 6.38 s (n = 11) in the 80:20 (CO2:O2) group. Those
 left in the 50:50 mixture for 60 s and 180 s after
 disappearance of their pedal reflexes, recovered these
 reflexes in 20.2 +/- 0.44 s and 21.5 +/- 7.23 s respectively
 after removal from the gas. Respiration and heart beat ceased
 in one rat remaining in the 50:50 mixture after 13 min 10 s.
 No untoward effects occurred in rats left in the 50:50 mixture
 for 180 s after disappearance of the pedal reflex, but 2 died
 when left for an equivalent period in the 80:20 mixture. In
 the third study, examples of the practical use of a 50:50
 mixture as a short term restraint anaesthetic are described.
 It was concluded that this mixture was a cheap, safe, and
 effective means of sh
 
 
 73                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Cardiobascular effects of intravenous bolus administration and
 infusion of ketamine-midazolam in isoflurane-anesthetized
 dogs.
 Jacobson, J.D.; Hartsfield, S.M.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1993 Oct. American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (10):
 p. 1715-1720; 1993 Oct. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Ketamine; Benzodiazepines; Drug
 combinations; Inhaled anesthetics; Boluses; Intravenous
 injection; Drug effects; Cardiovascular system
 
 Abstract:  Cardiovascular effects of IV administered ketamine
 (10 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) were determined in 12
 healthy isoflurane-anesthetized (1.7% end-tidal concentration)
 dogs. Six dogs received a ketamine-midazolam combination (K-M)
 as a bolus over 30 seconds and 6 dogs received K-M as an
 infusion over 15 minutes. Ketamine-midazolam combination as a
 bolus and an infusion caused early significant (P < 0.05)
 reductions in mean systemic blood pressure, cardiac index, and
 stroke index, which returned to baseline values near the end
 of the study. Heart rate decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in
 dogs of the infusion group and returned to the baseline value
 near the end of the study. One dog died after K-M bolus
 administration. Mean maximal decreases from baseline for
 systemic blood pressure, cardiac index, and stroke index were
 significantly (P < 0.05) greater in dogs of the bolus group
 than in dogs of the infusion group; therefore, cardiovascular
 effects of K-M after infusion were less severe than those
 after bolus. Base excess and pHa decreased significantly (P <
 0.05) in the infusion group, although similar changesoccurred
 in both groups. Four dogs were maintained with 1.7% end-tidal
 isoflurane to determine temporal effects of isoflurane; these
 dogs did not receive K-M. Increases in heart rate, cardiac
 index, stroke index, and left and right ventricular stroke
 work indexes were significant (P < 0.05) at various sample
 collection intervals, particularly during the later stages of
 the study. Isoflurane anesthesia effectively blocked the
 cardiostimulatory properties of K-M. Ketamine-midazolam
 combination should be used cautiously during isoflurane
 anesthesia, and administration by slow infusion may be safer
 than by rapid bolus administration.
 
 
 74                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Cardiopulmonary and behavioral effects of combinations of
 acepromazine/butorphanol and acepromazine/oxymorphone in dogs.
 Cornick, J.L.; Hartsfield, S.M.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1992 Jun15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 200
 (12): p. 1952-1956; 1992 Jun15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Opioids; Neuroleptics; Intravenous
 injection; Intramuscular injection; Drug combinations;
 Anesthesia; Heart rate; Respiration rate; Blood pressure; Body
 temperature; Blood; Ph; Bicarbonates; Oxygen; Carbon dioxide
 
 
 75                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Cardiopulmonary, anesthetic, and postanesthetic effects of
 intravenous infusions of propofol in Greyhounds and non-
 Greyhounds.
 Robertson, S.A.; Johnston, S.; Beemsterboer, J.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1992 Jun. American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (6):
 p. 1027-1032; 1992 Jun. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Injectable anesthetics; Breeds; Crossbreds;
 Intravenous injection; Cardiovascular system; Recovery;
 Anesthesia; Adverse effects
 
 Abstract:  The cardiopulmonary, anesthetic, and postanesthetic
 effects of an iv infusion of the hypnotic agent propofol were
 assessed in 6 Greyhounds and 7 non-Greyhounds. After IM
 injection of acetylpromazine and atropine, a bolus injection
 of propofol sufficient to allow endotracheal intubation (mean
 +/-SEM = 4.0 +/- 0.3 mg/kg of body weight in Greyhounds; 3.2 +/-
  0.1 mg/kg in non-Greyhounds) was administered, followed by
 continuous infusion at a rate of 0.4 mg/kg/min for 60 minutes,
 during which time dogs breathed 100% oxygen. In 23% of all
 dogs (3 of 13), apnea developed after initial bolus
 administration of propofol. Arterial blood pressure was well
 maintained in all dogs, but heart and respiratory rates were
 decreased significantly (P < 0.05) during the infusion in
 Greyhounds. In Greyhounds, mild respiratory acidosis developed
 after 45 minutes, whereas arterial carbon dioxide tension was
 increased at all times after propofol administration in non-
 Greyhounds. In all dogs, PCV and total plasma proteins were
 unaffected by propofol. Rectal temperature decreased during
 treatment. Muscle tremors were observed in approximately 50%
 of dogs (in 3 of 6 Greyhounds and 3 of 7 non-Greyhounds)
 during and after infusion of propofol. Non-Greyhounds lifted
 their heads, assumed sternal recumbency, and stood 10 +/- 1,
 15 +/- 3, and 28 +/- 5 minutes, respectively, after the end of
 the infusion; in Greyhounds, the corresponding times were 36
 +/- 4, 43 +/- 6, and 63 +/- 7 minutes.
 
 
 76                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Cardiopulmonary effects of halothane anesthesia in cats.
 Grandy, J.L.; Hodgson, D.S.; Dunlop, C.I.; Curtis, C.R.;
 Heath, R.B. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical
 Association; 1989 Oct. American journal of veterinary research
 v. 50 (10): p. 1729-1732. ill; 1989 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cat; Anesthesia; Halothane; Ventilation;
 Respiration rate; Cardiovascular system
 
 Abstract:  The cardiopulmonary effects of 2 planes of
 halothane anesthesia (halothane end-tidal concentrations of
 1.78% [light anesthesia] and 2.75% [deep anesthesia]) and 2
 ventilatory modes (spontaneous ventilation [SV] or
 mechanically controlled ventilation [CV]) were studied in 8
 cats. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with halothane in
 O2 only, and each cat was administered each treatment
 according to a Latin square design. Cardiac output, arterial
 blood pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, heart rate,
 respiratory frequency, and PaO2, PaCO2, and pH were measured
 during each treatment. Stroke volume, cardiac index, and total
 peripheral resistance were calculated. A probability value of
 less than 5% was accepted as significant. In the cats, cardiac
 output, cardiac index, and stroke volume were reduced by deep
 anesthesia and CV, although only the reduction attributable to
 CV was significant. Systemic arterial pressure was
 significantly reduced by use of deep anesthesia and CV.
 Respiratory frequency was significantly lower during CV than
 during SV. Arterial P(O2) was significantly decreased at the
 deeper plane of anesthesia, compared with the lighter plane.
 At the deeper plane of anesthesia, arterial P(CO2) and
 pulmonary arterial pressure were significantly lower during CV
 than during SV. The deeper plane of halothane anesthesia
 depressed cardiopulmonary function in these cats, resulting in
 hypotension and considerable hypercapnia. Compared with SV, CV
 significantly reduced circulatory variables and should be used
 with care in cats. Arterial blood pressure was judged to be
 more useful for assessing anesthetic depth than was heart rate
 or respiratory frequency.
 
 
 77                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Cardiopulmonary effects of halothane in hypovolemic dogs.
 Pascoe, P.J.; Haskins, S.C.; Ilkiw, J.E.; Patz, J.D.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1994 Jan. American journal of veterinary research v. 55 (1):
 p. 121-126; 1994 Jan. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Halothane; Cardiovascular system;
 Respiratory system; Hypovolemia; Anesthesia; Blood pressure
 
 Abstract:  Cardiopulmonary effects of halothane administration
 were studied in hypovolemic dogs. Baseline cardiopulmonary
 data were recorded from conscious dogs after instrumentation.
 Hypovolemia was induced by withdrawal of blood from dogs until
 mean arterial pressure of 60 mm of Hg was achieved. Blood
 pressure was maintained at 60 mm of Hg for 1 hour, by further
 removal or replacement of blood. Halothane was delivered by
 face mask, dogs were intubated, then halothane end-tidal
 concentration of 1.13 +/- 0.02% was maintained, and
 cardiopulmonary effects were measured 3, 15, 30, and 60
 minutes later. After blood withdrawal and prior to halothane
 administration, systemic vascular resistance index, oxygen
 extraction, and base deficit increased. Compared with baseline
 values, these variables were decreased: mean arterial
 pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary arterial
 occlusion pressure, cardiac index, oxygen delivery index,
 oxygen consumption index, mixed venous oxygen tension, mixed
 venous oxygen content, venous admixture, arterial bicarbonate
 concentration, and mixed venous pH. At all times after
 intubation, arterial and venous oxygen tensions and mixed
 venous carbon dioxide tensions were increased. Three minutes
 after intubation, base deficit and mixed venous carbon dioxide
 tension increased, and mean arterial pressure and arterial and
 venous pH decreased, compared with values measured immediately
 prior to halothane administration. Fifteen minutes after
 intubation, systemic vascular resistance index decreased and,
 at 15 and 30 minutes, mean arterial pressure and arterial and
 venous pH remained decreased. At 60 minutes, mean pulmonary
 arterial pressure and pulmonary arterial occlusion pressure
 were increased and mixed venous pH was decreased, compared
 with values measured before halothane administration. Results
 of this study indicated that induction of anesthesia with
 halothane and maintenance at an end-tidal halothane
 concentration of 1.13% induced significant changes in blood
 pressure, with minimal effects on cardiac output and pulmonary
 function, when administered to hypovolemic dogs.
 
 
 78                                    NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 The cardiopulmonary effects of placing fentanyl or
 medetomidine in the lumbosacral epidural space of isoflurane-
 anesthetized cats. Duke, T.; Komulainen Cox, A.M.; Remedios,
 A.M.; Cribb, P.H. Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders Company;
 1994 Mar.
 Veterinary surgery v. 23 (2): p. 149-155; 1994 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Fentanyl; Medetomidine; Conduction
 anesthesia; Inhaled anesthetics; Drug effects; Cardiovascular
 system; Respiratory system; Blood pressure; Heart rate;
 Respiration rate; Respiratory gases; Bicarbonates; Ph; Blood
 
 
 79                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Cardiopulmonary responses to experimentally induced gastric
 dilatation in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs.
 Hodgson, D.S.; Dunlop, C.I.; Chapman, P.L.; Grandy, J.L.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1992 Jun. American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (6):
 p. 938-943; 1992 Jun. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Inhaled anesthetics; Stomach diseases;
 Cardiovascular system; Heart rate; Blood pressure; Respiration
 
 Abstract:  Gastric dilatation was experimentally induced in 6
 anesthetized dogs maintained with constant-dose isoflurane in
 oxygen. An intragastric balloon was used to distend the
 stomach with a constant 30 mm of Hg for 3.5 hours. The PaCO2,
 was maintained between 35 and 45 mm of Hg, using intermittent
 positive-pressure ventilation. Cardiopulmonary measurements
 prior to stomach distension (baseline) were compared with
 measurements taken during 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5
 hours of stomach distension by analyzing the change from
 baseline in a randomized-block analysis with each dog as a
 block. After distending the stomach, cardiac index increased
 (P < 0.01) from 1.5 to 3.5 hours. Stroke volume did not
 change, thus the increase in the, cardiac index was
 attributable to an increase in heart rate. During inflation,
 increases were observed in systemic arterial, pulmonary
 arterial, and right atrial pressure. Respiratory frequency was
 unchanged; however, to maintain PaCO2, constant, it was
 necessary to progressively increase peak airway pressure.
 Although PaO2, tended to decrease during gastric dilation, the
 dogs were never hypoxemic. These results indicate that when
 our methods are used to maintain a constant anesthetic dose of
 isoflurane in oxygen, an observed increase in cardiovascular
 performance is expected. This differs from other studies in
 anesthetized dogs that have shown reduction in cardiovascular
 performance following gastric dilatation.
 
 
 80                                    NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Cardiorespiratory effects of combined midazolam and
 butorphanol in isoflurane-anesthetized cats.
 Gross, M.E.; Smith, J.A.; Tranquilli, W.J.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1993 Mar.
 Veterinary surgery v. 22 (2): p. 159-162; 1993 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Neuroleptics; Drug combinations; Anesthesia
 
 
 81                                    NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Cardiorespiratory effects of four opioid-tranquilizer
 combinations in dogs. Jacobson, J.D.; McGrath, C.J.; Smith,
 E.P.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders Company; 1994 Jul.
 Veterinary surgery v. 23 (4): p. 299-306; 1994 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Opioids; Neuroleptics; Drug combinations;
 Drug effects; Heart rate; Blood pressure; Blood; Ph; Gases;
 Arrhythmia; Anesthesia
 
 
 82                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Cardiorespiratory effects of glycopyrrolate-butorphanol-
 xylazine combination, with and without nasal administration of
 oxygen in dogs.
 Jacobson, J.D.; McGrath, C.J.; Ko, C.H.; Smith, E.P.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1994 Jun. American journal of veterinary research v. 55 (6):
 p. 835-841; 1994 Jun. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Drug combinations; Parasympatholytics;
 Analgesics; Xylazine; Drug effects; Cardiovascular system;
 Oxygen
 
 Abstract:  Cardiopulmonary consequences of IV administered
 glycopyrrolate (0.01 mg/kg of body weight), followed in 11 +/-
 2 minutes by butorphanol (0.2 mg/ kg) and xylazine (0.5
 mg/kg), were evaluated in 6 dogs, with and without nasal
 administration of oxygen (100 ml/kg/min). Glycopyrrolate
 caused significant (P < 0.05) increases in heart rate and
 cardiac index and significant (P < 0.05) decreases in stroke
 index. Subsequent administration of butorphanol and xylazine
 was associated with significant (P < 0.05) increases in
 systemic vascular resistance, mean arterial blood pressure,
 mean pulmonary artery pressure, central venous pressure,
 pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, PaCO2, venous admixture,
 oxygen extraction ratio, and hemoglobin concentration. It
 caused significant (P < 0.05) decreases in cardiac index,
 stroke index, breathing rate, minute volume index, oxygen
 delivery, and oxygen consumption. Mean arterial blood
 pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, tidal volume index,
 and minute volume index were significantly (P < 0.05) higher
 when dogs were breathing room air. The arterial and venous
 PO2, and PCO2, and venous oxygen content were significantly (P
 < 0.05) higher, and the arterial and venous pH, and oxygen
 consumption were significantly (P < 0.05) lower when oxygen
 was administered. Pulsus alternans and S-T segment depression
 were observed in dogs of both groups. Ventricular premature
 contractions were observed in 1 dog breathing room air. All
 dogs were intubated briefly 15 minutes after administration of
 butorphanol and xylazine. Time to first spontaneous movement
 was 45 minutes. All dogs remained in lateral recumbency
 without physical restraint for 60 minutes.
 
 
 83                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Cardiorespiratory effects of induction and maintenance of
 anesthesia with ketamine-midazolam combination, with and
 without prior administration of butorphanol or oxymorphone.
 Jacobson, J.D.; McGrath, C.J.; Smith, E.P.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1994 Apr. American journal of veterinary research v. 55 (4):
 p. 543-550; 1994 Apr. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Ketamine; Benzodiazepines; Drug
 combinations; Preanesthetic medication; Opioids;
 Cardiovascular system; Respiratory system; Drug effects
 
 Abstract:  Cardiorespiratory effects of an IV administered
 bolus of ketamine (7.5 mg/kg of body weight) and midazolam
 (0.375 mg/kg) followed by IV infusion of ketamine (200
 micrograms/kg/min) and midazolam (10 micrograms/ kg/min) for
 60 minutes was determined in 6 dogs. Ketamine-midazolam
 combination was administered to dogs on 3 occasions to
 determine effects of prior administration of IV administered
 saline solution (1 ml), butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg), or
 oxymorphone (0.1 mg/kg). The infusion rate of ketamine and
 midazolam was decreased by 25% for anesthetic maintenance
 after opioid administration. There were no significant
 differences in cardiorespiratory variables after saline
 solution or butorphanol administration; however, oxymorphone
 caused significant (P < 0.05) increases in mean arterial blood
 pressure, systemic vascular resistance, and breathing rate.
 Bolus administration of ketamine-midazolam combination after
 saline solution caused significant (P < 0.05) increases in
 heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, cardiac index, mean
 pulmonary blood pressure, venous admixture, and significant
 decreases in stroke index, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure,
 arterial and mixed venous oxygen tension, arterial oxygen
 content, and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient. Opioid
 administration was associated with significantly (P < 0.05)
 lower values than was saline administration for heart rate,
 mean arterial blood pressure, and arterial and mixed venous pH
 and with higher values for stroke index, pulmonary capillary
 wedge pressure, and arterial and mixed venous carbon dioxide
 tension. Prior oxymorphone administration resulted in the
 highest (P < 0.05) values for mean pulmonary blood pressure,
 venous admixture, and arterial and mixed venous carbon dioxide
 tension, and the lowest values for arterial oxygen tension,
 and arterial and mixed venous pH. Each treatment provided
 otherwise uncomplicated anesthetic induction, maintenance, and
 recovery. Time to extubation, sternal recumbency, and walking
 with minimal ataxia was similar for each treatment.
 
 
 84                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Cardiorespiratory effects of intravenous bolus administration
 and infusion of ketamine-midazolam in dogs.
 Jacobson, J.D.; Hartsfield, S.M.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1993 Oct. American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (10):
 p. 1710-1714; 1993 Oct. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Ketamine; Drug combinations;
 Benzodiazepines; Drug effects; Heart rate; Blood pressure;
 Respiration; Duration; Adverse effects
 
 Abstract:  Twelve healthy dogs were used to determine the
 cardiorespiratory effects of IV administered ketamine (10
 mg/kg of body weight) and midazolam (0.5 mg/ kg). Half the
 dogs received a ketamine-midazolam combination (K-M) as a
 bolus over 30 seconds and the other half received the K-M as
 an infusion over 15 minutes. Induction of anesthesia by use of
 K-M was good in all dogs. Ketamine-midazolam combination as a
 bolus or infusion induced minimal cardiorespiratory effects,
 except for significant (p < 0.05) increases in mean heart rate
 and rate-pressure product. The increase in heart rate was
 greater in dogs of the infusion group. Mild and transient
 respiratory depression was observed in dogs of both groups
 immediately after administration of K-M, but was greater in
 dogs of the bolus group than in dogs of the infusion group.
 Duration of action of K-M for chemical restraint was short.
 Salivation and defecation were observed in a few dogs. Extreme
 muscular tone developed in 1 dog after K-M bolus
 administration.
 
 
 85                                    NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Cardiorespiratory effects of the intravenous administration of
 Tiletamine-zolazepam to dogs.
 Hellyer, P.; Muir, W.W. III; Hubbell, J.A.E.; Sally, J.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1989 Mar.
 Veterinary surgery v. 18 (2): p. 160-165; 1989 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Respiration; Heart rate; Benzodiazepine;
 Cycloheximide; Anesthetics; Drug combinations
 
 
 86                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Cardiovascular and respiratory effects of propofol
 adminsitration in hypovolemic dogs.
 Ilkiw, J.E.; Pascoe, P.J.; Haskins, S.C.; Patz, J.D.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1992 Dec. American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (12):
 p. 2323-2327; 1992 Dec. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthetics; Dosage effects
 
 Abstract:  Cardiopulmonary effects of propofol were studied in
 hypovolemic dogs from completion of, until 1 hour after
 administration. Hypovolemia was induced by withdrawal of blood
 from dogs until mean arterial pressure of 60 mm of Hg was
 achieved. After stabilization at this pressure for 1 hour, 6
 mg of propofol/kg of body weight was administered IV to 7
 dogs, and cardiopulmonary effects were measured. After blood
 withdrawal and prior to propofol administration, oxygen
 utilization ratio increased, whereas mean arterial pressure,
 mean pulmonary arterial pressure, central venous pressure,
 pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, cardiac index, oxygen
 delivery, mixed venous oxygen tension, and mixed venous oxygen
 content decreased from baseline. Three minutes after propofol
 administration, mean pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary
 vascular resistance, oxygen utilization ratio, venous
 admixture, and arterial and mixed venous carbon dioxide
 tensions increased, whereas mean arterial pressure, arterial
 oxygen tension, mixed venous oxygen content, arterial and
 mixed venous pH decreased from values measured prior to
 propofol administration. Fifteen minutes after propofol
 administration, mixed venous carbon dioxide tension was still
 increased; however by 30 minutes after propofol
 administration, all measurements had returned to values
 similar to those measured prior to propofol administration.
 
 
 87                                    NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Cardiovascular changes in unanesthetized and ketamine-
 anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 2.8-GHz
 radiofrequency radiation. Jauchem, J.R.; Frei, M.R.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1991 Jan. Laboratory animal science v. 41 (1): p.
 70-75; 1991 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Radiation; Ketamine; Anesthesia; Body
 temperature; Heart rate; Blood pressure; Strain differences
 
 Abstract:  Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 2.8-GHz
 radiofrequency radiation, first while unanesthetized and then
 while anesthetized with ketamine (150 mg/kg, I.M.).
 Irradiation at a power density of 60 mW/cm2 (whole-body
 average specific absorption rate of approximately 14 W/kg) was
 conducted for sufficient duration to increase colonic
 temperature from 38.5 to 39.5 degrees C. The time required for
 the temperature increase was significantly longer in the
 anesthetized state. During irradition, heart rate increased
 significantly both with and without anesthesia, while mean
 arterial blood pressure increased only when the rats were
 unanesthetized. The heart rate increase in the anesthetized
 state contrasts with a lack of change in a previous study of
 Fischer rats. This difference between anesthetized Sprague-
 Dawley and Fischer rats should be considered when comparing
 cardiovascular data obtained from these two strains of rats.
 
 
 88                                    NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Cardiovascular effects of a continuous two-hour propofol
 infusion in dogs: comparison with isoflurane anesthesia.
 Keegan, R.D.; Greene, S.A.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1993 Nov.
 Veterinary surgery v. 22 (6): p. 537-543; 1993 Nov.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Injectable anesthetics; Inhaled anesthetics
 
 
 89                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Cardiovascular effects of butorphanol administration in
 isoflurane-O2 anesthetized healthy dogs.
 Tyner, C.L.; Greene, S.A.; Hartsfield, S.M.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1989 Sep. American journal of veterinary research v. 50 (8):
 p. 1340-1342; 1989 Sep. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Analgesics; Cardiovascular system; Drug
 effects; Anesthetics
 
 Abstract:  Cardiovascular consequences of butorphanol tartrate
 (0.2 mg/kg of body weight, IV) administration during
 isoflurane (1.7% end-tidal concentration) anesthesia were
 determined in mechanically ventilated healthy dogs.
 Butorphanol administration caused significant (P less than or
 equal to 0.05) reductions in mean, systolic, and diastolic
 arterial blood pressures; cardiac output; and rate-pressure
 product.
 
 
 90                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Cardiovascular effects of butorphanol in halothane-
 anesthetized dogs. Greene, S.A.; Hartsfield, S.M.; Tyner, C.L.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1990 Aug. American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (8):
 p. 1276-1279; 1990 Aug. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Analgesics; Halothane; Anesthesia;
 Cardiovascular system; Detoxicants
 
 Abstract:  Cardiovascular effects of butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg of
 body weight, IV) and responses associated with subsequent
 administration of naloxone (0.04 mg/kg, IV) were studied in
 halothane (1.2% end-tidal
 concentration)-anesthetized dogs. Transient, but statistically
 significant (P < 0.05), decreases in heart rate, mean and
 diastolic arterial blood pressures, and rate-pressure product
 were observed after butorphanol administration. Cardiac index,
 stroke volume, and systemic vascular resistance did not change
 significantly. Except for the decrease in heart rate, changes
 in the values of the cardiovascular variables measured after
 butorphanol administration did not appear to be clinically
 relevant. Sixty minutes after butorphanol administration,
 naloxone was given. Statistically significant (P < 0.05)
 increases in heart rate, arterial blood pressures, cardiac
 index, and rate-pressure product, along with dysrhythmias were
 observed. Stroke volume and systemic vascular resistance
 remained unchanged after administration of naloxone. Naloxone
 administration was associated with changes indicative of
 increased myocardial oxygen consumption.
 
 
 91                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Cardiovascular effects of vasopressors in halothane-
 anesthetized dogs before and after hemorrhage.
 Curtis, M.B.; Bednarski, R.M.; Majors, L.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1989 Nov. American journal of veterinary research v. 50 (11):
 p. 1859-1865; 1989 Nov. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Halothane; Anesthesia; Sympathomimetics;
 Vasoconstrictor agents; Hemorrhage; Cardiovascular system
 
 Abstract:  Exogenously administered vasopressors
 (sympathomimetics) were evaluated in halothane-anesthetized
 dogs to determine the effects of these drugs on cardiovascular
 function before and after hemorrhage. Six dogs were
 anesthetized with thiamylal sodium (20 mg/kg of body weight)
 and halothane (1.25 minimal alveolar concentration) in 100%
 oxygen. After instrumentation, cardiac output, systemic
 arterial blood pressure (SAP), heart rate (HR), left
 ventricular pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, and an
 index of cardiac contractility (dP/dT) were measured. Stroke
 volume, cardiac index (CI), stroke index (SI), rate-pressure
 product, and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) were
 calculated. Epinephrine (0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 micrograms/kg/min
 [low, medium, and high doses, respectively]) and dobutamine
 (1, 5, and 10 micrograms/kg/min [low, medium, and high doses,
 respectively]) were infused. Methoxamine was given in a bolus
 of 0.22 mg/kg, IV. All measurements were taken at 2.5 minutes
 after infusion, and were repeated after removal of 40% of the
 estimated blood volume. Dobutamine administered at the low
 dose before hemorrhage increased SAP and dP/dT. At the high
 and medium dose, dobutamine significantly increased CI, dP/dT,
 and SAP with no significant change in HR or SVR. The medium
 dose of epinephrine was the most effective dose of epinephrine
 at increasing key variables (CI, SI, dP/dT). The response of
 CI and SI to this dose was not significantly different from
 the changes seen with high-dose administration of dobutamine.
 The dP/dT was significantly lower with epinephrine than with
 dobutamine, and SVR and HR were unchanged with epinephrine,
 except at the low dose, which decreased SVR. Methoxamine
 significantly decreased CI, SVR, and HR, whereas SVR and SAP
 were increased significantly. After hemorrhage, the only
 variables that had a significant change in the absolute
 magnitude of the response to a drug, relative to the response
 before hemorrhage, were a significantly reduced abi
 
 
 92                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Cardiovascular effects of vasopressors in isoflurane-
 anesthetized dogs before and after hemorrhage.
 Curtis, M.B.; Bednarski, R.M; Majors, L.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1989 Nov. American journal of veterinary research v. 50 (11):
 p. 1866-1871; 1989 Nov. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Sympathomimetics;
 Vasoconstrictor agents; Hemorrhage; Cardiovascular system
 
 Abstract:  Exogenously administered vasopressors
 (sympathomimetics were evaluated in isoflurane-anesthetized
 dogs to determine the effects of these drugs on cardiovascular
 function before and after hemorrhage. Six dogs were
 anesthetized with thiamylal sodium (20 mg/kg of body weight)
 and isoflurane (1.25 minimal alveolar concentration) in 100%
 oxygen. After instrumentation, cardiac output, systemic
 arterial blood pressure, heart rate (HR), left ventricular
 pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, and an index of cardiac
 contractility (dP/dT) were measured. Stroke volume, cardiac
 index (CI), stroke index (SI), rate-pressure product, and
 systemic vascular resistance (SVR) were calculated.
 Epinephrine (0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 micrograms/kg/min [low, medium,
 and high doses, respectively]) and dobutamine (1, 5, and 10
 micrograms/kg/min [low, medium, and high doses, respectively])
 were infused. Methoxamine was given in a bolus of 0.22 mg/kg,
 IV. All measurements were taken at 2.5 minutes after infusion,
 and were repeated after removal of 40% of the estimated blood
 volume. Before hemorrhage, administration of high doses of
 dobutamine and medium and high doses of epinephrine were
 equally effective at increasing CI and SI. The dP/dT was
 increase to the greatest degree by administration of high
 doses of dobutamine. Administration of the low dose of
 dobutamine increased dP/dT, whereas administration of the low
 dose of epinephrine increased CI, HR, and SI, and decreased
 SVR. The HR and SVR were not increased by administration of
 any dose of dobutamine or of the medium and high doses of
 epinephrine. However, methoxamine increased SVR and decreased
 HR. Methoxamine decreased CI, SI, and dP/dT, but increased
 systemic arterial pressure to the same degree as that
 attributed to administration of high doses of dobutamine and
 epinephrine. After hemorrhage, effectiveness of the drugs in
 eliciting a response was unchanged, except for a decreased
 ability of dobutamine to increase rate-pressure product. Fur
 
 
 93                                    NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Cardiovascular function and serum catecholamine concentrations
 after anesthesia and surgery in the dog.
 Rawlings, C.A.; Tackett, R.L.; Bjorling, D.E.; Arnold, T.H. Jr
 Philadelphia, Pa. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1989 Jul.
 Veterinary surgery v. 18 (4): p. 255-260; 1989 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Surgical operations; Pain;
 Thermoregulation; Cardiovascular system; Catecholamines; Blood
 serum; Blood flow; Body temperature
 
 
 94                                    NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Cardiovascular responses to intracerebroventricular infusion
 of artificial cerebrospinal fluid in anesthetized strain 13
 guinea pigs. Liu, C.T.; Guo, Z.M.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1992 Jun. Laboratory animal science v. 42 (3): p.
 275-279; 1992 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Guinea pigs; Cerebrospinal fluid; Infusion;
 Cerebral ventricles; Internal pressure; Blood pressure; Heart
 rate; Drug delivery systems
 
 Abstract:  The cardiovascular effects of constant
 intracerebroventricular infusion in anesthetized strain 13
 guinea pigs were studied. Bilateral cerebroventricles of the
 animals were catheterized stereotaxically with two 20-gauge
 blunt needles, penetrating 5 to 6 mm into the skull. Baseline
 cerebroventricular pressure values were 1.3 +/- 0.6 mmHg.
 After artificial cerebrospinal fluid was infused into the left
 ventricle at 0.5 ml/h, left cerebroventricular pressure
 increased to 8.1 +/- 1.6 mmHg (P < 0.01), while right
 cerebroventricular pressure reached 5.6 +/- 2.2 mmHg within 20
 minutes. No significant changes in mean blood pressure or
 heart rate were observed. When intracerebroventricular
 infusion rate increased to 5.0 ml/h, cerebrospinal fluid
 pressures of left and right cerebroventricles increased to
 40.0 +/- 4.8 and 38.4 +/- 4.7 mmHg within 10 minutes from
 baseline values of 1.5 +/- 0.5 and 1.7 +/- 0.7 mmHg,
 respectively. Simultaneously, mean blood pressure and heart
 rate increased from 72 +/- 4 to 101 +/- 9 mmHg and from 195
 +/- 11 to 218 +/- 17 beats/min, respectively. However, 30 to
 50 minutes later, mean blood pressure, heart rate, and
 cerebrospinal fluid pressure decreased abruptly, and two of
 four animals died. We suggest that this technique with a low
 infusion rate (< 0.5 ml/h) can be used to deliver certain
 drugs into the brain ventricles directly without producing
 undesirable effects on blood pressure or heart rate.
 
 
 95                              NAL Call. No.: SF406.C35  1992
 The Care and use of amphibians, reptiles, and fish in
 research. Schaeffer, Dorcas O.; Kleinow, Kevin M.; Krulisch,
 Lee
 Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, Louisiana State
 University (Baton Rouge, La.), School of Veterinary Medicine
 Bethesda, Md. (4805 St. Elmo Ave., Bethesda 20814) :
 Scientists Center for Animal Welfare,; 1992.
 vii, 196 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.  Proceedings from a SCAW/LSUSVM-
 sponsored conference ... held April 8-9, 1991 in New Orleans,
 Louisiana ...  November 1992.  Includes bibliographical
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Amphibians as laboratory animals; Reptiles as
 laboratory animals; Fish as laboratory animals
 
 
 96                                    NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Changes in cardiopulmonary variables and platelet count during
 anesthesia for total hip replacement in dogs.
 Otto, K.; Matis, U.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders Company; 1994 Jul.
 Veterinary surgery v. 23 (4): p. 266-273; 1994 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Hips; Prostheses; Anesthesia; Platelet
 count; Surgery; Methodology; Adhesives; Cardiovascular system;
 Respiratory system
 
 
 97                                    NAL Call. No.: QP631.N37
 Characteristics of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins
 derived from short-necked clams (Tapes japonica) in Mikawa
 Bay.
 Okumura, M.; Yamada, S.; Oshima, Y.; Ishikawa, N.
 New York, NY : Wiley-Liss, Inc; 1994.
 Natural toxins v. 2 (3): p. 141-143; 1994.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Japan; Cabt; Clams; Tapes; Plankton; Toxins;
 Toxicity; Bioassays; Mice
 
 
 98                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V6456
 Children's pets (excluding the rabbit).
 Taylor, N.R.
 London : Wright; 1990.
 The Veterinary annual (30): p. 335-341; 1990.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Hamsters; Golden hamsters; Cricetulus; Phodopus;
 Gerbils; Meriones libycus; Meriones unguiculatus; Guinea pigs;
 Mice; Mus musculus; Rats; Rattus norvegicus; Pet care;
 Anesthesia; Antibiotics; Dosage; Water intake; Antifungal
 agents; Antiparasitic agents
 
 
 99                                    NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 Cisternal CSF and serum concentrations of morphine following
 epidural administration in the dog.
 Valverde, A.; Conlon, P.D.; Dyson, D.H.; Burger, J.P.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1992 Mar.
 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 15 (1):
 p. 91-95; 1992 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Morphine; Conduction anesthesia; Blood
 serum; Cerebrospinal fluid
 
 
 100                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 J8292
 Clinical effectiveness of atipamezole as a medetomidine
 antagonist in cats. Vaha-Vahe, A.T.
 London : British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 1990
 Apr. The Journal of small animal practice v. 31 (4): p.
 193-197; 1990 Apr. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cat; Analgesics; Detoxicants; Drug antagonism;
 Drug effects; Adverse effects; Dosage effect
 
 
 101                                   NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 The clinical effectiveness of atipamezole as a medetomidine
 antagonist in the dog.
 Vaha-Vahe, A.T.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1990 Jun.
 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 13 (2):
 p. 198-205; 1990 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Analgesics; Narcotic antagonists; Dosage;
 Drug antagonism; Adverse effects
 
 
 102                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Clinical evaluation of propofol as an intravenous anaesthetic
 agent in cats and dogs.
 Morgan, D.W.T.; Legge, K.
 London : The Association; 1989 Jan14.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 124 (2): p. 31-33; 1989 Jan14.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cat; Dogs; Anesthetics; Anesthesia; Safety;
 Adverse effects; Pharmacology
 
 
 103                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 J8292
 Clinical observations on medetomidine/ketamine anaesthesia and
 its antagonism by atipamezole in the cat.
 Young, L.E.; Jones, R.S.
 London : British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 1990
 May. The Journal of small animal practice v. 31 (5): p.
 221-224; 1990 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Ketamine; Drug
 antagonism; Antagonists
 
 
 104                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Closed system delivery of halothane and isoflurane with a
 vaporizer in the anesthetic circle.
 Bednarski, R.M.; Muir, W.W. III
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1991 Sep.
 Veterinary surgery v. 20 (5): p. 353-356; 1991 Sep.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Halothane; Surgical equipment
 
 
 105                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 J8292
 Coaxial anaesthetic circuits in small animals.
 Cullen, L.K.
 London : British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 1989
 May. The Journal of small animal practice v. 30 (5): p.
 294-297; 1989 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cat; Anesthesia; Circuits; Values; Gases;
 Flow
 
 
 106                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Comparative effects of xylazine and propofol on the urethral
 pressure profile of healthy dogs.
 Combrisson, H.; Robain, G.; Cotard, J.P.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1993 Dec. American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (12):
 p. 1986-1989; 1993 Dec. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Xylazine; Injectable anesthetics; Drug
 effects; Urethra; Pressure
 
 Abstract:  The effects of 2 drugs, xylazine and propofol, on
 the urethral pressure profile were compared. Seven female dogs
 were sedated by administration of one drug, then the other,
 and urethral variables were measured. In the dogs sedated with
 propofol, the mean +/- SD, maximal urethral closure pressure
 (51 +/- 7.4 cm of H2O) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher
 than the value when dogs were sedated with xylazine (23.3 +/-
 7.6 cm of H2O). Results were compared with those obtained by
 various authors, in particular for nonsedated dogs. It is
 concluded that propofol is a good drug for investigation of
 the urethral pressure profile, whatever its effect on maximal
 urethral closure pressure.
 
 
 107                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C24
 Comparative hemodynamic effects of halothane and halothane-
 acepromazne at equipotent doses in dogs.
 Boyd, C.J.; McDonell, W.N.; Valliant, A.
 Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1991 Apr.
 Canadian journal of veterinary research; Revue canadienne de
 recherche veterinaire v. 55 (2): p. 107-112; 1991 Apr. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Halothane; Cardiovascular agents;
 Hemodynamics; Anesthesia; Phenothiazines; Neuroleptics; Dosage
 effects
 
 
 108                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 A comparative study of medetomidine/ketamine and
 xylazine/ketamine anaesthesia in dogs.
 Moens, Y.; Fargetton, X.
 London : The Association; 1990 Dec08.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 127 (23): p. 567-571; 1990 Dec08.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Ketamine; Drug combinations;
 Xylazine; Agonists; Safety; Adverse effects; Dosage effects
 
 
 109                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Comparative study of the pharmacokinetics of alfentanil in
 rabbits, sheep, and dogs.
 Ilkiw, J.E.; Benthuysen, J.A.; McNeal, D.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1991 Apr. American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (4):
 p. 581-584; 1991 Apr. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Sheep; Rabbits; Analgesics;
 Pharmacokinetics; Species differences; Anesthesia
 
 Abstract:  The central arterial pharmacokinetics of
 alfentanil, a short-acting opioid agonist, were studied in
 rabbits, sheep, and dogs after short-duration infusion of the
 drug. Alfentanil was infused until a set end point (high-
 amplitude, slow-wave activity on the EEG) was reached. This
 required a larger alfentanil dose and a higher alfentanil
 arterial concentration in sheep, compared with rabbits and
 dogs. The plasma concentration-time data for each animal were
 fitted, using nonlinear regression, and in all animals, were
 best described by use of a triexponential function. In this
 study, differences in the disposition kinetics of alfentanil
 among the 3 species were found for only distribution clearance
 and initial distribution half-life. In dogs, compared with
 rabbits and sheep, the first distribution half-life was
 longer, probably because of pronounced drug-induced
 bradycardia (mean +/- SD, 48 +/-21 beats/min). Distribution
 clearance was faster in sheep, compared with dogs, also
 probably because of better blood flow in sheep. Elimination
 half-life was similar in all species (rabbits, 62.4 +/- 11.3
 minutes; sheep, 65.1 +/- 27.1 minutes; dogs, 58.3 +/- 10.3
 minutes). This rapid half-life resulted from a small steady-
 state volume of distribution (rabbits, 908.3 +/- 269.0 ml/kg;
 sheep, 720.0 +/- 306.7 ml/kg; dogs, 597.7 +/- 290.2 ml/kg) and
 rapid systemic clearance (rabbits, 19.4 +/- 5.3 ml/min/kg;
 sheep, 13.3 +/- 3.0 ml/min/kg; dogs, 18.7 +/- 7.5 ml/min/kg).
 On the basis of these pharmacokinetic variables, alfentanil
 should have short duration of action in rabbits, sheep, and
 dogs. This may be beneficial in veterinary practice where
 rapid recovery would be expected after bolus administration
 for short procedures or after infusion for longer procedures.
 
 
 110                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Comparison of arrhythmogenic doses of epinephrine in
 heartworm-infected and noninfected dogs.
 Venugopalan, C.S.; Holmes, E.; O'Malley, N.A.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1989 Nov. American journal of veterinary research v. 50 (11):
 p. 1872-1876; 1989 Nov. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Adrenalin; Anesthetics; Heart diseases;
 Dirofilaria immitis; Nematode control
 
 Abstract:  The arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine (ADE) was
 determined in heartworm-infected and noninfected (control)
 dogs during thiamylal-induced and halothane-maintained
 anesthesia to assess the myocardial sensitization. The ADE in
 heartworm-infected dogs (2.42 +/- 0.26 micrograms/kg of body
 weight) was significantly lower than that for the controls
 (3.36 +/- 0.29 micrograms/kg). After 2 weeks, ADE was
 determined again in these dogs after atropine treatment.
 Atropine treatment lowered the ADE to 1.76 +/- 0.33
 micrograms/kg and 1.77 +/- 0.19 micrograma/kg in heartworm-
 positive and negative dogs, respectively. After 2 weeks more
 the ADE was determined after administration of prazosin, an
 alpha 1-antagonist. Only 2 of 6 controls and 3 of 6 heartworm-
 positive dogs had arrhythmias after a threefold increase of
 ADE. The mean ADE in the dogs that responded to treatment were
 7.4 micrograms/kg and 7.2 micrograms/kg for heart worm-
 positive and negative dogs, respectively. The findings of this
 study indicated that ADE in heartworm-infected dogs were lower
 than those in the control dogs, which makes the heartworm-
 infected dogs more vulnerable to arrhythmia during anesthesia.
 Atropine did not protect the dogs of either group. However,
 prazosin protected the dogs of both groups by significantly
 increasing the threshold of the ADE. On the basis of our
 findings, to reduce the risk of arrhythmia, we suggest that
 routine screening of dogs for heartworm infection be done
 before anesthetics are used.
 
 
 111                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Comparison of cerebrospinal fluid pressure in propofol- and
 thiopental-anesthetized eucapnic dogs.
 Wooten, T.L.; Lowrie, C.T.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1993 Mar.
 Veterinary surgery v. 22 (2): p. 148-150; 1993 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cerebrospinal fluid; Anesthesia
 
 
 112                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Comparison of direct and indirect blood pressure measurement
 in anesthetized dogs.
 Sawyer, D.C.; Brown, M.; Striler, E.L.; Durham, R.A.; Langham,
 M.A.; Rech, R.H.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1991 Apr. Laboratory animal science v. 41 (2): p.
 134-138; 1991 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Blood pressure; Pulse rate; Measurement;
 Tarsus; Carpus; Monitors; Catheters; Aorta
 
 Abstract:  This study was conducted to determine whether blood
 pressures and pulse rate could be determined accurately by
 indirect measurements from the front and hind legs of 15- to
 40-kg dogs anesthetized with isoflurane. Indirect measurements
 from each animal were compared to direct measurements obtained
 from a catheter placed into the abdominal aorta via the
 femoral artery at four ranges of systolic pressure. When
 systolic pressure was above 80 mm Hg, indirect measurements
 were either the same as direct measurements or slightly lower.
 However, when systolic pressures were below 80 mm Hg, indirect
 systolic pressure measurements were 6 to 15% higher than
 direct measurements. Larger differences in diastolic pressures
 were found, which resulted in differences in mean pressure.
 The most accurate measurements were found when the cuff width-
 to-limb circumference ratio was between 0.4 and 0.6 and when
 systolic pressure was between 80 and 100 mm Hg.
 
 
 113                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 J8292
 A comparison of endotracheal and intravenous routes for
 atropine administration in anaesthetised dogs.
 Bor, A.; Jones, R.S.; Richards, D.L.S.
 London : British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 1991
 Apr. The Journal of small animal practice v. 32 (4): p.
 180-182; 1991 Apr. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Atropine; Intravenous injection; Trachea;
 Application methods; Heart rate; Dosage
 
 
 114                              NAL Call. No.: SF914.A53 1990
 Comparison of indirect and direct blood pressure measurement
 in the anesthetized dog.
 Sawyer, D.C.; Brown, M.; Striler, E.L.; Durham, R.A.
 Columbia, Md. : American College of Laboratory Animal
 Medicine, 1990? :.; 1990.
 Anesthesia and analgesia in laboratory animals : proceedings -
 - 1990 Forum, American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine,
 Columbia Inn, Columbia, Maryland, May 3-6, 1990. p. 27-30;
 1990.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Blood pressure
 
 
 115                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Comparison of inhalation-to-perfusion ratio in anesthetized
 dogs with barrel-shaped thorax vs dogs with deep thorax.
 Clercx, C.; Brom, W.E. van den; Vries, H.W. de
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1991 Jul. American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (7):
 p. 1097-1103; 1991 Jul. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Thorax; Conformation; Anesthesia; Ratios;
 Lungs; Gravity; Lung ventilation
 
 Abstract:  Interregional, as well as intraregional (local),
 distributions of the inhalation-to-perfusion ratio were
 analyzed in the lungs of 20 prone anesthetized healthy dogs-
 -10 dogs with barrel-shaped thorax (Beagles) and 10 dogs with
 deep thorax (Greyhound-type dogs)--using 99mTc inhalation-
 perfusion lung scintigraphy. Dorsoventral and lateral views
 were analyzed. In both types of dogs, the ratio between the
 mean inhalation and perfusion values (interregional
 mismatching factor) decreased from craniad to caudad and the
 decrease was more sustained in the right than in the left
 lung. However, the total decrease was less in Greyhound-type
 dogs than in Beagles (cranial-to-caudal decrease of 14 and
 27%, respectively, in the left lung, and 62 and 56%,
 respectively, in the right lung). The dorsal-to-ventral
 distribution of interregional mismatching factor was different
 in the 2 types of dogs. In Beagles, it increased from dorsal
 to ventral zones by about 50% of the initial dorsal zone
 value, whereas in Greyhound-type dogs, only a slight dorsal-
 to-ventral decrease was evident, with the exception of the
 more ventral zone. Differences in the intraregional
 mismatching factor (rho) indicated that the intraregional
 inhalation-to-perfusion inequalities were more pronounced
 within the caudal regions and within the ventral zones of the
 lungs in both types of dogs, and in the more cranial zones in
 the lungs of Beagles. However, the degree of intraregional
 mismatching was generally lower in Greyhound-type dogs. Thus,
 the gravitational force is not the dominating determinant of
 interregional or intraregional inhalation-to-perfusion ratio
 distributions in the lungs of anesthetized prone dogs. Its
 influence is modulated by other factors morphologic
 characteristics, such as the shape and size of the thorax, and
 body weight of the dog. In particular, the height of the
 thorax in Greyhound-type dogs could permit the gravitational
 force to exert a more determinant influence than it does in
 Beagle
 
 
 116                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 A comparison of ketamine/xylazine and
 ketamine/xylazine/acepromazine anesthesia in the rabbit.
 Lipman, N.S.; Marini, R.P.; Erdman, S.E.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1990 Jul. Laboratory animal science v. 40 (4): p.
 395-398; 1990 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Anesthesia; Drug combinations; Ketamine;
 Xylazine; Preanesthetic medication; Neuroleptics
 
 Abstract:  Parenteral anesthetic combinations such as ketamine
 and xylazine have become the agents of choice for anesthesia
 in the rabbit, because they are effective, easily administered
 and inexpensive. A number of recent reports have recommended
 including acepromazine in this combination, but a critical
 evaluation of this combination in the rabbit has not been
 reported. Five adult New Zealand white rabbits were
 anesthetized intramuscularly with ketamine (35 mg/kg) and
 xylazine (5 mg/kg) with or without acepromazine (0.75 mg/kg).
 The study was conducted in a double blind fashion, where each
 rabbit was administered both combinations at a minimum of 7
 day intervals. Physiologic parameters were evaluated including
 heart rate, respiratory rate, central arterial blood pressure,
 pedal, palpebral and postural reflex activity. The duration of
 general anesthesia, estimated by the time elapsed between the
 loss and return of the palpebral reflex, was greater (mean =
 99 +/- 20 minutes) when acepromazine was employed in the
 combination compared to (mean = 77 +/- 5 minutes) when
 ketamine/xylazine were used alone. Mean central arterial blood
 pressure reached a lower level when acepromazine was utilized
 (mean = 46 +/- 8 mm/Hg) than when it was not (mean = 57 +/- 12
 mm/Hg.) The addition of acepromazine in a ketamine/xylazine
 combination resulted in a 28% longer period of anesthesia, a
 19% lower mean central arterial blood pressure and a 32%
 longer recovery of postural reflexes. The
 ketamine/xylazine/acepromazine combination is a useful regimen
 for normovolemic animals when anesthetic duration greater than
 that produced by ketamine/xylazine alone is required.
 
 
 117                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Comparison of left ventricular ejection fractions determined
 in healthy anesthetized dogs by echocardiography and gated
 equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography.
 Sisson, D.D.; Daniel, G.B.; Twardock, A.R.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1989 Nov. American journal of veterinary research v. 50 (11):
 p. 1840-1847. ill; 1989 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Ventricles; Anesthesia; Echocardiography;
 Radionuclides; Radiography; Regression analysis
 
 Abstract:  Left ventricular ejection fractions (LVEF) of 8
 pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs were calculated by gated
 equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography (RVG) and by M-mode
 and two-dimensional echocardiography (2-DE) prior to and
 during constant IV infusion of isoproterenol. Mean LVEF (+/-
 SD), determined with RVG by use of an automatic edge detection
 algorithm (RVG-auto) to define the left ventricular region of
 interest increased from a resting value of 53.5% (+/- 4.9%) to
 71.9% (+/-6.8%) during isoproterenol infusion. Mean LVEF,
 determined with RVG by use of visual inspection (RVG-manual)
 to define the left ventricular region of interest increased
 from a resting value of 51.6% +/- 3.8% to 67.0% +/- 5.6%
 during isoproterenol infusion. Using 2-DE and the bullet
 formula to calculate left ventricular volume (LVV = 5/6 X
 cross-sectional area X length), mean LVEF increased from 52.3%
 (+/- 3.50) to 74.7% (+/- 5.0%). Using 2-DE area measurements
 and Teicholz formula, mean LVEF increased from 48.9% (+/-
 5.1%) to 69.5% (+/- 6.0%). Using M-mode echocardiographic left
 ventricular diameter measurements and Teicholz formula, mean
 LVEF increased from 52.3 (+/- 9.0%) to 78.3% (+/- 8.1%).
 Before and during isoproternol infusion, the mean LVEF values
 calculated by RVG agreed closely with mean LVEF values
 calculated from M-mode and 2-DE. Correlation coefficients
 determined from linear regression analysis of LVEF by
 echocardiography vs LVEF by radionuclide ventriculography
 ranged from 0.79 to 0.88. Correlation coefficients were higher
 and SEM were lower when LVEF was determined by RVG-manual,
 rather than by RVG-auto methods and when LVEF was calculated
 from 2-DE measurements, rather than from M-mode measurements.
 
 
 118                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C24
 Comparison of medetomidine and fentanyl-droperidol in dogs:
 sedation, analgesia, arterial blood gases and lactate levels.
 Pettifer, G.R.; Dyson, D.H.
 Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1993 Apr.
 Canadian journal of veterinary research; Revue canadienne de
 recherche veterinaire v. 57 (2): p. 99-105; 1993 Apr. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Medetomidine; Fentanyl; Droperidol;
 Analgesics; Restraint of animals; Nontarget effects; Body
 temperature; Respiration rate; Heart rate; Blood chemistry;
 Respiratory gases; Lactic acid
 
 
 119                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 A comparison of medetomidine-propofol and medetomidine-
 midazolam-propofol anesthesia in rabbits.
 Ko, J.C.H.; Thurmon, J.C.; Tranquili, W.J.; Benson, G.J.;
 Olson, W.A. Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for
 Laboratory Animal Science; 1992 Oct. Laboratory animal science
 v. 42 (5): p. 503-507; 1992 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Anesthesia; Drug combinations
 
 
 120                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Comparison of several combinations for anesthesia in rabbits.
 Hobbs, B.A.; Rolhall, T.G.; Sprenkel, T.L.; Anthony, K.L.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1991 May. American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (5):
 p. 669-674; 1991 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Anesthesia; Drug combinations;
 Injectable anesthetics; Heart rate; Respiration rate; Body
 temperature; Reflexes; Safety
 
 Abstract:  Few safe and effective anesthesia regimens have
 been described for use in rabbits, partially because of the
 susceptibility of this species to sometimes fatal respiratory
 depression. Although inhalant anesthetics are generally safer
 than injectable anesthetics, their use may be limited by lack
 of equipment or facilities. This study was conducted to
 compare effects of several injectable anesthetics in rabbits
 on response to noxious stimuli, heart rate, respiratory rate,
 and rectal temperature. Six injectable anesthetic combinations
 were administered to rabbits:
 xylazine-ethyl-(l-methyl-propyl) malonyl-thio-urea salt
 (EMTU), ketamine-EMTU, xylazine-pentobarbital, xylazine-
 acepromazine-ketamine (XAK), ketamine-chloral hydrate, and
 ketamine-xylazine. All combinations induced a depression of
 respiratory rate. Although rectal temperature values were
 reduced to some degree in each group, the most profound
 hypothermia was induced by XAK. The combination that induced
 the longest duration of anesthesia was XAK. It was concluded
 that XAK was preferable for longer periods of anesthesia (60
 to 120 minutes), although it induces severe hypothermia. For
 short periods of anesthesia, xylazine-pentobarbital, xylazine-
 EMTU, or ketamine-xylazine were deemed adequate; however,
 xylazine-EMTU induced the best survivability and consistency.
 
 
 121                                   NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 A comparison of the effects of buprenorphine, carprofen and
 flunixin following laparotomy in rats.
 Liles, J.H.; Flecknell, P.A.
 Oxford [England] : Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1978-;
 1994 Aug. Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics
 v. 17 (4): p. 284-290; 1994 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Flunixin; Non-steroidal antiinflammatory
 agents; Analgesics; Laparotomy; Drug combinations; Body
 weight; Feed intake; Water intake; Locomotion; Pain
 
 
 122                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R3224
 Comparison of the efficacy of three premedicants administered
 to cats. Dyson, D.H.; Pascoe, P.J.; Honeyman, V.; Rahn, J.E.
 Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1992 Jul.
 The Canadian veterinary journal v. 33 (7): p. 462-464; 1992
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Preanesthetic medication; Drug
 combinations; Drug effects; Anesthesia; Heart rate;
 Respiration rate; Catheters
 
 
 123                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Comparison of the hemodynamic effects of halothane alone and
 halothane combined with epidurally administered morphine for
 anesthesia in ventilated dogs.
 Valverde, A.; Dyson, D.H.; Cockshutt, J.R.; McDonell, W.N.;
 Valliant, A.E. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical
 Association; 1991 Mar. American journal of veterinary research
 v. 52 (3): p. 505-509; 1991 Mar. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Halothane; Morphine;
 Hemodynamics; Drug combinations
 
 Abstract:  The hemodynamic effects of 1.5 minimal alveolar
 concentration of halothane alone (1.6% end-tidal) and 1.5
 minimal alveolar concentration of halothane (1.1% end-tidal
 concentration) combined with epidurally administered morphine
 were compared during controlled ventilation in 10 dogs used on
 2 occasions and randomly allocated to 2 groups. Arterial blood
 pressure, cardiac index, stroke volume, left ventricular work,
 and pulmonary arterial pressure were significantly (P < 0.05)
 higher in dogs of the morphine-treated group before
 administration of morphine. After epidural administration of
 morphine (0.1 mg/kg of body weight diluted in 0.26 ml of
 saline solution/kg), hemodynamic changes were not observed,
 and the aforementioned variables remained significantly (P <
 0.05) higher than values in dogs of the halothane only group.
 Compared with halothane (1.6%) alone, the reduction in
 halothane end-tidal concentration (1.1%) associated with
 epidurally administered morphine is beneficial in maintaining
 hemodynamic function.
 
 
 124                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Comparison of the postoperative analgesic and sedative effects
 of carprofen and papaveretum in the dog.
 Nolan, A.; Reid, J.
 London : The British Veterinary Association; 1993 Sep04.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 133 (10): p. 240-242; 1993 Sep04.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Non-steroidal antiinflammatory agents;
 Opioids
 
 
 125                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 J8292
 A comparison of the postoperative analgesic and sedative
 effects of flunixin and papaveretum in the dog.
 Reid, J.; Nolan, A.M.
 London : British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 1991
 Dec. The Journal of small animal practice v. 32 (12): p.
 603-608; 1991 Dec. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Flunixin; Analgesics; Anesthesia; Pain;
 Drug effects
 
 
 126                                   NAL Call. No.: SF901.V47
 A comparison of three local anaesthetic techniques for skin
 biopsy in dogs. Henfrey, J.I.; Thoday, K.L.; Head, K.W.
 Elmsford, N.Y. : Pergammon Press, Inc; 1991.
 Veterinary dermatology v. 2 (1): p. 21-27; 1991.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Local anesthesia; Lidocaine; Epinephrine;
 Cutaneous application; Local anesthetics; Skin; Biopsy;
 Adverse effects; Artefacts
 
 
 127                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Comparison of xylazine with tiletamine-zolazepam (Telazol) and
 xylazine-ketamine anesthesia in rabbits.
 Popilskis, S.J.; Oz, M.C.; Gorman, P.; Florestal, A.; Kohn,
 D.F. Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory
 Animal Science; 1991 Jan. Laboratory animal science v. 41 (1):
 p. 51-53; 1991 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Anesthesia; Xylazine; Anesthetics; Drug
 combinations; Ketamine
 
 Abstract:  Although widely used to provide short term
 anesthesia, ketamine-xylazine does not always produce
 satisfactory anesthesia. We compared the efficacy of ketamine-
 xylazine to tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine for producing
 surgical anesthesia in rabbits. Four of six rabbits receiving
 ketamine-xylazine and all of the 12 animals given
 tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine were anesthetized successfully.
 The mean surgical anesthesia time in the ketamine-xylazine
 group was 35 +/- 6 minutes as compared to the tiletamine-
 zolazepam-xylazine group, 72 +/- 8 minutes (p < 0.05). There
 was no significant difference in the interval between the
 injection of the different anesthetic mixtures and the loss of
 either the righting reflex, the jaw reflex or the toe web
 pinch reflex. Respiratory rates and arterial oxygen partial
 pressure were higher in the ketamine-xylazine group (p <
 0.05). However, in both groups arterial blood pressure and
 arterial PO2 were lowered, while arterial PCO2 was elevated.
 No nephrotoxicity occurred. Tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine
 provides effective surgical anesthesia in rabbits and in many
 cases may be preferable to conventional ketamine-xylazine
 regimen.
 
 
 128                                  NAL Call. No.: QL785.A725
 Conditioned inhibition of analgesia.
 Wiertelak, E.P.; Watkins, L.R.; Maier, S.F.
 Austin, Tex. : Psychonomic Society; 1992 Nov.
 Animal learning & behavior v. 20 (4): p. 339-349; 1992 Nov. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pain; Rats
 
 Abstract:  Stimuli that predict the occurrence of aversive
 events come to elicit conditioned analgesia. Experiments 1A
 and 1B examined the possibility that conditioning can inhibit
 analgesia when stimuli are paired in a backward fashion with a
 shock US (Pavlovian CS-s). Analgesia conditioned in response
 to shock context exposure was reversed during the CS- (light)
 presentation after four sessions. The ability of the CS- to
 function as a conditioned inhibitor of analgesia was then
 evaluated in both summation (Experiment 1A) and retardation-
 of-acquisition testing (Experiments 1A and 1B). The results
 support the conclusion that a stimulus presented after shock
 in a backward fashion comes to be a conditioned inhibitor of
 analgesia. Experiments 2A and 2B examined the assumption that
 the results obtained with our pain sensitivity measure
 (tailflicking in response to radiant heat) reflect changes in
 responsiveness to painful input, rather than a general motor
 inhibition or general insensitivity to sensory input. In
 Experiment 2A, tailflick responding to painful and nonpainful
 input was compared in animals receiving either morphine or
 saline. In Experiment 2B, tailflick responding to painful and
 nonpainful input to the tail was compared in both the shock
 and a neutral context. in both experiments, only the painful
 input yielded changes in responsivity. The results support the
 conclusion that the alterations in pain sensitivity produced
 by the CS- for shock represents a conditioned inhibition
 specific to pain.
 
 
 129                              NAL Call. No.: SF914.A53 1990
 Current trends in rodent anesthesia and analgesia.
 Wixson, S.K.
 Columbia, Md. : American College of Laboratory Animal
 Medicine, 1990? :.; 1990.
 Anesthesia and analgesia in laboratory animals : proceedings -
 - 1990 Forum, American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine,
 Columbia Inn, Columbia, Maryland, May 3-6, 1990. p. 35-58;
 1990.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rodents; Anesthesia; Analgesics
 
 
 130                                   NAL Call. No.: QH345.B47
 Detection of paralytic shellfish poisons by HPLC.
 Nagashima, Y.; Noguchi, T.; Hashimoto, K.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1989.
 Bioactive molecules v. 10: p. 311-318; 1989.  In the series
 analytic: Mycotoxins and phycotoxins '88 / edited by S.
 Natori, K. Hashimoto, and Y. Ueno. Proceedings of the Seventh
 International IUPAC Symposium August 16-19, 1988, Tokyo,
 Japan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Japan; Shellfish; Food poisoning; Toxins; Algae;
 Detection; Liquid chromatography; Marine areas
 
 
 131                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Development of an opiate-based anaesthetic technique for use
 in dogs with cardiomyopathy.
 Williamson, H.A.; Cumming, D.V.E.; Cobb, M.A.; Pattison, C.W.;
 Yacoub, M.H.; Clayton Jones, D.G.
 London : The Association; 1991 Nov02.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 129 (18): p. 398-400; 1991 Nov02.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Fentanyl; Halothane; Nitrous
 oxide; Cardiomyopathy; Safety
 
 
 132                                   NAL Call. No.: 389.8 J82
 Dietary fish oil does not alter glucose tolerance in conscious
 rats. Behme, M.T.; Dupre, J.; Holub, B.J.; Philbrick, D.J.
 Bethesda, Md. : American Institute of Nutrition; 1993 Dec. The
 Journal of nutrition v. 123 (12): p. 2085-2089; 1993 Dec. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Fish oils; Glucose tolerance; Supplements;
 Eicosapentaenoic acid; Docosenoic acids; Phospholipids; Liver;
 Pancreas; Pancreas islets; Blood plasma; Insulin; Rats
 
 Abstract:  We examined the effect of dietary fish oil (MaxEPA)
 and sunflower seed oil on glucose tolerance in male Wistar
 rats. Semipurified diets containing 100 g oil/kg diet were
 administered for 30 d. The fish oil diet contained 26 g (n-3)
 fatty acids, 16 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 10.4 g
 docosahexaenoic acid/kg diet. Phospholipids from liver,
 pancreas, and pancreatic islets were enriched in
 eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids by the fish oil
 diet. in unfed pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, both basal
 plasma insulin concentration and insulin responses to
 intravenous glucose were significantly lower for Ash oil-fed
 rats although glucose responses were similar; however,
 incremental excursions in plasma insulin over the basal
 concentrations did not differ. intravenous glucose tolerance
 was also examined in conscious unfed rats under minimal
 restraint. Responses of plasma glucose and insulin were
 similar for fish oil- and sunflower oil-fed groups.
 Furthermore, in another experiment, intravenous glucose
 tolerance tests were similar for conscious rats provided with
 either 100 g fish oil or corn oil/kg nonpurified diet. Thus,
 glucose-induced insulin secretion is lower in rats fed fish
 oil than in rats fed sunflower oil, when tests are conducted
 in pentobarbital-anesthetized animals but not when tests are
 performed in conscious rats; there was no effect on plasma
 glucose in either anesthetized or nonanesthetized rats.
 Therefore, substitution of (n-3) for (n-6) polyunsaturated
 fatty acids in tissue phospholipids does not alter plasma
 glucose or insulin in conscious male Wistar rats.
 
 
 133                                   NAL Call. No.: RB127.P34
 Differentiating analgesic and non-analgesic drug activities on
 rat hot plate: effect of behavioral endpoint.
 Carter, R.B.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers; 1991 Nov.
 Pain : the journal of the International Association for the
 Study of Pain v. 47 (2): p. 211-220; 1991 Nov.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Analgesics; Assays; Animal behavior
 
 
 134                                  NAL Call. No.: QD415.A1X4
 Distribution in female rats of an anaesthetic intravenous dose
 of 14C-propofol.
 Simons, P.J.; Cockshott, I.D.; Douglas, E.J.; Gordon, E.A.;
 Knott, S.; Ruane, R.J.
 London : Taylor & Francis; 1991 Oct.
 Xenobiotica v. 21 (10): p. 1325-1335; 1991 Oct.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Intravenous injection; Pharmacokinetics; Animal
 tissues; Distribution; Females; Rats
 
 Abstract:  1. Bolus i.v. doses of 14C-propofol (9 mg/kg) were
 administered to female rats for measurement of tissue levels
 of total 14C and propofol from 2 min to 24 h post-dose;
 wholebody autoradiography was studied at 6 min, 2 h and 24 h
 post-dose, and also involved 15-day pregnant rats. 2. The
 blood propofol concentration-time profile was fitted by a tri-
 exponential function corresponding to a three-compartment open
 model. Data show rapid distribution during the mixing period
 into highly perfused tissues and muscle, comprising the
 central compartment, and slower uptake into less well-perfused
 skin and adipose tissues comprising the deeper compartments.
 3. The initial decline in blood propofol concentration was
 associated with redistribution (t(1/2) 4 min), the second
 decline (15-240 min post-dose) was associated with metabolism
 (t(1/2) 33 min) and the third decline reflected slow depletion
 of drug from deep tissue compartments (t(1/2) 6.4 h). 4. Blood
 and brain propofol concentrations on waking (at 7 min post-
 dose) were 4 micrograms/ml and 9 micrograms/g respectively;
 the model shows that, at this time, 30% of the dose was lost
 from the central compartment by redistribution and a similar
 amount by metabolism. 5. Tissue profiles of total 14C and
 propofol diverged for highly perfused tissues (other than
 brain) because of slow clearance of metabolites, accentuated
 by enterohepatic recirculation.
 
 
 135                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Distribution of material injected intramuscularly in dogs.
 Autefage, A.; Fayolle, P.; Toutain, P.L.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1990 Jun. American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (6):
 p. 901-904. ill; 1990 Jun. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Radioactive iodine; Intramuscular
 injection; Muscles; Distribution; Pharmacokinetics
 
 Abstract:  A radiopaque marker was injected, using needles of
 various lengths, into the cervical musculature, the lumbar
 epaxial musculature, and the cranial and caudal muscular
 masses of the thighs of anesthetized dogs. After this
 procedure, the dogs were euthanatized and deep-frozen. The
 bodies were then sectioned, and the slices were radiographed
 to determine the fate of the injected material. Material that
 was injected into the neck or caudal region of the thigh was
 determined to be located in the muscle bellies or dispensed
 throughout the intermuscular fascial sheaths. In contrast,
 material injected into the lumbar area and cranial region of
 the thigh was located entirely in the muscle bellies. It was
 concluded that the best sites for injection in dogs are the
 lumbar epaxial musculature or the quadriceps femoris muscle
 when IM administration is imperative.
 
 
 136                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.A5
 Does ketamine provide adequate visceral analgesia when used
 alone or in combination with acepromazine, diazepam, or
 butorphanol in cats?. Sawyer, D.C.; Rech, R.H.; Durham, R.A.
 Lakewood, Colo. : The Association; 1993 May.
 Journal v. 29 (3): p. 257-263; 1993 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ketamine; Analgesics; Diazepam; Dosage;
 Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Abdomen; Cats
 
 
 137                                  NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L33
 Dorsal metatarsal, penile, and sublingual vein injections of
 anesthetized rats using a simplified inhalation anesthetic.
 Martinic, G.; Taylor, J.
 New York, N.Y. : Nature Publishing Company; 1993 Jan.
 Lab animal v. 22 (1): p. 38-44; 1993 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Anesthesia
 
 
 138                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Dose response to butorphanol administered subcutaneously to
 increase visceral nociceptive threshold in dogs.
 Sawyer, D.C.; Rech, R.H.; Durham, R.A.; Adams, T.; Richter,
 M.A.; Striler, E.L.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1991 Nov. American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (11):
 p. 1826-1830; 1991 Nov. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Analgesics; Pain; Subcutaneous injection;
 Dosage; Dosage effects
 
 Abstract:  Butorphanol (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8
 mg/kg of body weight, and placebo) was given sc to 8 healthy
 unmedicated dogs to determine its efficacy for visceral
 analgesia, using a colonic balloon for minimal threshold
 nociceptor stimulation. Degree of sedation; systolic,
 diastolic, and mean arterial pressure; and pulse rate were
 recorded. The highest 3 dosages, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg/kg, were
 found to be most effective, with 0.8 mg/kg the only dosage
 that was significantly different from control responses at the
 45-minute interval. Duration of analgesia ranged from 23 to 53
 minutes for all 6 dosages and dosing durations were not
 significantly different from one another. Blood pressures did
 not change, but pulse rate was significantly decreased by 0.8
 mg of butorphanol/kg. We concluded that butorphanol is an
 effective visceral analgesic of relatively short duration in
 the dog.
 
 
 139                                   NAL Call. No.: 442.9 SO1
 Dose-response of intravenous butorphanol to increase visceral
 nociceptive threshold in dogs.
 Houghton, K.J.; Rech, R.H.; Sawyer, D.C.; Durham, R.A.; Adams,
 T.; Langham, M.A.; Striler, E.L.
 Baltimore, Md. : Williams & Wilkins; 1991 Jul.
 Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and
 Medicine v. 197 (3): p. 290-296; 1991 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Analgesics; Dosage; Dosage effects;
 Duration; Blood pressure; Pulse rate; Intravenous injection
 
 Abstract:  This study was designed to determine the effective
 analgesic dose of butorphanol administered intravenously to
 obtund visceral nociception, as well as to determine duration
 of this effect. Additionally, cardiovascular changes and
 sedative effects were defined. Eight healthy dogs were each
 given five doses of butorphanol (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and
 0.4 mg/kg) plus a sterile water placebo intravenously in a
 randomized blinded format. Antinociception was assessed using
 an inflatable Silastic balloon inserted into the colon. Blood
 pressures and pulse rates were measured with a noninvasive
 monitor. The greatest efficacy and longest duration of
 antinociception were produced by 0.4 mg/kg of butorphanol,
 with a duration of 38 +/- 9 min. Arterial blood pressure and
 pulse rate did not vary at antinociceptive doses. Mild
 sedation was observed at all doses, which generally lasted
 longer than the antinociceptive effects. These data suggest
 that butorphanol can be given alone intravenously to provide
 visceral antinociception lasting 30-45 min without significant
 side effects.
 
 
 140                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Drug therapy in cats: a therapeutic category approach.
 Boothe, D.M.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1990 May15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 196
 (10): p. 1659-1669; 1990 May15.  Third of a series. 
 Literature review.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cat; Drug therapy; Antiinfective agents;
 Analgesics; Antihistaminics; Antiinflammatory agents;
 Hormones; Anthelmintics; Drugs
 
 
 141                                   NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 Duration of analgesia induced by epidurally administered
 morphine and medetomidine in dogs.
 Branson, K.R.; Ko, J.C.H.; Tranquilli, W.J.; Benson, J.;
 Thurmon, J.C. Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1993
 Sep.
 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 16 (3):
 p. 369-372; 1993 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Medetomidine; Morphine
 
 
 142                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Duration of etomidate-induced adrenocortical suppression
 during surgery in dogs.
 Dodam, J.R.; Kruse-Elliott, K.T.; Aucoin, D.P.; Swanson, C.R.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1990 May. American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (5):
 p. 786-788; 1990 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Surgical
 operations; Corticotrophin
 
 Abstract:  Plasma cortisol concentrations were compared in
 canine surgical patients given etomidate (2 mg/kg of body
 weight, IV) or thiopental sodium (12 mg/kg, IV) for anesthetic
 induction. Blood samples to determine plasma concentrations of
 etomidate were obtained at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes and 1,
 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours after induction.
 Adrenocortical function was evaluated before surgery by use of
 adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation tests. Dogs in both
 induction groups had high plasma cortisol concentrations after
 induction. Dogs given thiopental had a significant increase (P
 < 0.05) in plasma cortisol concentration from baseline at 2,
 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 12 hours after induction. Dogs given
 etomidate had a significant increase (P < 0.05) in plasma
 cortisol concentration from baseline at 5, 6, and 8 hours
 after induction. A comparison of plasma cortisol
 concentrations determined at 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 hours after
 induction with thiopental or etomidate revealed a higher (P <
 0.05) concentration in dogs given thiopental. The disposition
 of etomidate was best described by a 2-compartment model, with
 a redistribution half-life of 0.12 +/- 0.04 minute and a
 terminal half-life of 1.70 +/- 0.27 minute. Plasma cortisol
 concentrations did not correlate with plasma etomidate
 concentrations. We conclude that, compared with thiopental, a
 single bolus injection of etomidate reduces the adrenocortical
 response to anesthesia and surgery from 2 to 6 hours after
 induction. Because cortisol concentrations were significantly
 higher than baseline, and because cardiopulmonary function is
 maintained after a single bolus injection of etomidate, it can
 be considered a safe induction agent in dogs.
 
 
 143                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 An easily constructed anaesthetic face mask for dogs.
 Pearson, M.R.E.
 London : The British Veterinary Association; 1993 Nov06.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 133 (19): p. 477; 1993 Nov06.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia
 
 
 144                              NAL Call. No.: SF914.V34 1990
 Efeitos da administracao de cloridrato de ketamina na
 atividade geral e na sensibilidade convulsiva de ratos 
 [Effects of ketamine hydrochloride on open-field behavior and
 seizure susceptibility of rats].
 Valadao, Carlos Augusto Araujo
 1990; 1990.
 137 leaves : ill. ; 31 cm.  Summary in English.  Includes
 bibliographical references (leaves 111-137).
 
 Language:  Portuguese
 
 Descriptors: Veterinary anesthesia
 
 
 145                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.9 AM37
 The effect of anesthesia on the radiographic appearance of the
 coxofemoral joints.
 Aronson, E.; Kraus, K.H.; Smith, J.
 Raleigh, N.C. : American College of Veterinary Radiology; 1991
 Jan. Veterinary radiology v. 32 (1): p. 2-5. ill; 1991 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Radiography; Hips; Hip dysplasia;
 Anesthesia; Joints (animal); Classification
 
 
 146                                   NAL Call. No.: SF724.T72
 Effect of chloramphenicol on duration of
 xylazine/pentobarbitone anaesthesia in dogs.
 Adetunji, A.; Adewumi, J.O.A.
 Ibadan, Nigeria : Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University
 of Ibadan; 1990. Tropical veterinarian v. 8 (3/4): p. 149-155;
 1990.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia
 
 
 147                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Effect of gentamicin administration on the neuromuscular
 blockade induced by atracurium in cats.
 Forsyth, S.F.; Ilkiw, J.E.; Hildebrand, S.V.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1990 Oct. American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (10):
 p. 1675-1678; 1990 Oct. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Gentamicin; Muscle relaxants; Anesthetics;
 Recovery; Drug combinations
 
 Abstract:  Atracurium besylate, a nondepolarizing
 neuromuscular blocking agent, was administered as an infusion
 to 8 anesthetized cats in which neuromuscular blockade was
 assessed, using the train-of-four response. Once 50%
 depression of the first-twitch (T1) response was achieved, the
 infusion was held constant for 60 minutes before being
 discontinued and the recovery time was determined. The time
 for recovery was recorded as the time for the train-of-four
 ratio (T4 ratio) to increase from 50% to 75%. After recovery,
 atracurium infusion was reinstituted and the cats were again
 maintained for 60 minutes at 50% depression. A single bolus of
 gentamicin sulfate (2.0 mg/kg of body weight) was administered
 IV, and the infusion was continued for another 60 minutes
 before it was discontinued and the time for recovery was
 recorded. Within 1 minute of gentamicin administration, the
 mean +/= SD T1 response decreased from 49 +/- 5% to 33 +/- 8%
 of baseline and the T4 ratio decreased from 28 +/- 19% to 14 +/-
  11%. Peak effect occurred at 5 minutes, with a T1 response of
 29 +/- 6% of baseline and a T4 ratio of 13 +/- 12%. By 60
 minutes after gentamicin administration, the T1 response had
 increased to 38 +/- 7% of baseline and the T4 ratio had
 increased to 21 +/- 13%. The time for recovery significantly
 (P less than 0.03) increased from 9.9 +/- 3.4 minutes during
 the control study to 18.1 +/- 10.7 minutes during the
 gentamicin study. In this study, gentamicin potentiated the
 neuromuscular blockade induced by atracurium and increased the
 recovery time. Residual blockade, observed after gentamicin
 administration was reversed with edrophonium.
 
 
 148                                     NAL Call. No.: QR1.L47
 Effect of heterologous paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin-
 enzyme conjugates on the cross-reactivity of a saxitoxin
 enzyme immunoassay. Usleber, E.; Dietrich, R.; Martbauer, E.;
 Terplan, G.
 Oxford :; 1994 Jun.
 Letters in applied microbiology v. 18 (6): p. 337-339; 1994
 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Toxins; Food poisoning; Shellfish; Enzyme
 immunoassay; Cross reaction
 
 
 149                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Effect of medetomidine on the pharmacokinetics of propofol in
 dogs. Hall, L.W.; Lagerweij, E.; Nolan, A.M.; Sear, J.W.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1994 Jan. American journal of veterinary research v. 55 (1):
 p. 116-120; 1994 Jan. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Injectable anesthetics; Pharmacokinetics;
 Medetomidine; Preanesthetic medication; Drug effects;
 Anesthesia
 
 Abstract:  Pharmacokinetic variables of propofol were
 investigated in 6 mixed-breed dogs, and the effect of
 medetomidine (10 microgram/kg of body weight) on these
 kinetics was investigated using a two-way crossover design. On
 2 occasions, dogs received either a bolus dose of propofol
 sufficient to allow endotracheal intubation, followed by an
 infusion of propofol (0.4 mg/kg/min) for 120 minutes, or
 medetomidine (10 microgram/kg, IM), 15 minutes prior to
 induction of anesthesia as described, followed by infusion of
 propofol (0.2 mg/kg/min). Dogs given medetomidine received
 atipamezole (50 microgram/kg, IM) at the end of the 120-minute
 propofol infusion. Blood propofol concentration was measured,
 using high- performance liquid chromatography with
 fluorescence detection. Mean elimination half-life, blood
 clearance, mean residence time, and mean volume of
 distribution at steady state, were 486.2 minutes, 34.4
 ml/kg/min, 301.8 minutes, and 6.04 L/kg, respectively, in the
 absence of medetomidine, and 136.9 minutes, 36.2 ml/kg/min,
 215.1 minutes, and 3.38 L/kg, respectively, in the presence of
 medetomidine. Mean time to walking without ataxia was 174
 minutes in the nonpremedicated dogs (with a median blood
 propofol concentration of 2.2 microgram/ml) and was 160
 minutes in the premedicated dogs in which median blood
 propofol concentration was 1.03 microgram/ml.
 
 
 150                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Effect of midazolam preanesthetic administration on thiamylal
 induction requirement in dogs.
 Tranquilli, W.J.; Graning, L.M.; Thurmon, J.C.; Benson, G.J.;
 Moum, S.G.; Lentz, E.L.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1991 May. American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (5):
 p. 662-664; 1991 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Preanesthetic medication; Anesthetics;
 Dosage; Requirements; Tubes; Trachea
 
 Abstract:  The thiamylal sparing effect of midazolam was
 studied in 30 healthy Beagle and mixed-breed dogs. Using a
 replicated Latin square design, all dogs were given placebo
 (saline solution) and 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg of
 midazolam/kg of body weight prior to IV administration of
 thiamylal sodium. The 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg dosages significantly
 decreased the amount of thiamylal required to obtund
 swallowing reflex and easily achieve endotracheal intubation.
 Midazolam at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg reduced thiamylal requirement
 by 16.4% and 18.9%, respectively, whereas the 0.05 mg/kg
 dosage decreased thiamylal requirement by only 6.8%. The 0.2
 mg/kg dosage did not further decrease thiamylal requirement
 beyond that achieved with the 0.1 mg/kg dosage of midazolam.
 This study demonstrates that the preanesthetic IV
 administration of midazolam reduces the thiamylal dose
 necessary to accomplish intubation. The optimal preanesthetic
 dosage (lowest dosage with significant effect) was 0.1 mg/kg.
 
 
 151                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 The effect of mouse euthanasia technique on subsequent
 lymphocyte proliferation and cell mediated lympholysis assays.
 Howard, H.L.; McLaughlin-Taylor, E.; Hill, R.L.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1990 Sep. Laboratory animal science v. 40 (5): p.
 510-514; 1990 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mice; Euthanasia; Lymphocyte transformation;
 Cytotoxic t lymphocytes; Methoxyflurane; Pentobarbital; Carbon
 dioxide; Halothane; Dislocations
 
 Abstract:  The purpose of this study was to determine the
 effects that specific euthanasia methods have on mitogen
 induced lymphocyte proliferation (LP) and the induction of
 alloantigen specific cytolytic T-lymphocytes (CTL). Mice were
 euthanatized by cervical dislocation (CD), or anesthesia with
 methoxyflurane or pentobarbital followed by CD (M-CD or P-CD
 respectively), CO2 overexposure (CO2-OD) or halothane
 overexposure (H-OD). Mitogenic lymphoproliferation was
 increased in cells derived from mice euthanatized by M-CD and
 P-CD. In contrast, the cytolytic profile of CTL derived from
 mice euthanatized by P-CD, CO2-OD and H-OD was decreased. The
 results of this study show that euthanasia techniques
 involving the use of methoxyflurane, pentobarbital, CO2 and
 halothane affect in vitro lymphoproliferation and CTL
 function. We conclude that the method of euthanasia influences
 certain immunologic parameters and selection of a particular
 technique should be given careful consideration.
 
 
 152                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Effect of posture and anaesthesia on the distribution of
 pulmonary perfusion and lung configuration in beagle dogs.
 Clercx, C.; Brom, W.E. van den; Vries, H.W. de
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1989 Nov.
 Research in veterinary science v. 47 (3): p. 359-366. ill;
 1989 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Posture; Anesthesia; Lungs; Ratios; Blood
 flow
 
 
 153                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Effect of preanesthetic medication on ease of endoscopic
 intubation of the duodenum in anesthetized dogs.
 Donaldson, L.L.; Leib, M.S.; Boyd, C.; Burkholder, W.;
 Sheridan, M. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical
 Association; 1993 Sep. American journal of veterinary research
 v. 54 (9): p. 1489-1495; 1993 Sep. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Preanesthetic medication; Endoscopy;
 Duodenum; Drug combinations; Anesthesia; Electrocardiograms
 
 Abstract:  The effects of preanesthetic medication on ease of
 duodenal endoscopic intubation in dogs was evaluated. One of
 12 combinations of preanesthetic medications (using atropine,
 glycopyrrolate, morphine, meperidine, acepromazine, and 0.9%
 NaCl solution) was administered IM to each of 12 dogs in a
 trial. Twelve endoscopic trials were performed so that each
 dog received each treatment combination once. Anesthesia was
 induced with thiamylal administered IV and maintained with
 halothane vaporized in oxygen. Electrocardiographic
 recordings, indirect blood pressure measurements, end-tidal
 carbon dioxide partial pressures, and halothane concentrations
 were monitored during the anesthetic period. The ease with
 which the fiberoptic endoscope was passed into the proximal
 portion of the duodenum was qualitatively scored on the basis
 of time and maneuvering effort. None of the preanesthetic
 combinations made intubation of the duodenum significantly
 easier than that with 0.9% Nacl solution (control).Only the
 combination of morphine and atropine induced gastropyloric
 conditions that resulted in significantly higher (more
 difficult) endoscopic scores than those after preanesthetic
 medication with 0.9% NaCl solution.
 
 
 154                                 NAL Call. No.: 442.8 J8222
 The effect of pre-ovulatory anaesthesia on ovulation in
 laparoscopically inseminated domestic cats.
 Howard, J.G.; Barone, M.A.; Donoghue, A.M.; Wildt, D.E.
 Colchester : The Journal; 1992 Sep.
 Journal of reproduction and fertility v. 96 (1): p. 175-186;
 1992 Sep. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Intrauterine insemination; Ovulation;
 Laparoscopy; Anesthesia; Preovulatory period; Pmsg; Hcg;
 Pregnancy; Conception rate; Embryonic development
 
 
 155                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 J8292
 Effect of thiopentone and propofol on lower oesophageal
 sphnicter and barrier pressure in the dog.
 Waterman, A.E.; Hashim, M.A.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1992 Nov.
 The Journal of small animal practice v. 33 (11): p. 530-533;
 1992 Nov. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Thiopental; Injectable anesthetics;
 Anesthesia; Esophageal sphincter; Internal pressure;
 Preanesthetic medication
 
 
 156                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3
 Effect of tiletamine/zolazepam sedation on intradermal allergy
 testing in atopic dogs.
 Codner, E.C.; Lessard, P.; McGrath, C.J.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1992 Dec15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 201
 (12): p. 1857-1860; 1992 Dec15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Skin tests; Atopy; Anesthetics;
 Benzodiazepines; Allergens; Hypersensitivity; Temperament;
 Adverse effects; Histamine; Extracts
 
 
 157                                   NAL Call. No.: SF901.V47
 The effect of tiletamine-zolazepam anesthesis on the response
 to intradermally injected histamine in cats.
 Mueller, R.S.; Ihrke, P.J.; Kass, P.H.; Bettenay, S.V.
 Oxford, U.K. : Pergammon Press, Inc; 1991.
 Veterinary dermatology v. 2 (3/4): p. 119-123; 1991.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Anesthesia; Histamine; Injection
 
 
 158                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.A47
 Effect of yohimbine on xylazine-induced diuresis in rats.
 Mohammad, F.K.; Ahmed, F.A.; Al-Kassim, N.A.H.
 Manhattan, Kan. : American Academy of Veterinary and
 Comparative Toxicology; 1989 Feb.
 Veterinary and human toxicology v. 31 (1): p. 13-15; 1989 Feb. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Xylazine; Diuresis; Drug antagonism; Anesthetics;
 Rats
 
 
 159                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 An effective combination of anaesthetics for 6-h
 experimentation in the golden Syrian hamster.
 Reid, W.D.; Davies, C.; Pare, P.D.; Pardy, R.L.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1989 Apr.
 Laboratory animals v. 23 (2): p. 156-162; 1989 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Golden hamster; Anesthetics; Drug combinations;
 Pentobarbital; Urethane; Chloralose; Anesthesia
 
 Abstract:  The anaesthetics described for use in hamsters to
 date are suitable for the perfomance of short-term
 experimentation. However, an anaesthetic regimen was required
 which would provide a stable preparation for 6 h and hence, a
 suitable combination was developed. In the first set of
 experiments, the effect of anaesthetics (chloralose, urethane,
 and pentobarbital) were examined alone and in combination on
 arterial blood measurements. In the second set of experiments
 the effect of the combination of anaesthetics on arterial
 blood measurements and minute ventilation was examined for up
 to 6 h. Chloralose, urethane and pentobarbital when used alone
 in the hamster were considered inadequate for our needs.
 Chloralose did not produce adequate surgical anaesthesia
 whereas urethane and pentobarbital resulted in marked
 respiratory depression. Urethane also produced a trend toward
 metabolic acidosis. In contrast, the combination of agents
 resulted in surgical anaesthesia and the arterial blood
 measurements were adequate. Further, the use of the
 combination of anaesthetics in hamsters resulted in a stable
 preparation where arterial blood measurements and minute
 ventilation were maintained in a good range for up to 6 h. The
 combination of chloralose, urethane and sodium pentobarbital
 in hamsters should prove useful in long-term non-recovery
 experimentation which requires early surgical intervention,
 minimal respiratory depression and an even depth of
 anaesthesia.
 
 
 160                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Effects of abdominal insufflation with nitrous oxide on
 cardiorespiratory measurements in spontaneously breathing
 isoflurane-anesthetized dogs. Gross, M.E.; Jones, B.D.;
 Bergstresser, D.R.; Rosenhauer, R.R. Schaumburg, Ill. :
 American Veterinary Medical Association; 1993 Aug. American
 journal of veterinary research v. 54 (8): p. 1352-1358; 1993
 Aug. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Abdomen; Nitrous oxide; Techniques;
 Cardiovascular system; Respiration; Anesthesia; Anesthetics;
 Laparoscopy
 
 Abstract:  Cardiorespiratory effects of abdominal insufflation
 were evaluated in 8 dogs during isoflurane anesthesia. Each
 dog was studied 3 times, in 1 of the following orders of
 insufflation pressures: 10-20-30, 20-30-10, 30-20-10,
 10-30-20, 20-10-30, and 30-10-20 mm of Hg. Anesthesia was
 induced by use of a mask, dogs were intubated, and anesthesia
 was maintained by isoflurane in 100% oxygen. After
 instrumentation, baseline values were recorded (time 0), and
 the abdomen was insufflated with nitrous oxide. Data were
 recorded at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes after
 insufflation. The abdomen was then desufflated, with recording
 of data continuing at 35 and 40 minutes. Mean arterial
 pressure increased at 5 minutes during 20 mm of Hg
 insufflation pressure, and from 20 to 30 minutes during 30 mm
 of Hg pressure. Tidal volume decreased from 5 to 30 minutes
 during 10 and 20 mm of Hg pressures, and from 5 to 40 minutes
 during 30 mm of Hg pressure. Minute ventilation decreased at
 10 and 20 minutes during 20 mm of Hg pressure. End-tidal CO2
 concentration increased from 5 to 30 minutes during 20 and 30
 mm of Hg pressure. The PaCO2 decreased at 40 minutes during 10
 mm of Hg pressure, at 30 minutes during 20 mm of Hg pressure,
 and from 10 to 40 minutes during 30 mm of Hg pressure. Values
 for pH decreased from 10 to 30 minutes during 20 and 30 mm of
 Hg pressures. The PaO2 decreased from 20 to 40 minutes during
 10 mm of Hg pressure, at 30 minutes during 20 mm of Hg
 pressure, and from 10 to 40 minutes during 30 mm of Hg
 pressure. Percentage decrease in tidal volume was greater at 5
 and 15 minutes with 30 mm of Hg pressure. Differences in
 percentage increase in end tidal CO2 concentration were
 observed among the 3 pressures from 5 to 30 minutes. Although
 significant, these changes do not preclude use of laparoscopy
 if insufflation pressure > 20 mm of Hg is avoided.
 
 
 161                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Effects of acepromazine, pethidine and atropine premedication
 on lower oesophageal sphincter pressure and barrier pressure
 in anaesthetised cats. Hashim, M.A.; Waterman, A.E.
 London : The British Veterinary Association; 1993 Aug14.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 133 (7): p. 158-160; 1993 Aug14.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Preanesthetic medication; Esophageal
 sphincter
 
 
 162                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Effects of altered arterial carbon dioxide tension on
 quantitative electroencephalography in halothane-anesthetized
 dogs.
 Smith, L.J.; Greene, S.A.; Moore, M.P.; Keegan, R.D.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1994 Apr. American journal of veterinary research v. 55 (4):
 p. 467-471; 1994 Apr. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Electroencephalography; Carbon dioxide;
 Hypercapnia; Respiratory disorders; Heart rate; Blood
 pressure; Body temperature; Blood; Ph; Gases; Halothane
 
 Abstract:  Quantitative electroencephalography was assessed in
 6 dogs anesthetized with 1.8% end-tidal halothane, under
 conditions of eucapnia, hypocapnia, and hypercapnia.
 Ventilation was controlled in each condition. Heart rate,
 arterial blood pressure, core body temperature, arterial pH,
 blood gas tensions, end-tidal CO2 tension, and end-tidal
 halothane concentration were monitored throughout the study. A
 21-lead linked-ear montage was used for recording the EEG.
 Quantitative electroencephalographic data were stored on an
 optical disk for analysis at a later date. Values for absolute
 power of the EEG were determined for delta, theta, alpha, and
 beta frequencies. Hypocapnia was achieved by hyperventilation.
 Hypercapnia was achieved by titration of 5% CO2 to the
 inspired gas mixture. Hypercapnia was associated with an
 increase in the absolute power of the delta band. Hypocapnia
 caused an increase in the absolute power of delta, theta, and
 alpha frequencies. Quantitative electroencephalographic data
 appear to be altered by abnormalities in arterial carbon
 dioxide tension. Respiratory acidosis or alkalosis in
 halothane-anesthetized dogs may obscure or mimic
 electroencephalographic abnormalities caused by intracranial
 disease.
 
 
 163                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Effects of amitraz on nerve conduction and neuromuscular
 transmission in anaesthetised dogs.
 Cullen, L.K.; Reynoldson, J.A.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1990 Mar.
 Research in veterinary science v. 48 (2): p. 162-164; 1990
 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Amitraz; Ataxia; Adverse effects; Neurons;
 Conductivity; Velocity; Transmission
 
 
 164                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V643
 Effects of antiarrhythmic drugs (verapamil, propranolol and
 lignocaine) on the electrocardiogram and haematology in
 adrenaline-induced arrhythmias in dogs anaesthetized with
 halothane.
 Kitaa, J.M.A.; Mitema, E.S.
 London : Bailliere Tindall; 1994 Jul.
 The British veterinary journal v. 150 (4): p. 365-376; 1994
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Myocardial depressants; Propranolol;
 Lidocaine; Drug effects; Electrocardiograms; Hematology;
 Arrhythmia; Halothane; Anesthesia; Epinephrine
 
 Abstract:  Twenty adult (1-3 year old) mongrel dogs of either
 sex were used to study the effects of antiarrhythmic drugs in
 adrenaline-induced arrhythmias. The dogs were divided randomly
 into four groups of five dogs each (n = 5), anaesthetized with
 halothane and pretreated intravenously (i.v.) with verapamil
 0.1 mg kg-1, propranolol 0.06 mg kg-1, or lignocaine 4 mg kg-1
 while the controls received sterile physiological saline.
 Adrenaline (4 micrograms kg-1) was administered i.v. 10 min
 after drug pretreatments. Lead II of the ECG was recorded and
 blood collected for haematology. Ventricular fibrillations
 preceded by ventricular tachycardia occurred in the control
 dogs and three died within one minute of adrenaline
 administration. The predominant arrhythmias were ventricular
 premature beats, ventricular tachycardia, and second degree
 heart block. A significant increase (P < 0.05) in T wave
 amplitude was observed in the control group from 0.16 +/- 0.05
 mV to 0.43 +/-0.09 mV while only minimal increases were noted
 in the drug pretreated groups and there were no deaths. Data
 obtained from this study suggest that verapamil when
 administered early compares well with propranolol in the
 control of adrenaline-induced ventricular arrhythmias in the
 dog. Lignocaine when administered early prior to the induction
 of the arrhythmias protected against death but not
 arrhythmias. Drug pretreatments did not have any clinically
 significant effects on electrocardiographic parameters.
 
 
 165                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Effects of atropine and glycopyrrolate on esophageal, gastric,
 and tracheal pH in anesthetized dogs.
 Roush, J.K.; Keene, B.W.; Eicker, S.W.; Bjorling, D.E.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1990 Jan.
 Veterinary surgery v. 19 (1): p. 88-92. ill; 1990 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Preanesthetic medication; Atropine; Ph;
 Esophagus; Stomach; Trachea; Heart rate; Anesthesia;
 Respiration rate
 
 
 166                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 The effects of buprenorphine, nalbuphine and butorphanol alone
 or following halothane anaesthesia on food and water
 consumption and locomotor movement in rats.
 Liles, J.H.; Flecknell, P.A.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1992 Jul.
 Laboratory animals v. 26 (3): p. 180-189; 1992 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Anesthesia; Halothane; Analgesics;
 Locomotion; Food consumption; Water intake; Pain
 
 Abstract:  Locomotor activity and food and water consumption
 are potentially indices of post-operative pain in laboratory
 rodents, but it is important to establish whether these
 variables are directly affected by opioid analgesics or by
 halothane anaesthesia in normal rats. The effects of three
 opioids, buprenorphine, nalbuphine and butorphanol
 administered alone or following halothane anaesthesia, were
 studied in groups of normal non-operated adult Wistar rats.
 All 3 analgesics affected food intake and activity levels, but
 had little or no effect on water intake. Buprenorphine caused
 a significant elevation of activity levels and a reduction in
 food intake at clinical doses (0.01 and 0.05 mg/kg s/c.
 Nalbuphine (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg s/c) caused a reduction in food
 intake but had a smaller stimulatory effect on locomotion.
 Butorphanol (0.4 mg/kg s/c) caused a reduction in food intake
 and elevation in activity. These results suggest that water
 consumption is likely to be a more reliable variable to use
 when assessing post-operative pain and the efficacy of
 analgesics in rats.
 
 
 167                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.A47
 Effects of chloramphenical, cimetidine and phenobarbital on
 and tolerance to xylazine-ketamine anesthesia in dogs.
 Nossaman, B.C.; Amouzadeh, H.R.; Sangiah, S.
 Manhattan, Kan. : American Academy of Veterinary and
 Comparative Toxicology; 1990 Jun.
 Veterinary and human toxicology v. 32 (3): p. 216-219; 1990
 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Xylazine; Ketamine;
 Chloramphenicol; Cimetidine; Phenobarbital; Tolerances
 
 
 168                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 J8292
 Effects of combinations of medetomidine/pethidine when used
 for sedation and pre-anaesthetic medication in dogs.
 Bartram, D.H.; Young, L.E.; Diamond, M.J.; Gregg, A.S.; Jones,
 R.S. London : British Veterinary Association; 1993 Nov.
 The Journal of small animal practice v. 34 (11): p. 554-558;
 1993 Nov. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Preanesthetic medication; Drug
 combinations; Dosage; Medetomidine; Pethidine; Subcutaneous
 injection; Intramuscular injection; Anesthesia; Narcotic
 antagonists; Heart rate
 
 
 169                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Effects of ephedrine on cardiobascular function and oxygen
 delivery in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs.
 Wagner, A.E.; Dunlop, C.I.; Chapman, P.L.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1993 Nov. American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (11):
 p. 1917-1922; 1993 Nov. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Ephedrine; Inhaled anesthetics; Dosage;
 Hemodynamics; Drug effects; Cardiovascular system; Oxygen;
 Hemoglobin
 
 Abstract:  The hemodynamic effects of 2 dosages of ephedrine
 were studied in 6 dogs anesthetized with isoflurane only (end-
 tidal concentration equivalent to 1.5 times minimum alveolar
 concentration). Following instrumentation, baseline (time 0)
 measurements included heart rate (HR), respiratory rate, mean
 arterial blood pressure (MAP), cardiac output, and blood gas
 tensions. Cardiac index (CI), stroke volume (SV), systemic
 vascular resistance (SVR), arterial oxygen content (CaO2), and
 oxygen delivery and consumption (DO2 and VO2, respectively)
 were calculated. Three dogs were given ephedrine IV at a
 dosage of 0.1 mg/ kg of body weight, and 3 dogs were given
 ephedrine IV at a dosage of 0.25 mg/kg. Measurements were
 recorded at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 minutes. Each dog then
 received the alternate dosage of ephedrine, and measurements
 were again recorded at the same intervals. Effects of
 ephedrine varied with dosage. Neither dosage was associated
 with significant changes in pH, PaO2, PaCO2, VO2, or
 respiratory rate. Ephedrine at a dosage of 0.1 mg/kg caused
 transient significant increases in MAP, CI, SV, CaO2, and DO2,
 significant decreases in HR and SVR, and a late, slight
 decrease in CaO2. Ephedrine at a dosage of 0.25 mg/kg caused a
 greater and more prolonged increase in MAP, as well as
 increases in CI, SV, and SVR, and a decrease in HR. The higher
 dosage of ephedrine also caused a pronounced increase in
 hemoglobin concentration and CaO2, resulting in a 20 to 35%
 increase in DO2 throughout the 60-minute experiment.
 
 
 170                                   NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 The effects of halothane and nitrous oxide on the
 pharmacokinetics of propofol in dogs.
 Nolan, A.M.; Reid, J.; Grant, S.
 Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1993 Sep.
 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 16 (3):
 p. 335-342; 1993 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthetics; Pharmacokinetics
 
 
 171                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Effects of halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane on
 supraventricular and ventricular rate in dogs with complete
 atrioventricular block. Day, T.K.; Muir, W.W. III
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders Company; 1994 May.
 Veterinary surgery v. 23 (3): p. 206-212; 1994 May.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Halothane; Inhaled anesthetics; Anesthesia;
 Heart rate; Blood pressure; Arrhythmia; Drug effects
 
 
 172                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.A47
 Effects of hepatic P-450 enzyme inhibitors and inducers on the
 duration of xylazine + ketamine anesthesis in broiler chickens
 and mice. Roder, J.D.; Akkaya, R.; Amouzadeh, H.R.; Sangiah,
 S.; Burrows, G.; Qualls, C.W. Jr
 Manhattan, Kan. : Kansas State University; 1993 Apr.
 Veterinary and human toxicology v. 35 (2): p. 116-118; 1993
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Broilers; Xylazine; Anesthesia; Agonists;
 Ketamine; Enzyme activators; Liver; Microsomes; Enzyme
 inhibitors; Mice
 
 
 173                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Effects of mechanical and pharmacologic manipulations on
 portal pressure, central venous pressure, and heart rate in
 dogs.
 Swalec, K.M.; Smeak, D.D.; Brown, J.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1991 Aug. American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (8):
 p. 1327-1335; 1991 Aug. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Internal pressure; Cardiovascular system;
 Heart rate; Surgery; Catheters; Portal vein; Blockage;
 Anesthesia; Bandages; Consciousness; Correlation; Propranolol
 
 Abstract:  Central venous pressure (CVP), portal pressure
 (PP), and heart rate (HR) were monitored in 6 female, sexually
 intact, middle-age Beagles during temporary portal vein
 obstruction, anesthetic recovery, abdominal bandaging, and
 propranolol administration. Intraoperative baseline PP was 7.3
 mm of Hg (+/- 1.7 SD). Portal pressure was significantly
 increased throughout portal vein occlusion, but returned to
 baseline values 2 minutes after release of the ligature.
 Central venous pressure was significantly decreased throughout
 portal vein occlusion, but did not differ significantly from
 baseline values 3 minutes after release of the portal vein
 ligature. Portal pressure increased significantly (8 +/- 3.3
 mm of Hg) over baseline values after application of an
 abdominal bandage; however, CVP did not change significantly.
 During postoperative monitoring, CVP and PP did not change
 significantly from respective 18-hour mean postoperative
 values in resting dogs. At 60 and 75 minutes after surgery,
 heart rate was significantly increased over the 18-hour mean.
 Portal pressure and CVP, respectively, were significantly
 increased over intraoperative baseline values in the first
 hour and the first 8 hours after surgery. Postoperative CVP
 and HR were significantly correlated. Individual measurements
 of PP in dogs that were abdominal pressing during barking or
 defecation were significantly increased (9 +/- 3 mm of Hg)
 above measurements taken after cessation of abdominal press.
 Portal pressure measurements in standing dogs decreased 7.5 +/-
  2 mm of Hg, compared with measurements of the same dog in
 lateral recumbency. Central venous pressure was inaccurate in
 dogs performing abdominal press. Portal pressure did not
 decrease significantly from baseline after injection of
 propranolol (2 mg/kg, IV). Central venous pressure was
 significantly decreased at 2.5 and 3.0 hours after propranolol
 injection, and HR was significantly decreased from 1 to 3.5
 hours after injection. Heart rate quickly
 
 
 174                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 Effects of pentobarbital and ketamine-xylazine anaesthesia on
 somatosensory, brainstem auditory and peripheral sensory-motor
 responses in the rat. Goss-Sampson, M.A.; Kriss, A.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1991 Oct.
 Laboratory animals v. 25 (4): p. 360-366; 1991 Oct.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Anesthesia; Pentobarbital; Ketamine;
 Xylazine; Drug combinations; Bioelectric potential; Brain
 stem; Peripheral nerves; Electrophysiology
 
 Abstract:  Somatosensory, brainstem auditory evoked and
 peripheral sensory-motor responses were recorded in rats
 anaesthetized with either pentobarbital or a ketamine-xylazine
 combination. This was carried out in order to assess which of
 these agents degraded responses to a lesser extent and thus
 would be more suitable for monitoring experimental effects.
 Neither of the anaesthetic agents affected peripheral sensory
 or motor conduction, nor were there any interpeak latency
 changes of the early components of the brainstem auditory
 response. However, pentobarbital anaesthesia resulted in an
 increase in latency of the initial positive component of the
 somatosensory cortical evoked potential and attenuation of the
 following negative component. During the recovery stages of
 ketamine-xylazine anaesthesia the longer latency evoked
 potential components were observed to emerge.
 
 
 175                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 The effects of prolonged ketamine-xylazine intravenous
 infusion on arterial blood pH, blood gases, mean arterial
 blood pressure, heart and respiratory rates, rectal
 temperature and reflexes in the rabbit.
 Wyatt, J.D.; Scott, R.A.W.; Richardson, M.E.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1989 Sep. Laboratory animal science v. 39 (5): p.
 411-416; 1989 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Veins; Injections; Ketamine; Xylazine;
 Arteries; Blood ph; Gases; Blood pressure; Heart rate; Rectum;
 Temperatures; Reflexes
 
 Abstract:  The prolonged and safe maintenance of general
 anesthesia in rabbits with commonly used injectable agents is
 difficult. Protracted, stable anesthesia with short recovery
 time has been described in humans using continuous intravenous
 infusion of ketamine with or without sedatives, muscle
 relaxants and paralytics. This study evaluated the anesthetic
 plane achieved and respiratory and cardiovascular effects
 produced with a ketamine-xylazine intravenous infusion in New
 Zealand White rabbits. Ten female rabbits were anesthetized
 with intramuscularly administered ketamine hydrochloride (35
 mg/kg) and xylazine hydrochloride (5 mg/kg) after the
 preanesthetic, baseline measurements of arterial blood pO2,
 pCO2 and pH and heart and respiratory rates were recorded. The
 above parameters as well as mean arterial blood pressure,
 righting, palpebral, pedal, and jaw reflexes were monitored
 ten minutes after the intramuscularly administered dosage and
 throughout 4 hours of infusion. Results showed moderate
 hypotension (21.2% deviation from normal, p less than 0.008)
 and profound hypoxemia (45% deviation from baseline, p less
 than 0.001) 10 minutes after the intramuscularly administered
 induction dosage. Then, the 4 hour infusion of ketamine (1
 mg/minute) and xylazine (0.1 mg/minute) was started.
 Hypotension progressed (49.1% deviation from normal, p less
 than 0.008), but hypoxemia and hypercarbemia gradually
 improved with no resultant change (p greater than 0.1) in
 arterial pH. There was no significant change (p greater than
 0.1) in respiratory rate but varying qualities of respiration
 were observed. Both mean arterial pO2 and pCO2 values returned
 to baseline within 20 minutes after completion of infusion.
 Heart rate and rectal temperature remained stable during the
 trial. The righting reflex was abolished in all rabbits
 throughout the study. The other reflexes that were lost
 initially slowly returned to most rabbits by the end of
 infusion. It was concluded that ketamine-xylazine co
 
 
 176                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Effects of sedation of intradermal skin testing in flea-
 allergic dogs. Beale, K.M.; Kunkle, G.A.; Chalker, L.; Cannon,
 R.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1990 Jan01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 197
 (7): p. 861-864; 1990 Jan01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Xylazine; Ketamine; Neuroleptics;
 Analgesics; Skin tests; Histamine; Allergies; Siphonaptera;
 Hypersensitivity
 
 
 177                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.A47
 Effects of some hepatic microsomal enzyme inducers and
 inhibitors on xylazine-ketamine anesthesia.
 Amouzadeh, H.R.; Sangiah, S.; Qualls, C.W. Jr
 Manhattan, Kan. : American Academy of Veterinary and
 Comparative Toxicology; 1989 Dec.
 Veterinary and human toxicology v. 31 (6): p. 532-534. ill;
 1989 Dec. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Anesthesia; Xylazine; Ketamine; Enzymes;
 Inhibitors; Rats; Adverse effects
 
 
 178                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.A47
 Effects of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on xylazine-
 ketamine anesthesia. Amouzadeh, H.R.; Sangiah, S.
 Manhattan, Kan. : American Academy of Veterinary and
 Comparative Toxicology; 1990 Feb.
 Veterinary and human toxicology v. 32 (1): p. 19-22; 1990 Feb. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Xylazine; Ketamine; Anesthesia; Diabetes;
 Insulin; Rats; Blood glucose
 
 
 179                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 The effects of surgical procedures, halothane anaesthesia and
 nalbuphine on locomotor activity and food and water
 consumption in rats. Flecknell, P.A.; Liles, J.H.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1991 Jan.
 Laboratory animals v. 25 (1): p. 50-60; 1991 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Surgery; Anesthesia; Halothane; Opium; Feed
 intake; Water intake; Locomotion
 
 Abstract:  A study was undertaken to investigate the effects
 of surgical procedures on food and water intake and
 spontaneous locomotor activity in laboratory rats. The
 influence of anaesthesia with halothane and administration of
 the opioid analgesic nalbuphine was investigated in normal
 rats and in animals which underwent either unilateral
 nephrectomy or jugular vein cannulation. Both nephrectomy and
 jugular cannulation were associated with a significant
 reduction in food and water consumption and a depression in
 locomotor activity levels. The reduction in activity following
 nephrectomy was reversed by administration of 6 doses of
 nalbuphine at 4 hourly intervals. Administration of nalbuphine
 at the same dose rate following halothane anaesthesia in
 normal rats resulted in a stimulation of activity. The
 prevention of the depressant effects of surgery by this opioid
 appears to be due to its stimulatory effect rather than a
 specific analgesic action. The degree of depression of food
 and water consumption after nephrectomy was significantly
 reduced following 6 doses of nalbuphine. This beneficial
 effect of repeated administration of an opioid may be related
 to the compound's analgesic action.
 
 
 180                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V643
 The effects of surgical stimulus on the rat and the influence
 of analgesic treatment.
 Liles, J.H.; Flecknell, P.A.
 London : Bailliere Tindall; 1993 Nov.
 The British veterinary journal v. 149 (6): p. 515-525; 1993
 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pain; Surgery; Abdomen; Analgesics; Opioids; Food
 intake; Water intake; Body weight; Locomotion; Rats
 
 Abstract:  The effects of three graded mid-line abdominal
 operations were investigated in rats. All of the surgical
 procedures caused a significant reduction in food and water
 consumption, body weight and locomotor activity. Animals which
 had the skin incision alone showed significantly less
 depression of food and water consumption and body weight than
 groups which underwent laparotomy. The detrimental effects on
 water consumption and body weight could he significantly
 reduced by the administration of the opioid analgesic
 buprenorphine (TEMGESIC, Reckitt & Colman) (0.05 mg kg-1,
 s.c.). The stepped response to graded surgery, and the
 reduction of the depressant effects of surgery on food and
 water consumption by buprenorphine, suggest that some of these
 changes may be related to the presence of pain after an
 operation.
 
 
 181                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Effects of thiopental, ketamine, diazepam, xylazine, and
 nitrous oxide on EEG spike activity and convulsive behavior
 during enflurane anesthesia in atropinized cats: effect of
 increasing inhalant concentrations. Hikasa, Y.; Kubota, M.;
 Takase, K.; Kakuta, T.; Ogasawara, S. Hagerstown, Md. : J.B.
 Lippincott Company; 1993 Jul.
 Veterinary surgery v. 22 (4): p. 311-317; 1993 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Anesthesia
 
 
 182                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Effects of thiopental, ketamine, diazepam, xylazine, and
 nitrous oxide on EEG spike activity and convulsive behavior
 during enflurane anesthesisa in spontaneously breathing
 atropinized cats: effect of surgical depth. Hikasa, Y.;
 Kojima, N.; Takase, K.; Ogasawara, S.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1993 Jul.
 Veterinary surgery v. 22 (4): p. 318-325; 1993 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Anesthesia
 
 
 183                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Effects of thiopentone, propofol, alphaxalone-alphadolone,
 ketamine and xylazine-ketamine on lower oesophageal sphincter
 pressure and barrier pressure in cats.
 Hashim, M.A.; Waterman, A.E.
 London : The Association; 1991 Aug17.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 129 (7): p. 137-139; 1991 Aug17.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Esophageal sphincter; Internal pressure;
 Thiopental; Injectable anesthetics; Ketamine; Xylazine;
 Adverse effects
 
 
 184                                      NAL Call. No.: QP1.P4
 Effects of undernutrition during suckling on novelty-induced
 analgesia in young and adult rats.
 Vendite, D.; Rocha, J.B.T.; Souza, D.O.
 Elmsford, N.Y. : Pergamon Press; 1990 Feb.
 Physiology & behavior v. 47 (2): p. 393-395; 1990 Feb. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Suckling; Undernutrition; Analgesics;
 Protein energy malnutrition
 
 
 185                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 Effects of urethane, alphaxolone/alphadolone, or halothane
 with or without neuromuscular blockade on survival during
 repeated episodes of global cerebral ischaemia in the rat.
 Holder, D.S.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1992 Apr.
 Laboratory animals v. 26 (2): p. 107-113; 1992 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Urethane; Halothane; Anesthetics;
 Anesthesia; Blood pressure; Survival; Ischemia; Muscle
 relaxants; Lung ventilation
 
 Abstract:  The effect of 4 anaesthetic regimes on blood
 pressure and survival was investigated during repeated
 episodes of cerebral ischaemia in the rat induced by diathermy
 of the vertebral arteries and reversible occlusion of the
 carotid arteries. The best results were obtained with inspired
 halothane with neuromuscular blockade and artificial
 ventilation, followed in order by halothane, intravenous
 alphaxolone/alphadolone, and intraperitoneal urethane with
 spontaneous ventilation.
 
 
 186                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 The effects of various anesthetics on tissue levels of
 fructose-2,6-bisphosphate in rats.
 Kasten, T.; Colliver, J.A.; Montrey, R.D.; Dunaway, G.A.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1990 Jul. Laboratory animal science v. 40 (4): p.
 399-401; 1990 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Anesthetics; Fructose-bisphosphatase;
 Kidneys; Brain; Heart; Muscles; Liver; Euthanasia
 
 Abstract:  We report that the short-term use of various
 anesthetic agents prior to decapitation causes alteration of
 the levels of
 fructose-2,6-bisphosphate in kidney, brain, heart, muscle, and
 liver. These data indicate that even light anesthesia can not
 be used when levels of this metabolite are to be determined.
 Also, it appears that the use of any of these anesthetics can
 profoundly alter glucose utilization in many tissues.
 
 
 187                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Effects of yohimbine on bradycardia and duration of recumbency
 in ketamine/xylazine anesthetized ferrets.
 Sylvina, T.J.; Berman, N.G.; Fox, J.G.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1990 Mar. Laboratory animal science v. 40 (2): p.
 178-182; 1990 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ferrets; Ketamine; Xylazine; Yohimbine;
 Anesthesia; Heart rate; Duration; Intramuscular injection;
 Drug antagonism
 
 Abstract:  Eleven adult ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) were
 anesthetized with ketamine hydrochloride (25 mg/kg, IM) and
 xylazine hydrochloride (2 mg/kg, IM). Fifteen minutes post-
 ketamine/xylazine injection, ferrets were treated with
 yohimbine hydrochloride at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg, or an equal
 volume of physiologic saline, intramuscularly. Each ferret
 served as its own control by randomly receiving both
 treatments with a minimum interval of 2 weeks between
 treatments on any one ferret. At 15 minutes post-
 ketamine/xylazine injection, mean heart rate measurements for
 both treatment groups were 27% less than the mean heart rate
 measurement reported for unanesthetized ferrets. Intramuscular
 administration of yohimbine antagonized the ketamine/xylazine
 induced bradycardia in 10 of the 11 ferrets, (p = 0.0001). In
 yohimbine treated ferrets, an increase in mean heart rate
 measurement was noted 5 minutes after the intramuscular
 administration of yohimbine, and followed, over the next 15
 minutes, by a progressive increase in mean heart rate.
 However, a corresponding decrease in mean heart rate
 measurement was observed in saline treated controls. Fifteen
 minutes after the injection of yohimbine, the mean heart rate
 measurement of yohimbine treated animals had increased to 194
 beats per minute. This mean heart rate measurement is nearly
 30% greater than the mean heart rate of 150 beats per minute
 measured at 15 minutes post-saline injection in saline treated
 controls. Also, yohimbine treatment significantly reduced
 duration of recumbency in 10 of 11 ferrets (p = 0.0001). Mean
 duration of recumbency for yohimbine treated ferrets was 41
 +/- 9.7 minutes, whereas mean duration of recumbency for
 saline treated ferrets was determined to be 80 +/- 11.4
 minutes. Intramuscular administration of yohimbine effectively
 reverses ketamine/xylazine induced bradycardia and
 significantly reduces duration of recumbency in
 ketamine/xylazine anesthetized ferrets.
 
 
 188                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Efficacy of the intranasal route for administration of
 anesthetic agents to adult rabbits.
 Robertson, S.A.; Eberhart, S.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1994 Apr. Laboratory animal science v. 44 (2): p.
 159-165; 1994 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Anesthesia; Application methods;
 Anesthetics; Ketamine; Xylazine; Dosage; Efficacy; Duration;
 Adverse effects; Drug combinations
 
 Abstract:  Anesthetic agents were administered to adult
 rabbits by using the intranasal route. Six sedative or
 anesthetic protocols were studied as follows: group 1 (n =
 12), 2.0 mg midazolam/kg body weight (BW); group 2 (n =
 8),25.0 mg ketamine/kg BW; group 3 (n = 8), 10 mg of
 combination of tiletamine and zolazepam/kg BW, group 4 (n =
 10), 3 mg xylazine/kg BW and 10 mg ketamine/kg BW, group 5 (n
 = 8), 1.0 mg midazolam/kg BW and 25 mg ketamine/kg BW; and
 group 6 (n = 6), 0.3 ml of a combination of fentanyl and
 droperidol/kg BW All drugs were diluted to a final volume of
 0.4 ml/kg BW and an equal volume was administered with a
 catheter-tipped syringe into each nostril. Time to onset and
 duration of sedation or anesthesia were recorded. Muscle
 relaxation was graded as poor, fair, or excellent on the basis
 of flexibility of limbs. Presence or absence of a toe pinch
 response was recorded. Heart rate, respiratory rate, and
 hemoglobin saturation were measured before and at 5-min
 intervals after drug administration. The mean onset times for
 groups 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 were 3.0, 1.2, 2.5, 2.0, and 0.8 min,
 respectively The mean duration of action was 24.6, 36.7, 44.4,
 35.2, and 52.5 min for midazolam, ketamine,
 tiletamine/zolazepam, xylazine/ ketamine, and
 midazolam/ketamine, respectively. All protocols resulted in a
 significant decrease in respiratory rate. Hemoglobin
 saturation decreased in all groups except group 1. There was
 no significant change in heart rate after administration of
 midazolam, ketamine alone, or xylazine/ketamine. Heart rate
 increased significantly following tiletamine/zolazepam and
 midazolam/ketamine administration. Fentanyl/droperidol
 administration was associated with a rapid onset of severe
 bradycardia and apnea with a mortality rate of 50%. The
 intranasal route is a pain-free method of drug administration.
 Administration of midazolam alone provided good sedation and
 muscle relaxation. If analgesia is required, administration of
 xylazine plus ketamine is recommended. The intranasal
 administration of fentanyl/droperidol, at the dose studied,
 cannot be recommended.
 
 
 189                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Efficacy of tribromoethanol anesthesia in mice.
 Papaioannou, V.E.; Fox, J.G.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1993 Apr. Laboratory animal science v. 43 (2): p.
 189-192; 1993 Apr.  Paper presented at a conference entitled
 "The Scid Mouse in Biomedical and Agricultural Research,"
 August 5-7, 1992, Guelph, Canada.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mice; Anesthetics; Adverse effects
 
 Abstract:  We undertook a retrospective study to evaluate the
 efficacy, safety, and suitability of tribromoethanol (0.2
 ml/10 g body weight of a 1.2% solution) as a surgical
 anesthetic in mice. We compiled records of embryo transfer
 during a 2.5-year period (1989-1991) and examined mice
 subjected to several other procedures requiring anesthesia. We
 documented a low rate of mortality and morbidity (< 1%) and
 the absence of any significant abdominal adhesions or
 inflammatory response. The rapid induction and recovery,
 adequate surgical plane of anesthesia, and lack of
 complications make this anesthetic effective and simple to
 use. Precautions necessary to prevent decomposition of the
 anesthetic, storage in the dark at 4 degrees C, were minimal.
 
 
 190                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Elective gonadectomy in dogs: A review.
 Salmeri, K.R.; Olson, P.N.; Bloomberg, M.S.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1991 Apr01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 198
 (7): p. 1183-1192; 1991 Apr01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Bitches; Castration; Ovariectomy; Age; Sex
 hormones; Biological development; Skeleton; Obesity; Animal
 behavior; Secondary sexual traits; Urinary tract; Anesthesia;
 Disease resistance
 
 
 191                                   NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 Enantioselectivity in the anaesthetic effect of ketamine in
 dogs. Deleforge, J.; Davot, J.L.; Boisrame, B.; Delatour, P.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1991 Dec.
 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 14 (4):
 p. 418-420; 1991 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Ketamine; Enantiomers; Anesthesia;
 Intravenous injection; Tolerance; Metabolites; Drug effects;
 Dosage
 
 
 192                           NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 Epidural opioid administration for postoperative pain relief
 in the dog. Dodman, N.H.; Clark, G.H.; Court, M.H.; Fikes,
 L.L.; Boudrieau, R.J. New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p.
 274-277, 310-311; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Postoperative care; Pain; Analgesics; Local
 anesthesia; Morphine; Opioids; Clinical experience
 
 
 193                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Epidural vs. intramuscular oxymorphone analgesia after
 thoracotomy in dogs. Popilskis, S.; Kohn, D.; Sanchez, J.A.;
 Gorman, P.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1991 Nov.
 Veterinary surgery v. 20 (6): p. 462-467; 1991 Nov.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Thorax; Surgical operations; Pain;
 Analgesics; Conduction anesthesia; Intramuscular injection
 
 
 194                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Evaluation of a combination of tiletamine and zolazepam as an
 anesthetic for ferrets.
 Payton, A.J.; Pick, J.R.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1989 May. Laboratory animal science v. 39 (3): p.
 243-246; 1989 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ferrets; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Drug
 combinations; Evaluation; Safety
 
 Abstract:  A combination of equal parts by weight of
 tiletamine hyrochloride and zolazepam hydrochloride was
 evaluated clinically in 12 adult male ferrets. Two dosage
 levels of 12 mg/kg and 22 mg/kg were evaluated. Both doses
 produced excellent immobilization, the length of which was
 dose dependent. However, only the higher dose consistently
 produced good muscle relaxation. Excessive pain upon injection
 was not noted nor was residual lameness evident.
 Electrocardiagraphically, notching of the QRS complex was
 noted on both doses. Anesthesia with poor analgesia occurred
 at the lower dose, while ferrets receiving the higher dose
 showed more variability in the degree of analgesia. It was
 concluded that this combination administered intramuscularly
 provided excellent immobilization, variable muscle relaxation
 and a generally smooth induction and recovery. At the higher
 dose, analgesia was adequate for minor surgical procedures of
 short duration.
 
 
 195                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Evaluation of accuracy of pulse oximetry in dogs.
 Jacobson, J.D.; Miller, M.W.; Matthews, N.S.; Hartsfield,
 S.M.; Knauer, K.W. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary
 Medical Association; 1992 Apr. American journal of veterinary
 research v. 53 (4): p. 537-540; 1992 Apr. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Blood; Hemoglobin; Oxygen; Estimation;
 Meters; Probes; Accuracy; Carbon dioxide
 
 Abstract:  The accuracy of a pulse oximeter was evaluated over
 a wide range of arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions,
 using 2 probes (finger probe and ear probe) and 2 monitoring
 sites (tongue and tail) in anesthetized dogs. The arterial
 oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (SaO2) measured directly with
 a multiwavelength spectrophotometer was compared with
 saturation estimated by pulse oximetry (SpO2). Linear
 regression analysis of the pooled data from 399 simultaneous
 measurements of SpO2 and SaO2 indicated a highly significant
 correlation Of SpO2 with SaO2 (r = 0.97; P less than or equal
 to 0.0001). Although the mean difference (+/- SD) between SpO2
 and SaO2 for pooled data was small (-0.06 +/- 6.8%), SPO2
 tended to underestimate high SaO2 values (greater than or
 equal to 70%) and to overestimate low SaO2 values (< 70%).
 When SaO2 values were greater than or equal to 70%, the ear
 probe applied to the tail was less accurate (produced a
 significantly greater SpO2-SaO2 difference) than the ear probe
 on the tongue, or the finger probe at either site. When SaO2
 values were less than or equal to 50%, the finger probe
 applied at the tail was more accurate (produced significantly
 smaller SpO2-SaO2 differences) than the ear probe at either
 site. When SaO2 values were less than or equal to 70%, high
 arterial carbon dioxide tension (greater than or equal to 60
 mm of Hg) was associated with greater overestimation of SaO2.
 
 
 196                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3
 Evaluation of anesthetic protocols for neutering 6- to 14-
 week-old pups. Faggella, A.M.; Aronsohn, M.G.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1994 Jul15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 205
 (2): p. 308-314; 1994 Jul15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Puppies; Anesthesia; Drug combinations;
 Castration; Ovariectomy; Hysterectomy; Postoperative
 complications; Adverse effects; Sex differences
 
 
 197                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Evaluation of atropine, glucagon, and metoclopramide for
 facilitation of endoscopic intubation of the duodenum in dogs.
 Matz, M.E.; Leib, M.S.; Monroe, W.E.; Davenport, D.J.; Nelson,
 L.P.; Kenny, J.E.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1991 Dec. American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (12):
 p. 1948-1950; 1991 Dec. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Duodenum; Endoscopy; Atropine; Glucagon;
 Drugs; Intestinal motility
 
 Abstract:  Modification of gastroduodenal motility has been
 proposed to aid endoscopic examination of the duodenum in
 dogs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of
 the following pharmacologic agents for facilitation of
 endoscopic intubation of the duodenum in 6 clinically normal
 dogs: metoclopramide HCl (0.2 mg/kg of body weight), atropine
 sulfate (0.045 mg/kg), glucagon (0.06 mg/kg), and isotonic
 saline solution. In a randomized, blinded, crossover design,
 the ease of endoscopic duodenal intubation was qualitatively
 scored by 3 endoscopists (in random order), using the
 following scale: immediate entry; rapid entry-moderate
 manipulation; difficult entry-multiple attempts; and no entry
 after 2 minutes. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental and
 maintained with halothane. The 4 agents were diluted to a
 fixed volume and randomly administered. Duodenal intubation
 was attempted 2 minutes after IV injection of 1 of the agents.
 Four endoscopic procedures (1 for each agent) were performed
 on each dog with a minimum of 5 days between each procedure.
 In this study, no agent facilitated endoscopic duodenal
 intubation at the dose used. Instead, atropine and
 metoclopramide made duodenal intubation significantly more
 difficult, compared with use of saline solution. Difference
 between intubation after administration of glucagon and saline
 solution was not seen. On the basis of our findings, the use
 of these agents for facilitating endoscopic duodenal
 intubation is not recommended. In addition, in this study, we
 found that experience in endoscopic intubation is an important
 factor in determining the ease of duodenal intubation.
 
 
 198                            NAL Call. No.: SH156.9.L46 1993
 Evaluation of five anesthetics on striped bass.
 Lemm, Carol A.
 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
 Washington, D.C. : U.S. Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Fish and
 Wildlife Service,; 1993.
 ii, 10 p. ; 28 cm. (Resource publication (U.S. Fish and
 Wildlife Service) ; 196.).  Includes bibliographical
 references (p. 9-10).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal anesthesia; Fishes; Striped Bass;
 Anesthetics
 
 
 199                                   NAL Call. No.: SF895.P76
 An evaluation of five different sedative/anaesthetic regimens
 for H-reflex recording in the dog.
 Malik, R.; Pearson, M.R.B.; Ho, S.
 Santa Barbara, CA : Brillig Hill, Inc; 1992.
 Progress in veterinary neurology v. 3 (3): p. 87-90; 1992. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Australia; Dogs; Reflexes; Anesthesia;
 Greyhounds; Fentanyl; Droperidol; Xylazine; Ketamine;
 Halothane
 
 
 200                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Evaluation of Greyhound susceptibility to malignant
 hyperthermia using halothane-succinylcholine anesthesia and
 caffeine-halothane muscle contractures.
 Cosgrove, S.B.; Eisele, P.H.; Martucci, R.W.; Gronert, G.A.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1992 Oct. Laboratory animal science v. 42 (5): p.
 482-485; 1992 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Susceptibility; Adverse effects
 
 
 201                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 C81
 Evaluation of ketamine-xylazine in Syrian hamsters.
 Payton, A.J.; Forsythe, D.B.; Dixon, D.; Myers, P.H.; Clark,
 J.A.; Snipe, J.R. Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell Veterinarian, Inc;
 1993 Apr.
 Cornell veterinarian v. 83 (2): p. 153-161; 1993 Apr. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Hamsters; Anesthesia
 
 
 202                           NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 Evaluation of locomotor activity and food and water
 consumption as a method of assessing postoperative pain in
 rodents.
 Flecknell, P.A.; Liles, J.H.
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p.
 482-488, 505-506; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Laboratory animals; Rodents; Pain; Postoperative
 complications; Postoperative care; Locomotion; Anesthetics;
 Analgesics; Water intake; Drug effects; Surgical operations;
 Food intake; Adverse effects
 
 
 203                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 An evaluation of medetomidine/ketamine and other drug
 combinations for anaesthesia in cats.
 Verstegen, J.; Fagetton, X.; Donnay, I.; Ectors, F.
 London : The Association; 1991 Jan12.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 128 (2): p. 32-35; 1991 Jan12.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Anesthesia; Analgesics; Ketamine;
 Anesthetics; Drug combinations; Adverse effects
 
 
 204                                   NAL Call. No.: SF895.P76
 Evaluation of periosteal nociception in the cat.
 Mandsager, R.E.; Raffe, M.R.
 Santa Barbara, CA : Brillig Hill, Inc; 1991.
 Progress in veterinary neurology v. 2 (4): p. 237-242; 1991. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Pain; Bone fractures; Experiments; Bones;
 Periosteum; Models; Analgesics
 
 
 205                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Evaluation of telazol-xylazine as an anesthetic combination
 for use in Syrian hamsters.
 Forsythe, D.B.; Payton, A.J.; Dixon, D.; Myers, P.H.; Clark,
 J.A.; Snipe, J.R. Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for
 Laboratory Animal Science; 1992 Oct. Laboratory animal science
 v. 42 (5): p. 497-502; 1992 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Hamsters; Anesthesia; Anesthetics
 
 
 206                                   NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effects of a low dose of
 acetaminophen following surgery in dogs.
 Mburu, D.N.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1991 Mar.
 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 14
 (1).: p. 109-111; 1991 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Acetaminophen; Antiinflammatory agents;
 Postoperative care; Dosage; Swelling; Pain
 
 
 207                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Evaluation of the Doppler ultrasonic method of measuring
 systolic arterial blood pressure in cats.
 Grandy, J.L.; Dunlop, C.I.; Hodgson, D.S.; Curtis, C.R.;
 Chapman, P.L. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical
 Association; 1992 Jul. American journal of veterinary research
 v. 53 (7): p. 1166-1169; 1992 Jul. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Blood pressure; Ultrasonic devices;
 Ultrasound; Arteries
 
 Abstract:  The accuracy of the Doppler technique for indirect
 systolic blood pressure measurement was assessed in 16
 anesthetized cats. Eight cats were anesthetized with
 isoflurane and 8 were anesthetized with halothane. Anesthetic
 depth and mode of ventilation were varied to obtain a wide
 range of arterial blood pressure. A Doppler transducer was
 placed on the palmer surface of the left fore-limb over the
 common digital branch of the radial artery to detect blood
 flow, and a blood pressure monitoring cuff with a width 37%
 the limb circumference was placed half way between the elbow
 and the carpus. To enable direct arterial pressure
 measurements, the left femoral artery was catheterized and the
 blood pressure waveforms recorded simultaneously. Systolic
 blood pressure measured by use of the Doppler ultrasonic
 technique was significantly lower than that obtained from the
 femoral artery catheter. Using linear regression, we
 determined a clinically useful calibration adjustment for
 Doppler indirect blood pressure measurement in cats: femoral
 systolic pressure = Doppler systolic pressure + 14 mm of Hg.
 
 
 208                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 An evaluation of three intravenous anesthetic regimens in New
 Zealand rabbits. Borkowski, G.L.; Danneman, P.J.; Russell,
 G.B.; Lang, C.M. Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for
 Laboratory Animal Science; 1990 May. Laboratory animal science
 v. 40 (3): p. 270-276; 1990 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Injectable anesthetics; Ears;
 Anesthesia; Intravenous injection; Heart rate; Respiration
 rate; Blood pressure; Body temperature; Responses; Blood;
 Gases
 
 Abstract:  Intravenous anesthetics can be readily administered
 to rabbits through the marginal ear vein. In this study, three
 intravenous anesthetic protocols were evaluated in New Zealand
 White rabbits. The three anesthetic regimens were: (a)
 pentobarbital (40 mg/kg); (b) ketamine-xylazine (25-5 mg/kg);
 (c) midazolam-xylazine-alfentanil (1-1-0.1 mg/kg). The
 anesthetics were injected slowly over defined time intervals.
 Reactions to noxious stimuli were determined before and after
 administration of the anesthetics. Additionally, the effects
 of the anesthetic agents on the rabbit's cardiopulmonary
 system were evaluated. Rabbits anesthetized with midazolam-
 xylazine-alfentanil did not have a pedal withdrawal or ear
 pinch reflex throughout the testing period. The ketamine-
 xylazine combination produced a shorter duration of non-
 responsiveness to noxious stimuli. Rabbits anesthetized with
 pentobarbital had the greatest variability in response to
 noxious stimuli. Apnea occurred in at least one rabbit in each
 group. A side effect unique to the midazolam-xylazine-
 alfentanil group was the occurrence of opisthotonus or seizure
 activity during or shortly after the administration of
 alfentanil. Hypotension, hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis
 were characteristic of the cardiopulmonary effects of the
 anesthetics. When choosing an anesthetic regimen for rabbits,
 intravenous infusion should be considered as an option.
 Advantages include ease of administration, possibility of
 redosing as required, and minimal requirements for equipment.
 Disadvantages of intravenous anesthetic infusion in rabbits
 include potential for lethal overdose and metabolic
 alterations after administration.
 
 
 209                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Evaluation of three midazolam-xylazine mixtures preliminary
 trials in dogs. Tranquilli, W.J.; Gross, M.E.; Thurmon, J.C.;
 Benson, G.J. Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1990
 Mar.
 Veterinary surgery v. 19 (2): p. 168-172; 1990 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Benzodiazepines; Xylazine; Drug
 combinations; Yohimbine; Drug antagonism; Narcotic
 antagonists; Anesthesia; Central nervous system
 
 
 210                                  NAL Call. No.: SF991.A1C3
 The experimental use of diazepam for epidural anesthesia in
 dogs. Kumar, R.V.S.; Ramakrishna, O.; Haragopal, V.; Sundar,
 N.S.; Digraskar, S.U. Santa Barbara, CA : Veterinary Practice
 Pub. Co., 1990-; 1994 May. Canine practice v. 19 (3): p.
 20-23; 1994 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Diazepam; Conduction anesthesia; Dosage;
 Drug effects; Safety; Hemodynamics; Reflexes
 
 
 211                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 Fentanyl and medetomidine anaesthesia in the rat and its
 reversal using atipamazole and either nalbuphine or
 butorphanol.
 Hu, C.; Flecknell, P.A.; Liles, J.H.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1992 Jan.
 Laboratory animals v. 26 (1): p. 15-22; 1992 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Anesthesia; Fentanyl; Agonists;
 Antagonists; Opioids; Drug combinations
 
 Abstract:  The intraperitoneal injection of anaesthetic agents
 is a simple and convenient method of anaesthetizing rats.
 However, all of the anaesthetic combinations in current use
 which are administered by intraperitoneal injection produce
 prolonged sedation, and full recovery of consciousness may
 take several hours. Fentanyl, a micro agonist opioid, and
 medetomidine, an alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist were mixed and
 administered as a single intraperitoneal injection.
 Combinations of 300 microgram/300 microgram/kg and 300
 microgram/200 microgram/kg of fentanyl/medetomidine were shown
 to produce surgical anaesthesia in the rat. This anaesthetic
 regimen produced significant respiratory depression (P < 0.01)
 and animals did not regain their righting reflex until 193 +/-
 21 min (mean +/- 1 SD) after injection. Administration by
 intraperitoneal injection of atipamezole, a specific alpha 2-
 adrenoceptor antagonist (1 mg/kg) mixed with a micro
 antagonist/k agonist opioid (nalbuphine, 2 mg/kg or
 butorphanol 0.4 mg/kg), resulted in a rapid (< 8 min) reversal
 of anaesthesia and the associated respiratory depression, and
 apparent full recovery of consciousness.
 
 
 212                                  NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1I43
 Gas anesthesia setup for methoxyflurane use in small rodents.
 Rich, S.; Grimm, C.; Wong, K.; Cesar, L.
 Washington, D.C. : Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources,
 National Research Council; 1990.
 I.L.A.R. news v. 32 (1): p. 17. ill; 1990.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rodents; Methoxyflurane; Anesthesia
 
 
 213                                  NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1I43
 Gas anesthesia setup for methoxyflurane use in small rodents.
 Rich, S.; Grimm, C.; Wong, K.; Cesar, L.
 Washington, D.C. : Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources,
 National Research Council; 1990.
 I.L.A.R. news v. 32 (1): p. 17; 1990.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rodents; Anesthesia; Methoxyflurane
 
 
 214                                      NAL Call. No.: QP1.P4
 Glycemic control of pain threshold in diabetic and control
 rats. Lee, J.H.; McCarty, R.
 Elmsford, N.Y. : Pergamon Press; 1990 Feb.
 Physiology & behavior v. 47 (2): p. 225-230; 1990 Feb. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Glycemia; Pain; Rats; Experimental diabetes;
 Blood glucose; Alloxan; Nervous system diseases
 
 
 215                                NAL Call. No.: Slide no.436
 Guinea pigs biology and use in research..  Guinea pigs :
 biology and use in research
 Tambrallo, L. J.; Fish, R. E.
 University of Washington, Health Sciences Center for
 Educational Resources, American College of Laboratory Animal
 Medicine, National Agricultural Library (U.S.)
 Seattle, WA : Produced and distributed by the Health Sciences
 Center for Educational Resources, University of Washington,;
 1992.
 67 slides : col. + 1 sound cassette (23 min.) + 1 guide.
 (Laboratory animal medicine and science. Series 2 ; V-9023). 
 Developed for the American College of Laboratory Animal
 Medicine.  Sound accompaniment compatible for manual and
 automatic operation.  Accompanying guide includes script. 
 Portions of this project were funded by a grant from the
 National Agricultural Library.  Covers sources and strains,
 normal behavior, unique anatomical and physiological features,
 reproduction, uses in research, and how to recognize and
 control pain.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Guinea pigs as laboratory animals; Laboratory
 animals
 
 
 216                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Hemodynamic and anesthetic effects of etomidate infusion in
 medetomidine-premedicated dogs.
 Ko, J.C.H.; Thurmon, J.C.; Benson, G.J.; Tranquilli, W.J.;
 Olson, W.A.; Vaha-Vahe, A.T.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1994 Jun. American journal of veterinary research v. 55 (6):
 p. 842-846; 1994 Jun. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Medetomidine; Drug combinations; Injectable
 anesthetics; Preanesthetic medication; Anesthesia;
 Hemodynamics; Drug effects; Dosage; Adverse effects
 
 Abstract:  Hemodynamic and analgesic effects of medetomidine
 (15 microgram/kg of body weight, IM) and etomidate (0.5 mg/kg,
 IV, loading dose; 50 micrograms/kg/min, constant infusion)
 were evaluated in 6 healthy adult Beagles. Instrumentation was
 performed during isoflurane/ oxygen-maintained anesthesia.
 Before initiation of the study, isoflurane was allowed to
 reach end-tidal concentration less than or equal to 0.5%, when
 baseline measurements were recorded. Medetomidine and atropine
 (0.044 mg/kg) were given IM after recording of baseline
 values. Ten minutes later, the loading dose of etomidate was
 given IM, and constant infusion was begun and continued for 60
 minutes. Oxygen was administered via endotracheal tube
 throughout the study. Analgesia was evaluated by use of the
 standard tail clamp technique and a direct-current nerve
 stimulator. Sinoatrial and atrial-ventricular blocks occurred
 in 4 of 6 dogs within 2 minutes after administration of a
 medetomidine-atropine combination, but disappeared within 8
 minutes. Apnea did not occur after administration of the
 etomidate loading dose. Analgesia was complete and consistent
 throughout 60 minutes of etomidate infusion. Medetomidine
 significantly (P < 0.05) increased systemic vascular
 resistance and decreased cardiac output. Etomidate infusion
 caused a decrease in respiratory function, but minimal changes
 in hemodynamic values. Time from termination of etomidate
 infusion to extubation, sternal recumbency, standing normally,
 and walking normally were 17.3 +/- 9.4, 43.8 +/- 14.2, 53.7
 +/- 11.9, and 61.0 +/- 10.9 minutes, respectively. All
 recoveries were smooth and unremarkable. We concluded that
 this anesthetic drug combination, at the dosages used, is a
 safe technique in healthy Beagles.
 
 
 217                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Hemodynamic effects of atropine and glycopyrrolate in
 isoflurane-xylazine-anesthetized dogs.
 Lemke, K.A.; Tranquilli, W.J.; Thurmon, J.C.; Benson, G.J.;
 Olson, W.A. Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1993
 Mar.
 Veterinary surgery v. 22 (2): p. 163-169; 1993 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Drugs; Hemodynamics
 
 
 218                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Hemodynamic effects of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation
 in halothane-anesthetized dogs.
 Bednarski, R.M.; Muir, W.W. III
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1989 Jul. American journal of veterinary research v. 50 (7):
 p. 1106-1109. ill; 1989 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Male animals; Anesthesia; Halothane;
 Ventilation; Drug effects; Blood pressure; Heart output; Heart
 rate
 
 Abstract:  Hemodynamic effects of spontaneous ventilation,
 intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV), and high-
 frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) were compared in 6
 dogs during halothane anesthesia. Anesthesia was induced with
 IV thiamylal Na and was maintained with halothane (end-tidal
 concentration, 1.09%). During placement of catheters, dogs
 breathed spontaneously through a conventional semiclosed
 anesthesia circuit. Data were collected, and dogs were
 mechanically ventilated, using IPPV or HFOV in random order.
 Ventilation was adjusted to maintain PaCO2 between 38 and 43
 mm of Hg during IPPV and HFOV. Cardiac index, aortic blood
 pressure, and maximum rate of increase of left ventricular
 pressure were significantly (P less than 0.05) less during
 HFOV than during spontaneous ventilation, whereas right atrial
 and pulmonary artery pressure were significantly greater
 during HFOV than during spontaneous ventilation. During IPPV,
 only the maximum rate of increase of left ventricular pressure
 was significantly less than that during spontaneous
 ventilation.
 
 
 219                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Hemodynamic effects of intravenous midazolam-xylazine-
 butorphanol in dogs. Gross, M.E.; Thurmon, J.C.; Benson, G.J.;
 Olson, W.A.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1990 Mar.
 Veterinary surgery v. 19 (2): p. 173-180; 1990 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Benzodiazepines; Xylazine; Drug
 combinations; Hemodynamics; Anesthesia
 
 
 220                                   NAL Call. No.: SF778.J68
 High-frequency jet ventilation in anesthetized, paralyzed dogs
 and cats via transtracheal and endotracheal tube routes.
 Haskins, S.C.; Orima, H.; Yamamoto, Y.; Patz, J.D.
 Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Pub; 1991 Jul.
 Journal of veterinary emergency and critical care v. 1 (2): p.
 55-60; 1991 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Lung ventilation; Veterinary
 equipment
 
 
 221                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Hypotension produced by rapid intravenous administration of
 chloramphenicol in anaesthetised dogs.
 Sangiah, S.; Burrows, G.E.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1989 Jan.
 Research in veterinary science v. 46 (1): p. 62-66; 1989 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Chloramphenicol; Intravenous feeding;
 Anesthesia; Hypotension; Models; Infants; Calves
 
 
 222                                  NAL Call. No.: QL785.A725
 The immediate-shock deficit and postshock analgesia:
 implications for the relationship between the analgesic CR and
 UR.
 Fanselow, M.S.; Landeira-Fernandez, J.; DeCola, J.P.; Kim,
 J.J. Austin, Tex., Psychonomic Society; 1994 Feb.
 Animal learning & behavior v. 22 (1): p. 72-76; 1994 Feb. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Pain; Conditioned reflexes
 
 Abstract:  Rats received a 3-sec, 1-mA footshock either
 immediately or 3 min after placement in a chamber. Postshock
 pain sensitivity was assessed with the formalin test. The
 animals that received the 3-min delay between placement and
 shock showed an analgesic response compared with no-shock
 controls. The immediate-shock animals did not. Thus the
 immediate-shock deficit, previously reported for freezing and
 defecation, also occurs for analgesia. This suggests that
 shock levels sufficient to condition analgesia are not
 necessarily sufficient to produce analgesia as an
 unconditional response. As with freezing, there is a
 dissociation between conditional and unconditional responses
 in the fear-conditioning system. Increasing immediate-shock
 levels to 6 sec, 2 mA produced a transient unconditional
 analgesia. For analgesia, a conditional response is more
 readily produced than an unconditional response.
 
 
 223                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 An improved method of endotracheal intubation in rabbits.
 Bechtold, S.V.; Abrutyn, D.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1991 Dec. Laboratory animal science v. 41 (6): p.
 630-631; 1991 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Trachea; Tubes; Laboratory methods;
 Preanesthetic medication; Anesthesia
 
 
 224                              NAL Call. No.: SF914.A53 1990
 Induction techniques and maintenance systems for isoflurane in
 cats. Sawyer, D.C.; Durham, R.A.; Striler, E.L.; Langham, M.
 Columbia, Md. : American College of Laboratory Animal
 Medicine, 1990? :.; 1990.
 Anesthesia and analgesia in laboratory animals : proceedings -
 - 1990 Forum, American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine,
 Columbia Inn, Columbia, Maryland, May 3-6, 1990. p. 21-25;
 1990.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Inhaled anesthetics
 
 
 225                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Influence of anesthetic regimens on the perioperative
 catecholamine response associated with onychectomy in cats.
 Lin, H.C.; Benson, G.J.; Thurmon, J.C.; Tranquilli, W.J.;
 Olson, W.A.; Bevill, R.F.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1993 Oct. American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (10):
 p. 1721-1724; 1993 Oct. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Surgery; Opioids; Drug combinations;
 Neuroleptics; Epinephrine; Norepinephrine
 
 Abstract:  Plasma catecholamine concentrations in response to
 onychectomy were examined in 27 cats receiving different
 anesthetic regimens. Each cat was anesthetized with a
 dissociative-tranquilizer combination, and onychectomy was
 performed on 1 forefoot. One week later, each cat was
 anesthetized with the same dissociative-tranquilizer
 combination plus either butorphanol or oxymorphone, and
 onychectomy was performed on the other forefoot. Four
 treatment groups were studied: tiletamine-zolazepam and
 tiletamine-zolazepam-butorphanol combinations were
 administered to group-1 cats, ketamine-acepromazine and
 ketamine-acepromazine-butorphanol combinations were
 administered to group-2 cats, tiletamine-zolazepam and
 tiletamine-zolazepam-oxymorphone combinations were
 administered to group-3 cats, and ketamine-acepromazine and
 ketamine-acepromazine-oxymorphone combinations were
 administered to group-4 cats. All drug combinations were
 administered IM. Central venous blood samples were drawn for
 catecholamine analysis after injection of drug(s), after
 onychectomy, and 1, 2, and 4 hours after injection.
 Tiletamine-zolazepam alone or
 tiletamine-zolazepam-butorphanol prevented epinephrine release
 for 2 hours after injection of drug(s). Norepinephrine
 concentration increased significantly (P < 0.05) from baseline
 after onychectomy for tiletimine-zolazepam-butorphanol and at
 4 hours for tiletamine-zolazepam and tiletamine-
 zolazepambutorphanol. After onychectomy, there was no
 difference in epinephrine values between tfletamine-zolazepam
 and
 tiletamine-zolazepam-oxymorphone. Ketamine-acepromazine
 prevented increases in norepinephrine and epinephrine
 concentrations for up to 2 hours after surgery. Addition of
 butorphanol to ketamine-acepromazine decreased norepinephrine
 values immediately after onychectomy. Addition of oxymorphone
 to ketamine-acepromazine resulted in lower epinephrine values
 4 hours after surgery.
 
 
 226                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 The influence of buprenorphine or bupivacaine on the post-
 operative effects of laparotomy and bile-duct ligation in
 rats.
 Liles, J.H.; Flecknell, P.A.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1993 Oct.
 Laboratory animals v. 27 (4): p. 374-380; 1993 Oct.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Analgesics; Postoperative care
 
 Abstract:  The post-operative effects of laparotomy and common
 bile-duct ligation were investigated in rats. Bile-duct
 ligation caused a significant reduction in food and water
 consumption, body weight and locomotor activity in the
 immediate post-operative period. Animals which underwent
 laparotomy in which bile-duct ligation was not carried out
 (sham operated groups) had significantly less depression of
 food and water consumption and body weight than groups which
 underwent bile-duct ligation. The detrimental effects on food
 and water consumption and body weight could be significantly
 reduced by the administration of buprenorphine (0.05 mg/kg,
 s/c), but not by infiltration of the surgical wound with the
 long-acting local anaesthetic agent, bupivacaine. The
 reduction of the depressant effects of surgery on food and
 water consumption by the opioid analgesic buprenorphine
 suggests that some of these changes may be related to the
 presence of post-operative pain.
 
 
 227                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Influence of cholinergic blockade on the development of
 epinephrine-induced ventricular arrhythmias in halothane- and
 isoflurane-anesthetized dogs. Lemke, K.A.; Tranquilli, W.J.;
 Thurmon, J.C.; Benson, G.J.; Olson, W.A. Philadelphia, Pa. :
 W.B. Saunders Company; 1994 Jan.
 Veterinary surgery v. 23 (1): p. 61-66; 1994 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Epinephrine; Arrhythmia; Anesthetics
 
 
 228                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Influence of sedative and anesthetic agents on intradermal
 skin test reactions in dogs.
 Moriello, K.A.; Eicker, S.W.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1991 Sep. American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (9):
 p. 1484-1488; 1991 Sep. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthetics; Neuroleptics; Skin tests; Drug
 effects
 
 Abstract:  To determine the effects of 9 sedative/anesthetic
 drug protocols on intradermal skin testing, an experimental
 state of type-I hypersensitivity was created. Intradermal skin
 tests were performed on 6 dogs, using positive and negative
 controls and a series of tenfold dilutions of ASC-1 allergen
 prior to drug administration. Approximately 4 hours later, the
 dogs were given 1 of the following drugs: acepromazine (low
 dose and high dose); ketamine hydrochloride with diazepam;
 thiamylal; oxymorphone; halothane; methoxyflurane; or
 isoflurane. The intradermal skin test then was repeated, and
 was scored objectively and subjectively. Objective scores were
 unaffected by any of the drugs. Subjective scores were
 affected in that acepromazine decreased wheal size and the
 induration of the intradermal skin test reaction sites.
 
 
 229                                   NAL Call. No.: RS164.P59
 Inhibition of A23817-induced release of leukotriene B4 in
 mouse whole blood ex vivo and human polymorphonuclear cells in
 vitro by the cannabinoid anaglesic cannabidiol.
 Formukong, E.A.; Evans, A.T.; Evans, F.J.; Garland, L.G.
 Sussex : John Wiley & Sons; 1991 Dec.
 Phytotherapy research : PTR v. 5 (6): p. 258-261; 1991 Dec. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cannabis sativa; Cannabidiol; Analgesics;
 Neutrophils; Blood; Leukotrienes; Biosynthesis; Metabolic
 inhibitors; Mice; Man
 
 
 230                                  NAL Call. No.: RC262.C5N8
 Inhibition of hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis by limonin
 17-beta-D-glycopyranoside.
 Miller, E.G.; Gonzales-Sanders, A.P.; Couvillon, A.M.; Wright,
 J.M.; Hasegawa, S.; Lam, L.K.T.
 Hillsdale, N.J. : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc; 1992.
 Nutrition and cancer v. 17 (1): p. 1-7; 1992.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Carcinogenesis; Inhibition; Antineoplastic
 agents; Limonin; Hamsters
 
 Abstract:  Limonin 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside, nomilin
 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and nomilinic acid 17-beta-D-
 glucopyranoside, three limonoid glucosides isolated from
 oranges, were tested for cancer chemopreventive activity.
 Eighty female Syrian hamsters were divided into four equal
 groups. The left buccal pouches of the animals in each group
 were pretreated topically with two applications of water
 (Group I) or a 3.5% solution of limonin 17-beta-D-
 glucopyranoside (Group II), nomilin 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside
 (Group III), or nomilinic acid
 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (Group IV). After this initial
 treatment, the left buccal pouches of 16 hamsters from each
 group were painted five times per week. Two or three times per
 week the pouches were treated with a 0.5% solution of the
 carcinogen 7, 12-di-methylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) dissolved
 in mineral oil. On alternate days, the pouches were treated
 with water (Group I) or a 3.5% solution of limonin 17-beta-D-
 glucopyranoside (Group II), nomilin 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside,
 or nomilinic acid 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside. The 16 remaining
 animals were used as controls. These hamsters were treated
 five times per week, one day with mineral oil and the next
 with either water (Group I) or one of the 3.5% solutions of
 the limonoid glucosides (Groups II-IV). After 15 weeks (71
 applications), the hamsters were killed. Multiple tumors were
 common in the animals treated with DMBA; however, the animals
 treated with limonin 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside exhibited a 55%
 decrease in average tumor burden. Further comparisons between
 Groups I and II showed that this reduction in tumor burden was
 mainly due to a decrease in tumor mass. The results for Groups
 III and IV showed that nomilin 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside and
 nomilinic acid 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside were ineffective as
 inhibitors of DMBA-induced buccal pouch neoplasia.
 
 
 231                                  NAL Call. No.: SF910.5.V4
 Injectable anaesthetic agents for cats.
 Dyson, D.H.; Allen, D.G.
 Stuttgart : F.K. Schattauer Publishers; 1992 Aug.
 Veterinary and comparative orthopaedics and traumatology :
 V.C.O.T. v. 5 (3): p. 128-130; 1992 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Anesthetics; Injectable anesthetics;
 Xylazine; Ketamine; Thiopental; Pethidine; Diazepam;
 Benzodiazepines
 
 
 232                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R3224
 Injectable anesthetic agents for cats.
 Dyson, D.H.; Allen, D.G.
 Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1991 May.
 The Canadian veterinary journal v. 32 (5): p. 314-316; 1991
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Injectable anesthetics; Anesthesia
 
 
 233                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Introduction of anaesthesia in dogs and cats with propofol.
 Weaver, B.M.Q.; Raptopoulos, D.
 London : The Association; 1990 Jun23.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 126 (25) AGL: p. 617-620; 1990 Jun23.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cat; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Adverse
 effects
 
 
 234                     NAL Call. No.: 41.2 H198 1990 [no.128]
 Kapnometrie und Kapnographie zur Uberwachung der Anasthesia
 beim Hund [Anesthesia monitoring by capnometry and capnography
 in the dog]. Brass, Andrea Maria
 Hannover : [s.n.],; 1990.
 117 p. : ill. ; 21 cm.  English and Portuguese summaries. 
 Includes bibliographical references (p. 99-117).
 
 Language:  German
 
 
 235                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Ketamine/xylazine/butorphanol: a new anesthetic combination
 for rabbits. Marini, R.P.; Avison, D.L.; Corning, B.F.;
 Lipman, N.S.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1992 Feb. Laboratory animal science v. 42 (1): p.
 57-62; 1992 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Anesthesia; Ketamine; Xylazine; Drug
 combinations; Neuroleptics; Opioids; Heart rate; Respiration
 rate; Blood pressure; Blood; Gases; Reflexes
 
 Abstract:  Ketamine is often used in combination with
 tranquilizers to produce surgical anesthesia in rabbits. While
 generally effective, there is considerable variation in the
 depth and duration of anesthesia achieved with ketamine
 combinations. Butorphanol is a mixed agonist-antagonist opioid
 that is widely used in a variety of other species. In this
 study, the commonly used ketamine (35 mg/kg)/xylazine (5
 mg/kg) combination is compared with ketamine (35
 mg/kg)/xylazine (5 mg/kg)/butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg). Rabbits
 were anesthetized on consecutive weeks with one of the two
 regimens. Physiologic parameters including heart rate,
 respiratory rate, blood pressure and arterial blood gases (pH,
 PO2, PCO2) were measured throughout anesthesia. Loss of
 palpebral, pedal and righting reflexes were recorded and
 reflexes were subsequently evaluated. The addition of
 butorphanol prolonged reflex loss to 140% (X = 68 min +/- 20
 SEM) of control for palpebral reflex; 506% (X = 52 min +/- 18
 SEM) of control for pedal reflex; and 159% (X = 128 min +/- 21
 SEM) of control for righting reflex. Addition of butorphanol
 to ketamine/ xylazine resulted in mild alterations in the
 physiologic changes traditionally associated with this
 combination. Butorphanol can be safely added to the
 ketamine/xylazine combination in rabbits and results in
 moderate increases in the duration of reflex loss.
 
 
 236                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Kinetics of uptake and effects of topical indomethacin
 application on protein concentration in the aqueous humor of
 dogs.
 Spiess, B.M.; Mathis, G.A.; Franson, K.L.; Leber, A.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1991 Jul. American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (7):
 p. 1159-1163; 1991 Jul. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Indometacin; Topical application; Body
 fluids; Eyes; Protein content; Pharmacokinetics
 
 Abstract:  The pharmacokinetic properties of indomethacin and
 its effects on aqueous protein values were studied in 15
 clinically normal Beagles. The dogs were treated every 6 hours
 with 1% indomethacin suspension in 1 eye, with the other eye
 serving as a control. After 24 hours, the dogs were
 anesthetized and samples of aqueous humor (AH) were drawn by
 aqueocentesis at 0, 15, 30, 60, and 90 minutes after initial
 paracentesis. Additional samples were drawn at the time of
 euthanasia, 180 (6 dogs) and 360 minutes (9 dogs) minutes
 after initial paracentesis. Blood samples were obtained at
 each treatment and at each aqueocentesis. The eyes were
 enucleated after dogs were euthanatized. Aqueous protein
 concentrations and indomethacin concentrations in AH, plasma,
 and different ocular tissues were determined. Topical
 indomethacin administration had no effect on baseline protein
 concentrations of AH. It reduced protein concentrations in AH
 significantly at all times after initial aqueocentesis. This
 reduction was approximately 30%. Indomethacin in the AH is
 mostly protein-bound. Concentrations were 350 ng/ml in primary
 AH and 1,305 ng/ml in secondary AH, 90 minutes after initial
 aqueocentesis. Free-drug concentrations were relatively
 constant at about 220 ng/ml. Indomethacin administered
 topically is readily absorbed by the ocular adnexae, reaching
 a steady-state concentration of 25 ng/ml in blood plasma 18
 hours after the start of treatment. Plasma concentrations were
 50 times lower than therapeutically effective concentrations.
 High indomethacin concentrations were found in the cornea
 only. Low concentrations were found in the iris and ciliary
 body, the lens, and in the choroid. On the basis of our
 findings, we conclude that topically administered indomethacin
 is effective in reducing protein concentrations in secondary
 AH and is rapidly eliminated from the eye.
 
 
 237                               NAL Call. No.: DISS F1991212
 Klinische Erprobung des neuen Sedativums und Analgetikums
 Medetomidin und seine Antagonisierung durch Atipamezol beim
 Hund  [Clinical investigation of the new sedative and
 analgesic drug medetomidine and its antagonism by atipamezol
 in the dog].
 Kramer, Sabine
 Hannover : [s.n.],; 1991.
 142, [192] p. : ill. ; 21 cm.  Summary in English.  Includes
 bibliographical references (p. 115-142).
 
 Language:  German
 
 
 238                                   NAL Call. No.: 447.8 AM3
 Lactic acidosis: effect of treatment on intracellular pH and
 energetics in living rat heart.
 Zahler, R.; Barrett, E.; Majumdar, S.; Greene, R.; Gore, J.C.
 Bethesda, Md. : American Physiological Society; 1992 May.
 American journal of physiology v. 262 (5,pt.2): p. H1572-
 H1578; 1992 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Lactic acidosis; Bicarbonates; Alkali treatment;
 Myocardium; Energy metabolism; Hemodynamics; Ph; Rats
 
 Abstract:  Systemic acidemia may impair cardiac contractility
 and predispose to arrhythmias. Moreover, bicarbonate treatment
 may further depress cardiac performance and increase
 mortality. Whether changes in myocardial intracellular pH or
 energy metabolism underlie this diminished performance has not
 been clarified in the in vivo setting. Thus we investigated
 the effect of lactic acidosis and two proposed treatments on
 myocardial energetics and intracellular pH in anesthetized
 living rats. A previously validated 31P-labeled nuclear
 magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) spectroscopic technique using
 saturating pulses was used to follow myocardial intracellular
 pH, phosphocreatine (PCr), ATP, and inorganic phosphate (Pi).
 After obtaining baseline values, we infused lactic acid to
 achieve a level > 5 mM. We then added an infusion of either
 bicarbonate (n = 7) or saline (n = 5). During lactic acid
 infusion, arterial pH declined (from 7.27 to 7.07, P <
 0.0001), but myocardial intra-cellular pH did not change (7.13
 vs. 7.07, P not significant). The ratio of PCr to Pi, however,
 decreased with acidemia (from 3.13 to 2.24, P = 0.004),
 suggesting impaired energy metabolism. Compared with saline,
 bicarbonate infusion restored systemic pH (from 7.08 to 7.29),
 but myocardial pH was unaltered. In addition, PCr/Pi declined
 further following bicarbonate treatment (1.41 vs. 2.42, P =
 0.08) but not following saline. Thus, despite reversal of
 systemic acidemia, bicarbonate treatment was associated with
 more severe impairment of energy metabolism than saline. This
 suggests a mechanism for previously reported adverse cardiac
 effects of bicarbonate treatment.
 
 
 239                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Long term anesthesia using a continuous infusion guaifenesin,
 ketamine, and xylazine in cats.
 Brown, M.J.; McCarthy, T.J.; Bennett, B.T.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1991 Jan. Laboratory animal science v. 41 (1): p.
 46-50; 1991 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Anesthesia; Guaifenesin; Ketamine;
 Xylazine; Drug combinations; Safety; Dosage; Duration
 
 Abstract:  Cats (Felis catus) were anesthetized with a
 solution containing guaifenesin, ketamine and xylazine (GKX)
 in 0.9% saline. Anesthesia was induced by intravenous (IV)
 injection and was maintained for 6 hours by IV infusion. Heart
 rate, respiratory rate and PvO2 did not change significantly
 during the 6 hour monitoring period and remained consistently
 within the published normal ranges for cats. Although the
 PvCO2 did not change significantly, many values were abnormal.
 Venous pH decreased to slightly below normal values. Lead 11
 ECG tracings showed no abnormalities. Loss of response to
 pedal pinch and jam, tone indicates maintenance of a surgical
 plane of anesthesia and adequate muscle relaxation throughout
 the 6 hour anesthetic period. Cats exhibited voluntary motor
 movement and were in sternal recumbency in just over 2 hours
 and were showing no residual clinical effects of the
 anesthesia 16 hours later. Although a transient mild acidosis
 was observed, we conclude that GKX provides a safe, effective
 and easily administered anesthetic regime for cats for periods
 up to 6 hours.
 
 
 240                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 Long-term anaesthesia with alfentanil and midazolam for lung
 transplantation in the dog.
 Flecknell, P.A.; Hooper, T.L.; Fetherstony, G.; Locke, T.J.;
 McGregor, C.G.A. London : Royal Society of Medicine Services;
 1989 Jul.
 Laboratory animals v. 23 (3): p. 278-284; 1989 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthetics; Lungs; Transplantation;
 Anesthesia; Cardiovascular system; Cardiac output; Blood
 pressure
 
 Abstract:  An anaesthetic regime was developed for lung
 transplantation in the dog using a continuous infusion of
 alfentanil and midazolam. This combination of agents provided
 excellent analgesia and also produced loss of consciousness.
 Cardiovascular stability was well maintained over a 24-h
 period of anaesthesia following lung transplantation. Although
 no animals were allowed to recover from anaesthesia in the
 present series, the regime described is likely to be suitable
 for recovery anaesthesia, particularly since both of the
 agents used can be reversed with specific antagonists.
 
 
 241                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 A low cost tail-cuff method for the estimation of mean
 arterial pressure in conscious rats.
 Zatz, R.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1990 Mar. Laboratory animal science v. 40 (2): p.
 198-201. ill; 1990 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Blood pressure; Estimation; Tail;
 Veterinary equipment
 
 Abstract:  Methods utilized in the determination of systolic
 tail-cuff pressure (TCP) in awake rats are aimed at detecting
 the earliest possible tail pulsations as the cuff is deflated.
 In the method described in this study, a small, inexpensive
 electret microphone is used as a sensor, connected to the tail
 by a piece of rubber tubing. This design provides selective
 attenuation of tail pulsations appearing as the cuff is
 deflated between systolic and mean arterial pressures. In this
 manner, tail pulsations are detected only when the cuff
 pressure is lowered below the mean arterial pressure, thus
 providing an estimation of the latter. The method was
 validated in prewarmed awake normotensive and hypertensive
 rats by simultaneous comparison with directly measured
 systolic and mean pressures or with a conventional tail-cuff
 method. Validation studies were also carried out in
 anesthetized rats undergoing wide variations of arterial
 pressure by parenteral injections of norepinephrine or
 nitroprusside. Close agreement was observed between TCP
 determined with this method and directly obtained mean, but
 not systolic, pressure. Thus, the method described in this
 study constitutes an inexpensive alternative to conventional
 tail-cuff methods. Mean, rather than systolic pressure,
 appears to be evaluated in the conscious rat by employing this
 method.
 
 
 242                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Malignant hyperthermia in dogs.
 Nelson, T.E.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1991 Mar15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 198
 (6): p. 989-994; 1991 Mar15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Adverse effects; Hyperthermia;
 Susceptibility; Muscles; Halothane; Caffeine; Progeny; Calcium
 ions
 
 
 243                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Measurements of left and right ventricular pressures and their
 derivatives by transcutaneous puncture in rats.
 Hamlin, R.L.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1992 Jan. American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (1):
 p. 34-35; 1992 Jan. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Ventricles; Blood pressure; Determination;
 Recordings
 
 Abstract:  Eighteen rats were anesthetized with
 xylazine/ketamine and placed in right lateral recumbency, and
 a small incision was made in the skin of the left hemithorax.
 A 21-gauge, 1-inch, short-beveled hypodermic needle, attached
 directly to a pressure transducer filled with degassed saline
 solution, was advanced through the incision into the left
 ventricle and then advanced through the septum into the right
 ventricle. High-fidelity tracings of right and left
 ventricular pressures and their derivatives were obtained
 through this approach in 13 rats. In 5 rats, measurements of
 right ventricular pressures were obtained by additional right
 ventricular puncture through the incision in the left
 hemithorax. Right and left ventricular pressures were recorded
 on single occasions in 18 rats, twice at 2-week intervals in 6
 rats, and 3 times at 2-week intervals in 3 rats. Minimal
 hemopericardium was observed, but most rats had evidence of
 hemorrhage on the visceral pericardium. Left and right
 ventricular pressures can be measured rapidly, safely, and
 repeatedly in anesthetized rats by this method.
 
 
 244                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69
 Measuring how dogs respond to Telazol-xylazine combinations.
 Sanders, E.; Short, C.E.; Keegan, R.; Tracy, C.H.
 Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Company; 1989
 Feb. Veterinary medicine v. 84 (2): p. 222-227; 1989 Feb. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Xylazine;
 Neuroleptics; Drug combinations; Blood pressure; Heart rate;
 Respiration; Duration
 
 
 245                                   NAL Call. No.: RS164.P59
 Mechanism of antiinflammatory and antithermal burn action of
 CPase from Aloe arborescens Miller var. natalensis Berger in
 rats and mice. Obata, M.; Ito, S.; Beppu, H.; Fujita, K.;
 Nagatsu, T.
 Sussex : John Wiley & Sons; 1993.
 Phytotherapy research : PTR v. 7: p. S30-S33; 1993.  In the
 special issue: Proceedings of the International Congress of
 Phytotherapy.  Meeting held on October 15-19, 1991, Seoul,
 Korea.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Aloe arborescens; Carboxypeptidases; Medicinal
 properties; Pharmaceutical products; Inflammation; Burns;
 Edema; Wounds; Blood vessels; Abdomen; Rats; Mice
 
 
 246                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 J8292
 Medetomidine, a new sedative-analgesic for use in the dog and
 its reversal with atipamezole.
 Clarke, K.W.; England, G.C.W.
 London : British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 1989
 Jun. The Journal of small animal practice v. 30 (6): p.
 343-345, 347-348; 1989 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Analgesics; Neuroleptics; Xylazine;
 Detoxicants; Adverse effects
 
 
 247                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 J8292
 Medetomidine as a premedicant in dogs and its reversal by
 atipamezole. Young, L.E.; Brearley, J.C.; Richards, D.L.S.;
 Bartram, D.H.; Jones, R.S. London : British Small Animal
 Veterinary Association; 1990 Nov. The Journal of small animal
 practice v. 31 (11): p. 554-556, 557-559; 1990 Nov.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Preanesthetic medication; Halothane;
 Nitrous oxide; Thiopental; Anesthesia; Narcotic antagonists;
 Recovery
 
 
 248                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Medetomidine-butorphanol-midazolam for anaesthesia in dogs and
 its reversal by atipamezole.
 Verstegen, J.; Petcho, A.
 London : The Association; 1993 Apr03.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 132 (14): p. 353-357; 1993 Apr03.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Narcotic antagonists
 
 
 249                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Median effective dosage of propofol for induction of
 anesthesia in dogs. Watney, G.C.G.; Pablo, L.S.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1992 Dec. American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (12):
 p. 2320-2322; 1992 Dec. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthetics; Dosage
 
 Abstract:  The median effective dosage (ED50) of propofol for
 induction of anesthesia was determined in 25 dogs premedicated
 with acepromazine, 0.05 mg/kg of body weight, and in 35
 unpremedicated dogs. The ED50 was found to be 2.2 mg/kg in
 premedicated dogs and was 3.8 mg/kg in unpremedicated dogs.
 The mean +/- SD total dosage of propofol required to induce
 anesthesia in premedicated animals was 2.8 +/- 0.5 mg/kg and
 was 4.7 +/- 1.3 mg/kg in unpremedicated animals. Signs of
 excitement were observed in 5 of the unpremedicated dogs, but
 in none of those that were premedicated.
 
 
 250                           NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 A method for assessing noxious stimuli in anesthetized dogs.
 Moore, M.P.; Greene, S.A.; Keegan, R.D.
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p.
 439-446, 477; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Electroencephalography
 
 
 251                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 A method for controlled hindlimb hypothermia in small animals.
 Pynn, B.R.; Fish, J.S.; Plyley, M.J.; McKee, N.H.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1989 May. Laboratory animal science v. 39 (3): p.
 260-262. ill; 1989 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Mice; Limbs; Hypothermia; Control methods
 
 
 252                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 A modified anaesthetic induction chamber for rats.
 Gwynne, B.J.; Wallace, J.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1992 Jul.
 Laboratory animals v. 26 (3): p. 163-166; 1992 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Anesthesia; Laboratory equipment;
 Halothane; Oxygen; Waste gases
 
 Abstract:  The anaesthetic induction chamber for rats
 described in this paper has been designed for use in
 conjunction with a controlled delivery of halothane/O2 mixture
 and an anaesthetic scavenger system. Using this system rapid
 induction of anaesthesia is achieved using low levels of
 anaesthetic vapour without risk to the operator.
 
 
 253                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 Monitoring of blood gas parameters and acid-base balance of
 pregnant and non-pregnant rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in
 routine experimental conditions.
 Barzago, M.M.; Bortolotti, A.; Omarini, D.; Aramayona, J.J.;
 Bonati, M. London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1992
 Apr.
 Laboratory animals v. 26 (2): p. 73-79; 1992 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Pregnancy; Blood; Gases; Acid base
 equilibrium; Anesthesia
 
 Abstract:  Blood gas parameters and acid-base balance values
 were determined in adult pregnant New Zealand rabbits
 (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in standard laboratory housing
 conditions and during anaesthesia with an association of
 ketamine-chlorpromazine, administered before surgical
 procedures. All the variables were also studied in adult non-
 pregnant female, used as controls. No differences in pH, sO2c,
 O2Hb, COHb, sO2m and a-vDO2 were found between pregnant and
 non-pregnant rabbits in physiological conditions and during
 anaesthesia. Ketamine-chlorpromazine and pregnancy seemed to
 change the other parameters used to assess the acid-base
 balance and the oxygenation conditions. Anaesthesia affected
 only Hb, O2Ct, O2Cap, C2O2 and P50. The additive effect of
 pregnancy and anaesthesia modified pCO2, PO2, HCO3-, TCO2,
 BEb, SBC, BEecf, A-aDO2, RI, MetHb, RHb, CaO2 and CvO2. The
 patterns described are close to those of other species,
 suggesting the New Zealand rabbit might be a reliable animal
 model for monitoring selected variables.
 
 
 254                                   NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 Morphine-isoflurane interaction in dogs, swine and Rhesus
 monkeys. Steffey, E.P.; Baggot, J.D.; Eisele, J.H.; Willits,
 N.; Woliner, M.J.; Jarvis, K.A.; Elliott, A.R.; Tagawa, M.
 Oxford [England] : Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1978-;
 1994 Jun. Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics
 v. 17 (3): p. 202-210; 1994 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Pigs; Macaca mulatta; Morphine; Inhaled
 anesthetics; Species differences; Interactions;
 Pharmacokinetics; Anesthesia; Pharmacodynamics
 
 
 255                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 J8292
 Muscle relaxants in canine anaesthesia. 1. History and the
 drugs. Jones, R.S.
 London : British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 1992
 Aug. The Journal of small animal practice v. 33 (8): p.
 371-375; 1992 Aug. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Muscle relaxants; History;
 Suxamethonium
 
 
 256                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 J8292
 Muscle relaxants in canine anaesthesia 2: Clinical
 application. Jones, R.S.
 London : British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 1992
 Sep. The Journal of small animal practice v. 33 (9): p.
 423-429; 1992 Sep. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Muscle relaxants
 
 
 257                                    NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6
 Myrcene mimics the peripheral analgesic activity of lemongrass
 tea. Lorenzetti, B.B.; Souza, G.E.P.; Sarti, S.J.; Filho,
 D.S.; Ferreira, S.H. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific
 Publishers; 1991 Aug.
 Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 34 (1): p. 43-48; 1991 Aug. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cymbopogon citratus; Myrcene; Analgesics;
 Essential oils; Chromatography; Folk medicine; Rats
 
 Abstract:  Oral administration of a infusion of lemongrass
 (Cymbopogon citratus) fresh leaves to rats produced a dose-
 dependent analgesia for the hyperalgesia induced by subplantar
 injections of either carrageenin or prostaglandin E2, but did
 not affect that induced by dibutyryl cyclic AMP. These results
 indicate a peripheral site of action which was confirmed with
 the essential oil obtained by steam distillation of the
 leaves. Silica gel column fractionation of the essential oil
 allowed the identification of myrcene as the major analgesic
 component in the oil. Identification of the components was
 made by thin-layer chromatography and checked by mass
 spectrometry. The peripheral analgesic effect of myrcene was
 confirmed by testing a standard commercial preparation on the
 hyperalgesia induced by prostaglandin in the rat paw test and
 upon the contortions induced by intraperitoneal injections of
 iloprost in mice. In contrast to the central analgesic effect
 of morphine, myrcene did not cause tolerance on repeated
 injection in rats. This analgesic activity supports the use of
 lemongrass tea as a "sedative" in folk medicine. Terpenes such
 as myrcene may constitute a lead for the development of new
 peripheral analgesics with a profile of action different from
 that of the aspirin-like drugs.
 
 
 258                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R3224
 Nephrotoxicity in dogs associated with methoxyflurane
 anesthesia and flunixin meglumine analgesia.
 Mathews, K.A.; Doherty, T.; Dyson, D.H.; Wilcock, B.;
 Valliant, A. Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association;
 1990 Nov. The Canadian veterinary journal v. 31 (11): p.
 766-771; 1990 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Methoxyflurane; Flunixin; Anesthesia; Drug
 combinations; Adverse effects; Kidney diseases; Uremia; Renal
 function
 
 
 259                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Nephrotoxicity of tiletamine in New Zealand white rabbits.
 Doerning, B.J.; Brammer, D.W.; Chrisp, C.E.; Rush, H.G.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1992 Jun. Laboratory animal science v. 42 (3): p.
 267-269; 1992 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Injectable anesthetics; Muscle
 relaxants; Kidneys; Drug toxicity; Dosage; Histopathology;
 Intramuscular injection
 
 Abstract:  Tiletamine and zolazepam, the two constituents of
 Telazol, were evaluated independently to determine mine which
 agent was responsible for the nephrotoxicity caused by Telazol
 in New Zealand White rabbits. Five rabbits were injected i.m.
 with 32 mg/kg of tiletamine, four animals received 7.5 mg/kg
 of tiletamine, and five rabbits received 32 mg/kg of
 zolazepam. Urinalysis was performed and blood urea nitrogen
 and serum creatinine were monitored for 7 days postinjection.
 In all five rabbits injected with the high dose of tiletamine,
 blood urea nitrogen and creatinine rose by 3 days
 postinjection and increased steadily throughout the week. By 4
 days postinjection, urine protein and glucose were elevated
 and cellular and protein casts were present. No serum
 chemistry or urine abnormalities were detected in rabbits
 receiving low doses of tiletamine, zolazepam, or in the four
 control rabbits. All animals were euthanized and necropsied at
 7 days postinjection. Histopathology showed severe renal
 tubular necrosis in all five rabbits injected with 32 mg/kg
 tiletamine. Mild nephrosis was present in three of four
 rabbits injected with 7.5 mg/kg of tiletamine. No lesions were
 present in the zolazepam-injected or control rabbits. The
 results of this study show that tiletamine is the constituent
 responsible for the nephrotoxicity of Telazol in rabbits. They
 further demonstrate that doses commonly used for anesthetic
 induction or restraint can produce renal lesions in rabbits.
 
 
 260                                   NAL Call. No.: RB127.P34
 Neurokinin and NMDA antagonists (but not a kainic acid
 antagonist) are antinociceptive in the mouse formalin model.
 Murray, C.W.; Cowan, A.; Larson, A.A.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers; 1991 Feb.
 Pain : the journal of the International Association for the
 Study of Pain v. 44 (2): p. 179-185; 1991 Feb.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mice; Animal models; Antagonists; Pain; Substance
 p; Aspartic acid; Receptors; Opioids; Formaldehyde; Tests
 
 
 261                                   NAL Call. No.: 391.8 T66
 Neuromuscular blocking activity of a glycosidic extract of the
 plant Sarcolobus globosus.
 Mustafa, M.R.; Hadi, A.H.A.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1990.
 Toxicon v. 28 (10): p. 1237-1239; 1990.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Asclepiadaceae; Plant composition; Seeds; Plant
 extracts; Glycosides; Nerve tissue; Muscle tissue;
 Neurophysiology; Paralysis; Rats; Chicks; Frogs
 
 Abstract:  Crude glycoside extracts from the plant. Sarcolobus
 globosus, were tested on the rat phrenic nerve diaphragm,
 chick biventer cervicis and frog rectus abdominis
 preparations. Nerve-stimulated twitches were inhibited by the
 extract. The muscle paralysis was not similar to that by
 curare-like blockers as it was not reversed by neostigmine or
 by a tetanus. Although contractures to acetylcholine or
 carbachol were not affected by 0.6 mg/ml of the extract,
 higher concentration of the extracts (3 mg/ml) depressed the
 log dose response curve of acetylcholine and carbachol. The
 results suggest that the neuromuscular blocking effect of the
 extracts is either dose-dependent or due to a mixture of
 toxins with presynaptic or postsynaptic actions.
 
 
 262                                    NAL Call. No.: 450 P697
 Neurotropic action of the hydroalcoholic extract of Melissa
 officinalis in the mouse.
 Soulimani, R.; Fleurentin, J.; Mortier, F.; Misslin, R.;
 Derrieu, G.; Pelt, J.M.
 Stuttgart, W. Ger. : Georg Thieme Verlag; 1991 Apr.
 Planta medica v. 57 (2): p. 105-109; 1991 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Melissa officinalis; Plant extracts; Essential
 oils; Analgesics; Mice
 
 
 263                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 A new anesthetic agent for use in the gerbil.
 Hrapkiewicz, K.L.; Stein, S.; Smiler, K.L.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1989. Laboratory animal science v. 39 (4): p.
 338-341; 1989.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Gerbils; Anesthesia; Anesthetics
 
 Abstract:  Gerbils have been neglected in published reports on
 anesthesia. This study compared several dosages of Telazol
 used for anesthesia in the gerbil. Each group of animals
 injected with Telazol was evaluated for onset and duration of
 anesthesia and analgesia. Results showed Telazol to be a safe
 anesthetic and when dosed at 60 mg/kg to be suitable for major
 surgical procedures. Lower dosages of Telazol, in contrast,
 provided immobility and analgesia suitable for less
 nocioceptive and noninvasive experimental manipulations.
 Dosages of Telazol required for surgical depth of analgesia
 and anesthesia were accompanied by a prolonged recovery time.
 Gerbils should be monitored closely to insure a safe recovery
 when using the higher dosages.
 
 
 264                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 A new technique for surgery of the caudal vena cava in dogs
 using partial venous inflow occlusion.
 Hunt, G.B.; Malik, R.; Bellenger, C.R.; Pearson, M.R.B.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1992 May.
 Research in veterinary science v. 52 (3): p. 378-381; 1992
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Vena cava; Blockage; Venous circulation;
 Surgery; Hemodynamics; Metabolism; Duration; Safety
 
 Abstract:  The haemodynamic and metabolic effects of caudal
 vena cava occlusion were evaluated in six normal anaesthetised
 dogs. Each animal underwent a single eight minute episode of
 caudal vena cava occlusion. The procedure was well tolerated
 by all the dogs. Systolic arterial pressure was reduced by 62 +/-
  5 per cent and the heart rate increased by 11 +/- 3 per cent.
 There was rapid haemodynamic recovery after the release of
 occlusion, all cardiovascular parameters returning to normal
 spontaneously within five minutes. Caudal vena cava occlusion
 is therefore safe for periods of up to eight minutes in normal
 dogs. This technique allows repair of caudal vena caval
 lesions without necessitating systemic heparinisation and the
 use of cavoatrial conduits.
 
 
 265                                  NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L33
 Nonhuman primate analgesia.
 Rosenberg, D.P.
 New York, N.Y. : Nature Publishing Company; 1991 Oct.
 Lab animal v. 20 (9): p. 22, 24, 26, 29-32; 1991 Oct. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Primates; Analgesics
 
 
 266                                   NAL Call. No.: RB127.P34
 Noradrenergic and opioid systems interact to alter the
 detection of noxious thermal stimuli and facial scratching in
 monkeys.
 Thomas, D.A.; Anton, F.; Kenshalo, D.R. Jr; Williams, G.M.;
 Dubner, R. Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers,; 1993 Oct.
 Pain : the journal of the International Association for the
 Study of Pain v. 55 (1): p. 63-70; 1993 Oct.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pain; Macaca
 
 
 267                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 Pain and analgesia in dogs and cats.
 Potthoff, A.; Ames, IA; Carithers, R.W.
 Lawrenceville, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company;
 1989 Aug. The Compendium on continuing education for the
 practicing veterinarian v. 11 (8): p. 887-890, 892-894, 895,
 897. ill; 1989 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cat; Pain; Analgesics; Adverse effects;
 Antiinflammatory agents; Physiology
 
 
 268                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Pain and anxiety behaviors of dogs during intravenous
 catheterization after premedication with placebo, acepromazine
 oroxymorphone.
 Light, G.S.; Hardie, E.M.; Young, M.S.; Hellyer, P.W.;
 Brownie, C.; Hansen, B.D.
 Amsterdam ; New York : Elsevier, 1984-; 1993 Sep.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 37 (4): p. 331-343; 1993
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Preoperative care; Anxiety; Pain
 
 
 269                           NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 Pain control with medetomidine in dogs, cats, and laboratory
 animals. Vainio, O.
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p.
 213-219, 222-223; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Laboratory animals; Rats; Mice; Pain;
 Tests; Drugs; Drug effects; Physiological functions
 
 
 270                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 Pain. II. Control of pain in animals.
 Sackman, J.E.
 Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company; 1991 Feb.
 The Compendium on continuing education for the practicing
 veterinarian v. 13 (2): p. 181-187, 190-192; 1991 Feb. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Analgesics; Pain; Opium alkaloids;
 Receptors; Narcotic antagonists; Antiinflammatory agents;
 Arachidonic acid; Mode of action; Treatment; Dosage
 
 
 271                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 Pain: its perception and alleviation in dogs and cats. 1. The
 physiology of pain.
 Sackman, J.E.
 Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company; 1991 Jan.
 The Compendium on continuing education for the practicing
 veterinarian v. 13 (1): p. 71-75, 79. ill; 1991 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Pain; Physiology; Peripheral nerves;
 Animal anatomy; Endorphins; Analgesics; Neurotransmitters
 
 
 272                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Parenteral anticholinergics in dogs with normal and elevated
 intraocular pressure.
 Frischmeyer, K.J.; Miller, P.E.; Bellay, Y.; Smedes, S.L.;
 Brunson, D.B. Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders Company; 1993
 May.
 Veterinary surgery v. 22 (3): p. 230-234; 1993 May.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Eyes; Glaucoma; Anesthesia
 
 
 273                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate in rabbits.
 Portnoy, L.G.; Hustead, D.R.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1992 Apr. American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (4):
 p. 541-543; 1992 Apr. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Analgesics; Pharmacokinetics; Half life;
 Intravenous injection; Subcutaneous injection
 
 Abstract:  The pharmacokinetic properties of butorphanol
 tartrate were determined in 7 rabbits after iv and sc
 injection (0.5 mg/kg of body weight). A 2-compartment model
 (biexponential) best represented the concentration vs time
 curve after IV injection. The half-life was calculated to be
 1.64 hours via IV administration, whereas SC injection
 resulted in an elimination half-life of 3.16 hours.
 
 
 274                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Pharmacokinetics of etomidate in cats.
 Wertz, E.M.; Benson, G.J.; Thurmon, J.C.; Tranquilli, W.J.;
 Davis, L.E.; Koritz, G.D.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1990 Feb. American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (2):
 p. 281-285; 1990 Feb. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cat; Anesthetics; Injections; Anesthesia;
 Pharmacokinetics
 
 Abstract:  Pharmacokinetic variables of etomidate were
 determined after IV administration of etomidate (3.0 mg/kg of
 body weight). Blood samples were collected for 6 hours.
 Disposition of this carboxylated imidazole best conformed to a
 2- (n = 2) and a 3- compartment (n = 4) open pharmacokinetic
 model. The pharmacokinetic values were calculated for the
 overall best-fitted model, characterized as a mixed 2- and 3-
 compartmental model. The first and most rapid distribution
 half-life was 0.05 hour and a second distribution half-life
 was 0.35 hour. Elimination half-life was 2.89 hours, apparent
 volume of distribution was 11.87 +/- 4.64 L/kg, apparent
 volume of distribution at steady state was 4.88 +/- 2.25 L/kg,
 apparent volume of the central compartment was 1.17 +/- 0.70
 L/kg, and total clearance was 2.47 +/- 0.78 L/kg/h.
 
 
 275                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Pharmacokinetics of intramuscularly administered pethidine in
 dogs and the influence of anaesthesia and surgery.
 Waterman, A.E.; Kalthum, W.
 London : The Association; 1989 Mar25.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 124 (12): p. 293-296; 1989 Mar25.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthetics; Anesthesia; Surgical
 operations; Pharmacokinetics; Intramuscular injection; Blood
 plasma
 
 
 276                                   NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 Pharmacokinetics of propofol in dogs premedicated with
 acepromazine and maintained with halothane and nitrous oxide.
 Reid, J.; Nolan, A.M.
 Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1993 Dec.
 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 16 (4):
 p. 501-505; 1993 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Injectable anesthetics; Pharmacokinetics
 
 
 277                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Pharmacokinetics of propofol in mixed-breed dogs and
 Greyhounds. Zoran, D.L.; Riedesel, D.H.; Dyer, D.C.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1993 May. American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (5):
 p. 755-760; 1993 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Greyhound; Crossbreds; Anesthetics;
 Pharmacokinetics; Anesthesia; Recovery; Breed differences
 
 Abstract:  Pharmacokinetics and recovery characteristics of
 propofol in Greyhounds and mixed-breed dogs were compared. In
 all dogs, disposition of propofol was adequately described by
 a 2-compartment open model, with a rapid distribution phase
 followed by a slower elimination phase. When findings in
 Greyhounds were compared with those in mixed-breed dogs,
 significant differences were observed in mean concentrations
 of propofol in blood, recovery characteristics, and estimates
 for apparent volume of distribution, volume of distribution at
 steady state, and total body clearance. In addition,
 Greyhounds recovered from anesthesia at higher concentrations
 of propofol than did mixed-breed dogs. A secondary peak in
 blood propofol concentration was observed in 8 of 10
 Greyhounds and in 5 of 8 mixed-breed dogs. This peak
 corresponded to the time of return of the righting reflex.
 
 
 278                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Pharmacologic features of butorphanol in dogs and cats.
 Hosgood, G.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1990 Jan01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 196
 (1): p. 135-136; 1990 Jan01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cat; Analgesics; Pharmacodynamics;
 Pharmacokinetics; Adverse effects
 
 
 279                                   NAL Call. No.: RS164.P59
 A pharmacological evaluation of Baphia nitida Lodd
 (Leguminosae) ethanolic extract on rats and mice.
 Onwukaeme, D.N.; Lot, T.Y.
 Sussex : John Wiley & Sons; 1991 Dec.
 Phytotherapy research : PTR v. 5 (6): p. 254-257; 1991 Dec. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nigeria; Baphia; Leaves; Plant extracts;
 Medicinal plants; Traditional medicines; Antipyretics;
 Analgesics; Antidiarrhea agents; Anticonvulsants;
 Pharmacology; Rats; Mice
 
 
 280                                    NAL Call. No.: 475 J824
 Picogram level determination of meditomidine in dog serum by
 capillary gas chromatography with negative ion chemical
 ionization mass spectrometry. Vuorilehto, L.; Salonen, J.S.;
 Anttila, M.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers; 1989 Dec29.
 Journal of chromatography v. 497: p. 282-287; 1989 Dec29. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Serums; Analgesics; Determination; Gas
 chromatography; Mass spectrometry
 
 
 281                                   NAL Call. No.: SF895.P76
 A pilot study of the effects of anesthesia with isoflurane,
 thiopental, methohexital, propofol, or nitrous oxide on
 magnetic motor evoked potentials in the dog.
 Young, S.S.; Sylvestre, A.M.
 Santa Barbara, CA : Brillig Hill, Inc; 1992.
 Progress in veterinary neurology v. 3 (3): p. 91-94; 1992. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ontario; Dogs; Thiopental; Nitrous oxide;
 Anesthesia; Barbiturates; Halogenated hydrocarbons
 
 
 282                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Platelet aggregation in dogs after sedation with acepromazine
 and atropine and during subsequent general anesthesia and
 surgery.
 Barr, S.C.; Ludders, J.W.; Looney, A.L.; Gleed, R.D.; Erb,
 H.N. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical
 Association; 1992 Nov. American journal of veterinary research
 v. 53 (11): p. 2067-2070; 1992 Nov. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beagle; Dogs; Platelets; Aggregation; Atp;
 Anesthesia; Halothane; Luminescence; Luciferase
 
 Abstract:  Platelet aggregation and adenosine triphosphate
 (ATP) release were measured by use of the impedance method in
 blood samples obtained from 25 adult female Beagles before and
 after sedation with acepromazine (0.13 mg/kg of body weight)
 and atropine (0.05 mg/kg), and during general anesthesia.
 General anesthesia was induced by IV administration of
 thiamylal (average dosage, 2.1 mg/kg, range, 1.2 to 4.2 mg/kg)
 and was maintained with halothane in oxygen. Samples of
 jugular venous blood were obtained from each dog, using
 citrate as anticoagulant. Platelet count was done on each
 sample. Platelet aggregation and ATP released from the
 aggregating platelets were measured within 2.5 hours of sample
 collection, using a whole-blood aggregometer. Adenosine
 diphosphate (ADP) or collagen was used as aggregating agent.
 For each aggregating agent, platelet aggregation and ATP
 release were measured over 6 minutes. After sedation with
 acepromazine and atropine, significant (P < 0.01) reduction
 was observed in platelet count (from median values of 341,000
 cells/microliter to 283,000 cells/microliter) and in the
 ability of platelets to aggregate in response to ADP (from
 14.0 to 7.0 Ohms). During the same period, maximal release of
 ATP in response to collagen also was reduced (from 5.56
 micromoles to 4.57 micromoles; P < 0.01); however, this
 difference ceased to be significant when ATP release was
 normalized for platelet count. During general anesthesia and
 surgery (200 minutes after sedation), platelet count and
 aggregation responses to ADP and collagen had returned to
 presedation values. None of the dogs in this study appeared to
 have hemostasis problems during surgery. In conclusion,
 sedation with acepromazine and atropine induces measurable
 inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation that resolves
 during subsequent general anesthesia and surgery. Transient
 inhibition of platelet aggregation is not manifested by a
 change in gross hemostasis during surgery.
 
 
 283                                   NAL Call. No.: 442.8 L62
 Possible participation of endogenous opioid peptides on the
 mechanism involved in analgesia induced by vouacapan.
 Duarte, I.D.G.; Ferreira-Alves, D.L.; Nakamura-Craig, M.
 Elmsford, N.Y. : Pergamon Press; 1992.
 Life sciences v. 50 (12): p. 891-897; 1992.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Seeds; Plant extracts; Opioid
 peptides; Analgesics; Mode of action; Rats; Mice
 
 Abstract:  The involvement of opioid peptides in the mechanism
 of action of vouacapan, a new experimental compound extracted
 from seeds of Pterodon poligalaeflorus Benth, was investigated
 both in mice utilizing acetic acid writhing response and in
 rats utilizing inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by
 carrageenan and modified Randall-Selitto method. Vouacapan, in
 both models, caused a dose-dependent analgesia when injected
 p.o., s.c. and i.p. The analgesic effect was partially blocked
 by naloxone, nalorphine and n-methyl-nalorphine. Significant
 tolerance to analgesic effect was observed following repeated
 administration of vouacapan or morphine. On the last day of
 treatment, cross administration revealed symmetrical and
 asymmetrical cross-tolerance between vouacapan and morphine,
 in rats and mice, respectively. We conclude that a release of
 endorphins could be involved in the analgesic mechanism of
 vouacapan in both models studied.
 
 
 284                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 Post-operative analgesia following thoracotomy in the dog: an
 evaluation of the effects of bupivacaine intercostal nerve
 block and nalbuphine on respiratory function.
 Flecknell, P.A.; Kirk, A.J.B.; Liles, J.H.; Hayes, P.H.; Dark,
 J.H. London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1991 Oct.
 Laboratory animals v. 25 (4): p. 319-324; 1991 Oct.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Postoperative care; Pain; Analgesics;
 Duration; Blood; Gases
 
 Abstract:  Pain following thoracotomy reduces pulmonary
 ventilation in man and a similar effect is believed to occur
 in animals. The effects of two analgesic regimens on arterial
 blood gas parameters were studied in dogs following
 thoracotomy. Post-operative analgesia was provided with
 intermittent nalbuphine, either alone or in combination with
 an intercostal nerve block using bupivacaine. Arterial blood
 gas analysis was carried out at 4, 8 and 16 h post-
 operatively, both before the administration of nalbuphine and
 again 30 min later. Animals which received nalbuphine alone
 had a significant rise in arterial oxygenation following
 administration of this analgesic. This effect was not observed
 at 4 and 8 h postoperatively in dogs which had an intercostal
 block with bupivacaine, but was seen at 16 h post-operatively
 when it could be anticipated that the effects of bupivacaine
 would have waned. These results suggest that intercostal block
 with bupivacaine can provide analgesia for over 8 h, and that
 the duration of action of nalbuphine in controlling post-
 operative pain in the dog is probably less than 4 h.
 
 
 285                                  NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L33
 Post-operative analgesia in rabbits and rodents.
 Flecknell, P.A.
 New York, N.Y. : Nature Publishing Company; 1991 Oct.
 Lab animal v. 20 (9): p. 34-37; 1991 Oct.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Laboratory animals; Postoperative care; Pain;
 Analgesics
 
 
 286                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Postoperative analgesic and sedative effects of carprofen and
 pethidine in dogs.
 Lascelles, B.D.X.; Butterworth, S.J.; Waterman, A.E.
 London : The British Veterinary Association; 1994 Feb19.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 134 (8): p. 187-191; 1994 Feb19.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Pethidine; Analgesics
 
 
 287                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Postoperative catecholamine response to onychectomy in
 isoflurane-anesthetized cats: effect of analgesics.
 Benson, G.J.; Wheaton, L.G.; Thurmon, J.C.; Tranquilli, W.J.;
 Olson, W.A.; Davis, C.A.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1991 May.
 Veterinary surgery v. 20 (3): p. 222-225; 1991 May.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Anesthesia; Analgesics; Surgical
 operations; Postoperative care; Catecholamines; Morphine;
 Xylazine; Salicylates; Pain
 
 
 288                                  NAL Call. No.: SF601.V523
 Postoperative epidural analgesia.
 McMurphy, R.M.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders Company; 1993 Jul.
 The Veterinary clinics of North America : Small animal
 practice v. 23 (4): p. 703-716; 1993 Jul.  In the series
 analytic: Stifle surgery / edited by James K. Roush.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Conduction anesthesia
 
 
 289                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Potency of rapidly acting barbiturates in dogs, using
 inhibition of the laryngeal reflex as the end point.
 Turner, D.M.; Ilkiw, J.E.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1990 Apr. American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (4):
 p. 595-597; 1990 Apr. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Barbiturates; Thiopental; Larynx; Reflexes;
 Anesthesia; Dosage effect
 
 Abstract:  Thiopental, thiamylal, and methohexital were
 administered to 30 dogs to determine equipotent doses
 necessary to inhibit laryngeal reflexes. The doses studied
 were 7.1, 10.0, 14.1, 20.0, and 28.3 mg of thiopental/kg of
 body weight; 5.7, 8.0, 11.3, 16.0, and 22.6 mg of
 thiamylal/kg; and 3.5, 5.0, 7.1, 10.0, and 14.1 mg of
 methohexital/kg. At 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 minutes after injection,
 the presence or absence of the laryngoscopic reflex, pedal
 reflex, and jaw tone were recorded. The times for return of
 each reflex, as well as the ability to walk 10 steps without
 assistance, were also recorded. Using the method of least
 squares, a probit analysis was performed on the quantal
 responses at 1 minute. The effective dose in 50% of the
 population for the laryngoscopic reflex was chosen as the end
 point for intubation, and the computed doses necessary to
 achieve this end point were 19.4 mg of thiopental/kg, 18.4 mg
 of thiamylal/kg, and 9.7 mg of methohexital/kg. When potencies
 of the drugs were compared with that of thiopental (1),
 thiamylal was found to be equipotent (1.06) and methohexital
 twice as potent (2.0). At the accepted clinical dose, recovery
 times for thiopental (71.1 +/- 7.2 minutes) and thiamylal
 (75.3 +/- 7.7 minutes) were similar, and twice that for
 methohexital (33.9 +/- 4.6 minutes).
 
 
 290                                  NAL Call. No.: Z7994.L3A5
 Precision-cut guinea-pig liver slices as a tool for studying
 the toxicity of volatile anaesthetics.
 Ghantous, H.N.; Fernando, J.; Morgan, S.E.; Gandolfi, A.J.;
 Brandel, K. Nottingham : Fund for the Replacement of Animals
 in Medical Experiments; 1990 Nov.
 Alternatives to laboratory animals : ATLA v. 18: p. 191-199;
 1990 Nov. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal testing alternatives; Liver; Anesthetics
 
 Abstract:  Cultured precision-cut liver slices retain normal
 liver architecture and physiological biochemical functions.
 Hartley male guinea-pig liver slices have proven to be a good
 model for studying the biotransformation and toxicity of
 halothane. This system was used to evaluate the
 biotransformation and toxicity of different volatile
 anaesthetics (halothane, enflurane, isoflurane and
 sevoflurane), and compare their effects to those of new
 anaesthetics (desflurane). Liver slices (250-300 micrometers
 thick) were incubated in sealed roller vials, containing Krebs
 Henseleit buffer at 37 degrees C under 95% O2:5% CO2
 atmosphere. Volatile anaesthetics were delivered by
 volatilisation after pre-incubation for 1 hour to produce a
 constant concentration in the medium. Production of the
 metabolites, trifluroacetic acid and fluoride ion, was
 measured. Intracellular potassium ion content, protein
 synthesis and secretion were determined as indicators of
 viability of the slices. The rank order of biotransformation
 of anaesthetics by the liver slices was halothane >
 sevoflurane > isoflurane and enflurane > desflurane. The rank
 order of hepatotoxicity of these anaesthetics was halothane >
 isoflurane and enflurane > sevoflurane and desflurane.
 Halothane is the anaesthetic which is metabolised furthest and
 has the most toxic effect, while desflurane is the least
 metabolised anaesthetic and has the least toxicity. This in
 vitro cultured precision-cut liver slice system appears to be
 suitable for studying the biotransformation of volatile
 anaesthetics and correlating its role in the resulting
 toxicity.
 
 
 291                                    NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6
 Preliminary screening of methanolic extracts of Celastrus
 paniculatus and Tecomella undulata for analgesic and
 antiinflammatory activities. Ahmad, F.; Khan, R.A.; Rasheed,
 S.
 Ireland : Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd; 1994 May.
 Journal of ethnopharmacology v. 42 (3): p. 193-198; 1994 May. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Celastrus paniculatus; Flowers; Tecomella
 undulata; Plant extracts; Medicinal plants; Analgesics;
 Antiinflammatory agents
 
 Abstract:  Flowers of Celastrus paniculatus and whole plant of
 Tecomella undulata were extracted individually in absolute
 methanol. Using the hot water tail immersion test in mice and
 carrageenan induced pedal edema in rats, both extracts were
 tested for their oral analgesic and anti-inflammatory
 potentials. Results showed that C. paniculatus had both
 analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, while T. undulata
 had only analgesic potential when compared with aspirin.
 
 
 292                                    NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6
 Preliminary studies on the antiinflammatory and analgesic
 activities of Calotropis procera root extract.
 Basu, A.; Chaudhuri, A.K.N.
 Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Mar.
 Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 31 (3): p. 319-324; 1991 Mar. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Calotropis procera; Roots; Plant extracts;
 Analgesics; Antiinflammatory agents; Edema; Mice; Rats
 
 Abstract:  A chloroform-soluble fraction from Calotropis
 procera roots showed significant dose-related antiinflammatory
 activity in rats using the pharmacologic models of
 carrageenin-induced pedal oedema, cotton pellet granuloma and
 formaldehyde-induced arthritis. In addition, significant
 analgesic potential was demonstrated using acetic acid-induced
 writhing in mice.
 
 
 293                                   NAL Call. No.: RS164.P59
 A preliminary study of Cedronella canariensis (L.) var.
 canariensis extracts for antiinflammatory and analgesic
 activity in rats and mice. Lopez-Garcia, R.E.; Rabanal, R.M.;
 Darias, V.; Martin-Herrera, D.; Carreiras, M.C.; Rodriguez, B.
 Sussex : John Wiley & Sons; 1991 Dec.
 Phytotherapy research : PTR v. 5 (6): p. 273-275; 1991 Dec. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Canary Islands; Labiatae; Plant extracts;
 Medicinal plants; Antiinflammatory agents; Analgesics;
 Antipyretics; Drug toxicity; Folk medicine; Rats; Mice
 
 
 294                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Prescription and use of analgesics in dogs and cats in a
 veterinary teaching hospital: 258 cases (1983-1989).
 Hansen, B.; Hardie, E.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1993 May01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 202
 (9): p. 1485-1494; 1993 May01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Analgesics; Pain; Prescriptions;
 Frequency; Postoperative care
 
 
 295                              NAL Call. No.: SF914.A53 1990
 Primate anesthesia.
 Bacher, J.D.
 Columbia, Md. : American College of Laboratory Animal
 Medicine, 1990? :.; 1990.
 Anesthesia and analgesia in laboratory animals : proceedings -
 - 1990 Forum, American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine,
 Columbia Inn, Columbia, Maryland, May 3-6, 1990. p. 60, 59,
 75-78; 1990.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Primates; Anesthesia
 
 
 296                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.P76
 Problems and complications associated with endocrine surgery
 in the dog and cat.
 Matthiesen, D.T.; Mullen, H.S.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Co; 1990 Dec.
 Problems in veterinary medicine v. 2 (4): p. 627-667; 1990
 Dec.  In the series analytic: Endocrinology / edited by R.
 Nichols.  Literature review.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Surgical operations; Neoplasms;
 Preoperative care; Postoperative complications; Endocrine
 diseases; Metastasis; Pancreas; Adrenal glands; Animal
 anatomy; Parathyroid; Thyroid gland; Anesthesia; Preanesthetic
 medication; Pituitary; Literature reviews
 
 
 297                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas with mammary dysplasia
 in New Zealand white rabbits.
 Lipman, N.S.; Zhao, Z.B.; Andrutis, K.A.; Hurley, R.J.; Fox,
 J.G.; White, H.J. Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for
 Laboratory Animal Science; 1994 Apr. Laboratory animal science
 v. 44 (2): p. 114-120; 1994 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Pituitary; Adenoma; Dysplasia; Mammary
 glands; Prolactin; Histopathology; Case reports
 
 Abstract:  Nine aged (mean age = 3.2 years) nulliparous New
 Zealand white rabbit does were found to have markedly enlarged
 teats. The teats were frequently engorged with fluid but were
 not hot and did not cause signs of pain. The number of
 affected teats per animal ranged from 1 to 8 (mean = 4). The
 teats and associated glandular tissue were typically
 discolored grey, blue, or greenish black (n = 6). Prolactin
 concentrations were evaluated by radioimmunoassay. Serum
 prolactin concentrations ranged from 22.4 ng/ml to 2.21 p
 micrograms/ml (mean = 397.3 ng/ml), which was 10- to 1000-fold
 greater than normal values in nonpregnant rabbits.
 Conventional radiography of the skull of six rabbits did not
 reveal pituitary enlargement. Necropsy revealed an enlarged
 pituitary gland and sella turcica in six of nine does. The
 diaphragma sellae had ruptured in two rabbits. All nine
 rabbits had pituitary acidophil adenomas. The neoplastic
 portions of the pituitaries were diffusely immunoreactive when
 stained immunohistochemically for prolactin. In contrast, only
 small clusters of five to seven cells stained positively in
 normal pituitaries selected as controls. Histologic
 examination of the mammary glands revealed numerous large,
 dilated cystic spaces containing proteinaceous fluid. Many
 cysts had numerous papillary epithelial infoldings. The cystic
 dilations extended into and included the teat canal producing
 the gross appearance. Prolactin-secreting acidophil adenomas
 have not been previously reported in the rabbit, and the
 association with mammary dysplasia is unique.
 
 
 298                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V6456
 Propofol anaesthesia in the dog and cat.
 Jones, R.S.
 London : Wright; 1990.
 The Veterinary annual (30): p. 200-202; 1990.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Anesthesia; Anesthetics
 
 
 299                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Pulsus alternans during halothane anesthesia in a dog.
 Bailey, J.E.; Muir, W.W. III; Skarda, R.T.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1993 Jan.
 Veterinary surgery v. 22 (1): p. 79-84; 1993 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ohio; Dogs; Halothane; Pulse rate; Anesthesia;
 Surgery; Pyloroplasty
 
 
 300                                   NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 Quantitative electroencephalography for measurement of central
 nervous system responses to diazepam and the benzodiazepine
 antagonist, flumazenil, in isoflurane-anaesthetized dogs.
 Greene, S.A.; Moore, M.P.; Keegan, R.D.; Gallagher, L.V.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1992 Sep.
 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 15 (3):
 p. 259-266; 1992 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Diazepam; Antagonists; Drug antagonism;
 Electroencephalography; Measurement
 
 
 301                           NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 Quantitative electroencephalography for monitoring responses
 to noxious electrical stimulation in dogs anesthetized with
 halothane or with halothane and morphine.
 Greene, S.A.; Moore, M.P.; Keegan, R.D.; Gallagher, L.V.;
 Rosenthal, J.C. New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p.
 459-465, 478-479; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Pain; Electrical stimulation; Anesthetics;
 Central nervous system; Electroencephalography; Morphine;
 Halothane; Animal experiments
 
 
 302                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Quantitative electroencephalography in dogs anesthetized with
 2.0% end-tidal concentration of isoflurane anesthesia.
 Moore, M.P.; Greene, S.A.; Keegan, R.D.; Gallagher, L.; Gavin,
 P.R.; Kraft, S.L.; DeHaan, C.; Klappenbach, K.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1991 Apr. American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (4):
 p. 551-560. ill; 1991 Apr. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Electroencephalography; Anesthesia;
 Anesthetics; Brain; Physiological functions
 
 Abstract:  Quantitative electroencephalography was assessed in
 dogs under controlled, 2% end-tidal isoflurane anesthetic
 conditions, and each variable at each electrode site was
 tested for normal distribution. With the quantitative
 electroencephalographic system used, 16 values for each of 21
 electrode sites were evaluated. Absolute power ratios also
 were evaluated. The methods for quantitative
 electroencephalographic recording and analysis appear to be
 readily adaptable to the dog. Most of the data do not conform
 to a normal distribution. Therefore, distribution-free
 nonparametric statistics should be used when looking for
 differences under experimental or clinical conditions.
 Quantitative electroencephalography appears to be a sensitive
 noninvasive method that could be used to evaluate brain
 function under anesthetic, clinical, and experimental
 settings.
 
 
 303                                NAL Call. No.: Slide no.379
 Rabbits introduction to use in research..  Rabbits,
 introduction to use in research
 Van Hoosier, G. L.; DiGiacomo, R. F.
 University of Washington, Health Sciences Center for
 Educational Resources Seattle, WA : produced and distributed
 by University of Washington, Health Sciences Center for
 Educational Resources,; 1990.
 46 slides : col. + 1 sound cassette (19 min.) + 1 guide.
 (Laboratory animal medicine and science. Series 2 ; V-9001). 
 Publication date on guide: 1991. Sound accompaniment
 compatible for automatic and manual operation.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits as laboratory animals; Animal welfare
 
 Abstract:  Presents laws and guidelines, historical use in
 research and testing, development of alternatives, attributes
 as research animals, recognition of pain and disease, and
 signs and significance of common diseases.
 
 
 304                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Reduction of isoflurane anesthetic requirement by medetomidine
 and its restoration by atipamezole in dogs.
 Ewing, K.K.; Mohammed, H.O.; Scarlett, J.M.; Short, C.E.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1993 Feb. American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (2):
 p. 294-299; 1993 Feb. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Medetomidine; Inhaled anesthetics; Dosage;
 Narcotic antagonists; Anesthesia; Drug antagonism
 
 Abstract:  The isoflurane-sparing effect of the alpha 2-
 adrenergic agonist medetomidine (30 micrograms/kg of body
 weight, IV) was tested in 7 dogs, using a blinded, randomized-
 block study design. The baseline minimal alveolar
 concentration (MAC) of isoflurane was 1.18 vol% (95%
 confidence interval [0.97,1.39]). Medetomidine significantly
 (P < 0.003) reduced isoflurane MAC by 47.2%. Atipamezole (0.3
 mg/kg, IV), an alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist, completely
 reversed the effect of medetomidine on isoflurane MAC.
 Atipamezole alone did not significantly alter isoflurane MAC.
 After medetomidine administration, marked bradycardia
 developed in all dogs and persisted for more than 2 hours.
 Mean arterial blood pressure increased acutely, but later
 decreased, and hypotension persisted for more than 2 hours.
 Atipamezole reversed the bradycardic and hypotensive effects
 of medetomidine. Results of this study indicate that
 medetomidine may be useful in clinical cases in which
 isoflurane MAC-reduction is desirable and that atipamezole
 might be used to reverse desirable and undesirable effects of
 medetomidine during isoflurane anesthesia.
 
 
 305                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Relative effects of xylazine-atropine, xylazine-atropine-
 ketamine, and xylazine-atropine-pentobarbital combinations and
 time-course effects of the latter two combinations on brain
 stem auditory-evoked potentials in dogs. Tokuriki, M.;
 Matsunami, K.; Uzuka, Y.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1990 Jan. American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (1):
 p. 97-102; 1990 Jan. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Xylazine; Atropine; Ketamine;
 Pentobarbital; Drug combinations; Drug effects; Brain;
 Electric potential
 
 Abstract:  Brain stem auditory-evoked potentials (BAEP) were
 recorded in 4 dogs to analyze the relationship between
 acoustic stimulus intensities and peak latencies of each wave,
 and to investigate the relative effects of xylazine-atropine-
 ketamine, and xylazine-atropine-pentobarbital combinations and
 the time-course effects of the latter 2 drug combinations on
 BAEP. Click stimulations fixed at a stimulus rate of 10/s and
 a frequency of 4 kHz were delivered at intensities ranging
 from 10- to 110-dB sound pressure level (SPL) in 10-dB steps
 for analyzing the relationship between the acoustic stimulus
 intensities and the peak latencies and at an intensity of 110-
 dB SPL for investigating the effects of the sedative and the
 anaesthetic drug combinations and their time-course effects on
 BAEP. Waves I and VI were identified with stimulus intensity
 of greater than or equal to 50-dB SPL. Wave VII was observed
 in some records, but was excluded from statistical analysis.
 As intensity was increased from 50- to 110-dB SPL, the latency
 decreased for all waves during xylazine-atropine-ketamine
 anesthesia. There were no statistically significant
 differences in the peak latencies of each wave in BAEP among
 xylazine-atropine, xylazine-atropine-ketamine, and xylazine-
 atropine-pentobarbital combinations 20 minutes after drug
 administration, except that the latency of wave VI during
 xylazine-atropine sedation was significantly (P < 0.01)
 shorter than that detected during xylazine-atropine-ketamine
 or xylazine-atropine-pentobarbital anesthesia. There were no
 significant changes in peak latencies of waves I, II, III, V,
 and VI for 90 minutes after administration of the xylazine-
 atropine-ketamine combination and for 120 minutes after
 administration of the xylazine-atropine-pentobarbital
 combination. It was concluded that BAEP did not change over
 time after xylazine-atropine-ketamine or xylazine-atropine
 pentobarbital administration.
 
 
 306                                  NAL Call. No.: SF405.5.A3
 The relief of pain in cold-blooded vertebrates.
 Arena, P.C.; Richardson, K.C.
 Canberra, A.C.T. : Australian Council for the Care of Animals
 in Research and Teaching; 1990.
 ACCART news v. 3 (1): p. 1-4; 1990.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Vertebrates; Fishes; Amphibia; Reptiles; Pain;
 Anesthesia; Anesthetics
 
 
 307                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 Responses of laboratory animals to some injectable
 anaesthetics. Smith, W.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1993 Jan.
 Laboratory animals v. 27 (1): p. 30-39; 1993 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Laboratory animals; Injectable anesthetics
 
 Abstract:  Xylazine, ketamine, methohexitone and
 alphadalone/alphaxalone, were administered intraperitoneally,
 intramuscularly or intravenously to mice, rats, guineapigs and
 rabbits. Times for disappearance and reappearance of reflexes
 were recorded, and duration of loss of reflex. Delivering a
 predetermined dose gave a varying individual response, ranging
 from inadequate anaesthesia to death. Using reflexes to assess
 depth of anaesthesia was of limited value. Reflex movements to
 noxious stimuli generally persisted even at dose rates that
 caused prolonged recovery times and death. Conversely, in rats
 there was no response to a cutaneous stimulus in some animals
 even though recumbency was almost restored.
 
 
 308                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Reversal of atracurium neuromuscular block with neostigmine in
 the dog. Jones, R.S.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1990 Jan.
 Research in veterinary science v. 48 (1): p. 96-98; 1990 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Neostigmine; Drug antagonism; Anesthesia;
 Muscle relaxants; Time; Dosage effect
 
 
 309                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 Reversal of fentanyl/fluanisone neuroleptanalgesia in the
 rabbit using mixed agonist/antagonist opioids.
 Flecknell, P.A.; Liles, J.H.; Wootton, R.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1989 Apr.
 Laboratory animals v. 23 (2): p. 147-155; 1989 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Anesthesia; Fentanyl; Neuroleptics;
 Opium; Drug antagonism; Drug synergy
 
 Abstract:  The reversal of the neuroleptanalagesic combination
 of fentanyl/fluanisone using mixed agonist/antagonist opioids
 has been investigated in the rabbit. All of the compounds
 studied (naloxone, nalbuphine, meptazinol, butorphanol,
 buprenorphine, pentazocine, doxapram) reversed the respiratory
 depression and sedation produced by fentanyl/fluanisone.
 Fentanyl/fluanisone produced profound analgesia for 180 min,
 which was rapidly and completely antagonized by naloxone. The
 mixed agonist/antagonist opioids produced a reduction in the
 degree of analgesia but, in contrast to naloxone, analgesic
 activity persisted from 120 min (meptazinol) to 420 min
 (buprenorphine). Administration of buprenorphine to rabbits
 anaesthetized with fentanyl/fluanisone and midazolam confirmed
 that the reversal of respiratory depression was accompanied by
 the return of arterial pH, PCO2 and PCO2 to preanaesthetic
 values. The use of neuroleptanalgesic anaesthetic regimens,
 which have been shown to provide effective surgical
 anaesthesia, combined with reversal using a mixed
 agonist/antagonist opioid to provide postoperative analgesia,
 appears to be a valuable refinement of current laboratory
 animal anaesthetic practice.
 
 
 310                                   NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 Reversal of medetomidine sedation by atipamezole in dogs.
 Vainio, O.; Vaha-Vahe, T.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1990 Mar.
 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 13 (1):
 p. 15-22; 1990 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthetics; Anesthesia; Drug antagonism;
 Narcotic antagonists; Adverse effects
 
 
 311                           NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 Review of pharmacology of medetomidine and detomidine: two
 chemically similar alpha-2-adrenoreceptor agonists used as
 veterinary sedatives. MacDonald, E.; Virtanen, Raimo
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p.
 181-191, 198-199; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Laboratory animals; Rats; Agonists; Pharmacology;
 Pharmacokinetics; Veterinary medicine; Analgesics; Central
 nervous system; Drug effects; Xylazine; Endocrine system;
 Cardiovascular system; Alpha-adrenergic receptors
 
 
 312                                    NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6
 Screening in mice of some medicinal plants used for analgesic
 purposes in the state of Sao Paulo. II.
 Costa, M.; Di Stasi, L.C.; Kirizawa, M.; Mendacolli, S.L.J.;
 Gomes, C.; Trolin, G.
 Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1989 Nov.
 Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 27 (1/2): p. 25-33; 1989 Nov. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Brazil; Medicinal plants; Screening tests;
 Analgesics; Lippia; Piper; Tillandsia usneoides; Mice
 
 
 313                                   NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 Sedative and analgesic effects of medetomidine in dogs.
 Vainio, O.; Vaha-Vahe, T.; Palmu, L.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1989 Jun.
 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 12 (2):
 p. 225-231; 1989 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Analgesics; Anesthesia; Drug effects
 
 
 314                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Sedative efficacy of droperidol and diazepam in the rat.
 Quinn, R.H.; Danneman, P.J.; Dysko, R.C.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1994 Apr. Laboratory animal science v. 44 (2): p.
 166-171; 1994 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Anesthesia; Droperidol; Diazepam; Dosage;
 Efficacy; Animal welfare; Restraint of animals; Laboratory
 methods; Diagnostic techniques; Pain
 
 Abstract:  Droperidol and diazepam were evaluated for sedative
 properties in 12 male Sprague Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus).
 Over a period of several weeks, each rat was treated
 subcutaneously with 0.5 mg droperidol/kg, 2.0 mg
 droperidol/kg, 5.0 mg diazepam/kg, 15.0 mg diazepam/kg, and
 physiologic saline according to a randomized schedule. After
 each treatment, the animals were evaluated for their response
 to a series of four common clinical manipulations (tail-vein
 bleeding, orbital bleeding, teeth clipping, and toenail
 bleeding) at five time points over the 90 min following the
 injection. Rats were scored on the basis of their responses to
 each manipulation. Response to cardiac puncture was assessed
 once in each animal immediately prior to euthanasia.
 Histologic lesions associated with subcutaneous and
 intramuscular administration of these drugs were evaluated in
 a separate group of animals. Results indicate that both
 droperidol and diazepam (at either dose) allow easier
 manipulation for toenail bleeding and teeth clipping when
 compared with saline control. There was no advantage in using
 these sedatives for tailvein bleeding. Orbital bleeding could
 not be performed humanely with either drug. Diazepam at a dose
 of 15.0 mg/kg allowed humane cardiac puncture. Subcutaneous
 injection of diazepam or 2.0 mg droperidol/kg resulted in
 various degrees of inflammation revealed by histologic
 examination, although no clinical signs were associated with
 these lesions. Subcutaneous administration of droperidol at a
 dose of 0.5 mg/kg is recommended for nonpainful, noninvasive
 manipulations as it provides adequate sedation for most
 procedures without inducing the subcutaneous inflammation
 observed with diazepam or 2.0 mg droperidol/kg. Diazepam at a
 dose of 15.0 mg/kg appears to be a humane alternative to
 general anesthesia for cardiac puncture.
 
 
 315                                   NAL Call. No.: RS164.P59
 Sedative hypnotic action of Pala Papua, Myristica argentea, in
 mice. Takahashi, S.; Uekane, A.; Otsuka, K.; Shigenobu, K.
 Sussex : John Wiley & Sons; 1991 Apr.
 Phytotherapy research : PTR v. 5 (2): p. 72-75; 1991 Apr. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Myristica argentea; Myristica fragrans; Seeds;
 Essential oils; Plant extracts; Traditional medicines;
 Pharmacology; Mice
 
 
 316                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69
 Selecting the right analgesics: indications and dosage
 requirements. Tranquilli, W.J.; Fikes, L.L.; Raffe, M.R.
 Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Company; 1989
 Jul. Veterinary medicine v. 84 (7): p. 692-697; 1989 Jul. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cat; Analgesics; Dosage effect;
 Anesthetics; Pain
 
 
 317                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Side effects of etomidate in dogs.
 Muir, W.W. III; Mason, D.E.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1989 May15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 194
 (10): p. 1430-1434; 1989 May15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthetics; Anesthesia; Adverse effects;
 Diazepam; Morphine; Drugs
 
 
 318                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 A simple laryngoscopic technique for the endotracheal
 intubation of rabbits. Macrae, D.J.; Guerreiro, D.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1989 Jan.
 Laboratory animals v. 23 (1): p. 59-61. ill; 1989 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Anesthesia; Larynx; Trachea; Endoscopy
 
 Abstract:  A safe and reliable technique for the endotracheal
 intubation of rabbits is described. Direct laryngoscopy is
 followed by intubation of the trachea with a fine catheter,
 and subsequent advancement of the endotracheal tube over this
 catheter.
 
 
 319                             NAL Call. No.: SF991.M22  1994
 Small animal anesthesia canine and feline practice.
 McKelvey, Diane; Hollingshead, K. Wayne
 St. Louis : Mosby,; 1994.
 xviii, 332 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. (Mosby's fundamentals of
 veterinary technology).  Includes bibliographical references
 and index.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Veterinary anesthesia
 
 
 320                                  NAL Call. No.: QD415.A1X4
 Species differences in blood profiles, metabolism and
 excretion of 14C-propofol after intravenous dosing to rat, dog
 and rabbit. Simons, P.J.; Cockshott, I.D.; Douglas, E.J.;
 Gordon, E.A.; Knott, S.; Ruane, R.J.
 London : Taylor & Francis; 1991 Oct.
 Xenobiotica v. 21 (10): p. 1243-1256; 1991 Oct.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthetics; Intravenous injection; Drug
 metabolism; Excretion; Species differences; Rabbits; Rats
 
 Abstract:  1. Bolus i.v. doses of 14C-propofol (7-10 mg/kg) to
 rat, dog and rabbit, or an infusion dose (0.47 mg/kg per min
 for 6 h) to dog were eliminated primarily in urine (60-95%
 dose); faecal elimination (13-31%) occurred for rat and dog,
 but was minimal (< 2%) for rabbit. 2. After bolus
 administration, blood 14C concentrations were maximal (8-30
 micrograms equiv./ml) at 2-15 min; these declined rapidly
 during the 0-2 h period and thereafter more slowly. Propofol
 concentrations were maximal (4-16 micrograms/ml) at 2 min and
 the profiles were best fitted by a tri-exponential (rat and
 dog) or bi-exponential (rabbit) equation. Duration of sleep
 ranged from 5 to 8 min. 3. Infusion of 14C-propofol in dog
 gave a blood 14C concentration of 117 micrograms equiv./ml at
 the end of the 6 h infusion period; this declined at a similar
 rate to that after the bolus dose. Propofol concentration on
 termination of infusion was 13 micrograms/ml; thereafter,
 propofol concentrations declined less rapidly than after the
 bolus dose. Waking occurred about 44 min post-infusion. 4.
 Propofol was cleared by conjugation of the parent molecule or
 its quinol metabolite; hydroxylation of an isopropyl group
 also occurred in rat and rabbit. Biliary excretion leading to
 enterohepatic recirculation, and in turn increased sulphate
 conjugation, occurred in rat and dog, but not rabbit,
 resulting in a marked interspecies variation in drug clearance
 and metabolite profiles.
 
 
 321                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Static thoracic compliance as a measurement of pulmonary
 function in dogs. King, L.G.; Drobatz, K.J.; Hendricks, J.C.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1991 Oct. American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (10):
 p. 1597-1601; 1991 Oct. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Thorax; Elasticity; Measurement; Normal
 values; Diagnostic value
 
 Abstract:  Thoracic compliance measurements by use of readily
 available equipment were determined to be practical and safe
 in dogs. Twenty healthy dogs (age 1 to 16 years, weight 2.3 to
 49.5 kg) were anesthetized for routine procedures such as
 dentistry or neutering. The animals were first hyperventilated
 to reduce pulmonary atelectasis, to check for leakage at the
 endotracheal tube cuff, and to induce mild hypocarbia, thus
 minimizing voluntary respiratory efforts. Total thoracic
 compliance measurements were calculated as the difference
 between exhaled volumes at static inspiratory pressures of 15
 and 20 cm of H2O, divided by the pressure difference, and
 expressed as a function of body weight. The procedure was
 easy, took 5 to 10 minutes, and caused no recognizable ill
 effects in any of the dogs studied. Mean total thoracic
 compliance was 42.25 +/- 32 ml/cm of H2O. There was a
 significant correlation with weight, but no significant
 relationship was seen between compliance and age, or gender.
 The mean weight-adjusted total thoracic compliance was 1.85 +/-
  0.56 ml/cm of H2O/kg. In studies in a small group of dogs
 with documented respiratory tract disease, 4 of 7 had a mean
 compliance > 2 SD below the normal range. Thus, this test may
 become part of the routine workup of any animal being
 anesthetized for procedures such as bronchoscopy to evaluate
 respiratory tract disease. Routine monitoring of animals on
 ventilators could provide early warning of complications such
 as pneumonia, pleural effusion, or pulmonary edema.
 
 
 322                           NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 Studies on the role of adrenergic receptors in a model of
 tonic pain. Tasker, R.A.R.
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p.
 155, 164, 175-176; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Laboratory animals; Rats; Pain; Alpha-adrenergic
 receptors; Drugs; Testing; Drug effects; Analgesics;
 Yohimbine; Dosage; Methoxamine
 
 
 323                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Surface-induced hypothermia in dogs: 19 cases (1987-1989).
 Moon, P.F.; Ilkiw, J.E.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1993 Feb01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 202
 (3): p. 437-444; 1993 Feb01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Surgery; Ischemia; Disease prevention;
 Hypothermia; Cooling; Adverse effects; Case reports
 
 
 324                                NAL Call. No.: aHV4701.A952
 Surgery in rodents: risk of potential hypo- and hyperthermia.
 Romanovsky, A.A.
 Beltsville, MD : National Agricultural Library, AWIC, 1990-;
 1993 Oct. Animal Welfare Information Center newsletter v. 4
 (4): p. 7; 1993 Oct. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rodents; Surgery; Risk; Hyperthermia;
 Hypothermia; Anesthesia; Complications
 
 
 325                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 Surgical and anesthetic management of puppies and kittens.
 Hosgood, G.
 Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company, Inc; 1992
 Mar. The Compendium on continuing education for the practicing
 veterinarian v. 14 (3): p. 345-348, 350-353, 356-359; 1992
 Mar.  Literature review.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Puppies; Kittens; Preoperative care; Surgery;
 Respiratory system; Cardiovascular system; Liver; Kidneys; Age
 differences; Case reports; Anesthetics; Metabolism;
 Monitoring; Body temperature regulation; Pharmacokinetics;
 Sutures; Postoperative care; Antibiotics; Bandages; Literature
 reviews
 
 
 326                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Surgical techniques for neutering 6- to 14-week-old kittens.
 Aronsohn, M.G.; Faggella, A.M.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1993 Jan01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 202
 (1): p. 53-55; 1993 Jan01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kittens; Castration; Ovariectomy; Postoperative
 complications; Anesthesia; Age
 
 
 327                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Surgical treatment of pheochromocytoma: technique,
 complications, and results in six dogs.
 Gilson, S.D.; Withrow, S.J.; Orton, E.C.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders Company; 1994 May.
 Veterinary surgery v. 23 (3): p. 195-200; 1994 May.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Neoplasms; Adrenal medulla; Adrenalectomy;
 Nephrectomy; Resection; Vena cava; Anesthesia; Complications;
 Survival; Prognosis; Case reports
 
 
 328                                    NAL Call. No.: SF985.F4
 Suspected adverse reaction to xylazine-ketamine anesthesia in
 a cat. Raptopoulos, D.; Papazoglou, L.; Galatos, A.
 Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Publishing Co;
 1993 Jul. Feline practice v. 21 (4): p. 29-29; 1993 Jul. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Xylazine; Ketamine; Adverse effects
 
 
 329                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Suspected malignant hyperthermia after halothane anesthesia in
 a cat. Bellah, J.R.; Robertson, S.A.; Buergelt, C.D.; McGavin,
 A.D. Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1989 Nov.
 Veterinary surgery v. 18 (6): p. 483-488; 1989 Nov.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cat; Halothane; Anesthesia; Hyperthermia; Case
 studies
 
 
 330                                    NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6
 Tabernaemontana crassa as a traditional local anesthetic
 agent. Agwu, I.E.; Akah, P.A.
 Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1990 Aug.
 Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 30 (1): p. 115-119; 1990 Aug. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Frogs; Tabernaemontana crassa; Medicinal plants;
 Folk medicine; Local anesthetics; Reflexes
 
 
 331                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Thermal burns in four dogs during anesthesia.
 Dunlop, C.I.; Daunt, D.A.; Haskins, S.C.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1989 May.
 Veterinary surgery v. 18 (3): p. 242-246. ill; 1989 May. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Burns; Hypothermia
 
 
 332                                   NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 Thiamylal- and halothane-sparing effect of diazepam in dogs.
 Muir, W.W. III; Bednarski, L.; Bednarski, R.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1991 Mar.
 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 14
 (1).: p. 46-50; 1991 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Diazepam; Preanesthetic medication;
 Halothane; Anesthetics; Dosage
 
 
 333                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Thiamylal-sparing effect of midazolam for canine endotracheal
 intubation. A clinical study of 118 dogs.
 Greene, S.A.; Benson, G.J.; Hartsfield, S.M.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1993 Jan.
 Veterinary surgery v. 22 (1): p. 69-72; 1993 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Washington; Illinois; Texas; Dogs;
 Benzodiazepines; Anesthesia; Surgery; Neuroleptics
 
 
 334                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Time of death of CNS tumor-bearing rats can be reliably
 predicted by body weight-loss patterns.
 Redgate, E.S.; Deutsch, M.; Boggs, S.S.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1991 Jun. Laboratory animal science v. 41 (3): p.
 269-273; 1991 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Neoplasms; Central nervous system;
 Mortality; Timing; Prediction; Weight losses
 
 Abstract:  A request by the Institutional Animal Care and Use
 Committee for an alternative to death as an end point in a
 cancer research project using a rat brain 9L tumor cell model
 led to a search for reliable criteria for predicting time of
 death in this type of experiment. These experiments evaluated
 the therapeutic effectiveness of radiation alone, continuous
 intracerebral infusions of 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine (IUDR) alone,
 and a combination of both therapies. We found that a
 characteristic pattern of body weight changes occurs after
 injection of 9L tumor cells into the brain ventricles or
 parenchyma. The initial phase was characterized by a loss of
 body weight which appeared to be related to surgery and, in
 the irradiated groups, to the subsequent doses of radiation
 under anesthesia on days 4, 6, and 7. After this initial phase
 (phase 1), a second period of weight change (phase 2) which
 was characterized by an overall gain of body weight
 interrupted temporarily in 76 out of the 149 rats by
 reversible episodes of weight loss of 1 to 5 days duration.
 The length of this phase 2 weight gain period was
 significantly extended by XRT-IUDR treatment in the rats with
 intraparenchymal tumors. The third and final phase consisted
 of a period of irreversible weight loss which may be related
 to cachexia. The third phase was similar in duration for
 control, XRT, IUDR and XRT-IUDR groups of rats and had a mean
 length of 9.8 +/- 0.27 days. Since the duration of this third
 phase was independent of treatment and significantly longer
 than the reversible episodes of weight loss in phase 2, it was
 predictive of the mean time of death in a group of rats. When
 the end of phase 2 was reliably determined, the time of death
 could be predicted to be 9.8 +/- 0.27 days later on average.
 This method accurately predicted the time of death in a pooled
 series of experiments in which death was used as an endpoint.
 
 
 335                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Tissue response to intramuscular and intraperitoneal
 injections of ketamine and xylazine in rats.
 Smiler, K.L.; Stein, S.; Hrapkiewicz, K.L.; Hiben, J.R.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1990 Jan. Laboratory animal science v. 40 (1): p.
 60-64. ill; 1990 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Ketamine; Xylazine; Intramuscular
 injection; Intraperitoneal injection; Anesthesia; Lesions;
 Strain differences; Muscles; Necrosis
 
 Abstract:  Ketamine-xylazine is a widely accepted anesthetic
 combination for laboratory animals. Although frequently
 recommended for administration by intramuscular (IM) or
 intraperitoneal (IP) routes, the potential for tissue damage
 following either route of administration in the rat has not
 been investigated. This study evaluated tissue damage after IM
 use at two doses in Fischer 344 and Sprague-Dawley rats.
 Tissue reactions following IP injections of ketamine-xylazine
 were compared to lesions produced by IM injections in animals
 euthanatized on 1, 3 and 14 days post-injection. Results
 showed muscle necrosis present in nearly all ketamine-xylazine
 injected limbs. Intraperitoneal injections produced no
 significant lesions in the peritoneal cavity when careful IP
 injection techniques were used. Ketamine-xylazine should not
 be administered by the IM route for survival procedures in
 these two widely used strains of rats.
 
 
 336                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Total venous flow occlusion in the normothermic dog: a study
 of haemodynamic, metabolic and neurological consequences.
 Hunt, G.B.; Malik, R.; Bellenger, C.R.; Pearson, M.R.B.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1992 May.
 Research in veterinary science v. 52 (3): p. 371-377; 1992
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Venous circulation; Veins; Blockage;
 Surgery; Metabolism; Hemodynamics; Nervous system; Duration;
 Safety
 
 Abstract:  The acute haemodynamic and metabolic repercussions
 of total venous inflow occlusion were evaluated in six normal
 dogs, each of which underwent two four minute occlusions and
 one eight minute occlusion at normothermia. A further three
 dogs underwent a single eight minute period of occlusion and
 were allowed to recover from anaesthesia. Total venous inflow
 occlusion was well tolerated by all animals. They remained in
 sinus rhythm at the completion of occlusion, and unassisted
 haemodynamic recovery occurred rapidly. Recovery was quicker
 after four minutes than after eight minutes. There was no
 clinically detectable neurological impairment in three dogs
 which were allowed to recover.
 
 
 337                                     NAL Call. No.: QL55.I5
 Training adult male rhesus monkeys to actively cooperate
 during in-homecage venipuncture.
 Reinhardt, V.
 Sussex : The Institute; 1991 Apr.
 Animal technology : journal of the Institute of Animal
 Technology v. 42 (1): p. 11-17; 1991 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Macaca mulatta; Blood sampling; Training of
 animals
 
 Abstract:  A training technique is described for ensuring the
 active cooperation of adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca
 mulatta) during in-homecage venipuncture. Five single-housed
 and 10 pair-housed males (average age 8 years) were the
 subjects of the study. On average, 13 training sessions (range
 2-26) were necessary to get a male to voluntarily present a
 leg in a specially designed opening of the door and to display
 no resistance during venipuncture. Total time spent with a
 male until he presented a leg ranged from 16 to 74 minutes,
 with an average of 40 minutes. Neither the trainer nor the
 animals received any injuries during the training. Once
 trained, all males cooperated during in-homecage venipuncture
 not only with the trainer but also with the attending
 caretakers. One to two minutes were required to draw a blood
 sample. It was concluded that training adult male rhesus
 monkeys to actively cooperate during in-homecage venipuncture
 increases the scientific value of research by reducing undue
 distress reactions associated with immobilization. Since the
 animals cooperate rather than resist, in-homecage venipuncture
 also minimizes the risk of injury.
 
 
 338                                     NAL Call. No.: S67.P82
 Transportation of warmwater fish: procedures and loading
 rates. Jensen, G.L.
 Baton Rouge, La.? : The Service; 1991 Oct.
 Publication - Louisiana Cooperative Extension Service (2463):
 2 p.; 1991 Oct.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Fishes; Transport of animals; Salt; Anesthetics;
 Water hardness; Temperature; Loading
 
 
 339                                   NAL Call. No.: SH151.S62
 Transportation of warmwater fish--procedures and loading
 rates. Jensen, G.L.
 Stoneville, Miss. : Southern Regional Aquaculture Center; 1990
 Jun. SRAC publication (392): 2 p.; 1990 Jun.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Fishes; Transport of animals; Salt; Anesthetics;
 Water hardness; Temperature; Loading
 
 
 340                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Trigger points in 48 dogs with myofascial pain syndromes.
 Janssens, L.A.A.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1991 Jul.
 Veterinary surgery v. 20 (4): p. 274-278; 1991 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Pain; Lameness; Anesthetics; Analgesics
 
 
 341                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 The use lignocaine-prilocaine local anaesthetic cream for
 pain-free venepuncture in laboratory animals.
 Flecknell, P.A.; Liles, J.H.; Williamson, H.A.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1990 Apr.
 Laboratory animals v. 24 (2): p. 142-146; 1990 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Laboratory animals; Local anesthetics; Local
 anesthesia; Lidocaine; Intravenous injection; Ointments
 
 Abstract:  An assessment was made of the effects of topical
 application of a eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics (EMLA
 cream) in a number of species of laboratory animals.
 Application of EMLA cream enabled percutaneous insertion of
 catheters into the cephalic vein in dogs and cats and the
 marginal ear vein in rabbits without causing any detectable
 pain or discomfort. Application to the tail in rats prior to
 percutaneous cannulation of the lateral tail vein did not
 produce a significant reduction in the behavioural responses
 to venepuncture. EMLA cream represents a useful refinement of
 current techniques for intravenous injection in some species,
 and is especially valuable when the procedure is to be
 undertaken by an inexperienced operator.
 
 
 342                                  NAL Call. No.: SF991.A1C3
 Use of a bite plate to relieve a painful malocclusion in a
 male miniature poodle.
 Crossley, D.A.
 Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Publishing Co;
 1992 Sep. Canine practice v. 17 (5): p. 17-20; 1992 Sep. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Mouth diseases; Pain; Dentistry; Case
 reports
 
 
 343                              NAL Call. No.: SF914.A53 1990
 Use of analgesic for postsurgical pain in dogs and cats.
 Sawyer, D.C.
 Columbia, Md. : American College of Laboratory Animal
 Medicine, 1990? :.; 1990.
 Anesthesia and analgesia in laboratory animals : proceedings -
 - 1990 Forum, American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine,
 Columbia Inn, Columbia, Maryland, May 3-6, 1990. p. 93-99;
 1990.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Analgesics
 
 
 344                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 ON1
 The use of electronarcosis as anaesthetic in the cichlid,
 Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters). II. The effects of changing
 physical and electrical parameters on the narcotizing ability
 of alternating current. Barham, W.T.; Schoonbee, H.J.; Visser,
 J.G.J.
 Pretoria : South Africa, Department of Agriculture and Water
 Supply; 1989 Dec. The Onderstepoort journal of veterinary
 research v. 55 (4): p. 205-215; 1989 Dec.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South  Africa; Freshwater fishes; Electric
 current; Narcosis; Anesthetics
 
 
 345                                  NAL Call. No.: SF910.5.V4
 Use of epidural morphine in the dog for pain relief.
 Valverde, A.; Dyson, D.H.; McDonell, W.N.; Pascoe, P.J.
 Stuttgart : F.K. Schattauer Publishers; 1989 Jun.
 Veterinary and comparative orthopaedics and traumatology :
 V.C.O.T. v. 2 (2): p. 55-58. ill; 1989 Jun.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Morphine; Pain; Conduction anesthesia
 
 
 346                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Use of ketamine-HCl anesthesia in studies of chylomicron-
 triglyceride metabolism in the rat.
 Brown, C.M.; Layman, D.K.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal
 Science; 1990 Mar. Laboratory animal science v. 40 (2): p.
 183-185; 1990 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Anesthesia; Ketamine; Chylomicron lipids;
 Lipid metabolism; Skeletal muscle; Heart; Kidneys
 
 Abstract:  Ketamine with 10% acepromazine (Km/Ac) was
 evaluated for use in an investigation of plasma chylomicron-
 triglyceride clearance in rats. Clearance rate and the half-
 life of radiolabeled (14C) chylomicron triglycerides plus
 tissue uptake of 14C-fatty acids were equal in Km/Ac
 anesthetized and non-anesthetized rats. Km/Ac was found to be
 a suitable anesthesia in rats for the study of plasma
 chylomicron-triglyceride clearance.
 
 
 347                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Use of low-flow and closed-system anesthesia.
 Wagner, A.E.; Bednarski, R.M.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1992 Apr01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 200
 (7): p. 1005-1010; 1992 Apr01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Anesthesia; Oxygen; Flow
 
 
 348                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the
 relief of pain in laboratory rodents and rabbits.
 Liles, J.H.; Flecknell, P.A.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1992 Oct.
 Laboratory animals v. 26 (4): p. 241-255; 1992 Oct.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Mice; Rabbits; Pain; Antiinflammatory
 agents; Analgesics; Dosage; Adverse effects
 
 Abstract:  The data concerning the use of non-steroidal anti-
 inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and evidence for their efficacy in
 laboratory rats and mice are reviewed. This information is
 then extrapolated to clinical situations and dose rates that
 take account of ulcerogenic side effects are recommended.
 NSAIDs have the potential to be a very useful group of
 analgesics and should always be considered when attempting to
 provide pain relief in laboratory animals.
 
 
 349                                   NAL Call. No.: 391.8 F73
 Use of ophthalmic topical anaesthetics.
 Seabaugh, V.M.; Chambers, W.A.; Green, S.; Gupta, K.C.; Hill,
 R.N.; Hurley, P.M.; Lambert, L.A.; Lee, C.C.; Lee, J.K.; Liu,
 P.T.
 Exeter : Pergamon Press; 1993 Feb.
 Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal
 published for the British Industrial Biological Research
 Association v. 31 (2): p. 95-98; 1993 Feb.  Workshop on
 "Updating Eye Irritation Test Methods: Proposals for
 Regulatory Consensus," held September 26-27, 1991, Washington,
 D.C.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Eyes; Anesthetics; Irritant properties; Testing;
 Topical application; Rabbits
 
 
 350                           NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 Use of opioids in providing postoperative analgesia in the
 dog: a double-blind trial of pethidine, pentazocine,
 buprenorphine, and butorphanol. Waterman, A.E.; Kalthum, W.
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p.
 466-476, 479; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Opioids; Postoperative care; Analgesics;
 Trials; Pethidine; Anesthetics; Drug effects
 
 
 351                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.J62
 Use of the laboratory rabbit in the small animal student
 surgery laboratory. Boothe, H.W.; Hartsfield, S.M.
 Blacksburg, Va. : The Association of American Veterinary
 Medical Colleges; 1990.
 Journal of veterinary medical education v. 17 (1): p. 16-18;
 1990.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Veterinary education; Surgery; Rabbits;
 Anesthesia; Surgical operations; Learning experiences; Animal
 anatomy; Animal testing alternatives
 
 
 352                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 Using bupivacaine hydrochloride for lumbosacral epidural
 analgesia. Heath, R.B.; Broadstone, R.V.; Wright, M.; Grandy,
 J.L.
 Lawrenceville, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company;
 1989 Jan. The Compendium on continuing education for the
 practicing veterinarian v. 11 (1): p. 50-52, 54-55. ill; 1989
 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Limbs; Surgery; Analgesics; Anesthesia;
 Loins; Spines
 
 
 353                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Vaporizer in circle for delivery of isoflurane to dogs.
 Bednarski, R.M.; Gaynor, J.S.; Muir, W.W. III
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1993 Mar15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 202
 (6): p. 943-948; 1993 Mar15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthetics; Vaporization; Veterinary
 equipment; Drug delivery systems; Safety
 
 
 354                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 J8292
 Vecuronium infusion in the dog.
 Jones, R.S.; Young, L.E.
 London : British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 1991
 Oct. The Journal of small animal practice v. 32 (10): p.
 509-512; 1991 Oct. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Muscle relaxants; Anesthesia; Dosage;
 Neostigmine; Atropine
 
 
 355                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Ventricular arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine in dogs and
 cats anesthetized with tiletamine/zolazepam and halothane.
 Bednarski, R.M.; Muir, W.W. III
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1990 Sep. American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (9):
 p. 1468-1470; 1990 Sep. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Epinephrine; Dosage; Arrhythmia;
 Halothane; Injectable anesthetics; Anesthesia
 
 Abstract:  The ventricular arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine
 (ADE) was determined in 6 dogs anesthetized with halothane
 alone or with halothane after injection of
 tiletamine/zolazepam (TZ). Respiratory rate and tidal volume
 were controlled and sodium bicarbonate was administered to
 maintain arterial pH and blood gas values within reference
 range. Heart rate and arterial blood pressure were recorded
 during determination of the ADE. The ADE (mean +/- SD) was no
 different during anesthesia with use of halothane alone (8.9 +/-
  4.3) than it was when injections of TZ preceded
 administration of halothane (6.7 +/- 2.8).
 Tiletamine/zolazepam was also administered IV immediately
 after determination of the ADE during halothane-induced
 anesthesia. The TZ administered in this manner did not alter
 the ADE. Blood pressure and heart rate were significantly
 greater during infusion of epinephrine than immediately prior
 to infusion. The administration of TZ did not alter blood
 pressure response. The ADE was also determined in 6 cats
 anesthetized with halothane preceded by administration of TZ.
 The ADE (mean +/- SD) was 0.7 +/-0.23 microgram/kg, a value
 similar to that reported for cats during anesthesia with
 halothane alone.
 
 
 356                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 The veterinarian's responsibility: assessing and managing
 acute pain in dogs and cats. I.
 Johnson, J.M.
 Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company; 1991 May.
 The Compendium on continuing education for the practicing
 veterinarian v. 13 (5): p. 804-807; 1991 May.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Pain; Treatment; Animal welfare;
 Postoperative care
 
 
 357                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 The veterinarian's responsibility: assessing and managing
 acute pain in dogs and cats. II.
 Johnson, J.M.
 Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company; 1991 Jun.
 The Compendium on continuing education for the practicing
 veterinarian v. 13 (6): p. 911-916, 921; 1991 Jun.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Pain; Analgesics; Animal welfare;
 Opioids; Drug combinations; Postoperative care
 
 
 358                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69
 What anesthetic induction drugs can be used in place of
 thialylal?. Ko, J.C.H.; McGrath, C.J.; Kenny, J.E.
 Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Co; 1994 Apr.
 Veterinary medicine v. 89 (4): p. 318-319, 322, 324; 1994 Apr. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Neuroleptics; Opioids; Drug
 combinations; Methodology
 
 
 359                                  NAL Call. No.: RA1199.A49
 Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of the responses of cultured
 rabbit trigeminal ganglion neurons to capsaicin--an irritant
 and neurotoxin. Baumann, T.K.; LaMotte, R.H.
 New York, N.Y. : Mary Ann Liebert, Inc; 1989.
 Alternative methods in toxicology v. 7: p. 57-66. ill; 1989. 
 In the series analytic: In vitro toxicology: new directions /
 edited by A.M. Goldberg. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal testing alternatives; Models; In vitro;
 Capsaicin; Neurotoxins; Pain; Neurons; Recording
 
 
 360                                   NAL Call. No.: 447.8 Am3
 X-linked hypophosphatemic Gy mice: renal tubular maximum for
 phosphate vs. brush-border transport after low-P diet.
 Thornton, S.W.; Tenenhouse, H.S.; Martel, J.; Bockian, R.W.;
 Meyer, M.H.; Meyer, R.A. Jr
 Bethesda, Md. : American Physiological Society, 1898-; 1994
 Feb. American journal of physiology v. 266 (2,pt.2): p. F309-
 F315; 1994 Feb. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Hypophosphatemia; Phosphates; Phosphorus;
 Deprivation; Diet; Nutrient transport; Kidneys; Mice
 
 Abstract:  We examined the effect of the X-linked
 hypophosphatemic Gy mutation on the maximal renal tubular
 reabsorption of phosphate (Tm(P)) and compared the effects of
 phosphate deprivation on both Tm(P) and Na+-dependent
 phosphate transport in renal brush-border membrane vesicles
 (BBMV). Adult female normal and Gy mice were fed a control
 (1.0% P) or low-phosphate (0.03% P) diet for 5 days. For Tm(P)
 measurement, anesthetized mice were infused intravenously with
 [3H]inulin and increasing increments of phosphate (0, 0.27,
 0.54, and 1.08 micromoles/min). Tm(P) was significantly
 reduced in Gy mice on the control diet. Normal mice responded
 to the low-phosphate diet by raising their Tm(P) [2.35 +/-
 0.12 (n = 9) vs. 3.71 +/- 0.16 (n = 9) micromoles/ml
 glomerular filtrate, mean +/- SE, P < .001], whereas in Gy
 mice, the change was not significant [1.46 +/- 0.10 (n = 10)
 vs. 1.70 +/- 0.11 (n = 10)]. In contrast, Gy mice did respond
 to phosphate restriction by increasing the initial-rate Na+-
 dependent phosphate transport in the renal BBMV [314 +/- 11 (n
 = 5) vs. 1,105 +/- 157 (n = 5) pmol.mg protein-1.6 s-1, P <
 0.01] as did normal mice [583 +/- 64 (n = 5) vs. 1,692 +/- 203
 (n = 5) pmol.mg protein-1.6 s-1, P < .01]. In conclusion, the
 adaptive increase in Na+-phosphate cotransport in the
 brushborder membrane of the proximal tubule is not sufficient
 for the overall increase in Tm(P) in the whole kidney in
 response to dietary phosphate deprivation.
 
 
 361                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Xylazaine or medetomidine premedication before propofol
 anaesthesia. Cullen, L.K.; Reynoldson, J.A.
 London : The Association; 1993 Apr10.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 132 (15): p. 378-383; 1993 Apr10.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Preanesthetic medication; Anesthetics
 
 
 362                                  NAL Call. No.: 391.8 T662
 Xylazine-induced pulmonary edema in rats.
 Amouzadeh, H.R.; Sangiah, S.; Qualls, C.W. Jr; Cowell, R.L.;
 Mauromoustakos, A.
 Orlando, Fla. : Academic Press; 1991 May.
 Toxicology and applied pharmacology v. 108 (3): p. 417-427;
 1991 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Xylazine; Drug toxicity; Lungs; Edema; Etiology;
 Rats
 
 Abstract:  Inhibitors of cytochrome P450, such as SK&F 525-A,
 prolong the duration of xylazine-ketamine anesthesia and cause
 pulmonary edema (PE) and death in rats. To determine the cause
 of PE, Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single dose of
 xylazine (21 mg/kg, im) alone or in combination with ketamine
 (45 mg/kg, im) and/or SK&F 525-A (50 mg/kg, ip) and percentage
 lung to body weight (%LW/BW) ratios (as an indicator of PE)
 were compared. The results indicated that xylazine caused PE
 which was independent of ketamine and was enhanced by SK&F
 525-A. Subsequently, it was determined that 42 mg/kg xylazine,
 im, is an optimal edemagenic dose. Xylazine (42 mg/kg, im)
 increased the %LW/BW ratio as compared to control. Pleural
 effusion (PLE) of various amounts was observed in 75% of the
 animals. The pleural fluid to serum protein ratio for xylazine
 was similar to that obtained for alpha-naphthylthiourea (5
 mg/kg, ip). Extensive serous PLE and alveolar edema with
 hemorrhage were found at necropsy in xylazine-treated rats.
 Pretreatment with yohimbine (4.2 mg/kg), prazosin (20 mg/kg),
 tolazoline (20 mg/kg), yohimbine (4.2 mg/kg) plus prazosin (20
 mg/kg), atropine (20 mg/kg), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (7.8
 g/kg), allopurinol (50 mg/kg), superoxide dismutase (20,000
 U/kg), catalase (20,000 U/kg), BW755C (50 mg/kg), ibuprofen
 (50 mg/kg), cystathionine (100 mg/kg) plus taurine (100 mg/kg)
 did not affect the %LW/BW ratio. PLE was increased by
 yohimbine, yohimbine plus prazosin, and allopurinol, reduced
 by DMSO, and not changed in other groups. The results indicate
 that xylazine caused increased-permeability PE characterized
 by rapid onset, cellular damage and protein-rich pleural
 fluid. PE may not be mediated by adverse cardiovascular
 effects of xylazine and oxygen radicals are possibly involved
 in its etiology.
 

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Author Index

 Abrutyn, D. 223
 Ack, J.A. 64
 Adams, T. 18, 138, 139
 Adetunji, A. 146
 Adewumi, J.O.A. 146
 Agwu, I.E. 330
 Ahmad, F. 291
 Ahmed, F.A. 158
 Akah, P.A. 54, 330
 Akkaya, R. 172
 Al-Kassim, N.A.H. 158
 Allen, D.G. 231, 232
 Ames, IA 267
 Amin, A. 21
 Amouzadeh, H.R. 167, 172, 177, 178, 362
 Andrutis, K.A. 297
 Anthony, K.L. 120
 Anton, F. 266
 Anttila, M. 280
 Aramayona, J.J. 253
 Arena, P.C. 306
 Arnold, T.H. Jr 93
 Aronsohn, M.G. 45, 196, 326
 Aronson, E. 145
 Aucoin, D.P. 142
 Autefage, A. 135
 Avison, D.L. 235
 Bacher, J.D. 295
 Bading, J.R. 63
 Baggot, J.D. 254
 Bailey, J.E. 299
 Balasubramaniam, E. 7
 Bapna, J.S. 30
 Barbera, R. 24
 Barham, W.T. 344
 Barnett, K.C. 16
 Barone, M.A. 154
 Barr, S.C. 282
 Barrett, E. 238
 Barros, H.M.T. 61
 Bartoszyk, G.D. 53
 Bartram, D.H. 168, 247
 Barzago, M.M. 253
 Basu, A. 292
 Baumann, T.K. 359
 Baumans, V. 58
 Beale, K.M. 176
 Bechtold, S.V. 223
 Bednarski, L. 332
 Bednarski, R. 332
 Bednarski, R.M 92
 Bednarski, R.M. 5, 35, 91, 104, 218, 347, 353, 355
 Beemsterboer, J. 75
 Behme, M.T. 132
 Bellah, J.R. 329
 Bellay, Y. 272
 Bellenger, C.R. 264, 336
 Bennett, B.T. 239
 Benson, G.J. 8, 9, 57, 119, 150, 209, 216, 217, 219, 225, 227,
 274, 287, 333
 Benson, J. 141
 Benthuysen, J.A. 109
 Benti, R. 61
 Beppu, H. 245
 Bergstresser, D.R. 160
 Berman, N.G. 187
 Besson, J.M. 65
 Bettenay, S.V. 157
 Bevill, R.F. 225
 Beynen, A.C. 58
 Bhattacharya, S.K. 55
 Bisignano, G. \u University of Messina, Messina, Italy 52 
 Biswas, A.R. 30
 Bjorling, D.E. 41, 93, 165
 Blackshaw, J.K. 72
 Bloomberg, M.S. 190
 Bockian, R.W. 360
 Boggs, S.S. 334
 Boisrame, B. 191
 Bonati, M. 253
 Boothe, D.M. 140
 Boothe, H.W. 351
 Bor, A. 113
 Borkowski, G.L. 208
 Bortolotti, A. 253
 Boudrieau, R.J. 192
 Boyd, C. 66, 153
 Boyd, C.J. 107
 Brammer, D.W. 40, 259
 Brandel, K. 290
 Branson, K.R. 141
 Brass, Andrea Maria 234
 Brearley, J.C. 247
 Brennan, M.F. 63
 Brewer, T.G. 68
 Broadstone, R.V. 352
 Brockman, D.J. 19
 Brom, W.E. van den 115, 152
 Brown, C.M. 346
 Brown, J. 173
 Brown, M. 112, 114
 Brown, M.J. 239
 Brownie, C. 268
 Brunson, D.B. 67, 272
 Buergelt, C.D. 329
 Burger, J.P. 99
 Burkholder, W. 153
 Burrows, G. 172
 Burrows, G.E. 221
 Bush, M. 37
 Butterworth, S.J. 286
 Calixto, J.B. 23
 Cannon, R. 176
 Carithers, R.W. 267
 Carreiras, M.C. 293
 Carter, C.J. 56
 Carter, R.B. 133
 Cesar, L. 212, 213
 Chalker, L. 176
 Chambers, W.A. 349
 Chapman, P.L. 79, 169, 207
 Chaudhuri, A.K.N. 292
 Chrisp, C.E. 40, 259
 Clark, G.H. 192
 Clark, J.A. 201, 205
 Clarke, K.W. 246
 Clayton Jones, D.G. 131
 Clercx, C. 115, 152
 Clutton, R.E. 66
 Cobb, M.A. 131
 Cockshott, I.D. 134, 320
 Cockshutt, J.R. 123
 Codner, E.C. 156
 Cole, D.J. 44
 Colliver, J.A. 186
 Combrisson, H. 106
 Conlon, K.C. 63
 Conlon, P.D. 99
 Conzemius, M.G. 19
 Corbally, M.T. 63
 Cornick, J.L. 74
 Corning, B.F. 235
 Cosgrove, S.B. 200
 Costa, M. 312
 Cotard, J.P. 106
 Court, M.H. 11, 12, 13, 15, 192
 Couvillon, A.M. 230
 Cowan, A. 260
 Cowell, R.L. 362
 Cribb, P.H. 32, 78
 Crossley, D.A. 342
 Crowe, D.T. 41
 Cullen, L.K. 105, 163, 361
 Cumming, D.V.E. 131
 Curtis, C.R. 76, 207
 Curtis, M.B. 91, 92
 Daniel, G.B. 117
 Danneman, P.J. 208, 314
 Darias, V. 293
 Dark, J.H. 284
 Daunt, D.A. 331
 Davenport, D.J. 197
 Davies, C. 159
 Davis, C.A. 287
 Davis, J.A. 68
 Davis, L.E. 274
 Davot, J.L. 191
 Day, T.K. 6, 171
 DeCola, J.P. 222
 DeHaan, C. 302
 Delatour, P. 191
 Deleforge, J. 191
 Derrieu, G. 262
 Deutsch, M. 334
 Di Stasi, L.C. 312
 Diamond, M.J. 168
 Dietrich, R. 148
 DiGiacomo, R. F. 303
 Digraskar, S.U. 210
 Dixon, D. 201, 205
 Dobromylskyj, P. 59
 Dodam, J.R. 142
 Dodman, N.H. 11, 12, 13, 15, 192
 Doerning, B.J. 40, 259
 Doherty, T. 258
 Donaldson, L.L. 153
 Donnay, I. 50, 203
 Donoghue, A.M. 154
 Dorfman, P. 29
 Douglas, E.J. 134, 320
 Drobatz, K.J. 321
 Drummond, J.C. 44
 Duarte, I.D.G. 283
 Dubner, R. 266
 Duke, T. 32, 78
 Dunaway, G.A. 186
 Dunlop, C.I. 38, 39, 76, 79, 169, 207, 331
 Dupre, J. 132
 Durham, R.A. 18, 112, 114, 136, 138, 139, 224
 Dyer, D.C. 277
 Dysko, R.C. 314
 Dyson, D.H. 17, 99, 118, 122, 123, 231, 232, 258, 345
 Eberhart, S. 188
 Ectors, F. 50, 203
 Eicker, S.W. 165, 228
 Eisele, J.H. 254
 Eisele, P.H. 200
 Ekpendu, T.O. 54
 Elliott, A.R. 254
 Emim, J.A. da S. 26
 England, G.C.W. 246
 Erb, H.N. 282
 Erdman, S.E. 116
 Evans, A.T. 229
 Evans, F.J. 229
 Ewing, K.K. 304
 Fagetton, X. 203
 Faggella, A.M. 45, 196, 326
 Fanselow, M.S. 222
 Fargetton, X. 50, 108
 Fayolle, P. 135
 Fenwick, D.C. 72
 Fernando, J. 290
 Ferreira, S.H. 257
 Ferreira-Alves, D.L. 283
 Fetherstony, G. 240
 Field, K.J. 14
 Fikes, L.L. 192, 316
 Filho, D.S. 257
 Fish, J.S. 251
 Fish, R. E. 215
 Flecknell, P.A. 121, 166, 179, 180, 202, 211, 226, 240, 284,
 285, 309, 341, 348
 Fleurentin, J. 28, 29, 51, 262
 Fligner, M.A. 64
 Flora, R. 66
 Florestal, A. 127
 Forestieri, A.M. 27
 Formukong, E.A. 229
 Forsyth, S.F. 62, 147
 Forsythe, D.B. 201, 205
 Fox, J.G. 187, 189, 297
 Franson, K.L. 236
 Freeman, L.C. 64
 Frei, M.R. 87
 Freire, S.M. de F. 26
 Frischmeyer, K.J. 272
 Frochtengarten, M.L. 61
 Fujioka, K.K. 71
 Fujita, K. 245
 Galati, E.M. 27, 52
 Galatos, A. 328
 Gallagher, L. 302
 Gallagher, L.V. 48, 300, 301
 Gandolfi, A.J. 290
 Garland, L.G. 229
 Gavin, P.R. 302
 Gaynor, J.S. 5, 353
 Ghantous, H.N. 290
 Gilson, S.D. 327
 Gleed, R.D. 282
 Gomes, C. 312
 Gonzales-Sanders, A.P. 230
 Gordon, E.A. 134, 320
 Gore, J.C. 238
 Gorman, P. 127, 193
 Goss-Sampson, M.A. 174
 Grandy, J.L. 38, 76, 79, 207, 352
 Graning, L.M. 150
 Grant, S. 170
 Graves, G.M. 41
 Green, S. 349
 Greene, R. 238
 Greene, S.A. 48, 88, 89, 90, 162, 250, 300, 301, 302, 333 
 Greenfield, R.E. 68
 Gregg, A.S. 168
 Gregory, C.R. 62
 Grimm, C. 212, 213
 Gronert, G.A. 200
 Gross, M.E. 80, 160, 209, 219
 Guerreiro, D. 318
 Guo, Z.M. 94
 Gupta, K.C. 349
 Gwynne, B.J. 252
 Hadi, A.H.A. 261
 Hall, F. 71
 Hall, L.W. 149
 Hamlin, R.L. 243
 Hansen, B. 294
 Hansen, B.D. 33, 268
 Haragopal, V. 210
 Hardie, E. 294
 Hardie, E.M. 268
 Hartsfield, S.M. 34, 36, 73, 74, 84, 89, 90, 195, 333, 351 
 Hasegawa, S. 230
 Hashim, M.A. 155, 161, 183
 Hashimoto, K. 130
 Haskins, S.C. 77, 86, 220, 331
 Hayes, P.H. 284
 Head, K.W. 126
 Heath, R.B. 76, 352
 Hellyer, P. 85
 Hellyer, P.W. 268
 Hendricks, J.C. 321
 Henfrey, J.I. 126
 Herck, H. van 58
 Hiben, J.R. 335
 Hikasa, Y. 181, 182
 Hildebrand, S.V. 147
 Hill, R.L. 151
 Hill, R.N. 349
 Hill, T. 62
 Ho, S. 199
 Hobbs, B.A. 46, 120
 Hodgson, D.S. 76, 79, 207
 Holder, D.S. 185
 Hollingshead, K. Wayne 319
 Holmes, E. 110
 Holub, B.J. 132
 Honeyman, V. 122
 Hooper, T.L. 240
 Hosgood, G. 278, 325
 Houghton, K.J. 139
 Howard, H.L. 151
 Howard, J.G. 154
 Hrapkiewicz, K.L. 263, 335
 Hu, C. 211
 Hubbell, J.A.E. 85
 Humphreys, M.H. 69
 Hunt, G.B. 264, 336
 Hunter, J.S. Jr 4
 Hurley, P.M. 349
 Hurley, R.J. 297
 Hustead, D.R. 273
 Iauk, L. 27, 52
 Ihrke, P.J. 157
 Ilkiw, J.E. 62, 77, 86, 109, 147, 289, 323
 Ishikawa, N. 97
 Ito, S. 245
 Jacobson, J.D. 36, 73, 81, 82, 83, 84, 195
 Janssens, L.A.A. 340
 Jarvis, K.A. 254
 Jauchem, J.R. 87
 Jensen, G.L. 338, 339
 John, T.A. 25
 Johnson, J.M. 20, 356, 357
 Johnston, S. 75
 Jones, B.D. 160
 Jones, R.S. 103, 113, 168, 247, 255, 256, 298, 308, 354
 Kakuta, T. 181
 Kalthum, W. 275, 350
 Kameswaran, L. 22
 Kass, P.H. 157
 Kasten, T. 186
 Kazi, M. 7
 Keegan, R. 244
 Keegan, R.D. 48, 88, 162, 250, 300, 301, 302
 Keene, B.W. 165
 Kenny, J.E. 197, 358
 Kenshalo, D.R. Jr 266
 Khan, R.A. 291
 Kim, J.J. 222
 King, L.G. 19, 321
 Kirizawa, M. 312
 Kirjavainen, S. 27, 52
 Kirk, A.J.B. 284
 Kitaa, J.M.A. 164
 Klappenbach, K. 302
 Kleinow, Kevin M. 95
 Klide, A.M. 1
 Knauer, K.W. 195
 Knott, S. 134, 320
 Ko, C.H. 82
 Ko, J.C.H. 10, 119, 141, 216, 358
 Koechel, D.A. 2
 Kohn, D. 193
 Kohn, D.F. 127
 Kojima, N. 182
 Komulainen Cox, A.M. 32, 78
 Komulainen, A. 49
 Koritz, G.D. 274
 Kraft, S.L. 302
 Kramer, Sabine 237
 Kraus, K.H. 145
 Krejci, M.E. 2
 Krishnamurty, V. 22
 Kriss, A. 174
 Krulisch, Lee 95
 Kruse-Elliott, K.T. 142
 Kubota, M. 181
 Kumar, R.V.S. 210
 Kunkle, G.A. 176
 Lagerweij, E. 149
 Lam, L.K.T. 230
 Lambert, L.A. 349
 LaMotte, R.H. 359
 Landeira-Fernandez, J. 222
 Lang, C.M. 14, 208
 Langham, M. 224
 Langham, M.A. 112, 139
 Lanhers, M.C. 28, 29, 51
 Lapa, A.J. 26
 Lappin, M.R. 41
 Larson, A.A. 260
 Lascelles, B.D.X. 286
 Layman, D.K. 346
 Leber, A. 236
 Lee, C.C. 349
 Lee, J.H. 214
 Lee, J.K. 349
 Legge, K. 102
 Leib, M.S. 153, 197
 Leite, J.R. 61
 Lemke, K.A. 8, 9, 217, 227
 Lemm, Carol A. 198
 Lentz, E.L. 150
 Lessard, P. 156
 Light, G.S. 268
 Liles, J.H. 121, 166, 179, 180, 202, 211, 226, 284, 309, 341,
 348
 Lin, H.C. 57, 225
 Lipman, N.S. 116, 235, 297
 Liu, C.T. 94
 Liu, P.T. 349
 Livingston, A. 21
 Locke, T.J. 240
 Lombard, M.C. 65
 Looney, A.L. 282
 Lopez-Garcia, R.E. 293
 Lorenzetti, B.B. 257
 Lot, T.Y. 279
 Lowrie, C.T. 111
 Ludders, J.W. 282
 MacDonald, E. 311
 Macrae, D.J. 318
 Maier, S.F. 128
 Majors, L. 91, 92
 Majumdar, S. 238
 Malik, R. 199, 264, 336
 Maluf, E. 61
 Mandsager, R.E. 204
 Manning, M.M. 67
 Marcantonio, S. 44
 Marini, R.P. 116, 235
 Martbauer, E. 148
 Martel, J. 360
 Martin-Herrera, D. 293
 Martinic, G. 137
 Martucci, R.W. 200
 Mason, D.E. 317
 Mathews, K.A. 258
 Mathis, G.A. 236
 Matis, U. 96
 Matsunami, K. 305
 Matthews, N.S. 195
 Matthiesen, D.T. 296
 Matz, M.E. 197
 Mauromoustakos, A. 362
 Mburu, D.N. 206
 McCain, W.C. 4
 McCarthy, T.J. 239
 McCarty, R. 214
 McDonell, W.N. 107, 123, 345
 McGavin, A.D. 329
 McGrath, C.J. 4, 66, 81, 82, 83, 156, 358
 McGregor, C.G.A. 240
 McKee, N.H. 251
 McKelvey, Diane 319
 McLaughlin-Taylor, E. 151
 McMurphy, R.M. 288
 McNeal, D. 109
 McNeil, P.E. 3
 Medeiros, Y.S. 23
 Mendacolli, S.L.J. 312
 Meyer, M.H. 360
 Meyer, R.A. Jr 360
 Miller, E.G. 230
 Miller, M.W. 195
 Miller, P.E. 272
 Misslin, R. 28, 262
 Mitema, E.S. 164
 Mitra, S.K. 55
 Moens, Y. 108
 Mohammad, F.K. 158
 Mohammed, H.O. 304
 Monroe, W.E. 197
 Montrey, R.D. 186
 Moon, P.F. 323
 Moore, M.P. 48, 162, 250, 300, 301, 302
 Morgan, D.W.T. 102
 Morgan, S.E. 290
 Moriello, K.A. 228
 Mortier, F. 28, 29, 51, 262
 Moum, S.G. 150
 Mueller, R.S. 157
 Muir, W.W. 5
 Muir, W.W. III 6, 64, 85, 104, 171, 218, 299, 317, 332, 353,
 355
 Mullen, H.S. 296
 Murray, C.W. 260
 Mustafa, M.R. 261
 Myers, P.H. 201, 205
 Mythirayee, C. 22
 Nagashima, Y. 130
 Nagatsu, T. 245
 Nakamura-Craig, M. 283
 Nelson, L.P. 197
 Nelson, T.E. 242
 Neves, M.C.A. 23
 Neves, P.C.A. 23
 Nieves, M.A. 56
 Noguchi, T. 130
 Nolan, A. 124
 Nolan, A.M. 125, 149, 170, 276
 Norman, W.M. 11, 12, 13, 15
 Nossaman, B.C. 167
 O'Malley, N.A. 110
 Obata, M. 245
 Ogasawara, S. 181, 182
 Okogun, J.I. 54
 Okumura, M. 97
 Olson, M.E. 49
 Olson, P.N. 190
 Olson, W.A. 8, 9, 57, 119, 216, 217, 219, 225, 227, 287
 Omarini, D. 253
 Onabanjo, A.O. 25
 Onwukaeme, D.N. 279
 Orima, H. 220
 Orton, E.C. 327
 Osgood, P.F. 60
 Oshima, Y. 97
 Otsuka, K. 315
 Otto, K. 96
 Oz, M.C. 127
 Pablo, L.S. 249
 Paddleford, R.R. 43
 Palmu, L. 313
 Papaioannou, V.E. 189
 Papazoglou, L. 328
 Pardy, R.L. 159
 Pare, P.D. 159
 Pascoe, P.J. 17, 77, 86, 122, 345
 Pattison, C.W. 131
 Patz, J.D. 77, 86, 220
 Paul, V. 7
 Payne, J. 66
 Payton, A.J. 194, 201, 205
 Pearson, M.R.B. 199, 264, 336
 Pearson, M.R.E. 143
 Pelt, J.M. 29, 262
 Perkowski, S.Z. 19
 Petcho, A. 248
 Pettifer, G.R. 118
 Philbrick, D.J. 132
 Pick, J.R. 194
 Plyley, M.J. 251
 Popilskis, S. 193
 Popilskis, S.J. 127
 Portnoy, L.G. 273
 Potthoff, A. 267
 Pynn, B.R. 251
 Qualls, C.W. Jr 172, 177, 362
 Quandt, J.E. 70
 Quinn, R.H. 314
 Rabanal, R.M. 293
 Raffe, M.R. 70, 204, 316
 Ragusa, S. 24
 Rahn, J.E. 122
 Ramachandran, S. 22
 Ramakrishna, O. 210
 Ramaswamy, S. 30
 Ramirez, J.A. 71
 Rapisarda, A. 24
 Raptopoulos, D. 233, 328
 Rasheed, S. 291
 Rawlings, C.A. 93
 Rech, R.H. 18, 112, 136, 138, 139
 Redgate, E.S. 334
 Reid, J. 124, 125, 170, 276
 Reid, W.D. 159
 Reinhardt, V. 337
 Remedios, A.M. 32, 78
 Remillard, R.L. 4
 Reynoldson, J.A. 163, 361
 Rich, S. 212, 213
 Richards, D.L.S. 113, 247
 Richardson, K.C. 306
 Richardson, M.E. 175
 Richter, M.A. 18, 138
 Ridgewell, R.E. 2
 Riedesel, D.H. 277
 Robain, G. 106
 Robertson, S.A. 75, 188, 329
 Robinson, E.P. 70
 Rocha, J.B.T. 184
 Roder, J.D. 172
 Rodriguez, B. 293
 Rolhall, T.G. 120
 Rolland, A. 28
 Romanovsky, A.A. 324
 Romatowski, J. 42
 Rosenberg, D.P. 265
 Rosenhauer, R.R. 160
 Rosenthal, J.C. 301
 Roush, J.K. 165
 Ruane, R.J. 134, 320
 Rush, H.G. 40, 259
 Russell, G.B. 208
 Sackman, J.E. 270, 271
 Sally, J. 85
 Salmeri, K.R. 190
 Salonen, J.S. 280
 Samuel, O.T. 25
 Sanchez, J.A. 193
 Sanders, E. 244
 Sangiah, S. 167, 172, 177, 178, 221, 362
 Sarti, S.J. 257
 Sawyer, D.C. 18, 112, 114, 136, 138, 139, 224, 343
 Scarlett, J.M. 304
 Schaeffer, Dorcas O. 95
 Schoonbee, H.J. 344
 Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, Louisiana State
 University (Baton Rouge, La.), School of Veterinary Medicine
 95
 Scott, R.A.W. 175
 Seabaugh, V.M. 349
 Sear, J.W. 149
 Sechi, L.A. 69
 Seeler, D.C. 11, 12, 13, 15
 Sheridan, M. 153
 Shigenobu, K. 315
 Short, C.E. 244, 304
 Simons, P.J. 134, 320
 Sisson, D.D. 117
 Skarda, R.T. 299
 Smeak, D.D. 173
 Smedes, S.L. 272
 Smiler, K.L. 263, 335
 Smith, E.P. 81, 82, 83
 Smith, J. 145
 Smith, J.A. 5, 80
 Smith, L.J. 162
 Smith, W. 307
 Snipe, J.R. 201, 205
 Sokale, A.A. 25
 Souccar, C. 26
 Soulimani, R. 262
 Souza, D.O. 184
 Souza, G.E.P. 257
 Spiess, B.M. 236
 Sprenkel, T.L. 120
 Stafleu, F.R. 58
 Steffey, E.P. 254
 Stein, S. 263, 335
 Still, J. 31
 Striler, E.L. 18, 112, 114, 138, 139, 224
 Sundar, N.S. 210
 Swalec, K.M. 173
 Swanson, C.R. 142
 Sylvestre, A.M. 281
 Sylvina, T.J. 187
 Tackett, R.L. 93
 Tagawa, M. 254
 Takahashi, S. 315
 Takase, K. 181, 182
 Tambrallo, L. J. 215
 Tasker, R.A.R. 322
 Taylor, J. 137
 Taylor, N.R. 98
 Taylor, P.M. 16
 Tenenhouse, H.S. 360
 Terplan, G. 148
 Thatcher, C.D. 4
 Thirugnanasambantham, P. 22
 Thoday, K.L. 126
 Thomas, D.A. 266
 Thompson, S.E. 20
 Thornton, S.W. 360
 Thurmon, J.C. 8, 9, 10, 57, 119, 141, 150, 209, 216, 217, 219,
 225, 227, 274, 287
 Tokuriki, M. 305
 Toombs, J.P. 41
 Torres, L.M.B. 26
 Toutain, P.L. 135
 Tracy, C.H. 244
 Tranquili, W.J. 119
 Tranquilli, W.J. 8, 9, 10, 57, 80, 141, 150, 209, 216, 217,
 225, 227, 274, 287, 316
 Trolin, G. 312
 Trovato, A. 24, 27
 Turner, D.M. 289
 Twardock, A.R. 117
 Tyner, C.L. 89, 90
 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 198
 Uekane, A. 315
 University of Washington, Health Sciences Center for
 Educational Resources 303
 University of Washington, Health Sciences Center for
 Educational Resources, American College of Laboratory Animal
 Medicine, National
 Agricultural Library
 (U.S.) 215
 Usleber, E. 148
 Uzuka, Y. 305
 Vaha-Vahe, A.T. 100, 101, 216
 Vaha-Vahe, T. 310, 313
 Vainio, O. 269, 310, 313
 Valadao, Carlos Augusto Araujo 144
 Valentin, J.P. 69
 Valliant, A. 107, 258
 Valliant, A.E. 123
 Valverde, A. 99, 123, 345
 Van Hoosier, G. L. 303
 Vendite, D. 184
 Venugopalan, C.S. 110
 Verstegen, J. 50, 203, 248
 Vinche, A. 51
 Virtanen, Raimo 311
 Visser, J.G.J. 344
 Viswanathan, S. 22
 Vries, H.W. de 115, 152
 Vuorilehto, L. 280
 Wagner, A.E. 39, 169, 347
 Wallace, J. 252
 Waterman, A.E. 21, 155, 161, 183, 275, 286, 350
 Watkins, L.R. 128
 Watney, G.C.G. 249
 Weaver, B.M.Q. 233
 Wertz, E.M. 274
 Wheaton, L.G. 287
 White, H.J. 297
 White, W.J. 14
 Whitfield, J.B. 41
 Wiertelak, E.P. 128
 Wilcock, B. 258
 Wild, A. 53
 Wildt, D.E. 154
 Williams, G.M. 266
 Williamson, H.A. 131, 341
 Willits, N. 254
 Withrow, S.J. 327
 Wittker, Jurgen 47
 Wixson, S.K. 129
 Woliner, M.J. 254
 Wong, K. 212, 213
 Wooten, T.L. 111
 Wootton, R. 309
 Wright, J.M. 230
 Wright, M. 352
 Wyatt, J.D. 175
 Yacoub, M.H. 131
 Yamada, S. 97
 Yamamoto, Y. 220
 Young, L.E. 103, 168, 247, 354
 Young, M.S. 268
 Young, S.S. 16, 281
 Younos, C. 28, 51
 Yunes, R.A. 23
 Zahler, R. 238
 Zanini, J.C. Jr 23
 Zanker, S. 50
 Zatz, R. 241
 Zhao, Z.B. 297
 Zoran, D.L. 277
 
 


Go to: Author Index | Subject Index | Top of Document


Subject Index

 
 4-aminopyridine 49, 50
 Abdomen 136, 160, 180, 245
 Abnormalities 41
 Accidents 67
 Accuracy 195
 Acetaminophen 206
 Acid base equilibrium 253
 Acupuncture 1, 31
 Adenoma 297
 Adhesives 96
 Adrenal glands 296
 Adrenal medulla 327
 Adrenalectomy 327
 Adrenalin 110
 Adverse effects 5, 32, 45, 49, 59, 68, 75, 84, 100, 101, 102,
 108, 126, 156, 163, 177, 183, 188, 189, 196, 200, 202, 203,
 216, 233, 242, 246, 258, 267, 278, 310, 317, 323, 328, 348
 Age 190, 326
 Age differences 38, 325
 Aggregation 282
 Agonists 6, 33, 108, 172, 211, 311
 Air flow 36, 42
 Algae 130
 Alkali treatment 238
 Alkaloids 25
 Allergens 156
 Allergies 176
 Alloxan 214
 Aloe arborescens 245
 Alpha-adrenergic receptors 6, 311, 322
 Amitraz 163
 Amphibia 37, 306
 Amphibians as laboratory animals 95
 Analgesics 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 33,
 34, 36, 46, 51, 54, 57, 82, 89, 90, 100, 101, 109, 118, 121,
 125, 129, 133, 136, 138, 139, 140, 166, 176, 180, 184, 192,
 193, 202, 203, 204, 226, 229, 246, 257, 262, 265, 267, 270,
 271, 273, 278, 279, 280, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 291, 292,
 293, 294, 311, 312, 313, 316, 322, 340, 343, 348, 350, 352,
 357
 Anesthesia 1, 3, 5, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 18, 34, 35, 36,
 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 49, 50, 56, 63, 64, 66,
 67, 70, 72, 74, 75, 76, 77, 80, 81, 83, 87, 90, 91, 92, 93,
 96, 98, 102, 103, 104, 105, 107, 108, 109, 111, 114, 115, 116,
 117, 119, 120, 122, 123, 125, 127, 129, 131, 136, 137, 142,
 143, 145, 146, 149, 152, 153, 154, 155, 157, 159, 160, 164,
 165, 166, 167, 168, 171, 172, 173, 174, 177, 178, 179, 181,
 182, 185, 187, 188, 190, 191, 194, 196, 199, 200, 201, 203,
 205, 208, 209, 211, 212, 213, 216, 217, 218, 219, 221, 223,
 232, 233, 235, 239, 240, 242, 244, 247, 248, 250, 252, 253,
 254, 255, 256, 258, 263, 272, 274, 275, 277, 281, 282, 287,
 289, 295, 296, 298, 299, 302, 304, 306, 308, 309, 310, 313,
 314, 317, 318, 324, 326, 327, 329, 331, 333, 335, 346, 347,
 351, 352, 354, 355, 358
 Anesthetics 5, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 34, 35, 36, 38, 43, 44,
 45, 46, 48, 50, 64, 71, 85, 86, 89, 102, 103, 110, 127, 136,
 142, 147, 150, 156, 158, 159, 160, 170, 185, 186, 188, 189,
 194, 198, 202, 203, 205, 227, 228, 231, 233, 240, 244, 249,
 263, 274, 275, 277, 290, 298, 301, 302, 306, 310, 316, 317,
 320, 325, 332, 338, 339, 340, 344, 349, 350, 353, 361
 Animal anatomy 271, 296, 351
 Animal anesthesia 198
 Animal behavior 7, 133, 190
 Animal experiments 301
 Animal models 260
 Animal testing alternatives 290, 351, 359
 Animal tissues 134
 Animal welfare 58, 303, 314, 356, 357
 Antagonists 103, 211, 260, 300
 Anthelmintics 140
 Antibacterial properties 52
 Antibiotics 98, 325
 Anticonvulsants 279
 Antidiarrhea agents 279
 Antifungal agents 98
 Antihistaminics 140
 Antiinfective agents 140
 Antiinflammatory agents 24, 25, 29, 51, 140, 206, 267, 270,
 291, 292, 293, 348
 Antineoplastic agents 230
 Antiparasitic agents 98
 Antipyretics 27, 29, 279, 293
 Anxiety 55, 268
 Aorta 112
 Apparatus 42
 Application methods 113, 188
 Aquarium fishes 56
 Arachidonic acid 270
 Arrhythmia 8, 9, 81, 164, 171, 227, 355
 Artefacts 126
 Arteries 175, 207
 Asclepiadaceae 261
 Aspartic acid 260
 Assays 133
 Astragalus 52
 Ataxia 163
 Atopy 156
 Atp 282
 Atropine 113, 165, 197, 305, 354
 Australia 199
 Bandages 173, 325
 Baphia 279
 Barbiturates 281, 289
 Bark 23
 Beagle 282
 Behavior 55
 Benzocaine 68
 Benzodiazepine 85
 Benzodiazepines 48, 73, 83, 84, 156, 209, 219, 231, 333
 Bicarbonates 74, 78, 238
 Bioassays 97
 Bioelectric potential 174
 Biological development 190
 Biopsy 126
 Biosynthesis 229
 Bitches 190
 Blockage 173, 264, 336
 Blood 19, 20, 74, 78, 81, 162, 195, 208, 229, 235, 253, 284
 Blood chemistry 118
 Blood flow 11, 93, 152
 Blood glucose 178, 214
 Blood ph 175
 Blood plasma 132, 275
 Blood pressure 4, 18, 19, 69, 70, 74, 77, 78, 79, 81, 84, 87,
 94, 112, 114, 139, 162, 171, 175, 185, 207, 208, 218, 235,
 240, 241, 243, 244
 Blood proteins 39
 Blood sampling 337
 Blood serum 93, 99
 Blood sugar 69
 Blood vessels 23, 245
 Blood volume 39, 69
 Body fluids 236
 Body temperature 19, 74, 87, 93, 118, 120, 162, 208
 Body temperature regulation 325
 Body weight 121, 180
 Boluses 73
 Bone fractures 204
 Bones 204
 Brain 186, 302, 305
 Brain stem 174
 Brazil 312
 Breathing 42
 Breed differences 277
 Breeds 75
 Broilers 172
 Burns 245, 331
 Cabt 97
 Caffeine 242
 Calcium ions 242
 California 71
 Calotropis procera 292
 Calves 221
 Canary Islands 293
 Cannabidiol 229
 Cannabis sativa 229
 Capsaicin 359
 Carbon dioxide 71, 72, 74, 151, 162, 195
 Carboxypeptidases 245
 Carcinogenesis 230
 Cardiac glycosides 25
 Cardiac output 240
 Cardiomyopathy 131
 Cardiovascular agents 107
 Cardiovascular system 15, 38, 66, 70, 73, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79,
 82, 83, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 96, 160, 169, 173, 240, 311, 325
 Carpus 112
 Case reports 3, 67, 297, 323, 325, 327, 342
 Case studies 329
 Castration 10, 45, 190, 196, 326
 Cat 11, 12, 13, 15, 35, 41, 42, 43, 76, 100, 102, 105, 140,
 233, 267, 274, 278, 316, 329
 Cataract 16, 34
 Catecholamines 57, 93, 287
 Catheters 112, 122, 173
 Cats 10, 32, 33, 36, 39, 50, 57, 59, 62, 67, 78, 80, 103, 122,
 136, 147, 154, 157, 161, 181, 182, 183, 203, 204, 207, 220,
 224, 225, 231, 232, 239, 269, 270, 271, 287, 288, 294, 296,
 298, 319, 328, 343, 347, 355, 356, 357
 Celastrus paniculatus 291
 Central nervous system 11, 12, 15, 209, 301, 311, 334
 Cerebral ventricles 94
 Cerebrospinal fluid 94, 99, 111
 Chicks 261
 Children 60
 Chloralose 159
 Chloramphenicol 167, 221
 Chlorpromazine 7
 Chromatography 257
 Chylomicron lipids 346
 Cimetidine 167
 Circuits 42, 105
 Clams 97
 Classification 145
 Claws 10
 Clinical examination 58
 Clinical experience 192
 Complications 40, 324, 327
 Conception rate 154
 Conditioned reflexes 222
 Conduction anesthesia 32, 78, 99, 193, 210, 288, 345
 Conductivity 163
 Conformation 115
 Consciousness 173
 Control methods 251
 Cooling 323
 Correlation 173
 Corticotrophin 142
 Cricetulus 98
 Cross reaction 148
 Crossbreds 75, 277
 Cutaneous application 126
 Cyanocobalamin 53
 Cycloheximide 85
 Cyclosporins 62
 Cymbopogon citratus 257
 Cysteine 2
 Cytotoxic t lymphocytes 151
 Dentistry 342
 Deprivation 360
 Derivatives 2, 22
 Detection 130
 Determination 243, 280
 Detoxicants 90, 100, 246
 Diabetes 178
 Diabetes mellitus 69
 Diagnostic techniques 12, 56, 314
 Diagnostic value 321
 Diazepam 5, 55, 136, 210, 231, 300, 314, 317, 332
 Diet 360
 Digestive system diseases 13
 Dirofilaria immitis 110
 Disease prevention 323
 Disease resistance 190
 Disease vectors 71
 Dislocations 151
 Distribution 134, 135
 Diuresis 158
 Docosenoic acids 132
 Dogs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19,
 20, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36, 39, 41, 42, 43, 48, 64, 66, 70, 73,
 74, 75, 77, 79, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92,
 93, 96, 99, 101, 102, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111,
 112, 113, 114, 115, 117, 118, 123, 124, 125, 126, 131, 135,
 138, 139, 141, 142, 143, 145, 146, 149, 150, 152, 153, 155,
 156, 160, 162, 163, 164, 165, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 173,
 176, 190, 191, 192, 193, 195, 197, 199, 200, 206, 209, 210,
 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 227, 228, 233, 236, 240, 242,
 244, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 254, 255, 256, 258, 264, 267,
 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 275, 276, 277, 278, 280, 281, 282,
 284, 286, 288, 289, 294, 296, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 304,
 305, 308, 310, 313, 316, 317, 319, 320, 321, 323, 327, 331,
 332, 333, 336, 340, 342, 343, 345, 347, 350, 352, 353, 354,
 355, 356, 357, 358, 361
 Domestic animals 1
 Dosage 21, 33, 34, 49, 59, 98, 101, 113, 136, 138, 139, 150,
 168, 169, 188, 191, 206, 210, 216, 239, 249, 259, 270, 304,
 314, 322, 332, 348, 354, 355
 Dosage effect 100, 289, 308, 316
 Dosage effects 53, 59, 70, 86, 107, 108, 138, 139
 Droperidol 118, 199, 314
 Drug antagonism 49, 50, 100, 101, 103, 158, 187, 209, 300,
 304, 308, 309, 310
 Drug combinations 10, 62, 66, 73, 74, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85,
 108, 116, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 127, 147, 153, 159, 168,
 174, 188, 194, 196, 203, 209, 211, 216, 219, 225, 235, 239,
 244, 258, 305, 357, 358
 Drug delivery systems 94, 353
 Drug effects 18, 32, 57, 66, 70, 73, 78, 81, 82, 83, 84, 89,
 100, 106, 122, 125, 149, 164, 169, 171, 191, 202, 210, 216,
 218, 228, 269, 305, 311, 313, 322, 350
 Drug metabolism 320
 Drug synergy 309
 Drug therapy 33, 56, 140
 Drug toxicity 25, 61, 259, 293, 362
 Drugs 34, 140, 197, 217, 269, 317, 322
 Duodenum 153, 197
 Duration 59, 84, 139, 187, 188, 239, 244, 264, 284, 336
 Dysplasia 297
 Ears 208
 Echocardiography 117
 Edema 23, 54, 245, 292, 362
 Efficacy 19, 32, 188, 314
 Eicosapentaenoic acid 132
 Elasticity 321
 Electric current 344
 Electric potential 305
 Electrical stimulation 301
 Electrocardiograms 19, 153, 164
 Electroencephalography 48, 162, 250, 300, 301, 302
 Electrophysiology 174
 Embryonic development 154
 Emergencies 35
 Enantiomers 191
 Endocrine diseases 296
 Endocrine system 311
 Endorphins 271
 Endoscopy 153, 197, 318
 Endosulfan 7
 Energy metabolism 238
 Enzyme activators 172
 Enzyme immunoassay 148
 Enzyme inhibitors 172
 Enzymes 177
 Ephedrine 169
 Epinephrine 8, 9, 126, 164, 225, 227, 355
 Esophageal sphincter 155, 161, 183
 Esophagus 165
 Essential oils 257, 262, 315
 Estimation 195, 241
 Etiology 362
 Euphorbia hirta 29
 Euthanasia 151, 186
 Evaluation 60, 194
 Excretion 320
 Experimental diabetes 69, 214
 Experiments 204
 Exposure 7
 Extracts 156
 Eyes 34, 236, 272, 349
 Fasting 36
 Feed intake 121, 179
 Females 134
 Fentanyl 32, 78, 118, 131, 199, 211, 309
 Ferrets 187, 194
 Fever 26, 27, 52
 Fish as laboratory animals 95
 Fish diseases 56
 Fish oils 132
 Fishes 198, 306, 338, 339
 Flavonoids 22, 26
 Flow 105, 347
 Flowers 291
 Flunixin 3, 121, 125, 258
 Folk medicine 61, 257, 293, 330
 Food consumption 166
 Food intake 180, 202
 Food poisoning 130, 148
 Formaldehyde 260
 Frequency 294
 Freshwater fishes 344
 Frogs 261, 330
 Fructose-bisphosphatase 186
 Fruits 27
 Gas chromatography 280
 Gases 19, 20, 81, 105, 162, 175, 208, 235, 253, 284
 Gentamicin 147
 Gerbils 98, 263
 Geriatrics 43
 Glaucoma 272
 Glucagon 197
 Glucose tolerance 132
 Glycemia 214
 Glycosides 261
 Golden hamster 159
 Golden hamsters 98
 Gravity 115
 Greyhound 277
 Greyhounds 199
 Guaifenesin 239
 Guanosine monophosphate 69
 Guidelines 45
 Guinea pigs 94, 98
 Guinea pigs as laboratory animals 215
 Half life 273
 Halogenated hydrocarbons 281
 Halothane 3, 8, 16, 18, 64, 76, 77, 90, 91, 104, 107, 123,
 131, 151, 162, 164, 166, 171, 179, 185, 199, 218, 242, 247,
 252, 282, 299, 301, 329, 332, 355
 Halothane susceptibility 70
 Hamsters 98, 201, 205, 230
 Harpagophytum procumbens 51
 Hcg 154
 Head 12, 36
 Heart 186, 346
 Heart diseases 64, 110
 Heart output 218
 Heart rate 19, 59, 70, 74, 78, 79, 81, 84, 85, 87, 94, 113,
 118, 120, 122, 162, 165, 168, 171, 173, 175, 187, 208, 218,
 235, 244
 Heat loss 42
 Heat tolerance 21
 Hematocrit 39, 69
 Hematology 164
 Hemodynamics 107, 123, 169, 210, 216, 217, 219, 238, 264, 336
 Hemoglobin 169, 195
 Hemorrhage 39, 91, 92
 Hip dysplasia 145
 Hips 96, 145
 Histamine 156, 157, 176
 Histopathology 259, 297
 History 255
 Hormones 140
 Horses 39
 Hymenaea 23
 Hypercapnia 162
 Hypersensitivity 156, 176
 Hypertension 11, 44
 Hyperthermia 242, 324, 329
 Hypophosphatemia 360
 Hypotension 221
 Hypothermia 251, 323, 324, 331
 Hypovolemia 77
 Hysterectomy 196
 Illinois 333
 Immunosuppression 62
 In vitro 359
 Indometacin 236
 Infants 221
 Inflammation 23, 26, 27, 52, 54, 245
 Infusion 62, 94
 Inhaled anesthetics 9, 34, 63, 72, 73, 78, 79, 88, 169, 171,
 224, 254, 304
 Inhibition 230
 Inhibitors 177
 Injectable anesthetics 40, 75, 88, 106, 120, 149, 155, 183,
 208, 216, 231, 232, 259, 276, 307, 355
 Injection 19, 157
 Injections 175, 274
 Injuries 12
 Insulin 132, 178
 Interactions 7, 254
 Internal pressure 67, 94, 155, 173, 183
 Intestinal motility 197
 Intramuscular injection 10, 40, 74, 135, 168, 187, 193, 259,
 275, 335
 Intraperitoneal injection 335
 Intrauterine insemination 154
 Intravenous feeding 221
 Intravenous injection 19, 73, 74, 75, 113, 134, 139, 191, 208,
 273, 320, 341
 Irritant properties 349
 Ischemia 3, 185, 323
 Japan 97, 130
 Joints (animal) 145
 Ketamine 49, 50, 73, 83, 84, 87, 103, 108, 116, 127, 136, 167,
 172, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 183, 187, 188, 191, 199, 203,
 231, 235, 239, 305, 328, 335, 346
 Kidney diseases 13, 258
 Kidneys 2, 38, 186, 259, 325, 346, 360
 Kittens 38, 45, 325, 326
 Labiatae 293
 Laboratory animals 58, 68, 202, 215, 269, 285, 307, 311, 322,
 341
 Laboratory equipment 252
 Laboratory methods 63, 223, 314
 Lactic acid 118
 Lactic acidosis 238
 Lameness 340
 Laparoscopy 154, 160
 Laparotomy 121
 Larynx 289, 318
 Learning experiences 351
 Leaves 27, 54, 61, 279
 Lesions 335
 Leukotrienes 229
 Lidocaine 126, 164, 341
 Limbs 32, 251, 352
 Limonin 230
 Lipid metabolism 346
 Lippia 312
 Liquid chromatography 130
 Literature reviews 296, 325
 Liver 38, 132, 172, 186, 290, 325
 Liver diseases 13
 Loading 338, 339
 Local anesthesia 126, 192, 341
 Local anesthetics 126, 330, 341
 Locomotion 121, 166, 179, 180, 202
 Loins 352
 Losses 39
 Luciferase 282
 Luminescence 282
 Lung ventilation 67, 115, 185, 220
 Lungs 67, 115, 152, 240, 362
 Lymphocyte transformation 151
 Macaca 266
 Macaca mulatta 254, 337
 Male animals 218
 Mammary glands 297
 Man 61, 229
 Marine areas 130
 Mass spectrometry 280
 Measurement 4, 112, 300, 321
 Mechanical stimulation 21
 Medetomidine 8, 9, 32, 78, 118, 141, 149, 168, 216, 304
 Medical treatment 39
 Medicinal plants 23, 25, 26, 30, 52, 54, 279, 283, 291, 293,
 312, 330
 Medicinal properties 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 52, 54, 61, 245
 Melissa officinalis 262
 Menispermaceae 25
 Meriones libycus 98
 Meriones unguiculatus 98
 Metabolic inhibitors 229
 Metabolism 264, 325, 336
 Metabolites 191
 Metastasis 296
 Meters 195
 Methadone 59
 Methemoglobinemia 68
 Methodology 96, 358
 Methoxamine 322
 Methoxyflurane 18, 151, 212, 213, 258
 Mice 22, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 51, 52, 54, 61, 97, 98, 151,
 172, 189, 229, 245, 251, 260, 262, 269, 279, 283, 292, 293,
 312, 315, 348, 360
 Microsomes 172
 Mode of action 1, 270, 283
 Models 204, 221, 359
 Modification 4
 Momordica charantia 30
 Monitoring 36, 71, 325
 Monitors 4, 112
 Morinda citrifolia 28
 Morphine 20, 65, 99, 123, 141, 192, 254, 287, 301, 317, 345
 Mortality 334
 Mouth diseases 342
 Mucuna pruriens 27
 Mus musculus 98
 Muscle relaxants 16, 34, 62, 147, 185, 255, 256, 259, 308, 354
 Muscle tissue 261
 Muscles 135, 186, 242, 335
 Myocardial depressants 164
 Myocardium 238
 Myrcene 257
 Myristica argentea 315
 Myristica fragrans 315
 Naloxone 28
 Narcosis 344
 Narcotic antagonists 6, 48, 50, 101, 168, 209, 247, 248, 270,
 304, 310
 Neck 36
 Necrosis 335
 Nematode control 110
 Neoplasms 12, 296, 327, 334
 Neostigmine 308, 354
 Nephrectomy 327
 Nephritis 3
 Nerve tissue 261
 Nervous system 66, 336
 Nervous system diseases 11, 12, 214
 Neuroleptics 74, 80, 81, 107, 116, 176, 225, 228, 235, 244,
 246, 309, 333, 358
 Neurons 65, 163, 359
 Neurophysiology 7, 65, 261
 Neurotoxins 359
 Neurotransmitters 271
 Neutrophils 229
 Nigeria 279
 Nitrous oxide 16, 131, 160, 247, 281
 Non-steroidal antiinflammatory agents 121, 124
 Nontarget effects 118
 Norepinephrine 225
 Normal values 321
 Nutrient transport 360
 Obesity 190
 Ohio 299
 Ointments 341
 Ontario 281
 Opioid peptides 283
 Opioids 34, 70, 74, 81, 83, 124, 180, 192, 211, 225, 235, 260,
 350, 357, 358
 Opium 179, 309
 Opium alkaloids 270
 Ornamental fishes 56
 Osteoarthritis 33
 Ovariectomy 45, 190, 196, 326
 Ovulation 154
 Oxygen 72, 74, 82, 169, 195, 252, 347
 Pain 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 26, 27, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 52,
 53, 54, 58, 60, 65, 93, 121, 125, 128, 138, 166, 180, 192,
 193, 202, 204, 206, 214, 222, 260, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270,
 271, 284, 285, 287, 294, 301, 306, 314, 316, 322, 340, 342,
 345, 348, 356, 357, 359
 Panax pseudoginseng 55
 Pancreas 132, 296
 Pancreas islets 132
 Paralysis 261
 Parasympatholytics 8, 9, 82
 Parathyroid 296
 Passiflora edulis 61
 Pentobarbital 151, 159, 174, 305
 Peptides 69
 Periosteum 204
 Peripheral nerves 174, 271
 Pet care 56, 98
 Pethidine 18, 168, 231, 286, 350
 Pets 56
 Ph 20, 74, 78, 81, 162, 165, 238
 Pharmaceutical products 23, 25, 26, 28, 29, 51, 54, 245
 Pharmacodynamics 43, 254, 278
 Pharmacokinetics 38, 43, 109, 134, 135, 149, 170, 236, 254,
 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 311, 325
 Pharmacology 24, 102, 279, 311, 315
 Phenobarbital 167
 Phenothiazines 107
 Phodopus 98
 Phosphates 360
 Phospholipids 132
 Phosphorus 360
 Physiological functions 269, 302
 Physiology 267, 271
 Physiopathology 11, 15
 Pigs 254
 Piper 312
 Pituitary 296, 297
 Plankton 97
 Plant composition 261
 Plant extracts 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 51, 52, 54, 61,
 261, 262, 279, 283, 291, 292, 293, 315
 Platelet count 96
 Platelets 282
 Pmsg 154
 Portal vein 173
 Postoperative care 20, 33, 34, 36, 57, 192, 202, 206, 226,
 284, 285, 287, 294, 325, 350, 356, 357
 Postoperative complications 3, 34, 196, 202, 296, 326
 Posture 152
 Preanesthetic medication 5, 36, 59, 83, 116, 122, 149, 150,
 153, 155, 161, 165, 168, 216, 223, 247, 296, 332, 361
 Prediction 334
 Prednisolone 62
 Pregnancy 154, 253
 Preoperative care 16, 36, 268, 296, 325
 Preovulatory period 154
 Prescriptions 294
 Pressure 106
 Primates 265, 295
 Probes 195
 Progeny 242
 Prognosis 327
 Prolactin 297
 Propranolol 164, 173
 Prostheses 96
 Protein content 236
 Protein energy malnutrition 184
 Pulse rate 18, 112, 139, 299
 Puppies 196, 325
 Pups 38
 Pyloroplasty 299
 Pyridoxine 53
 Rabbits 40, 46, 63, 109, 116, 119, 120, 127, 175, 188, 208,
 223, 235, 253, 259, 273, 297, 309, 318, 320, 348, 349, 351
 Rabbits as laboratory animals 303
 Radiation 87
 Radioactive iodine 135
 Radiography 117, 145
 Radionuclides 117
 Ratios 115, 152
 Rats 7, 14, 23, 24, 26, 27, 29, 30, 44, 49, 51, 52, 53, 54,
 55, 60, 61, 65, 69, 72, 87, 98, 121, 128, 132, 133, 134, 137,
 158, 166, 174, 177, 178, 179, 180, 184, 185, 186, 211, 214,
 222, 226, 238, 241, 243, 245, 251, 252, 257, 261, 269, 279,
 283, 292, 293, 311, 314, 320, 322, 334, 335, 346, 348, 362
 Rattus norvegicus 98
 Receptors 260, 270
 Recording 359
 Recordings 243
 Recovery 75, 147, 247, 277
 Rectum 175
 Reflexes 120, 175, 199, 210, 235, 289, 330
 Regression analysis 117
 Renal failure 3, 40
 Renal function 2, 258
 Reptiles 37, 306
 Reptiles as laboratory animals 95
 Requirements 150
 Resection 41, 327
 Resistance to air flow 42
 Respiration 36, 59, 79, 84, 85, 160, 244
 Respiration rate 19, 59, 74, 76, 78, 118, 120, 122, 165, 208,
 235
 Respiratory diseases 72
 Respiratory disorders 162
 Respiratory gases 21, 78, 118
 Respiratory system 15, 38, 70, 77, 78, 83, 96, 325
 Responses 208
 Restraint of animals 1, 72, 118, 314
 Risk 324
 Rodent control 71
 Rodents 58, 129, 202, 212, 213, 324
 Roots 28, 55, 292
 Rubiaceae 54
 Safety 19, 45, 72, 102, 108, 120, 131, 194, 210, 239, 264,
 336, 353
 
 Salicylates 287
 Salt 338, 339
 Scoparia dulcis 26
 Screening tests 312
 Secondary sexual traits 190
 Seeds 261, 283, 315
 Serums 280
 Sex differences 196
 Sex hormones 190
 Sheep 21, 109
 Shellfish 130, 148
 Siphonaptera 176
 Skeletal muscle 346
 Skeleton 190
 Skin 126
 Skin tests 156, 176, 228
 South Africa 344
 Species differences 68, 109, 254, 320
 Spermophilus beecheyi 71
 Spinal cord 65
 Spinal diseases 12, 31
 Spines 352
 Stomach 165
 Stomach diseases 79
 Strain differences 87, 335
 Striped Bass 198
 Structure activity relationships 22
 Subcutaneous injection 138, 168, 273
 Substance p 260
 Suckling 184
 Sulfadiazine 3
 Supplements 132
 Surgery 1, 16, 39, 96, 173, 179, 180, 225, 264, 299, 323, 324,
 325, 333, 336, 351, 352
 Surgical equipment 104
 Surgical operations 10, 11, 19, 34, 36, 57, 93, 142, 193, 202,
 275, 287, 296, 351
 Survival 185, 327
 Susceptibility 200, 242
 Sutures 325
 Suxamethonium 255
 Swelling 206
 Sympathomimetics 91, 92
 Tabernaemontana crassa 330
 Tail 241
 Tannins 25
 Tapes 97
 Tarsus 112
 Techniques 160
 Tecomella undulata 291
 Temperament 156
 Temperature 338, 339
 Temperatures 175
 Testing 322, 349
 Tests 260, 269
 Texas 333
 Thermoregulation 38, 93
 Thiamin 53
 Thiopental 16, 155, 183, 231, 247, 281, 289
 Thorax 41, 115, 193, 321
 Thyroid gland 296
 Tillandsia usneoides 312
 Time 308
 Timing 334
 Tolerance 191
 Tolerances 167
 Topical application 68, 236, 349
 Toxicity 2, 40, 97
 Toxins 2, 97, 130, 148
 Trachea 41, 63, 113, 150, 165, 223, 318
 Traditional medicines 279, 315
 Training of animals 337
 Transmission 163
 Transplantation 240
 Transport of animals 338, 339
 Trauma 15, 67
 Treatment 11, 270, 356
 Trema 24
 Trials 350
 Trichomes 27
 Trimethoprim 3
 Triterpenoids 26
 Tubes 36, 42, 63, 150, 223
 Ultrasonic devices 207
 Ultrasound 207
 Ultrastructure 2
 Undernutrition 184
 Uremia 258
 Urethane 159, 185
 Urethra 106
 Urinary tract 190
 Values 105
 Vaporization 353
 Vasoconstrictor agents 91, 92
 Veins 175, 336
 Velocity 163
 Vena cava 264, 327
 Venous circulation 264, 336
 Ventilation 76, 218
 Ventricles 6, 117, 243
 Vertebrates 306
 Veterinary anesthesia 144, 319
 Veterinary education 351
 Veterinary equipment 4, 220, 241, 353
 Veterinary medicine 311
 Vomiting 32
 Washington 333
 Waste gases 252
 Water hardness 338, 339
 Water intake 98, 121, 166, 179, 180, 202
 Weight losses 334
 Wounds 245
 Xylazine 6, 8, 9, 49, 82, 106, 108, 116, 127, 158, 167, 172,
 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 183, 187, 188, 199, 209, 219, 231,
 235, 239, 244, 246, 287, 305, 311, 328, 335, 362
 Yohimbine 49, 50, 187, 209, 322
 
 


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https://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/pubs/oldbib/qb9512.htm, April 19, 1998