NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL LIBRARY ARCHIVED FILE
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Anesthesia and Analgesia for Farm Animals

Provided by the Animal Welfare Information Center

United States Department of Agriculture
National Agricultural Library

January 1987 - January 1994

United States Department of Agriculture
National Agricultural Library
10301 Baltimore Blvd.
Beltsville, Maryland 20705-2351

QB 94-21

Updated by QB 95-13

Quick Bibliography Series Bibliographies in the Quick Bibliography Series of the National Agricultural Library, are intended primarily for current awareness, and as the title of the series implies, are not indepth exhaustive bibliographies on any given subject. However, the citations are a substantial resource for recent investigations on a given topic. They also serve the purpose of bringing the literature of agriculture to the interested user who, in many cases, could not access it by any other means. The bibliographies are derived from computerized on-line searches of the AGRICOLA data base. Timeliness of topic and evidence of extensive interest are the selection criteria.

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Read Bullet 16 on ALF for information on Document Delivery services. Read Bullet 15 for "Electronic Mail Access For Interlibrary Loan (ILL) Requests." If the text of this Quick Bibliography file is copied and/or distributed, please include in all copies, the information provided in these bulletins. Anesthesia and Analgesia for Farm Animals January 1987 - January 1994

Quick Bibliography Series: QB 94-21

336 citations in English from AGRICOLA

Tim Allen
Animal Welfare Information Center

April 1994 National Agricultural Library Cataloging Record:

Allen, Tim
Anesthesia and analgesia for farm animals.
(Quick bibliography series ; 94-21)
1. Animal anesthesia--Bibliography. 2. Domestic animals--Bibliography. I. Title.
aZ5071.N3 no.94-21

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AGRICOLA

Citations in this bibliography were entered in the AGRICOLA database between January 1979 and the present.

SAMPLE CITATIONS
 
 Citations in this bibliography are from the National Agricultural Library's
 AGRICOLA database.  An explanation of sample journal article, book, and
 audiovisual citations appears below.
 
 JOURNAL ARTICLE:
 
   Citation #                                     NAL Call No.
   Article title.
   Author.  Place of publication:  Publisher.  Journal Title.
   Date.  Volume (Issue).  Pages.  (NAL Call Number).
 
 Example:
   1                             NAL Call No.:  DNAL 389.8.SCH6
   Morrison, S.B.  Denver, Colo.:  American School Food Service
   Association.  School foodservice journal.  Sept 1987. v. 41
   (8). p.48-50. ill.
 
 BOOK:
 
   Citation #                                   NAL Call Number
   Title.
   Author.  Place of publication:  Publisher, date. Information
   on pagination, indices, or bibliographies.
 
 Example:
   1                        NAL Call No.:  DNAL RM218.K36 1987
   Exploring careers in dietetics and nutrition.
   Kane, June Kozak.  New York:  Rosen Pub. Group, 1987.
   Includes index.  xii, 133 p.: ill.; 22 cm.  Bibliography:
   p. 126.
 
 AUDIOVISUAL:
 
   Citation #                                  NAL Call Number
   Title.
   Author.  Place of publication:  Publisher, date.
   Supplemental information such as funding.  Media format
   (i.e., videocassette):  Description (sound, color, size).
 
 Example:
   1                    NAL Call No.: DNAL FNCTX364.A425 F&N AV
   All aboard the nutri-train.
   Mayo, Cynthia.  Richmond, Va.:  Richmond Public Schools,
   1981.  NET funded.  Activity packet prepared by Cynthia
   Mayo.  1 videocassette (30 min.): sd., col.; 3/4 in. +
   activity packet.Anesthesia and Analgesia for Farm Animals
                            January 1987 - January 1994
 
 
 
                             SEARCH STRATEGY
 
 Set     Items   Description
 
 1       4263    anesthe? or anasthe? or anaesthe? or analges? or pain? or
                 distress? or tranquil? or anxiolytic
 
 2       197462  cow or cows or cattle or sheep or pigs or swine or boar? or
                 pig? or barrow? or horse? or mare? or stallion? or livestock?
                 or bull? or lamb? or ram? or ewe?
 
 3       55438   pony or ponies or foal or colt? or chicken? or chick or chicks
                 or poult? or hen? or rooster? or turkey? or duck? or geese or
                 goose or llama? or emu? or ostrich?
 
 4       34124   rhea? or goat? or equine? or bovine? or ovine? or buffalo?
 
 5       262907  S2 or S3 or S4
 
 6       1036    S1 and S5/title
 
 7       446     S6 and LA=English and PY=1987:1994
 
 
 
 
Anesthesia and Analgesia for Farm Animals
1 NAL Call. No.: SF601.A47 Acetaminophen toxicosis: a potential model for acute liver failure in swine. Artwohl, J.E.; Henne-Bruns, D.; Carter, E.; Cera, L.M. Manhattan, Kan. : American Academy of Veterinary and Comparative Toxicology; 1988 Aug. Veterinary and human toxicology v. 30 (4): p. 324-328. ill; 1988 Aug. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Pigs; Analgesics; Poisoning; Liver function; Biopsy 2 NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46 Acupuncture for the treatment of chronic back pain in 200 horses. Martin, B.B. Jr; Klide, A.M. Lexington, Ky. : The Association; 1992. Proceedings of the annual convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners (37): p. 593-601; 1992. Meeting held December 1-4, 1991, San Francisco, California. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Acupuncture; Pain 3 NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992 Acute pain from castration and tail docking of lambs. Molony, V.; Wood, G.N. New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992. Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p. 385-395, 400-401; 1992. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Lambs; Pain; Tail; Cutting; Castration; Anesthesia; Local anesthesia; Xylazine; Morphine; Etorphine; Naloxone; Drug effects 4 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R3224 Alleviation of postanesthetic hypoxemia in the horse. McMurphy, R.M.; Cribb, P.H. Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1989 Jan. The Canadian veterinary journal v. 30 (1): p. 37-41; 1989 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Adverse effects; Hypoxia; Therapy; Oxygen; Partial pressure 5 NAL Call. No.: 442.8 J8222 Alterations in pituitary gland sensitivity in ram lambs to physiological doses of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), after divergent selection based on the luteinizing hormone response to a pharmacological GnRH challenge. Evans, N.P.; McNeilly, J.R.; Springbett, A.J.; Webb, R. Colchester : The Journal; 1991 Nov. Journal of reproduction and fertility v. 93 (2): p. 559-567; 1991 Nov. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Rams; Lambs; Lines; Gnrh; Lh; Hormone secretion; Anesthesia; Injectable anesthetics; Dosage effects; Line differences; Hypothalamus; Pituitary 6 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312 Analgesic activity and respiratory effects of butorphanol in sheep. Waterman, A.E.; Livingston, A.; Amin, A. London : British Veterinary Association; 1991 Jul. Research in veterinary science v. 51 (1): p. 19-23; 1991 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sheep; Analgesics; Dosage; Pain; Respiratory gases; Mechanical stimulation; Heat tolerance Abstract: The analgesic drug butorphanol tartrate has proved useful clinically in horses and dogs but its analgesic profile had not yet been investigated in sheep. This study was initiated to determine the thermal and mechanical antinociceptive activity of butorphanol (at the dose rates 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg kg-1) in sheep. The drug produced significant analgesia in the thermal lest system, the duration of which was dose related but no significant elevation in mechanical pressure thresholds could be detected. In a further set of experiments the dose rate was increased to 0.4 mg kg-1 and mechanical testing was repeated. There was still no clinically significant elevation in pressure thresholds. At a dose rate of 0.2 mg kg-1 the drug had no detectable effect on respiratory blood gas tensions. Behavioural changes were severe if a dose rate of 0.2 mg kg-1 was exceeded. 7 NAL Call. No.: SF951.E62 The analgesic effect of ketoprofen for use in treating equine colic as compared to flunixin meglumine. Betley, M.; Sutherland, S.F.; Gregoricka, M.J.; Pollet, R.A. Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Publishing Company; 1991 Jun. Equine practice v. 13 (6): p. 11-16; 1991 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Colic; Medical treatment; Analgesics; Flunixin; Pain; Drug effects; Antiinflammatory agents 8 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312 Analgesic effects of detomidine in thoroughbred horses with chronic tendon injury. Chambers, J.P.; Livingston, A.; Waterman, A.E.; Goodship, A.E. London : British Veterinary Association; 1993 Jan. Research in veterinary science v. 54 (1): p. 53-56; 1993 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Detomidine; Tendons; Legs; Trauma; Pain Abstract: This study was undertaken to assess the analgesia provided by detomidine (20 micrograms kg-1 intravenously) in thoroughbred horses. Pain thresholds to a mechanical noxious stimulus were measured before and after a period of mild chronic pain in one foreleg. Detomidine was a good analgesic in control animals, their pain thresholds were significantly elevated for about 60 minutes. After injury, the injured leg had a significantly lower pain threshold and the intensity and duration of analgesia provided by detomidine were significantly reduced. The analgesia in the opposite (sound) leg was also reduced, indicating that there were both central and peripheral aspects to this increased sensitivity to painful stimuli. Detomidine deserves to be considered as a potent analgesic in the horse rather than a sedative with analgesic side effects. 9 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AU72 Analgesic therapy of beak-trimmed chickens. Glatz, P.C.; Murphy, L.B.; Preston, A.P. Brunswick, Victoria : Australian Veterinary Association; 1992 Jan. Australian veterinary journal v. 69 (1): p. 18; 1992 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Fowls; Debeaking; Analgesics; Animal welfare; Feed intake 10 NAL Call. No.: SF914.A53 1990 Anesthesia & analgesia in swine. Swindle, M.M. Columbia, Md. : American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, 1990? :.; 1990. Anesthesia and analgesia in laboratory animals : proceedings -- 1990 Forum, American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, Columbia Inn, Columbia, Maryland, May 3-6, 1990. p. 79-87; 1990. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Miniature pigs; Anesthesia; Analgesics 11 NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43 Anesthesia and cardiopulmonary bypass technique in calves and sheep. Holmberg, D.L.; Olsen, D.B. Philadelphia, Pa. : J.B. Lippincott Co; 1987 Nov. Veterinary surgery v. 16 (6): p. 463-465; 1987 Nov. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Calves; Sheep; Anesthesia; Heart; Lungs; Surgical operations 12 NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46 Anesthesia for the equine orthopedic patient. Muir, W.W. III Lexington, Ky. : The Association; 1992. Proceedings of the annual convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners (37): p. 721-733; 1992. Meeting held December 1-4, 1991, San Francisco, California. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthetics; Hemodynamics; Postoperative complications 13 NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43 Anesthesia in the llama. Riebold, T.W.; Kaneps, A.J.; Schmotzer, W.B. Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1989 Sep. Veterinary surgery v. 18 (5): p. 400-404; 1989 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Llamas; Anesthesia; Anesthetics 14 NAL Call. No.: SF601.V535 Anesthesia techniques in sheep and goats. Ewing, K.K. Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders Company; 1990 Nov. The Veterinary clinics of North America : food animal practice v. 6 (3): p. 759-778; 1990 Nov. In the series analytic: Advances in sheep and goat medicine / edited by M. C. Smith. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sheep; Goats; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Analgesics 15 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69 The anesthetic and analgesic effects of Telazol and xylazine in pigs: evaluating clinical trials. Thurmon, J.C.; Benson, G.J.; Tranquilli, W.J.; Olson, W.A.; Tracy, C.H. Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Company; 1988 Aug. Veterinary medicine v. 83 (8): p. 841-845; 1988 Aug. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Pigs; Anesthesia; Xylazine; Anesthetics; Analgesics; Drug combinations 16 NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47 Anesthetic complications in the horse. Klein, L. Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders; 1990 Dec. The Veterinary clinics of North America : equine practice v. 6 (3): p. 665-692; 1990 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Equipment; Failure; Anesthetics; Ventilation; Complications; Cardiovascular system; Hypotension; Hypothermia; Hypoxia; Hyperthermia; Cardiac rhythm; Muscular diseases 17 NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46 Anesthetic considerations for dystocia and caesarean section in mares. Hodgson, D.S. Manhattan, Kan. : The Association; 1989. Proceedings of the annual convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners (34th): p. 543-547; 1989. Meeting held December 4-7, 1988, San Diego, CA. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Mares; Foaling; Anesthesia; Dystocia; Caesarean section; Techniques; Anesthetics 18 NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47 Anesthetic considerations for emergency equine abdominal surgery. Grandy, J.L.; Hodgson, D.S. Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders; 1988 Apr. The Veterinary clinics of North America : equine practice v. 4 (1): p. 63-78. ill; 1988 Apr. In the series analytic: Management of colic / edited by S.M. Stover. Literature review. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Abdomen; Anesthesia; Emergencies; Monitoring; Surgery 19 NAL Call. No.: SF951.E62 Anesthetic considerations in equine orthopedics. Short, C.E.; Stauffer, J.L. Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Pub. Co; 1988 Apr. Equine practice v. 10 (4): p. 43-49; 1988 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Orthopedics; Surgery 20 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3 Anesthetic management of an incisional dehiscence in recovery following exploratory laparotomy in a horse. Curtis, M.B.; Eicker, S.W.; Archer, R.M.; Lindsay, W.A. Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1992 Mar01. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 200 (5): p. 692-695; 1992 Mar01. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Laparotomy; Postoperative complications; Case reports 21 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3 Anesthetic management of ostriches. Cornick, J.L.; Jensen, J. Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1992 Jun01. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 20 (11): p. 1661-1666; 1992 Jun01. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ostriches; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Heart rate; Respiration rate; Blood pressure; Blood; Gases; Complications 22 NAL Call. No.: 442.8 B5236 The anesthetic nitrous oxide affects dioxygen utilization by bovine heart and bean seed mitochondrial particles. Sowa, S.; Dong, A.; Roos, E.E.; Caughey, W.S. Duluth, Minn. : Academic Press; 1987 Apr29. Biochemical and biophysical research communications v. 144 (2): p. 643-648; 1987 Apr29. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Anesthetics; Nitrous oxide; Cattle; Heart; Beans; Seeds; Mitochondria; Cytochrome c; Substrates; Cytochrome c oxidase; Seed dormancy; Seed germination 23 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69 Anesthetics and surgical techniques useful in the potbellied pig. Braun, W. Jr Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Co; 1993 May05. Veterinary medicine v. 88 (5): p. 441-447; 1993 May05. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Miniature pigs; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Surgical operations 24 NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6 Animal suffering: the appraisal and control of depression and distress in livestock. Fraser, A.F. Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1988 Jul. Applied animal behaviour science v. 20 (1/2): p. 127-133; 1988 Jul. Paper presented at the "Symposium on Animal Bio-ethics and Applied Ethology," August 1987, Montreal, Canada. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Animal welfare; Pain; Stress; Abnormal behavior; Depression; Bioethics 25 NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992 Antinociceptive effects of intrathecal opioids and alpha 2-agonists in sheep. Livingston, A.; Waterman, A.E.; Bouchenafa, O.; Kyles, A. New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992. Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p. 281-291, 312; 1992. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sheep; Agonists; Opioids; Drug effects; Analgesics; Testing; Anesthesia; Dosage; Xylazine; Catheterization 26 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3 Arterial blood gas tensions in the horse during recovery from anesthesia. Mason, D.E.; Muir, W.W.; Wade, A. Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1987 Apr15. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 190 (8): p. 989-994; 1987 Apr15. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Oxygen; Internal pressure; Respiratory gases; Ph; Halothane; Position 27 NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6 Arterial blood Po2 and Pco2 in horses during early halothane-oxygen anaesthesia. Grandy, J.L.; Steffey, E.P.; Miller, M. London : British Equine Veterinary Association; 1987 Jul. Equine veterinary journal v. 19 (4): p. 314-318; 1987 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Halothane; Oxygen; Arteries; Blood pressure 28 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Arterial hypotension and the development of postanesthetic myopathy in halothane-anesthetized horses. Grandy, J.L.; Steffey, E.P.; Hodgson, D.S.; Woliner, M.J. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1987 Feb. American journal of veterinary research v. 48 (2): p. 192-197; 1987 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Hypotension; Muscular diseases; Halothane; Adverse effects; Anesthesia 29 NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6 Arterial-alveolar carbon dioxide tension difference and alveolar dead space in halothane anaesthetised horses. Moens, Y. Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1989 Jul. Equine veterinary journal v. 21 (4): p. 282-284; 1989 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Halothane; Arteries; Carbon dioxide; Tension 30 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641 An assessment of carbon dioxide stunning in pigs. Gregory, N.G.; Moss, B.W.; Leeson, R.H. London : British Veterinary Association; 1987 Nov28. The Veterinary record v. 121 (22): p. 517-518; 1987 Nov28. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Pigs; Abattoirs; Carbon dioxide; Stunning; Vocalization; Anesthesia; Reflexes; Carcass quality; Animal welfare; Stress 31 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312 Assessment of pain associated with degenerative hip disorders in adult male turkeys. Duncan, I.J.H.; Beatty, E.R.; Hocking, P.M.; Duff, S.R.I. London : British Veterinary Association; 1991 Mar. Research in veterinary science v. 50 (2): p. 200-203; 1991 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Turkeys; Hips; Degeneration; Joint diseases; Pain; Betamethasone; Physical activity 32 NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6 Atelectasis causes gas exchange impairment in the anaesthetised horse. Nyman, G.; Funkquist, B.; Kvart, C.; Frostell, C.; Tokics, L.; Strandberg, A.; Lundquist, H.; Lundh, B.; Brismar, B.; Hedenstierna, G. Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1990 Sep. Equine veterinary journal v. 22 (5): p. 317-324; 1990 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Computed tomography; Atelectasis; Respiratory disorders; Gas exchange; Lungs 33 NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43 Atracurium as an adjunct to halothane-oxygen anesthesia in a llama undergoing intraocular surgery: a case report. Donaldson, L.L.; Holland, M.; Koch, S.A. Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1992 Jan. Veterinary surgery v. 21 (1): p. 76-79; 1992 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Llamas; Anesthesia; Surgical operations; Eyes; Halothane; Oxygen; Case reports 34 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Auditory brain stem response testing in anesthetized horses. Rolf, S.L.; Reed, S.M.; Melnick, W.; Andrews, F.M. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1987 Jun. American journal of veterinary research v. 48 (6): p. 910-914. ill; 1987 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Brain stem; Anesthesia; Responses; Testing; Electrical activity 35 NAL Call. No.: SF601.I4 Auriculo palpebral and palpebral nerve blocks in the horse. Bedford, P. London : British Veterinary Association; 1987 Mar. In practice v. 9 (2): p. 63. ill; 1987 Mar. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Eyes (animal); Peripheral nerves; Blockage; Analgesics; Ophthalmoscopy 36 NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992 The balloon model for controlled abdominal pain in the horse. Lowe, J.E. New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992. Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p. 408-410, 432; 1992. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Surgical operations; Pain; Abdomen; Models; Balloons; Apparatus; Surgical equipment 37 NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6 Behavioural evidence for persistant pain following partial beak amputation in chickens. Gentle, M.J.; Waddington, D.; Hunter, L.N.; Jones, R.B. Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1990 Aug. Applied animal behaviour science v. 27 (1/2): p. 149-157; 1990 Aug. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Hens; Debeaking; Pain; Behavior change; Drinking water; Temperature 38 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3 Bilateral arytenoid cartilage paralysis after inhalation anesthesia in a horse. Abrahamsen, E.J.; Bohanon, T.C.; Bednarski, R.M.; Hubbell, J.A.E.; Muir, W.W. III Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1990 Nov15. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 197 (10): p. 1363-1365; 1990 Nov15. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Adverse effects; Paralysis; Larynx; Case studies; Peripheral nerves 39 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V643 Biopsy of the bovine mammary gland. Knight, C.H.; Hillerton, J.E.; Teverson, R.M.; Winter, A. London : Bailliere Tindall; 1992 Mar. British veterinary journal v. 148 (2): p. 129-132; 1992 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Dairy cows; Mammary glands; Biopsy; Milk yield Abstract: A technique is described for biopsy of the bovine udder, employing sedation and local anaesthesia. Tissue samples of approximately 5 g were obtained by electrocautery from two quarters of the udder of a cow laterally recumbent. Care was taken to ensure complete haemostasis which was achieved by electrocoagulation and ligation. Postoperative recovery was rapid, and loss of yield was no greater in biopsied glands than in control glands of the same cow. Yield from all quarters returned to preoperative levels within 48 h. 40 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3 Blood pressure response to tourniquet use in anesthetized horses. Copland, V.S.; Hildebrand, S.V.; Hill, T. III; Wong, P.; Brock, N. Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1989 Oct15. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 195 (8): p. 1097-1103; 1989 Oct15. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Surgery; Veterinary equipment; Blood pressure 41 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312 Bronchoalveolar lavage of the live anaesthetised sheep. Burrells, C.; Williams, J.T. London : British Veterinary Association; 1987 Jan. Research in veterinary science v. 42 (1): p. 109-112. ill; 1987 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sheep; Bronchi; Washing; Laboratory techniques; Anesthesia; Catheters; Endoscopy; Body fluids; Leukocytes 42 NAL Call. No.: SF951.E62 Butorphanol or xylazine premedication with halothane anesthesia in the horse. Matthews, N.S.; Smith, J.R.; Gallagher, L.V. Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Pub. Co; 1987 Mar. Equine practice v. 9 (3): p. 7-11; 1987 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Halothane; Xylazine; Blood pressure; Blood ph; Gases 43 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AU72 Caecal overload and rupture in the horse. Hilbert, B.J.; Little, C.B.; Bolton, J.R.; McGill, C.A. Brunswick, Victoria : Australian Veterinary Association; 1987 Mar. Australian veterinary journal v. 64 (3): p. 85-86; 1987 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Cecum; Rupture; Anesthesia; Intestine motility 44 NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43 Capnographic monitoring during anesthesia with controlled ventilation in the horse. Cribb, P.H. Philadelphia, Pa. : J.B. Lippincott Co; 1988 Jan. Veterinary surgery v. 17 (1): p. 48-52; 1988 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Monitoring; Ventilation 45 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Cardiopulmonary effects of a tiletamine-zolazepam combination in sheep. Lagutchik, M.S.; Januszkiewicz, A.J.; Dodd, K.T.; Martin, D.G. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1991 Sep. American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (9): p. 1441-1447; 1991 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sheep; Injectable anesthetics; Anesthesia; Heart; Lungs; Physiological functions Abstract: To assess the effects on heart and lung function, a tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) anesthetic combination was evaluated in 10 Dorset-type ewes. Ewes were randomly allotted to 2 equal groups. Ewes of groups 1 and 2 were given a single bolus of TZ (12 and 24 mg/kg of body weight, IV, respectively) at time zero. Hemodynamic, pulmonary, and ventilation variables were measured at 15-minute intervals to 120 minutes. Blood gas variables were evaluated at 5-minute intervals for the first 30 minutes, then at 15-minute intervals to 120 minutes. In all sheep, TZ administration induced rapid, smooth induction, with gradual and unremarkable recovery. Anesthesia duration was not significantly different between groups (mean +/- SD, 39 +/- 5 and 40 +/- 14 minutes for groups 1 and 2, respectively). Immediate drug effects included apnea, decreased mean arterial blood pressure, and arterial hypoxemia. Cardiac output was significantly decreased in both groups at all times after drug administration. Significant changes in group-1 ewes included increased pulmonary and systemic vascular resistances and decreased inspired minute ventilation, tidal volume, and respiratory airflow. Significant changes in group-2 ewes included increased systemic vascular resistance and decreased pulmonary arterial pressure, inspired minute ventilation, and respiratory airflow. Both drug dosages induced apneustic breathing patterns and caused significant changes in arterial and venous blood hemoglobin concentrations and PCV. Tiletamine-zolazepam is useful for intermediate-duration anesthesia in sheep. However, because of alterations in cardiopulmonary function, its use at the dosages evaluated by us is not recommended in studies, in which minimal effects on heart and lung function are required, or in sheep with compromised heart or lung function. 46 NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63 Cardiopulmonary effects of ephedrine in halothane-anesthetized horses. Grandy, J.L.; Hodgson, D.S.; Dunlop, C.I.; Chapman, P.L.; Heath, R.B. Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1989 Dec. Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 12 (4): p. 389-396; 1989 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Ephedrine; Halothane; Anesthesia; Cardiac output; Blood pressure 47 NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6 Cardiopulmonary effects of epidurally administered xylazine in the horse. Leblanc, P.H.; Eberhart, S.W. Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1990 Nov. Equine veterinary journal v. 22 (6): p. 389-391; 1990 Nov. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Cardiovascular system; Xylazine; Analgesics; Conduction anesthesia; Blood pressure 48 NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94 Cardiopulmonary effects of nalbuphine hydrochloride and butorphanol tartrate in sheep. O'Hair, K.O.; Dodd, K.T.; Phillips, Y.Y.; Beattie, R.J. Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1988 Feb. Laboratory animal science v. 38 (1): p. 58-61; 1988 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sheep; Analgesics; Drug effects; Cardiovascular system; Respiration Abstract: The cardiopulmonary, sedative and analgesic effects of butorphanol tartrate and nalbuphine hydrochloride were evaluated in six adult crossbred Dorset sheep (Ovis aries). The animals were divided randomly into two groups of three. The first group received butorphanol tartrate (o.5mg/Kg s.c.) followed in three days by nalbuphine hydrochloride (Img/Kg, s.c.). The second group received nalbuphine followed in three days by butorphanol. Cardiopulmonary parameters were evaluated at baseline (once the animal had accomodated to restraint); immediately following analgesic administration; and at 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after analgesic administration. No significant changes (alpha greater than .05) from baseline were seen inany of the measured cardiopulmonary parameters from either the butorphanol or nalbuphine groups. Butorphanol produced the most dramatic analgesic and sedative effects with onset of both within 15 minutes of administration and peak effects occurring 30 minutes post injection. The degree of analgesia was diminished at 120 minutes while the sedative effect returned to near baseline by 90 minutes. The nalbuphine group also showed an onset of analgesia 15 minutes post injection reaching a peak effect after 30 minutes. However, onset of sedation occurred 30 minutes post injection achieving a peak effect at 60 minutes which was markedly less than that of butorphanol. As in the butorphanol group, analgesia was diminished at 120 minutes. 49 NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6 Cardiopulmonary effects of xylazine sedation in the foal. Carter, S.W.; Robertson, S.A.; Steel, C.J.; Jourdenais, D.A. Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1990 Nov. Equine veterinary journal v. 22 (6): p. 384-388; 1990 Nov. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Foals; Cardiovascular system; Xylazine; Analgesics 50 NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63 Cardiopulmonary function during 5 hours of constant-dose isoflurane in laterally recumbent, spontaneously breathing horses. Steffey, E.P.; Hodgson, D.S.; Dunlop, C.I.; Miller, M.F.; Woliner, M.J.; Heath, R.B.; Grandy, J. Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1987 Dec. Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 10 (4): p. 290-297; 1987 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Respiration; Heart output; Drug effects 51 NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992 Cardiorespiratory and MAC-reducing effects of alpha-2-adrenoreceptoragonists in horses. Muir, W.W.; Wagner, A.E.; Hinchcliff, K.W. New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992. Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p. 102-212; 1992. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Agonists; Analgesics; Drug effects; Anesthetics; Heart rate; Cardiovascular system; Respiratory system; Xylazine; Alpha-adrenergic receptors 52 NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63 Cardiovascular and allied acations of xylazine and atropine in the unanaesthetized goat. Kokkonen, U.M.; Eriksson, L. Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1987 Mar. Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 10 (1): p. 11-16; 1987 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Goats; Xylazine; Atropine; Anesthetics; Adverse effects; Cardiovascular system 53 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Cardiovascular and respiratory effects of inspired oxygen fraction in halothane-anesthetized horses. Cuvelliez, S.G.; Eicker, S.W.; McLauchlan, C.; Brunson, D.B. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1990 Aug. American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (8): p. 1226-1231; 1990 Aug. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Halothane; Anesthesia; Oxygen; Respiratory system; Cardiovascular system Abstract: Anesthesia of equids is associated with pulmonary dysfunction. Cardiovascular and respiratory effects of inhalation anesthetic agents and duration of anesthesia have been studied, using oxygen as the carrier gas. To our knowledge, the effects of inspired oxygen have not been determined. We studied the cardiovascular and respiratory effects of 2 inspired oxygen fractions (0.30 and > 0.85) in 5 laterally recumbent, halothane-anesthetized horses. Mean systemic arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, central venous pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, arterial pH, and arterial base excess were similar in horses of the 2 groups during 4 hours of anesthesia at constant end-tidal halothane concentration. End-tidal partial pressure of CO2, arterial partial pressure of CO2 and O2, and alveolar-to-arterial O2 tension difference were greater in horses exposed to the higher oxygen concentration. On the basis of the data obtained, we suggest that greater hypoventilation and ventilation/perfusion mismatch occur when horses are breathing high-oxygen fraction. Arterial partial pressure of O2 was not different between the 2 groups of horses after they were disconnected from the anesthesia circuit and allowed to breathe room air. Horses recovered from anesthesia without complications. 54 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Cardiovascular and respiratory measurementss in awake and isoflurane-anesthetized horses. Steffey, E.P.; Dunlop, C.I.; Farver, T.B.; Woliner, M.J.; Schultz, L.J. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1987 Jan. American journal of veterinary research v. 48 (1): p. 7-12; 1987 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthetics; Anesthesia; Oxygen; Blood pressure; Heart output; Heart rate; Respiration rate 55 NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94 Cardiovascular effects of a ketamine-medetomidine combination that produces deep sedation in Yucatan mini swine. Vainio, O.M.; Bloor, B.C.; Kim, C. Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1992 Dec. Laboratory animal science v. 42 (6): p. 582-588; 1992 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Miniature pigs; Anesthetics; Cardiovascular system Abstract: Seven chronically instrumented Yucatan minipigs were deeply sedated with the combination of ketamine (10 mg/kg), a dissociative anesthetic, and medetomidine (0.2 mg/kg), an alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist used as an animal sedative in Europe. Both drugs were drawn in the same syringe and administered in the left atrium via a previously inserted permanent catheter. As a result, hypertension (mean arterial pressure from 116 +/- 12 mmHg to 142 +/- 18 mmHg) occurred and was followed by bradycardia (from 107 +/- 22 bpm to 71 +/- 9 bpm). Concomitantly both the rate of increase in ventricular pressure (48%) and ventricular wan thickening fraction (37%) decreased, thus indicating some worsening of left ventricular function. Further, systemic vascular resistance increased (290%) resulting in a reduction in cardiac output from 1.8 +/- 0.7 l/minute to 0.4 +/- 0.3 l/minute. Also, left ventricular end diastolic pressure initially increased (maximum 10.2 +/- 10.8 mmHg) but returned to the control level in 5 minutes. In spite of an increase in respiratory frequency (3x), PaCO2 increased and PaO2 and pH declined. Rectal temperature decreased from 38.4 +/- 0.9 to 36.0 +/- 0.8 degrees C. All of these changes were transient and returned to control levels during the follow-up period (2 hours). However, epinephrine concentration was exceptionally decreased by the drugs and stayed under the detection limit (20 pg/kg) for the entire time, whereas norepinephrine was undetectable for 10 minutes postadministration. Ketamine-medetomidine, administered in a dose that produced deep sedation, induced marked but reversible changes in most of the cardiovascular variables; there were no pedal or palpebral reflexes for 30 minutes. 56 NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43 Cardiovascular effects of intravenous sodium penicillin, sodium cefazolin, and sodium citrate in awake and anesthetized horses. Hubbell, J.A.E.; Muir, W.W.; Robertson, J.T.; Sams, R.A. Philadelphia, Pa. : J.B. Lippincott Co; 1987 May. Veterinary surgery v. 16 (3): p. 245-250; 1987 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Cardiovascular system; Injections; Sodium citrate; Penicillins; Cefazolin; Drug effects 57 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312 Cardiovascular effects recorded in horses during anaesthesia after treatment with trichlorfon. Adams, J.G.; Trim, C.M. London : British Veterinary Association; 1989 Sep. Research in veterinary science v. 47 (2): p. 164-169; 1989 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Cardiovascular system; Trichlorfon; Anthelmintics; Blood pressure 58 NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43 The cardiovascular response of sheep to tiletamine-zolazepam and butorphanol tartrate anesthesia. Howard, B.W.; Lagutchik, M.S.; Januszkiewicz, A.J.; Martin, D.G. Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1990 Nov. Veterinary surgery v. 19 (6): p. 461-467; 1990 Nov. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ewes; Diazepam; Anesthetics; Ketamine 59 NAL Call. No.: SF601.I4 Caudal epidural anaesthesia in the ewe. Harris, T. London : British Veterinary Association; 1991 Nov. In practice v. 13 (6): p. 234-235; 1991 Nov. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ewes; Anesthesia 60 NAL Call. No.: SF601.C24 Caudal epidural analgesia in cattle using xylazine. Caron, J.P.; LeBlanc, P.H. Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1989 Oct. Canadian journal of veterinary research; Revue canadienne de recherche veterinaire v. 53 (4): p. 486-489; 1989 Oct. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Cows; Xylazine; Conduction anesthesia; Dosage; Duration; Perineum 61 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Caudal epidural analgesia induced by xylazine administration in cows. St Jean, G.; Skarda, R.T.; Muir, W.W.; Hoffsis, G.F. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1990 Aug. American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (8): p. 1232-1236; 1990 Aug. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Cows; Xylazine; Ataxia; Cardiovascular system; Respiratory system; Rumen motility; Drug effects; Adverse effects Abstract: Xylazine (0.05 mg/kg of body weight diluted to a 5-ml volume, using 0.9% NaCl) or 5 ml of 0.9% NaCl was administered epidurally into the first caudal intervertebral space (Co1-Co2) in 8 cows (mean +/- SD body weight, 583 +/- 150 kg). Cows were observed for responses to deep needle pricking of the caudal dermatomes (S3 to Co), sedation, and ataxia. Heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, rate of ruminal contractions, coccygeal arterial blood pressure, pHa, blood gas tension (Pa(O2), Pa(CO2)), base excess, total solids concentration, and PCV were determined before and after xylazine administration. Epidurally administered xylazine induced sedation and selective (S3 to Co) analgesia for at least 2 hours. Mild ataxia of hind limbs was observed in 6 cows, but all cows remained standing. Heart rate, respiratory rate, rate of ruminal contractions, arterial blood pressure, Pa(O2), PCV, and total solids concentration were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased, and Pa(CO2), base excess, and bicarbonate concentration were significantly (P < 0.05) increased after xylazine administration. Epidurally administered 0.9% NaCl did not alter sensory perception to needle pricking and did not affect any of the physiologic variables determined. Although epidural administration of xylazine induced analgesia and sedation in healthy cows, it should be avoided for epidural analgesia in cattle with heart disease, lung disease, and/or gastrointestinal disease because of its potent cardiopulmonary and ruminal depressant effects. 62 NAL Call. No.: SF951.E62 Challenge in equine anesthesia: a suspected allergic reaction during acetylpromazine, guaifenesin, thiamylal, and halothane anesthesia. Goldberg, G.P.; Short, C.E. Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Pub. Co; 1988 Feb. Equine practice v. 10 (2): p. 5-10. ill; 1988 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Allergies; Diagnostic techniques; Halothane; Guaifenesin; Anesthetics; Adverse effects 63 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 C81 Changes in equine carpal joint synovial fluid in response to the injection of two local anesthetic agents. White, K.K.; Hodgson, D.R.; Hancock, D.; Parry, B.W.; Cordell, C. Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell Veterinarian, Inc; 1989 Jan. Cornell veterinarian v. 79 (1): p. 25-38; 1989 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Lidocaine; Anesthetics; Injections; Carpus; Joints (animal); Synovial fluid 64 NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992 Changes in nociceptive thresholds associated with chronic pain in sheep. Waterman, A.E.; Livingston, A.; Ley, S.J.; Brandt, S. New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992. Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p. 378-385, 400; 1992. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sheep; Pain; Central nervous system; Testing; Animal experiments; Laboratory tests 65 NAL Call. No.: SF601.J6 Changes of blood values in Przewalski horses (Equus przewalski przewalski) and zebras (Equus zebra hartmannae) during chemical immobilization. Kuttner, C.; Wiesner, H. Lawrence, Kan. : The Journal; 1987. The Journal of zoo animal medicine v. 18 (4): p. 144-147; 1987. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Przewalski's horse; Zebras; Blood chemistry; Anesthesia; Immobilization; Neuroleptics 66 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641 Chemical immobilisation in ostriches (Struthio camelus) using etorphine hydrochloride. Samour, J.H.; Irwin-Davies, J.; Faraj, E. London : The Association; 1990 Dec08. The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary Association v. 127 (23): p. 575-576. ill; 1990 Dec08. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ostriches; Immobilization; Etorphine; Anesthesia 67 NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47 Chemical restraint and analgesia in the horse. Geiser, D.R. Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders; 1990 Dec. The Veterinary clinics of North America : equine practice v. 6 (3): p. 495-512; 1990 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Draft animals; Anesthetics; Anesthesia; Neuroleptics; Restraint of animals; Chloral hydrate; Opioids; Analgesics; Promazine; Xylazine; Diazepam; Morphine; Pethidine 68 NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46 Chemical restraint and general anesthesia in the draft horse. Geiser, D.R. Manhattan, Kan. : The Association; 1989. Proceedings of the annual convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners (35th): p. 461-472; 1989. Meeting held December 3-6 1989, Boston, Massachusetts. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Draft animals; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Restraint of animals 69 NAL Call. No.: QL750.E74 Chicks in a novel environment: effects of conspecific calls. Vallortigara, G. Berlin, W. Ger. : Paul Parey; 1988 Aug. Ethology v. 78 (4): p. 341-345; 1988 Aug. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Chicks; Environment; Vocalization; Stress; Animal behavior 70 NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992 Clinical assessment of analgesic effects of butorphanol in cattle. Dodman, N.H.; Levine, H.; Court, M.H. New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992. Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p. 396-399, 401; 1992. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Cattle; Analgesics; Drug effects 71 NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6 Clinical evaluation of an infusion of xylazine, guaifenesin and ketamine for maintenance of anaesthesia in horses. Young, L.E.; Bartram, D.H.; Diamond, M.J.; Gregg, A.S.; Jones, R.S. Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1993 Mar. Equine veterinary journal v. 25 (2): p. 115-119; 1993 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Uk; Horses; Xylazine; Anesthesia; Guaifenesin; Ketamine; Surgery 72 NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46 Clinical evaluation of detomidine hydrochloride for equine reproductive surgery. McKinnon, A.O.; Carnevale, E.M.; Squires, E.L.; Jochle, W. Manhattan, Kan. : The Association; 1989. Proceedings of the annual convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners (34th): p. 563-568; 1989. Meeting held December 4-7, 1988, San Diego, CA. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Surgical operations; Analgesics; Reproductive organs (animal) 73 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641 Clinical evaluation of romifidine/ketamine/halothane anaesthesia in horses. Diamond, M.J.; Young, L.E.; Bartram, D.H.; Gregg, A.S.; Clutton, R.E.; Long, K.J.; Jones, R.S. London : The Association; 1993 Jun05. The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary Association v. 132 (23): p. 572-575; 1993 Jun05. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Preanesthetic medication 74 NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46 Clinical experience with isoflurane anesthesia in foals and adult horses. Rose, J.A.; Rose, E.M.; Peterson, P.R. Manhattan, Kan. : The Association; 1989. Proceedings of the annual convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners (34th): p. 555-561; 1989. Meeting held December 4-7, 1988, San Diego, CA. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Foals; Anesthesia; Halothane; Anesthetics 75 NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63 Clinical investigations of halothane and isoflurane for induction and maintenance of foal anesthesia. Steffey, E.P.; Willits, N.; Wong, P.; Hildebrand, S.V.; Wheat, J.D.; Meagher, D.M.; Hodgson, D.; Pascoe, J.R.; Heath, R.B.; Dunlop, C. Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1991 Sep. Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 14 (3): p. 300-309; 1991 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Foals; Halothane; Inhaled anesthetics; Anesthesia; Safety; Heart rate; Drug effects 76 NAL Call. No.: SF380.I52 Clinical observations in Shami goat kids sedated with medetomidine. Mohammad, F.K.; Zangana, I.K.; Al-Kassim, N.A. New York : Elsevier; 1991 Jul. Small ruminant research v. 5 (1/2): p. 149-153; 1991 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Kids; Anesthetics; Analgesics; Physiological functions; Heart rate; Respiration rate; Body temperature; Rumen motility 77 NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6 Clinical use of epidural xylazine in the horse. LeBlanc, P.H.; Caron, J.P. Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1990 May. Equine veterinary journal v. 22 (3): p. 180-181; 1990 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthetics; Conduction anesthesia; Xylazine 78 NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47 Clinical use of positive-pressure ventilation in the horse. Shawley, R.V.; Mandsager, R.E. Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders; 1990 Dec. The Veterinary clinics of North America : equine practice v. 6 (3): p. 575-585; 1990 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Ventilation; Equipment; Ventilators 79 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3 Clinical use of the neuromuscular blocking agents atracurium and pancuronium for equine anesthesia. Hildebrand, S.V.; Holland, M.; Copland, V.S.; Daunt, D.; Brock, N. Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1989 Jul15. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 195 (2): p. 212-219; 1989 Jul15. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Muscle relaxants; Drug effects; Surgical operations 80 NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43 Closed-circuit liquid injection isoflurane anesthesia in the horse. Olson, K.N.; Klein, L.V.; Nann, L.E.; Soma, L.R. Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1993 Jan. Veterinary surgery v. 22 (1): p. 73-78; 1993 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Pennsylvania; Horses; Anesthesia; Closed systems; Injection; Liquids; Surgery 81 NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63 Colonic alpha 2-adrenoceptor-mediated responses in the pony. Roger, T.; Ruckebusch, Y. Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1987 Dec. Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 10 (4): p. 310-318. ill; 1987 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Colon; Intestine motility; Prostaglandins; Xylazine; Analgesics 82 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641 A combination of methotrimeprazine, midazolam and guaiphenesin, with and without ketamine, in an anaesthetic procedure for horses. Luna, S.P.L.; Massone, F.; Castro, G.B.; Fantoni, D.T.; Hussni, C.A.; Aguiar, A.J.A. London : The Association; 1992 Jul11. The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary Association v. 131 (2): p. 33-35; 1992 Jul11. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Phenothiazines; Benzodiazepines; Guaifenesin; Ketamine; Anesthesia; Drug combinations; Preanesthetic medication; Halothane; Drug effects; Adverse effects; Cardiovascular system; Respiration 83 NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46 Common complications associated with equine chemical restraint and anesthesia. Muir, W.W. III Manhattan, Kan. : The Association; 1990. Proceedings of the annual convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners. p. 259-266; 1990. Meeting held December 2-5, 1990, Lexington, KY. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Restraint of animals; Anesthesia; Postoperative complications 84 NAL Call. No.: SF601.I4 Common conditions of domestic pigeons. Wallis, A.S. London : British Veterinary Association; 1991 May. In practice v. 13 (3): p. 95-100; 1991 May. Literature review. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Racing pigeons; Animal health; Laboratory diagnosis; Parasites; Treatment; Drugs; Anesthetics; Symptoms 85 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Comparative analgesia of xylazine, xylazine/morphine, xylazine/butorphanol, and xylazine/nalbuphine in the horse, using dental dolorimetry. Brunson, D.B.; Majors, L.J. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1987 Jul. American journal of veterinary research v. 48 (7): p. 1087-1091; 1987 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Analgesics; Pain; Measurement; Teeth; Drug combinations; Xylazine 86 NAL Call. No.: QP251.A1T5 Comparative efficacy of FSH-P and PMSG on superovulation in Pashmina goats. Mahmood, S.; Koul, G.L.; Biswas, J.C. Stoneham, Mass. : Butterworth-Heinemann; 1991 Jun. Theriogenology v. 35 (6): p. 1191-1196; 1991 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Goats; Goat breeds; Superovulation; Fsh; Pmsg; Embryos; Isolation; Survival; Corpus luteum; Age; Conception; Embryo transfer; Anesthesia; Triflupromazine; Barbiturates Abstract: Twenty-eight Pashmina goats were utilized to study the comparative effect of FSH-P and PMSG on superovulatory response. The effect of FSH-P marketed by two commercial firms was compared with respect to the number of corpora lutea and embryos recovered. The difference was found to be nonsignificant. Superovulatory responses with FSH-P (pooled) and PMSG were 16.55 +/- 6.13 and 11.70 +/- 8.07, respectively, and the difference was significant (P<0.02). Recovery of embryos was significantly higher (P<0.001) with FSH-P (4.72 +/- 4.33) than with PMSG (2.50 +/- 5.02) treatment. The superovulatory response (number of corpora lutea) and the embryo recovery rate was better in higher age groups (4 to 6 yr) than younger goats (1.5 to 3 yr). The embryo survival rate was higher (54.54%) for recipients operated on under a basal anaesthetics (Triflupromazine hydrochloride USP) than for those operated on under barbiturate anaesthesia (13.64%). The overall conception rate was 34.09%. 87 NAL Call. No.: SF601.C24 Comparative pharmacokinetics of Yohimbine in steers, horses and dogs. Jernigan, A.D.; Wilson, R.C.; Booth, N.H.; Hatch, R.C.; Akbari, A. Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1988 Apr. Canadian journal of veterinary research; Revue canadienne de recherche veterinaire v. 52 (2): p. 172-176; 1988 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Dogs; Horses; Steers; Anesthetics; Indoles; Pharmacokinetics 88 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Comparative study of continuous lumbar segmental epidural and subarachnoid analgesia in Holstein cows. Skarda, R.T.; Muir, W.W.; Hubbell, J.A.E. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1989 Jan. American journal of veterinary research v. 50 (1): p. 39-44. ill; 1989 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Dairy cows; Analgesics; Procaine; Administration; Injections; Catheters; Holstein-friesian; Cardiovascular system; Respiratory system Abstract: Eight adult Holstein cows were used to compare the effects of lumbar segmental epidural analgesia (SEA) and lumbar segmental subarachnoid analgesia (SSA). A modified 17-gauge Huber point (Tuohy) needle was used to place a catheter with stylet into either the epidural space at the thoracolumbar (T13-L1) intervertebral space or the tubarachnoid space at the lumbosacral intervertebral junction. The catheters were advanced so that their tips lay at the anterior lumbar (L1-L2) epidural space or at the thoracolumbar (T-13-L1) subarachnoid space. The position of the catheter was confirmed radiographically. A 5% solution of procaine HCl was used at mean doses of 300 mg (6 ml) to induce SEA and 84.4 +/- 12.9 mg (1.7 +/-0.3 ml) to induce SSA. Onset of analgesia to superficial and deep muscular pinprick stimulation was significantly (P less than 0.05) faster in cows with SSA than in those with SEA (10.4 +/- 2.3 minutes vs 15.9 +/- 3.8 minutes). Maximal thoracolumbar analgesia extended from spinal cord segments T12 to L4 on one or both sides of the vertebral column during SEA and from T10 to L3 on one or both sides during SSA. Duration of analgesia lasted significantly (P less than 0.05) longer in cows with SEA than in those with SSA (76.2 +/- 16.2 minutes vs 53.7 +/- 14.3 minutes). The advantages and disadvantages of the SEA catheter technique are discussed. 89 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Comparative study of the pharmacokinetics of alfentanil in rabbits, sheep, and dogs. Ilkiw, J.E.; Benthuysen, J.A.; McNeal, D. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1991 Apr. American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (4): p. 581-584; 1991 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Dogs; Sheep; Rabbits; Analgesics; Pharmacokinetics; Species differences; Anesthesia Abstract: The central arterial pharmacokinetics of alfentanil, a short-acting opioid agonist, were studied in rabbits, sheep, and dogs after short-duration infusion of the drug. Alfentanil was infused until a set end point (high-amplitude, slow-wave activity on the EEG) was reached. This required a larger alfentanil dose and a higher alfentanil arterial concentration in sheep, compared with rabbits and dogs. The plasma concentration-time data for each animal were fitted, using nonlinear regression, and in all animals, were best described by use of a triexponential function. In this study, differences in the disposition kinetics of alfentanil among the 3 species were found for only distribution clearance and initial distribution half-life. In dogs, compared with rabbits and sheep, the first distribution half-life was longer, probably because of pronounced drug-induced bradycardia (mean +/- SD, 48 +/-21 beats/min). Distribution clearance was faster in sheep, compared with dogs, also probably because of better blood flow in sheep. Elimination half-life was similar in all species (rabbits, 62.4 +/- 11.3 minutes; sheep, 65.1 +/- 27.1 minutes; dogs, 58.3 +/- 10.3 minutes). This rapid half-life resulted from a small steady-state volume of distribution (rabbits, 908.3 +/- 269.0 ml/kg; sheep, 720.0 +/- 306.7 ml/kg; dogs, 597.7 +/- 290.2 ml/kg) and rapid systemic clearance (rabbits, 19.4 +/- 5.3 ml/min/kg; sheep, 13.3 +/- 3.0 ml/min/kg; dogs, 18.7 +/- 7.5 ml/min/kg). On the basis of these pharmacokinetic variables, alfentanil should have short duration of action in rabbits, sheep, and dogs. This may be beneficial in veterinary practice where rapid recovery would be expected after bolus administration for short procedures or after infusion for longer procedures. 90 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Comparative study of ultrasonography and arteriography of the carotid artery of xylazine-sedated and halothane-anesthetized goats. Lee, S.W.; Hankes, G.H.; Purohit, R.C.; Bartels, J.E.; Cartee, R.E.; Pablo, L.; Conti, J.C. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1990 Jan. American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (1): p. 109-113. ill; 1990 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Goats; Ultrasound; Diagnostic techniques; Blood vessel disorders; Arteries; Neck; Diameter; Blood flow; Xylazine; Halothane Abstract: The carotid artery of clinically normal goats was examined, using duplex ultrasonography and arteriography. The diameter of the carotid artery was measured by use of two-dimensional ultrasonography and Doppler ultrasonography, respectively, before and after xylazine administration. The diameter of the artery was also measured by use of an arteriography technique in halothane-anesthetized goats. There was no significant difference between the mean diameter of the carotid artery measured by ultrasonography in conscious nonsedated goats and that determined by arteriography in goats under halothane anesthesia. On the other hand, ultrasonography of xylazine-sedated goats revealed an increase of carotid artery diameter of 20 to 30%. There was no change in the velocity of blood flow after xylazine administration. 91 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 C81 A comparison of end-tidal halothane concentrations measured at proximal and distal ends of the endotracheal tube in the horse. Matthews, N.S.; Hartsfield, S.M.; Cornick, J.L.; Jacobson, J.D.; Williams, J.D. Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell Veterinarian, Inc; 1992 Jan. Cornell veterinarian v. 82 (1): p. 21-27; 1992 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Halothane; Anesthesia; Concentration; Measurement; Sampling 92 NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43 A comparison of injectable anesthetic combinations in horses. Matthews, N.S.; Hartsfield, S.M.; Cornick, J.L.; Williams, J.D.; Beasley, A. Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1991 Jul. Veterinary surgery v. 20 (4): p. 268-273; 1991 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthetics; Injectable anesthetics; Xylazine; Drug combinations; Ketamine 93 NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43 A comparison of methods for proximal palmar metacarpal analgesia in horses. Ford, T.S.; Ross, M.W.; Orsini, P.G. Philadelphia, Pa. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1989 Mar. Veterinary surgery v. 18 (2): p. 146-150. ill; 1989 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Metacarpus; Carpus; Joints (animal); Anesthesia; Injections; Analgesics; Infiltration 94 NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6 A comparison of responses to analgesia of the navicular bursa and intra-articular analgesia of the distal interphalagneal joint in 59 horses. Dyson, S.J.; Kidd, L. Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1993 Mar. Equine veterinary journal v. 25 (2): p. 93-98; 1993 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Uk; Horses; Lameness; Analgesics; Serous bursa; Joints (animal); Synovial fluid 95 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V643 Comparison of the effects of two sets of anaesthetic agents and posture on respiratory rate, heart rate, pH, blood gas and acid-base status in the horse. Karimi, A. London : Bailliere Tindall; 1987 Nov. British veterinary journal v. 143 (6): p. 506-512; 1987 Nov. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthetics; Xylazine; Thiopental; Posture; Respiration rate; Heart rate; Ph; Blood; Gases; Acid base equilibrium; Anesthesia 96 NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63 A comparison of the sedative effects of three alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists (romifidine, detomidine and xylazine) in the horse. England, G.C.W.; Clarke, K.W.; Goossens, L. Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1992 Jun. Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 15 (2): p. 194-201; 1992 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Xylazine; Agonists; Anesthesia; Dosage; Intravenous injection; Adverse effects 97 NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992 Comparison of the thermal and mechanical antiociceptive actions of opioids and alpha 2-adrenoreceptor agonists in sheep. Livingston, A.; Waterman, A.E.; Nolan, A.; Amin, A. New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992. Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p. 372-377, 400; 1992. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sheep; Agonists; Opioids; Pain; Testing; Animal experiments; Alpha-adrenergic receptors; Analgesics; Xylazine; Fentanyl; Pethidine; Laboratory tests 98 NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43 A comparison of xylazine-diazepam-ketamine and xylazine-guaifenesin-ketamine in equine anesthesia. Brock, N.; Hildebrand, S.V. Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1990 Nov. Veterinary surgery v. 19 (6): p. 468-474; 1990 Nov. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthetics; Diazepam; Ketamine; Xylazine; Guaifenesin 99 NAL Call. No.: SF895.P76 Complications associated with alcohol tail-blocks in three horses. Stewart, R.H.; Reed, S.M.; Weisbrode, S.E. Washington, D.C. : Fidia Research Foundation; 1990. Progress in veterinary neurology v. 1 (4): p. 476-480; 1990. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Case reports; Complications; Ethanol; Injection; Tail; Conduction anesthesia 100 NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46 Compressed spectral analysis of the EEG as an indicator of anesthetic quality during anesthesia for orthopedic surgery in the horses. Short, C.E.; Ekstrom, P.M. Lexington, Ky. : The Association; 1993. Proceedings of the annual convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners. p. 69-80; 1993. Meeting helding on November 29-December 2, 1992, Orlando, Florida. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia 101 NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6 A computer-derived protocol to aid in selecting medical versus surgical treatment of horses with abdominal pain. Ducharme, N.G.; Pascoe, P.J.; Lumsden, J.H.; Ducharme, G.R. Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1989 Nov. Equine veterinary journal v. 21 (6): p. 447-450; 1989 Nov. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Abdomen; Pain; Colic; Medical treatment; Surgery; Decision analysis; Computer analysis 102 NAL Call. No.: SF601.C24 A computer-derived protocol using recursive partitioning to aid in estimating prognosis of horses with abdominal pain in referral hospitals. Pascoe, P.J.; Ducharme, N.G.; Ducharme, G.R.; Lumsden, J.H. Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1990 Jul. Canadian journal of veterinary research; Revue canadienne de recherche veterinaire v. 54 (3): p. 373-378; 1990 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Colic; Abdomen; Survival; Estimation; Computer analysis 103 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312 Contribution of amino acid transmitters to epileptiform activity and reflex suppression in electrically head stunned sheep. Cook, C.J.; Devine, C.E.; Tavener, A.; Gilbert, K.V. London : British Veterinary Association; 1992 Jan. Research in veterinary science v. 52 (1): p. 48-56; 1992 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sheep; Stunning; Electrical treatment; Gamma-aminobutyric acid; Amino acids; Receptors; Anesthetics; Reflexes; Convulsions Abstract: In sheep, administration of a combination of zolazepam and tiletamine hydrochloride resulted in a dose dependent reduction in the duration of epileptic activity induced by an electric stun applied to the head. The compound also lengthened the normal period of reflex suppression that occurs after a stun. Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists (2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic and 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acids) also reduced the duration of epileptic activity following an electric stun. These drugs did not alter the time of pedal and ear pinch reflex suppression. Administration of bicuculline (a gamma amino-4-butyric acid [GABA] receptor antagonist) reduced the period of stun induced reflex suppression and increased seizure duration. Administration of a GABA receptor agonist, baclofen, increased the duration of reflex suppression. The results suggest that the development of epileptiform-like activity following application of an electric current to the head is dependent upon excitatory amino acid receptors. The reflex suppression that also arises following an electric stun is contributed to by the activation of GABA receptor mechanisms. 104 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Correlation between drug and metabolite concentrations in plasma and anesthetic action of ketamine in swine. Loscher, W.; Ganter, M.; Fassbender, C.P. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1990 Mar. American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (3): p. 391-398; 1990 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Pigs; Ketamine; Anesthesia; Blood plasma; Metabolites; Administration; Pharmacokinetics; Pharmacodynamics Abstract: Pharmacokinetic variables and metabolism of IM and IV administered ketamine (15 mg/kg of body weight) were determined in 8 swine (2 adult sows and 6 young pigs). After IM administration, maximal plasma concentration was rapidly reached, but peak concentration varied considerably, although comparison with IV data for the same swine indicated that the drug was almost completely absorbed from the musculature. After IV administration, ketamine kinetics followed a 3-term exponential decrease, indicating rapid initial distribution of the drug to highly vascular tissues including the brain, followed by redistribution into less vascular tissues, and elimination. Redistribution and elimination phases, with similar kinetics as those observed in the IV experiment, also were determined in the IM experiment. After both routes of administration, onset of anesthesia was rapid, and most swine recovered consciousness during the phase of redistribution, indicating that anesthesia is terminated by redistribution of drug from the brain into other tissues, whereas metabolism and excretion are less important for duration of anesthesia induced by ketamine. The time during which the swine resumed a lateral position (sleep time) was positively correlated with plasma ketamine concentration at onset of lateral recumbency, as well as with the area under the plasma concentration-time curve. The minimal plasma ketamine concentration for induction of immobilization was about 2 microgram/ml. In adult sows, ketamine induced profound analgesia, which was not obtained in young pigs; this difference in potency could not be related to pharmacokinetic differences between young and adult swine. With respect to metabolism of ketamine in swine, the major metabolite in plasma was norketamine (metabolite I), whereas a second metabolite (metabolite II) was detected only in low concentrations. Elimination half-life of ketamine was about 2 hours after either IM or IV administration. 105 NAL Call. No.: SF391.P55 Creatine kinase activity in blood plasma and muscles of pigs susceptible and resistant to halothane anaesthesia. Poltarsky, J.; Kolataj, A.; Bulla, J. Wallingford : Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux; 1989 Dec. Pig news and information v. 10 (4): p. 469-472; 1989 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Pigs; Creatine kinase; Enzyme activity; Blood plasma; Longissimus dorsi; Halothane; Drug resistance; Sex differences 106 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Dental dolorimetry for the evaluation of an analgesic agent in the horse. Brunson, D.B.; Collier, M.A.; Scott, E.A.; Majors, L.J. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1987 Jul. American journal of veterinary research v. 48 (7): p. 1082-1086. ill; 1987 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Analgesics; Teeth; Electrodes; Pain; Measurement 107 NAL Call. No.: 475 J824 Determination of residues of carazolol and a number of tranquillizers in swine kidney by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and fluorescence detection. Keukens, H.J.; Aerts, M.M.L. Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers; 1989 Feb17. Journal of chromatography v. 464 (1): p. 149-161; 1989 Feb17. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Netherlands; Pigs; Kidneys; Drug residues; Neuroleptics; Determination; Liquid chromatography; Fluorescence; Ultraviolet spectroscopy 108 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Determination of sensitivity to metocurine in exercised horses. White, D.A.; Hildebrand, S.V.; Jones, J.H.; Fung, D.L.; Gronert, G.A. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1992 May. American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (5): p. 757-761; 1992 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Muscle relaxants; Exercise; Pharmacokinetics; Pharmacodynamics Abstract: On the basis of results in dogs, conditioning exercise may increase sensitivity to nondepolarizing muscle relaxants. Five Thoroughbreds were exercised/conditioned 3 times weekly on a treadmill for 8 months. Increasing maximal rate of O2 consumption verified that the horses were responding to exercise conditioning. Six nonexercised Thoroughbreds served as the control group. Studies were done with horses under general anesthesia by use of halothane during partial paralysis by a brief constant-rate infusion with the muscle relaxant, metocurine iodide. Quantification of degree of paralysis of the hoof twitch (eg, digital extensor) occurred with simultaneous quantification of blood values of metocurine. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses of the data were done by a nonlinear regression program, using the Hill equation. There were no differences in findings between exercised and nonexercised horses. The mean blood concentration for the 50% paralyzing dose of metocurine was 0.44 +/- 0.11 (SD) micrograms/ml in exercised horses, and 0.58 +/- 0.22 micrograms/ml in nonexercised horses. Despite evidence for a response to conditioning, a significant change in the sensitivity of the neuromuscular junction to metocurine was not found. 109 NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6 Detomidine (Domosedan) in foals: sedative and analgesic effects. Oijala, M.; Katila, T. London : British Equine Veterinary Association; 1988 Sep. Equine veterinary journal v. 20 (5): p. 327-330; 1988 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Foals; Neuroleptics; Analgesics; Drug effects; Heart rate; Body weight 110 NAL Call. No.: SF951.J65 Detomidine hydrochloride versus xylazine plus morphine as sedative and analgesic agents for flank laparotomies and ovary and oviduct removal in standing mares. Jochle, W.; Woods, G.L.; Little, T.V.; Hillman, R.B.; Ball, B.A. Lake Elsinore, Calif. : William E. Jones, DVM; 1991 Jul. Journal of equine veterinary science v. 11 (4): p. 225-228; 1991 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Mares; Reproductive disorders; Ovariectomy; Oviducts; Surgical operations; Analgesics; Xylazine; Morphine; Laparotomy 111 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641 Detomidine-butorphanol sedation in equine clinical practice. Taylor, P.M.; Browning, A.P.; Harris, C.P. London : The Association; 1988 Oct08. The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary Association v. 123 (15): p. 388-390; 1988 Oct08. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthetics; Anesthesia; Drug combinations; Adverse effects 112 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312 Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of phenothiazine tranquillisers in horses. Smith, M.L.; Chapman, C.B. London : British Veterinary Association; 1987 May. Research in veterinary science v. 42 (3): p. 415-417; 1987 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Phenothiazines; Neuroleptics; Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; Detection 113 NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6 Dose related effects of the kappa agonist U-50, 488H on behaviour, nociception and autonomic response in the horse. Kamerling, S.; Weckman, T.; Donahoe, J.; Tobin, T. London : British Equine Veterinary Association; 1988 Mar. Equine veterinary journal v. 20 (2): p. 114-118; 1988 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Analgesics; Dosage effect; Animal behavior; Autonomic nervous system; Neurotropic drugs 114 NAL Call. No.: SF951.J65 Dose selection for detomidine as a sedative and analgesic in horses with colic from controlled and open clinical studies. Jochle, W. Lake Elsinore, Calif. : William E. Jones, DVM; 1990 Jan. Journal of equine veterinary science v. 10 (1): p. 6-11; 1990 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Colic; Analgesics; Drug effects; Dosage effects; Duration 115 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Dynamic baroreflex sensitivity in anesthetized horses, maintained at 1.25 to 1.3 minimal alveolar concentration of halothane. Hellyer, P.W.; Dodam, J.R.; Light, G.S. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1991 Oct. American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (10): p. 1672-1675; 1991 Oct. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Heart rate; Blood pressure; Reflexes; Xylazine; Ketamine; Halothane; Vasoconstrictor agents Abstract: Dynamic baroreflex sensitivity for increasing arterial pressure (DBSI) was used to quantitatively assess the effects of anesthesia on the heart rate/arterial pressure relationship during rapid (less than or equal to 2 minutes) pressure changes in the horse. Anesthesia was induced with IV administration of xylazine and ketamine and maintained with halothane at a constant end-tidal concentration of 1.1 to 1.2% (1.25 to 1.3 minimal alveolar concentration). Systolic arterial pressure (SAP) was increased a minimum of 30 mm of Hg in response to an IV bolus injection of phenylephrine HCl. Linear regression was used to determine the slope of the R-R interval/SAP relationship. During dynamic increases in SAP, a significant correlation between R-R interval and SAP was observed in 8 of 8 halothane-anesthetized horses. Correlation coefficients between R-R interval and sap were > 0.80 in 5 of 8 horses. Mean (+/- SD) DBSI was 4.8 +/- 3.4 ms/mm of Hg in anesthetized horses. A significant correlation between R-R interval and SAP was observed in only 3 of 6 awake horses during dynamic increases in SAP. Lack of correlation between R-R interval and SAP in 3 of 6 awake horses indicated that rapidly increasing SAP with an IV phenylephrine bolus is a poor method to evaluate baroreceptor-mediated heart rate changes in awake horses. Reflex slowing of heart rate in response to a rising arterial pressure appeared to have been overridden by the effects of excitement. Mean (+/- SD) DBSI (3 horses) was 7.3 +/- 3.3 ms/mm of Hg in awake horses. 116 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Effect of body posture on cardiopulmonary function in horses during five hours of constant-dose halothane anesthesia. Steffey, E.P.; Kelley, A.B.; Hodgson, D.S.; Grandy, J.L.; Woliner, M.J.; Willits, N. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1990 Jan. American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (1): p. 11-16; 1990 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Posture; Halothane; Anesthesia; Cardiovascular system; Respiratory system Abstract: Cardiovascular and respiratory functions were serially characterized in 7 healthy, spontaneously breathing, adult horses (from which food had been withheld) during 5 hours of constant 1.06% alveolar halothane (end-expired halothane concentration of 1.06%; equivalent to 1.2 times the minimal alveolar anesthetic concentration for horses). To enable comparison of temporal results in relation to 2 body postures, horses were studied in lateral recumbency (LR) and dorsal recumbency (DR) on separate occasions. Temporal changes in results of measures of circulation previously reported from this laboratory for horses in LR were confirmed (ie, a time-related increase in systemic arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, stroke volume, and PCV). During DR, systemic arterial blood pressure was initially significantly (P < 0.05) greater and pulmonary artery pressure less than results at comparable periods during LR. Differences ceased to exist with duration of anesthesia. Except for a greater heart rate at hour 5 of DR, no other significant differences in circulation were found between LR and DR. In general, except for PaO2, measures of ventilation did not change with time in either LR or DR. The PaO2 was significantly greater during LR, compared with DR, but the average did not change significantly with time in either body posture. 117 NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992 Effect of buffered lidocaine on epidural anesthesia in cattle. Riebold, T.W.; Hawkins, J.K.; Crisman, R.O. New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992. Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p. 303-306, 313-315; 1992. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Cattle; Anesthesia; Lidocaine; Local anesthetics 118 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312 Effect of carbon dioxide stunning on somatosensory evoked potentials in hens. Mohan Raj, A.B.; Gregory, N.G.; Wotton, S.B. London : British Veterinary Association; 1990 Nov. Research in veterinary science v. 49 (3): p. 355-359. ill; 1990 Nov. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Fowls; Hens; Stunning; Carbon dioxide; Electroencephalograms; Convulsions; Animal welfare; Anesthesia; Consciousness 119 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312 Effect of clenbuterol an arterial oxygen tension in the anaesthetised horse. Gleed, R.D.; Dobson, A. London : British Veterinary Association; 1990 May. Research in veterinary science v. 48 (3): p. 331-337; 1990 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Oxygen; Arteries; Partial pressure; Position; Drugs 120 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Effect of halothane, isoflurane, and pentobarbital anesthesia on myocardial irritability in chickens. Greenlees, K.J.; Clutton, R.E.; Larsen, C.T.; Eyre, P. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1990 May. American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (5): p. 757-758; 1990 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Chickens; Anesthesia; Halothane; Anesthetics; Pentobarbital; Myocardium; Adverse effects Abstract: The relative myocardial irritant properties of halothane, isoflurane, and pentobarbital were evaluated in chickens. Sixteen adult male broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: group-1 chickens were anesthetized with pentobarbital (30 mg/kg, IV), group-2 chickens were anesthetized with halothane (end tidal halothane 1.2%), and group-3 chickens were anesthetized with isoflurane (end tidal isoflurane 2.1%). Birds in any 2 of the 3 treatment groups were tested on any 1 day. Local anesthesia was induced, and blood pressure, heart rate, ECG, and blood gas variables were measured before general anesthesia was induced. Positive-pressure ventilation with an inspired O2 fraction > 0.95 was adjusted to result in an end tidal CO2 concentration that reflected a PaCO2 similar to that obtained prior to anesthesia and ventilation. All measurements were repeated. The threshold for ventricular fibrillation in response to electrical stimulation of the heart was then determined for all birds. Effects of anesthesia on hemodynamic and blood gas variables were similar in all 3 groups. Compared with halothane or pentobarbital, isoflurane anesthesia resulted in a significantly (P < 0.05) lower threshold for electrical fibrillation of the heart. 121 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641 Effect of halothane on bronchial calibre of anaesthetised cattle. Watney, G.C.G. London : British Veterinary Association; 1987 Jan03. The Veterinary record v. 120 (1): p. 9-12; 1987 Jan03. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Cattle; Halothane; Anesthesia; Bronchi; Volume; Respiration pathways; Xylazine; Diameter 122 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Effect of high PaCO2 and time on cerebrospinal fluid and intraocular pressure in halothane-anesthetized horses. Cullen, L.K.; Steffey, E.P.; Bailey, C.S.; Kortz, G.; Da Silva Curiel, J.; Bellhorn, R.W.; Woliner, M.J.; Elliott, A.R.; Jarvis, K.A. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1990 Feb. American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (2): p. 300-304; 1990 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Halothane; Hypercapnia; Carbon dioxide; Partial pressure; Timing; Cerebrospinal fluid; Eyes (animal); Internal pressure Abstract: The effects of different arterial carbon dioxide tensions (PaCO2) on cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) and intraocular pressure (IOP) were studied in 6 male halothaneanesthetized horses positioned in left lateral recumbency. Steady-state anesthetic conditions (1.06% end-tidal halothane concentration) commenced 60 minutes following anesthetic induction with only halothane in oxygen. During atracurium neuromuscular blockade, horses were ventilated, and respiratory rate and peak inspiratory airway pressure were maintained within narrow limits. The CSFP and IOP were measured at 3 different levels of PaCO2 (approx 40, 60, and 80 mm of Hg). The PaCO2 sequence in each horse was determined from a type of switchback design with the initial PaCO2 (period 1), established 30 minutes after the commencement of steady-state anesthesia, being repeated in the middle (period 3) and again at the end (period 5) of the experiment. Measurements taken from the middle 3 periods (2, 3, and 4) would form a Latin square design replicated twice. The interval between each period was approximately 45 minutes. Data from periods 2, 3, and 4 indicated that CSFP (P < 0.05) and mean systemic arterial pressure increased significantly (P < 0.05) with high PaCO2. Mean central venous pressure, heart rate, and IOP did not change significantly during these same conditions. Measurements taken during periods 1, 3, and 5 were compared to assess the time- related responses to anesthesia and showed a significant increase in CSFP, a significant decrease in mean central venous pressure, and a small (but not statistically significant) increase in mean systemic arterial pressure. 123 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Effect of hypercapnia on the arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine in horses anesthetized with guaifenesin, thiamylal sodium, and halothane. Gaynor, J.S.; Bednarski, R.M.; Muir, W.W. III Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1993 Feb. American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (2): p. 315-321; 1993 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Hypercapnia; Epinephrine; Dosage; Anesthesia; Guaifenesin; Halothane; Inhaled anesthetics; Arrhythmia Abstract: The effect of hypercapnia on the arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine (ADE) was investigated in 14 horses. Anesthesia was induced with guaifenesin and thiamylal sodium and was maintained at an end-tidal halothane concentration between 0.86 and 0.92%. Base-apex ECG, cardiac output, and facial artery blood pressure were measured and recorded. The ADE was determined at normocapnia (arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide [Pa(CO2)] = 35 to 45 mm of Hg), at hypercapnia (Pa(CO2) = 70 to 80 mm of Hg), and after return to normocapnia. Epinephrine was infused at arithmetically spaced increasing rates (initial rate = 0.25 micrograms/kg of body weight/min) for a maximum of 10 minutes. The ADE was defined as the lowest epinephrine infusion rate, to the nearest 0.25 micrograms/kg/min, at which 4 premature ventricular complexes occurred in a 15-second period. The ADE (mean +/- SD) during hypercapnia (1.04 +/- 0.23 micrograms/kg/min) was significantly (P < 0.05) less than the ADE at normocapnia (1.35 +/- 0.38 micrograms/kg/min), whereas the ADE after return to normocapnia (1.17 +/- 0.22 micrograms/kg/min) was not significantly different from those during normocapnia or hypercapnia. Baseline systolic and diastolic arterial pressures and cardiac output decreased after return to normocapnia. Significant differences were not found in arterial partial pressure of O2 (Pa(O2)) or in base excess during the experiment. Two horses developed ventricular fibrillation and died during normocapnic determinations of ADE. Hypercapnia was associated with an increased risk of developing ventricular arrhythmias in horses anesthetized with guaifenesin, thiamylal sodium, and halothane. 124 NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43 Effect of hypercapnia or xylazine on lateral ventricle and lumbosacral cerebrospinal fluid pressures in pentobarbital-anesthetized horses. Moore, R.M.; Trim, C.M. Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1993 Mar. Veterinary surgery v. 22 (2): p. 151-158; 1993 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Cerebrospinal fluid; Anesthesia 125 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 SO8 The effect of lateral and dorsal recumbency on cardiopulmonary function in the anaesthetised horse. Stegmann, G.F.; Littlejohn, A. Pretoria : The Association; 1987 Mar. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association; Tydskrif van die Suid-Afrikaanse Veterinere Vereniging v. 58 (1): p. 21-27; 1987 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Position; Body weight; Heart output; Ventilation; Physiological functions; Heart; Lungs 126 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V643 The effect of pentobarbitone sodium anaesthesia on plasma LH, cortisol and testosterone in goats. Mohamed, F.H.A.; Cox, J.E. London : Bailliere Tindall; 1987 Nov. British veterinary journal v. 143 (6): p. 513-519; 1987 Nov. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Goats; Pentobarbital; Anesthesia; Blood plasma; Lh; Cortisol; Testosterone 127 NAL Call. No.: QL876.B5 The effect of stage of estrous cycle and follicular maturation on ovarian inhibin production in sheep. Campbell, B.K.; McNeilly, A.S.; Mann, G.E.; Baird, D.T. Champaign, Ill. : Society for the Study of Reproduction; 1991 Mar. Biology of reproduction v. 44 (3): p. 483-490; 1991 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ewes; Ovulation; Graafian follicles; Estrus; Granulosa cells; Cell culture; Cloprostenol; Fsh; Lh; Inhibin; Estradiol; Androstenedione; Testosterone; Hormone secretion Abstract: Twenty-four Scottish Blackface ewes (mean weight 50.0 +/- 0.1 kg with ovulation rate 1.3 +/- 0.1) were randomly divided into 4 groups of 6 animals. Under general anesthesia, following the collection of a timed sample of ovarian venous blood, the ovaries of these animals were collected either on Day 10 of the luteal phase or 12, 24, and 48 h after a luteolytic dose of a prostaglandin (PG) F2 alpha analogue (cloprostenol 100 microgram i.m.) administered on Day 10. All follicles greater than 3 mm were dissected from the ovaries and incubated in Medium 199 (M199) at 37 degrees C for 2 h, following which the granulosa cells were harvested and incubated in triplicate for 24 h in M199 with or without ovine FSH or ovine LH. Plasma and culture media samples were assayed for inhibin, estradiol (E2), androstenedione (A4), and testosterone (T) by specific RIA. After correcting for hematocrit, ovarian secretion rates were calculated from the product of the plasma concentration and flow rate. The rate of ovarian inhibin secretion during the luteal phase was similar from ovaries categorized on the basis of presence of luteal tissue (1.0 +/- 0.3 and 0.9 +/- 0.5 ng/min for CL present and absent, respectively), confirming that the ovine CL does not secrete appreciable amounts of inhibin. Inhibin secretion was higher (p < 0.05) at 12 h after PG-induced luteolysis but not at 24 or 48 h compared to values for luteal phase control ewes. Although ovaries containing large estrogenic follicles (greater than or equal to 4 mm in diameter and classified as estrogenic from in vitro criteria) secreted the most inhibin (55%; p < 0.05), both ovaries containing large nonestrogenic follicles (33%) and small (11%; <4 mm in diameter) follicles secreted appreciable amounts of inhibin. This contrasted strongly with E2 where >80% of the steroid was secreted by large estrogenic follicles. The rate of ovarian inhibin secretion was positively correlated (p < 0.05) with the rate of E2, A4, and T secretion. 128 NAL Call. No.: 421 J828 Effect of the anesthetizing agent triethylamine on western equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis viral titers in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Kramer, L.D.; Presser, S.B.; Houk, E.J.; Hardy, J.L. Lanham, Md. : The Entomological Society of America; 1990 Nov. Journal of medical entomology v. 27 (6): p. 1008-1110; 1990 Nov. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Aedes dorsalis; Culex tarsalis; Anesthesia; Arboviruses; Disease vectors; Public health; St. louis encephalitis virus; Triethylamine; Western equine encephalitis virus 129 NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63 The effect of the organophosphate trichlorfon on the neuromuscular blocking activity of atracurium in halothane-anesthetized horses. Hildebrand, S.V.; Hill, T.; Holland, M. Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1989 Sep. Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 12 (3): p. 277-282; 1989 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Trichlorfon; Halothane; Anesthesia; Muscle relaxants 130 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Effect of withholding feed on ventilation and the incidence of regurgitation during halothane anesthesia of adult cattle. Blaze, C.A.; LeBlanc, P.H.; Robinson, N.E. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1988 Dec. American journal of veterinary research v. 49 (12): p. 2126-2129; 1988 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Cattle; Halothane; Anesthesia; Restricted feeding; Ventilation; Vomiting; Gases; Lungs Abstract: Six cows were anesthetized for 90 minutes with 1.5 minimal alveolar concentrations of halothane in oxygen, after 48 hours without food and 12 hours without water. On a separate occasion, the cows were allowed access to feed and water up to the time of induction of anesthesia, with the sequence of feeding vs fasting randomized. Every 15 minutes, measurements were made of end-tidal halothane concentration, arterial blood gas tensions, mean arterial blood pressure, heart and respiratory rates, tidal volume, minute volume, airflow rate, and transpulmonary pressure, and calculations were made of dynamic compliance and pulmonary resistance. Any regurgitation was recorded. Hypoventilation was noticed in all cows, but to a greater degree in fed cows. Fed cows became hypoxemic, whereas arterial oxygen tension did not change in nonfed cows. Alveolar-arterial oxygen tension gradient, tidal volume, and minute volume did not change. Arterial pH decreased progressively in all cows. Dynamic compliance also decreased progressively in all cows, and was consistently lower in fed cows. Pulmonary resistance tended to increase in all cows, but the increase was significant only in fed cows at 90 minutes. All fed cows became tympanitic, and 2 cows regurgitated a small volume of fluid at 55 minutes. Three nonfed cows regurgitated larger volumes at times ranging from 8 minutes to 85 minutes. 131 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Effect of xylazine on the arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine in thiamylal/halothane-anesthetized horses. Gaynor, J.S.; Bednarski, R.M.; Muir, W.W. III Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1992 Dec. American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (12): p. 2350-2354; 1992 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthetics; Drug combinations; Drug effects Abstract: The effect of xylazine on the arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine (ADE) was studied in 9 horses. Anesthesia was induced by administration of guaifenesin (50 mg/kg of body weight, IV) followed by thiamylal (4 to 6 mg/kg, IV) and was maintained at 1 minimal alveolar concentration MAC) of halothane (0.89%). Base apex ECG and facial artery pressure were recorded. Epinephrine was infused in a sequence of arithmetically spaced increasing rates (initial rate 0.25 (Lg/kg/min) for a maximum of 10 minutes. The ADE was defined as the lowest epinephrine infusion rate to the nearest 0.25 microgram/kg/min at which at least 4 premature ventricular depolarizations occurred in a 15-second period. Xylazine (1.1 mg/kg, IV) was administered after the control ADE was determined. Xylazine did not significantly alter the ADE (control, 1.12 +/-0.38 microgram/kg/min; xylazine, 1.21 +/- 0.46 microgram/kg/min). Blood pressure increased transiently for 8 minutes after xylazine administration. Baseline systolic and diastolic arterial pressures and heart rate were not significantly different from control baseline pressures and heart rate 15 minutes after xylazine administration. Blood pressure and heart rate increased significantly during control and xylazine ADE determinations. Significant differences in pH, PaO2, PaCO2, or base excess were not observed between baseline and ADE in the control or xylazine groups. One horse developed atrial fibrillation, and 2 horses developed ventricular fibrillation during ADE determinations. 132 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Effects of a highly concentrated hypertonic saline-dextran volume expander on cardiopulmonary function in anesthetized normovolemic horses. Moon, P.F.; Snyder, J.R.; Haskins, S.C.; Perron, P.R.; Kramer, G.C. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1991 Oct. American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (10): p. 1611-1618; 1991 Oct. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Fluid therapy; Saline water; Dextran; Solutions; Anesthesia; Cardiovascular system; Respiratory system; Adverse effects Abstract: Conventional fluid resuscitation is unsatisfactory in a small percentage of equine emergency surgical cases because the large volumes of fluids required cannot be given rapidly enough to adequately stabilize the horse. In anesthetized horses, the volume expansion and cardiopulmonary effects of a small volume of highly concentrated hypertonic saline-dextran solution were evaluated as an alternative initial fluid choice. Seven halothane-anesthetized, laterally recumbent, spontaneously ventilating, normovolemic horses were treated with a 25% NaCl-24% dextran 70 solution (HSD) at a dosage of 1.0 ml/kg of body weight, IV, infused over 10 minutes, and the effects were measured for 120 minutes after infusion. Plasma volume expansion was rapid and significant (from 36.6 +/- 4.6 ml/kg to 44.9 +/- 4.8 ml/kg) and remained significantly expanded for the duration of the experiment. Packed cell volume, total blood hemoglobin, and plasma protein concentrations significantly decreased, confirming rapid and sustained volume expansion with hemodilution. Cardiac index and stroke index immediately increased and remained high for the entire study (from 69.6 +/- 15.3 ml/min/kg to 106.6 +/- 28.4 ml/min/kg, and from 1.88 t 0.49 ml/beat/kg to 2.50 +/- 0.72 ml/beat/kg, respectively). Systemic vascular resistance significantly decreased immediately after HSD infusion and remained decreased for the duration of the study (from 1.41 +/- 0.45 mm of Hg/ml/min/kg to 0.88 t 0.22 mm of Hg/ml/min/kg). Arterial and venous blood oxygen content decreased significantly because of hemodilution, but actual oxygen transport transiently increased at the 10-minute measurement before returning toward baseline. Plasma osmolality and sodium significantly increased and remained high for the entire 120 minutes (from 293 +/- 2 osm/L to 326 +/- 9 mosm/L, and from 142.8 +/- 3.3 mM/L to 159.0 +/- 6.2 mM/L, respectively). Urine output increased in 5 of 7 horses within minutes of HSD infusion, but the mean increase was 133 NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992 The effects of alpha 2-adrenoreceptor agonist analgesia on the central nervous system in an equine model. Short, C.E.; Kallfelz, F.A.; Otto, K.; Otto, B.; Wallace, R. New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992. Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p. 421-430, 433-434; 1992. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Pain; Models; Alpha-adrenergic receptors; Agonists; Analgesics; Drug effects 134 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312 Effects of an infusion of dopamine on the cardiopulmonary effects of Escherichia coli endotoxin in anaesthetised horses. Trim, C.M.; Moore, J.N.; Hardee, M.M.; Hardee, G.E.; Slade, E.A. London : British Veterinary Association; 1991 Jan. Research in veterinary science v. 50 (1): p. 54-63; 1991 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Endotoxins; Escherichia coli; Dopamine; Halothane; Anesthesia; Cardiovascular system; Toxemia 135 NAL Call. No.: 421 J828 Effects of anesthetization and storage temperature on bluetongue virus recovery from Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and sheep blood. Work, T.M.; Sawyer, M.M.; Jessup, D.A.; Washino, R.K.; Osburn, B.I. Lanham, Md. : The Entomological Society of America; 1990 May. Journal of medical entomology v. 27 (3): p. 331-333; 1990 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sheep; Cervidae; Infection; Bluetongue virus; Blood; Anesthesia; Field experimentation; Storage; Temperature; Culicoides variipennis; Disease vectors; Light traps 136 NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63 Effects of anti-inflammatory analgesic drugs and muscarinic receptor blocking agents on appetite in the pig. Bowden, H.C.; Sharman, D.F.; Stephens, D.B. Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1987 Sep. Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 10 (3): p. 269-272; 1987 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Pigs; Appetite; Analgesics; Antiinflammatory agents; Pharmacodynamics; Statistical analysis 137 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Effects of atracurium administered by continuous intravenous infusion in halothane-anesthetized horses. Hildebrand, S.V.; Hill, T. III Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1989 Dec. American journal of veterinary research v. 50 (12): p. 2124-2126; 1989 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Muscle relaxants; Injections; Halothane; Anesthesia; Adverse effects Abstract: Atracurium (0.4 mg/ml in isotonic NaCl solution) was administered by IV infusion to 7 healthy adult horses for 2 hours. Over the 2-hour period, a 95 to 99% reduction of train-of-four hoof-twitch response was maintained by 0.17 +/- 0.01 mg of atracurium/kg of body weight/h, for a total of 161 +/- 6 mg of atracurium (mean +/- SEM) for horses 1 to 4, 6, and 7. Horse 5, a mare in estrus, required 0.49 mg of atracurium/kg/h to maintain comparable relaxation. Hoof-twitch recovery time from 10 to 75% of baseline strength was 19.8 +/- 2.5 minutes for all horses. The 10 to 75% recovery time for horse 5 was 18 minutes. Recovery time from discontinuation of halothane until standing was 86 +/- 14 minutes (range, 55 to 165 minutes). Horse 5 had a 165-minute recovery. Regarding recovery from anesthesia, 3 recoveries were rated as excellent, 1 recovery good, and 2 recoveries as fair. Horse 5 laid quietly until she stood with 1 strong, smooth effort. 138 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A Effects of clenbuterol hydrochloride on pulmonary gas exchange and hemodynamics in anesthetized horses. Dodam, J.R.; Moon, R.E.; Olson, N.C.; Exposito, A.J.; Fawcett, T.A.; Huang, Y.C.; Theil, D.R.; Camporesi, E.; Swanson, C.R. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1993 May. American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (5): p. 776-782; 1993 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Clenbuterol; Gas exchange; Oxygen; Carbon dioxide; Hemodynamics; Anesthesia Abstract: We evaluated the effects of clenbuterol HCl (0.8 micrograms/kg, of body weight, IV), a beta 2, agonist, on ventilation-perfusion matching and hemodynamic variables in anesthetized (by IV route), laterally recumbent horses. The multiple inert gas elimination technique was used to assess pulmonary gas exchange. Clenbuterol HCl induced a decrease in arterial oxygen tension (from 57.0 +/- 1.8 to 49.3 +/- 1.2 mm of Hg; mean +/- SEM) as a result of increased shunt fraction (from 6.6 +/- 2.1 to 14.4 +/- 3.1%) and ventilation to regions with high ventilation-perfusion ratios. In contrast, no changes in these variables were found in horses given sterile water. In horses given clenbuterol HCl, O2 consumption increased from 2.23 +/- 0.18 to 2.70 +/- 0.14 ml . min-1 . kg-1, and respiratory exchange ratio decreased from 0.80 +/- 0.02 to 0.72 +/- 0.01. Respiratory exchange ratio and O2 consumption were not significantly modified in sterile water-treated (control) horses. Clenbuterol HCl administration was associated with increased cardiac index (from 57.4 +/- 4.0 to 84.2 +/- 6.3 ml . min-1 . kg- 1), decreased total peripheral vascular resistance (from 108.3 +/- 9.3 to 47.6 +/- 2.8 mm of Hg . s . kg . ml-1), and decreased pulmonary vascular resistance (from 31.3 +/- 3.8 to 13.6 +/- 0.7 mm of Hg . s . kg . ml-1). Our findings indicated that clenbuterol HCl may potentiate hypoxemia as a result of increased shunt fraction in horses anesthetized by the IV route, and caused changes in hemodynamic variables that were consistent with its ability to stimulate beta 2-adrenergic receptors. 139 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641 Effects of detomidine on equine oesophageal function as studied by contrast radiography. Watson, T.D.G.; Sullivan, M. London : The Association; 1991 Jul27. The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary Association v. 129 (4): p. 67-69; 1991 Jul27. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Analgesics; Esophagus; Deglutition; Transit time; Peristalsis; Grass sickness 140 NAL Call. No.: QD415.A1X4 The effects of general anaesthesia on tocainide clearance in the sheep. Runciman, W.B.; Mather, L.E.; Carapetis, R.J.; Ilsley, A.H.; McLean, C.F. London : Taylor & Francis; 1987 Jul. Xenobiotica v. 17 (7): p. 807-813; 1987 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sheep; Anesthesia; Anesthetics 141 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Effects of general anesthesia on myoelectric activity of the intestine in horses. Lester, G.D.; Bolton, J.R.; Cullen, L.K.; Thurgate, S.M. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1992 Sep. American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (9): p. 1553-1557; 1992 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Xylazine; Ketamine; Thiopental; Ileum; Cecum; Colon; Electrical activity; Muscles; Drug effects; Intestinal motility; Halothane; Guaifenesin 142 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Effects of halothane and isoflurane on baroreflex sensitivity in horses. Hellyer, P.W.; Bednarski, R.M.; Hubbell, J.A.E.; Muir, W.W. III Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1989 Dec. American journal of veterinary research v. 50 (12): p. 2127-2134; 1989 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Halothane; Anesthetics; Reflexes; Blood pressure Abstract: Baroreflex sensitivity (BS) was used to quantitatively assess the effects of halothane and isoflurane on the heart rate/arterial pressure relationship during steady-state (10 minutes) and dynamic pressure changes in adult horses. Arterial pressure was decreased in response to nitroglycerin or sodium nitroprusside and increased in response to phenylephrine HCl. Mean (+/- SEM) BS in awake horses was 28.9 +/- 2.6 and 13.2 +/- 2.0 ms/mm of Hg during steady-state decreases and increases in systolic arterial pressure (SAP), respectively. Halothane and isoflurane either significantly (P < 0.05) decreased or eliminated BS during steady-state decreases in SAP, with no significant differences detected between anesthetic agents. During steady-state decreases in SAP, significant (P < 0.05) correlation between R-R interval and arterial pressure was not observed for 6 of 10 and 4 of 11 halothane and isoflurane anesthesia periods, respectively. Halothane significantly (P < 0.05) decreased BS during steady-state increases in SAP to 7.9 +/- 0.6 and 6.5 +/- 1.1 ms/mm of Hg during low and high minimal alveolar concentration (MAC) multiples, respectively. Isoflurane decreased BS during steady-state increases in SAP to 9.6 +/- 1.5 and 6.6 +/- 1.1 ms/mm of Hg during low and high MAC anesthesia, respectively, with high MAC of isoflurane decreasing BS significantly (P < 0.05), compared with awake and low MAC values. Plasma catecholamine (epinephrine and norepinephrine) concentrations increased significantly (P < 0.05), compared with baseline values during steady-state vasodilator infusions in halothane- and isoflurane-anesthetized horses. Steady-state infusions of phenylephrine in anesthetized horses resulted in arrhythmia development, with premature atrial and ventricular complexes seen in halothane-anesthetized horses and increased heart rate and atrial premature complexes seen less frequently in isoflurane-anesthetized horses. Dynamic BS was 25.0 +/- 4.5 and 20.1 +/- 2.8 ms/mm of Hg f 143 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Effects of halothane anesthesia on the clearance of gentamicin sulfate in horses. Smith, C.M.; Steffey, E.P.; Baggot, J.D.; Dunlop, C.I.; Farver, T.B. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1988 Jan. American journal of veterinary research v. 49 (1): p. 19-22; 1988 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Halothane; Gentamicin; Renal clearance; Pharmacokinetics; Urine analysis; Models 144 NAL Call. No.: 41.9 AM37 The effects of intra-articular anesthesia on soft tissue- and bone-phase scintigraphy in the horse. Trout, D.R.; Hornof, W.J.; Fisher, P.E. Raleigh, N.C. : American College of Veterinary Radiology; 1991 Sep. Veterinary radiology v. 32 (5): p. 251-255; 1991 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Scintigraphy; Local anesthesia 145 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Effects of ketamine infusion on halothane minimal alveolar concentration in horses. Muir, W.W. III; Sams, R. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1992 Oct. American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (10): p. 1802-1806; 1992 Oct. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Ketamine; Halothane; Requirements; Dosage effects; Hemodynamics; Anesthesia Abstract: Eight adult horses were used in a study to determine ketamine's ability to reduce halothane requirement. To obtain steady-state plasma concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 microg/ml, loading doses and constant infusions for ketamine were calculated for each horse on the basis of data from other studies in which the pharmacokinetic properties of ketamine were investigated. Blood samples for determination of plasma ketamine concentrations were collected periodically during each experiment. Plasma ketamine concentrations were determined by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry under electron-impact ionization conditions, using lidocaine as the internal standard. Halothane minimal alveolar concentration (MAC; concentration at which half the horses moved in response to an electrical stimulus) and plasma ketamine concentration were determined after steady-state concentrations of each ketamine infusion had been reached. Plasma ketamine concentrations > 1.0 microg/ml decreased halothane MAC. The degree of MAC reduction was correlated directly with the square root of the plasma ketamine concentration, reaching a maximum of 37% reduction at a plasma ketamine concentration of 10.8 +/- 2.7 microg/ml. Heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, and the rate of increase of right ventricular pressure did not change with increasing plasma ketamine concentration and halothane MAC reduction. Cardiac output increased significantly during ketamine infusions and halothane MAC reduction. Our findings suggest that plasma ketamine concentrations > 1.0 microm/ml reduce halothane MAC and produce beneficial hemodynamic effects. 146 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Effects of ketamine, xylazine, and a combination of ketamine and xylazine in Pekin ducks. Ludders, J.W.; Rode, J.; Mitchell, G.S.; Nordheim, E.V. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1989 Feb. American journal of veterinary research v. 50 (2): p. 245-249; 1989 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ducks; Ketamine; Xylazine; Drug combinations; Anesthesia; Adverse effects; Cardiovascular system; Respiratory system Abstract: Effects of ketamine, xylazine, and a combination of ketamine and xylazine were studied in 12 male Pekin ducks (7 to 12 weeks old; mean [+/- SD] body weight, 3.1 +/- 0.3 kg). After venous and arterial catheterization and fixation of a temperature probe in the cloaca, each awake duck was confined, but not restrained, in an open box in a dimly lit room. Blood pressure and lead-II ECG were recorded. Three arterial blood samples were collected every 15 minutes over a 45-minute period (control period) and were analyzed for pHa, Paco2 and Pao2. After the control period, each duck was assigned at random to 1 of 3 drug groups: (1) ketamine (KET; 20 mg/kg of body weight, IV), (2) xylazine (XYL; 1 mg/kg, IV), and (3) KET + XYL (KET 20 mg/kg and XYL, 1 mg/kg; IV). Measurements were made at 1, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90 minutes after drug administration. All ducks survived the drug study. Cloacal temperature was significantly (P less than or equal to 0.05) increased above control cloacal temperature at 90 minutes after the administration of ketamine, and from 10 through 90 minutes after administration of ketamine plus xylazine. In ducks of the KET group, pHa, Paco2, and Pao2, remained unchanged after administration of the drug. In ducks of the XYL group, pHa and Pao2 decreased significantly (P less than or equal to 0.05) from control values for all time points up to and including 15 minutes after drug administration. In ducks of the KET + XYL group, pHa and Pa02 were significantly (P less than or equal to 0.05) decreased at all time points up to and including 45 and 15 minutes, respectively, after administration of the drugs. In ducks of the XYL group, Paco2 increased significantly (P less than 0.05) during the first 15 minutes after drug administration, and for 45 minutes after administration of KET + XYL. Results indicated that ketamine when given alone to ducks, was not associated with pulmonary depression. There was drug-associated respiratory depression after IV admini 147 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312 Effects of local anaesthesia and intravenous naloxone on the changes in behaviour and plasma concentrations of cortisol produced by castration and tail docking with tight rubber rings in young lambs. Wood, G.N.; Molony, V.; Fleetwood-Walker, S.M.; Hodgson, J.C.; Mellor, D.J. London : British Veterinary Association; 1991 Sep. Research in veterinary science v. 51 (2): p. 193-199; 1991 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Lambs; Castration; Docking; Hydrocortisone; Lidocaine; Naloxone; Behavior change; Blood plasma; Pain; Local anesthesia Abstract: The reliability of some behavioural and physiological indices used for the recognition and assessment of acute pain in lambs after castration and tail docking has been examined. Changes in the indices were measured after blocking neural activity with local anaesthetic (lignocaine) and after an opioid antagonist (naloxone) was administered. Six lambs, aged less than one week, were allocated randomly to each of six treatments. (i) control handling and blood sampling; (ii) castration plus tail docking with tight rubber rings; (iii) local anaesthesia; (iv) local anaesthesia followed by castration and tail docking; (v) intravenous naloxone only (0.2 mg kg-1); and (vi) intravenous naloxone followed by castration and tail docking. Local anaesthesia eliminated the behavioural and plasma cortisol changes which usually follow castration and tail docking. Naloxone had a limited effect on the increase in cortisol but altered the behaviour. The results support the view that such indices are useful for assessment of the response to acute pain and that, although endogenous opioids do reduce pain in young lambs after castration and tail docking, the effect is small. 148 NAL Call. No.: SF951.E62 Effects of perioperative administration of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on anesthetic recovery in the horse. Brouwer, G.J. Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Pub. Co; 1987 Sep. Equine practice v. 9 (8): p. 22, 24-25; 1987 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Surgery; Antiinflammatory agents 149 NAL Call. No.: 41.9 AM37 The effects of regional perineural anesthesia on soft tissue and bone phase scintigraphy in the horse. Trout, D.R.; Hornof, W.J.; Liskey, C.C.; Fisher, P.E. Raleigh, N.C. : American College of Veterinary Radiology; 1991 May. Veterinary radiology v. 32 (3): p. 140-144; 1991 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Scintigraphy; Local anesthesia; Feet 150 NAL Call. No.: QP251.A1T5 Effects of short-term stress, xylazine tranquilization and anesthetization with xylazine plus ketamine on plasma concentrations of cortisol, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and prolactin in ovariectomized pony mares. Thompson, D.L.; Garza, F. Jr; Mitchell, P.S.; St George, R.L. Stoneham, Mass. : Butterworth Publishers; 1988 Nov. Theriogenology v. 30 (5): p. 937-946; 1988 Nov. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Mares; Ovariectomized females; Prolactin; Lh; Fsh; Cortisol; Hormone secretion; Anesthesia; Xylazine; Neuroleptics; Stress; Ketamine 151 NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94 Effects of surgical pentobarbital anesthesia on blood pressure, heart rate, and arterial blood pH and gas tension in turkeys. Lee, J.C.; McGrath, C.J.; Leighton, A.T. Jr; Wilson, M.H. Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1988 Apr. Laboratory animal science v. 38 (2): p. 208-210; 1988 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Turkeys; Anesthesia; Pentobarbital; Blood pressure; Heart rate; Blood ph; Gases; Tension 152 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Effects of xylazine butorphanol on cecal arterial blood flow, cecal mechanical activity, and systemic hemodynamics in horses. Rutkowski, J.A.; Eades, S.C.; Moore, J.N. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1991 Jul. American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (7): p. 1153-1158; 1991 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Xylazine; Cecum; Blood flow; Blood pressure; Cardiac output; Heart rate; Motility; Hemodynamics; Analgesics Abstract: A chronic model with an ultrasonic transit time blood flow probe and strain gauge force transducers implanted on the cecum was used to evaluate cecal mechanical activity and cecal arterial blood flow in 4 conscious adult horses. Intravenous administration of xylazine (1.1 mg/kg of body weight) significantly decreased heart rate and cardiac output, but significantly increased diastolic pulmonary arterial pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure, carotid arterial pressure, and central venous pressure. Lateral cecal arterial blood flow after xylazine administration was decreased substantially more than was cardiac output, suggesting that xylazine caused constriction of the cecal vasculature. This effect of xylazine may have resulted from either a direct effect of xylazine on the cecal vasculature or from reflex vasoconstriction attributable to reduced cardiac output. Intravenous administration of butorphanol tartrate (0.1 mg/kg) did not significantly alter the hemodynamic responses to xylazine. Cecal mechanical activity, as measured by the motility index, was decreased for 120 minutes after administration of xylazine and for 150 minutes after administration of xylazine/butorphanol. 153 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Effects of xylazine on equine intestinal vascular resistance, motility, compliance, and oxygen consumption. Stick, J.A.; Chou, C.C.; Derksen, F.J.; Arden, W.A. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1987 Feb. American journal of veterinary research v. 48 (2): p. 198-203. ill; 1987 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Xylazine; Intestine motility; Resistance; Oxygen consumption; Anesthesia 154 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3 Effects to tolazoline and yohimbine on xylazine-induced central nervous system depression, bradycardia, and tachypnea in sheep. Hsu, W.H.; Schaffer, D.D.; Hanson, C.E. Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1987 Feb15. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 190 (4): p. 423-426; 1987 Feb15. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sheep; Anesthesia; Xylazine; Anesthetics; Central nervous system; Respiration; Heart rate 155 NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43 Electroencephalographic power spectrum analysis as a monitor of anesthetic depth in horses. Otto, K.; Short, C.E. Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1991 Sep. Veterinary surgery v. 20 (5): p. 362-371; 1991 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Electroencephalograms; Spectral analysis; Brain 156 NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43 Electroencephalography of detomidine-ketamine-halothane and detomidine-ketamine-isoflurane anesthetized horses during orthopedic surgery--a comparison. Ekstrom, P.M.; Short, C.E.; Geimer, T.R. Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1993 Sep. Veterinary surgery v. 22 (5): p. 414-418; 1993 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Electroencephalograms; Anesthesia 157 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641 Electro-immobilisation of sheep may not reduce the aversiveness of a painful treatment. Rushen, J.; Congdon, P. London : British Veterinary Association; 1987 Jan10. The Veterinary record v. 120 (2): p. 37-38; 1987 Jan10. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sheep; Immobilization; Electrical treatment; Pain 158 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312 Electromyography of some respiratory muscles in the horse. Hall, L.W.; Aziz, H.A.; Groenendyk, J.; Keates, H.; Rex, M.A.E. London : British Veterinary Association; 1991 May. Research in veterinary science v. 50 (3): p. 328-333; 1991 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Muscles; Diaphragm; Abdomen; Electromyography; Anesthesia Abstract: To investigate activity in respiratory muscles, insulated wire electrodes were used to record electromyographic activity in the costal diaphragm and in the intercostal, serratus ventralis, internal abdominal oblique, transversalis and rectus abdominis muscles in conscious horses and in the same animals when anaesthetised. Electromyographic activity was related to respiratory phases as recorded by a stethograph around the chest wall. The costal diaphragm showed tonic and inspiratory activity in both conscious and anaesthetised animals. The principal muscle actively involved in expiration was the transversalis muscle. Intercostal muscle activity, and any increased activity in the second part of either inspiration or expiration recorded in the conscious animal, was absent under anaesthesia. The very marked tonic activity found in the serratus ventralis muscle in standing horses disappeared during anaesthesia. It was concluded that any stabilisation of the chest wall contributed by activity in the serratus ventralis and intercostal muscles in conscious, standing horses is greatly reduced during anaesthesia. 159 NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63 Eltenac, a new anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug for horses: clinical aspects. Prugner, W.; Huber, R.; Luhmann, R. Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1991 Jun. Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 14 (2): p. 193-199; 1991 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Antiinflammatory agents; Analgesics; Pharmacokinetics; Intravenous injection; Dosage; Drug effects; Pain; Inflammation 160 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69 Employing intra-articular anesthesia to detect joint lesions in lame horses. Gibson, K.T.; Stashak, T.S. Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Company; 1989 Nov. Veterinary medicine v. 84 (11): p. 1088-1090, 1092. ill; 1989 Nov. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Lameness; Joints (animal); Diagnostic techniques 161 NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66 Endotracheal intubation of cattle under xylazine hydrochloride sedation in the field. Floyd, J.G. Jr; Randle, R.F. Lawrenceville, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company; 1989 Oct. The Compendium on continuing education for the practicing veterinarian v. 11 (10): p. 1302-1305. ill; 1989 Oct. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Cattle; Anesthesia; Xylazine; Trachea; Tubes; Surgical operations 162 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312 Enhancement of tetrathiomolybdate-induced biliary copper excretion in sheep by general anaesthesia and the effect on copper excretion in urine and bile. Ke, Y.; Symonds, H.W. London : British Veterinary Association; 1989 May. Research in veterinary science v. 46 (3): p. 344-348; 1989 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sheep; Thiomolybdates; Copper; Excretion; Bile; Urine; Saliva; Anesthesia; Poisoning 163 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3 Epidural analgesia with 0.75% bupivacaine for laparotomy in goats. Trim, C.M. Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1989 May01. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 194 (9): p. 1292-1296; 1989 May01. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Goats; Analgesics; Laparotomy; Lidocaine; Duration; Adverse effects 164 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3 Epidural injection of xylazine for perineal analgesia in horses. LeBlanc, P.H.; Caron, J.P.; Patterson, J.S.; Brown, M.; Matta, M.A. Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1988 Dec01. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 193 (11): p. 1405-1408; 1988 Dec01. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Xylazine; Lidocaine; Injections; Spinal cord; Pain; Perineum; Ataxia 165 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69 Epidural injection of xylazine: A new operation for surgical analgesia of the bovine abdomen and udder. Zaugg, J.L.; Nussbaum, M. Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Company; 1990 Sep. Veterinary medicine v. 85 (9): p. 1043-1046; 1990 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Cattle; Xylazine; Conduction anesthesia; Abdomen; Udders; Surgical operations 166 NAL Call. No.: SF951.E54 1991 Equine anesthesia monitoring and emergency therapy. Muir, William,_1946-; Hubbell, John A. E. St. Louis : Mosby-Year Book,; 1991. xi, 515 p. : ill. ; 28 cm. Includes index. Includes bibliographical references and index. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Veterinary anesthesia 167 NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66 Equine keratomycosis. Barton, M.H. Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company, Inc; 1992 Jul. The Compendium on continuing education for the practicing veterinarian v. 14 (7): p. 936-944, 950; 1992 Jul. Literature review. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Mycotic keratitis; Cornea; Drug therapy; Antifungal agents; Antibacterial agents; Symptoms; Diagnosis; Analgesics; Prognosis; Literature reviews 168 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641 Equine post anaesthetic myositis : muscular post ischaemic hyperaemia measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. Serteyn, D.; Lavergne, L.; Coppens, P.; Mottart, E.; Philippart, C.; Micheels, M.; Lamy, M. London : The Association; 1988 Jul30. The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary Association v. 123 (5): p. 126-128; 1988 Jul30. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Muscular diseases; Blood circulation; Measurement; Halothane 169 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312 Equine postanaesthetic myositis: a possible role for free radical generation and membrane lipoperoxidation. Serteyn, D.; Mottart, E.; Deby, C.; Deby-Dupont, G.; Pincemail, J.; Philipart, C.; Lamy, M. London : British Veterinary Association; 1990 Jan. Research in veterinary science v. 48 (1): p. 42-46; 1990 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Halothane; Adverse effects; Muscular diseases; Free radicals; Lipid peroxidation; Membranes; Blood plasma 170 NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66 Equine postanesthetic myopathy: an update. Hennig, G.E.; Court, M.H. Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company, Inc; 1991 Nov. The Compendium on continuing education for the practicing veterinarian v. 13 (11): p. 1709-1716; 1991 Nov. Literature review. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Muscular diseases; Symptoms; Pathology; Postoperative care; Treatment; Drug therapy; Postoperative complications; Etiology; Prevention; Literature reviews 171 NAL Call. No.: SF951.J65 Equine sports therapy. Porter, M. Lake Elsinore, Calif. : William E. Jones, DVM; 1992 May. Journal of equine veterinary science v. 12 (3): p. 193-194; 1992 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Sports medicine; Pain; Therapy 172 NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6 The equine stress response to anaesthesia. Muir, W.W. Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1990 Sep. Equine veterinary journal v. 22 (5): p. 302-303; 1990 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Stress response; Drug therapy 173 NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43 Evaluation of 25%, 50%, and 67% nitrous oxide with halothane-oxygen for general anesthesia in horses. Testa, M.; Raffe, M.R.; Robinson, E.P. Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1990 Jul. Veterinary surgery v. 19 (4): p. 308-312; 1990 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthetics; Nitrous oxide; Halothane; Oxygen 174 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Evaluation of a combination of xylazine, ketamine, and halothane for anesthesia in llamas. Gavier, D.; Kittleson, M.D.; Fowler, M.E.; Johnson, L.E.; Hall, G.; Nearenberg, D. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1988 Dec. American journal of veterinary research v. 49 (12): p. 2047-2055; 1988 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Llamas; Ketamine; Halothane; Xylazine; Anesthesia; Drug combinations; Cardiovascular system; Respiratory system; Ventilation Abstract: Anesthesia induced by use of a combination of xylazine, ketamine, and halothane, under conditions of spontaneous and mechanically controlled ventilation, was evaluated in 5 llamas positioned in dorsal recumbency. Using chronically implanted catheters, systemic arterial blood pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, right atrial pressure, heart rate and rhythm, cardiac output, blood pH and gas tensions, body temperature, and respiratory rate were measured before anesthesia induction (baseline), throughout the anesthetic period, and for 1 hour into the recovery period. During anesthesia, llamas undergoing spontaneous ventilation developed hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis. Cardiovascular function was decreased during both types of ventilation. The combination of xylazine, ketamine, and halothane in various doses and 2 ventilation procedures (spontaneous and controlled) provided a reliable method for general anesthesia in llamas, but marked cardiovascular depression developed during anesthesia maintenance with halothane. Spontaneous ventilation resulted in potentially clinically important respiratory acidosis. 175 NAL Call. No.: SF601.B6 Evaluation of a xylazine-butorphanol combination for use during standing laparotomy in dairy cattle. Levine, H.D.; Dodman, N.H.; Court, M.H.; Hustead, D. Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Publishing Company; 1992 Jul. Agri- Practice v. 13 (7): p. 19-23; 1992 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Massachusetts; Dairy cattle; Laparotomy; Xylazine; Anesthesia; Surgery 176 NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43 Evaluation of pentobarbital as a drug for standing sedation in cattle. Valverde, A.; Doherty, T.J.; Dyson, D.; Valliant, A.E. Philadelphia, Pa. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1989 May. Veterinary surgery v. 18 (3): p. 235-238; 1989 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Cattle; Anesthesia; Pentobarbital; Evaluation 177 NAL Call. No.: SF601.B6 Evaluation of sedative and analgesic properties of detomidine in goats. Clark, T.P.; Purohit, R.C.; Wilson, R.C. Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Publishing Company; 1993 Apr. Agri- Practice v. 14 (4): p. 29-33; 1993 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Alabama; Goats; Analgesics; Adverse effects 178 NAL Call. No.: SF601.C24 Evaluation of sedative R51703 in cattle: effects on cardiorespiratory functions and rumen contraction rate. Doherty, T.J.; Valverde, A.; Valliant, A.E. Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1988 Oct. Canadian journal of veterinary research; Revue canadienne de recherche veterinaire v. 52 (4): p. 481-483; 1988 Oct. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Cattle; Analgesics; Rumen motility; Heart rate; Respiration rate 179 NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6 Factors influencing the outcome of equine anaesthesia: a review of 1,314 cases. Young, S.S.; Taylor, P.M. Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1993 Mar. Equine veterinary journal v. 25 (2): p. 147-151; 1993 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Uk; Horses; Surgery; Anesthesia; Muscular diseases 180 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3 Failure of ketamine to induce anesthesia in two horses. Trim, C.M.; Adams, J.G.; Hovda, L.R. Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1987 Jan15. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 190 (2): p. 201-202; 1987 Jan15. Includes 10 references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Ketamine; Anesthesia; Xylazine 181 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R3224 Fatal body positioning during epidural anesthesia in a ewe. Clutton, R.E.; Boyd, C.; Ward, J.L.; Sponenberg, D.P. Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1989 Sep. The Canadian veterinary journal v. 30 (9): p. 748-750; 1989 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ewes; Conduction anesthesia; Hypotension; Death; Lidocaine; Caesarean section; Venous circulation; Case reports 182 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V6456 Field anaesthesia in horses. Brouwer, G.J. Bristol : IOP Publishing Limited; 1987. The Veterinary annual v. 27: p. 151-155; 1987. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Fields 183 NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46 Fluid therapy in the acutely injured of exhausted horse. Becht, J.L. Manhattan, Kan. : The Association; 1989. Proceedings of the annual convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners (34th): p. 505-508; 1989. Meeting held December 4-7, 1988, San Diego, CA. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Fluids; Therapy; Shock; Exhaustion; Dehydration (physiological); Analgesics; Trauma; Injuries; Rehydration 184 NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46 Foal Anesthesia. Hodgson, D.S. Manhattan, Kan. : The Association; 1989. Proceedings of the annual convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners (34th): p. 549-554; 1989. Meeting held December 4-7, 1988, San Diego, CA. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Foals; Anesthesia; Neonates; Techniques; Anesthetics 185 NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63 Further studies on the antinociceptive activity and respiratory effects of buprenorphine in sheep. Waterman, A.E.; Livingston, A.; Amin, A. Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1991 Sep. Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 14 (3): p. 230-234; 1991 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sheep; Analgesics; Dosage; Drug effects; Stimuli; Respiratory gases 186 NAL Call. No.: 475 J824 Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric investigation of Dextromoramide (Palfium) metabolism in the horse. Reilly, P.J.; Suann, C.J.; Duffield, A.M. Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers; 1990 Jan05. Journal of chromatography v. 498 (1): p. 35-40; 1990 Jan05. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Analgesics; Metabolism; Urine; Detection; Gas chromatography; Mass spectrometry 187 NAL Call. No.: SF601.V38 Gastro-oesophageal reflux in halothane anaesthetized sheep. The effects of feeding and positioning. Hossain, M.A.; Cottrell, D.F.; Camburn, M.A.; Campbell, J.R. Norwich, England : Geo Abstracts Ltd; 1988. Veterinary research communications v. 12 (2/3): p. 227-232; 1988. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sheep; Anesthesia; Halothane; Regurgitation; Surgery 188 NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47 General anesthesia for horses with specific problems. Hodgson, D.S.; Dunlop, C.I. Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders; 1990 Dec. The Veterinary clinics of North America : equine practice v. 6 (3): p. 625-650; 1990 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Surgical operations; Laparotomy; Castration; Neoplasms; Ovariectomy; Ovaries; Caesarean section; Gastrointestinal diseases; Orthopedics; Eye diseases; Fractures; Larynx; Radiography 189 NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47 General clinical considerations for anesthesia of the horse. Thurmon, J.C. Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders; 1990 Dec. The Veterinary clinics of North America : equine practice v. 6 (3): p. 485-494; 1990 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Respiratory system 190 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Hematologic and serum biochemical alterations associated with multiple halothane anesthesia exposures and minor surgical trauma in horses. Stover, S.M.; Steffey, E.P.; Dybdal, N.O.; Franti, C.E. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1988 Feb. American journal of veterinary research v. 49 (2): p. 236-241; 1988 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Halothane; Surgical operations; Trauma; Hematology; Blood chemistry 191 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Hemodynamic and respiratory responses in halothane-anesthetized horses exposed to positive and end-expiratory pressure alone and with dobutamine. Swanson, C.R.; Muir, W.W. III Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1988 Apr. American journal of veterinary research v. 49 (4): p. 539-542; 1988 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Halothane; Anesthesia; Cardiovascular system; Respiratory system; Pressure; Ventilation; Drugs 192 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Hemodynamic and respiratory responses to variable arterial partial pressure of oxygen in halothane-anesthetized horses during spontaneous and controlled ventilation. Steffey, E.P.; Willits, N.; Woliner, M. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1992 Oct. American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (10): p. 1850-1858; 1992 Oct. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Halothane; Anesthesia; Lung ventilation; Oxygen; Internal pressure; Hemodynamics Abstract: Cardiovascular and respiratory responses to variable PaO2 were measured in 6 horses anesthetized only with halothane during spontaneous (SV) and controlled (CV) ventilation. The minimal alveolar concentration (MAC) for halothane in oxygen was determined in each spontaneously breathing horse prior to establishing PaO2 study conditions--mean +/- SEM, 0.95 +/- 0.03 vol%. The PaO2 conditions of > 250, 120, 80, and 50 mm of Hg were studied in each horse anesthetized at 1.2 MAC of halothane and positioned in left lateral recumbency. In response to a decrease in PaO2, total peripheral resistance and systolic and distolic arterial blood pressure decreased (P < 0.05) during SV. Cardiac output tended to increase because heart rate increased (P < 0.05) during these same conditions. During CV, cardiovascular function was usually less than it was at comparable PaO2 during SV (P < 0.05). Heart rate, cardiac output, and left ventricular work increased (P < 0.05) in response to a decrease in PaO2, whereas total peripheral resistance decreased (P < 0.05). During SV, cardiac output and stroke volume increased and arterial blood pressure and total peripheral resistance decreased with duration of anesthesia at PaO2 > 250 mm of Hg. During SV, minute expired volume increased (P < 0.05) because respiratory frequency tended to increase as PaO2 decreased. Decrease in PaCO2 (P < 0.05) also accompanied these respiratory changes. Although oxygen utilization was nearly constant over all treatment periods, oxygen delivery decreased (P < 0.05) with decrease in PaO2, and was less (P < 0.05) during CV, compared with SV, for comparable PaO2 values. Muscle and hepatic-derived serum biochemical values were substantially increased and evidence of depressed renal function was observed in these horses immediately after anesthesia recovery. These serum biochemical changes exceeded values in horses previously studied during prolonged halothane anesthesia in the absence of low PaO2. 193 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Hemodynamic effects of carbon dioxide during intermittent positive-pressure ventilation in horses. Wagner, A.E.; Bednarski, R.M.; Muir, W.W. III Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1990 Dec. American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (12): p. 1922-1929; 1990 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Carbon dioxide; Artificial respiration; Hemodynamics; Catecholamines; Hypercapnia; Propranolol; Cardiovascular system Abstract: The hemodynamic effects of high arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2) during anesthesia in horses were studied. Eight horses were anesthetized with xylazine, guaifenesin, and thiamylal, and were maintained with halothane in oxygen (end-tidal halothane concentration = 1.15%). Baseline data were collected while the horses were breathing spontaneously; then the horses were subjected to intermittent positive-pressure ventilation, and data were collected during normocapnia (PaCO2, 35 to 45 mm of Hg), moderate hypercapnia (PaCO2, 60 to 70 mm of Hg), and severe hypercapnia (PaCO2, 75 to 85 mm of Hg). Hypercapnia was induced by adding carbon dioxide to the inspired gas mixture. Moderate and severe hypercapnia were associated with significant (P < 0.05) increases in aortic blood pressure, left ventricular systolic pressure, cardiac output, stroke volume, maximal rate of increase and decrease in left ventricular pressure (positive and negative dP/dtmax, respectively), and median arterial blood flow, and decreased time constant for ventricular relaxation. These hemodynamic changes were accompanied by increased plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations. Administration of the beta-blocking drug, propranolol hydrochloride, markedly depressed the response to hypercapnia. This study confirmed that in horses, hypercapnia is associated with augmentation of cardiovascular function. 194 NAL Call. No.: SF951.J65 Hemodynamic parameters and tissue oxygenation during halothane anesthesia in normal horses and those experiencing post anesthetic lameness. Branson, K.R.; Benson, G.J.; Thurmon, J.C.; Olson, W.A.; Tranquilli, W.J.; Dorner, J.L. Lake Elsinore, Calif. : William E. Jones, DVM; 1992 May. Journal of equine veterinary science v. 12 (3): p. 153-159; 1992 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Halothane; Lameness; Hemodynamics; Tissues; Oxygen 195 NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94 Hemodynamic parameters of anesthetized pigs: a comparative study of farm piglets and Gottingen and Yucatan miniature swine. Benharkate, M.; Zanini, V.; Blanc, R.; Boucheix, O.; Coyez, F.; Genevois, J.P.; Pairet, M. Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1993 Feb. Laboratory animal science v. 43 (1): p. 68-72; 1993 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Piglets; Miniature pigs; Anesthesia; Hemodynamics Abstract: We studied the evolution in time of the main hemodynamic parameters in farm piglets and Gottingen and Yucatan miniature swine anesthetized with droperidol, flunitrazepam, and alpha-chloralose. Measurements included arterial pressure, heart rate, intraventricular pressure, and maximum rate of increase during contraction (dp/dt max). For each parameter and each strain of swine, we determined the mean stability period defined as the longest period of time during which the observed values ranged between their mean value +/-15% and the mean absolute values during the stability period. In our experimental conditions, the parameters remained constant for 2 to 3.5 hours. Only minor interstrain variations were noticed. 196 NAL Call. No.: SF951.J65 The hemodynamic, tissue oxygenation, and selected biochemical effects of isoflurane and halothane anesthesia in horses. Branson, K.R.; Benson, G.J.; Thurmon, J.C.; Olson, W.A.; Tranquilli, W.J.; Dorner, J.L. Lake Elsinore, Calif. : William E. Jones, DVM; 1993 Jul. Journal of equine veterinary science v. 13 (7): p. 396-409; 1993 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia 197 NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6 High frequency jet ventilation in horses: an experimental study. Dunlop, C.I.; Hodgson, D.S.; Watson, J.W.; Gillespie, J.R.; Steffey, E.P.; Jackson, A.C. Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1989 Sep. Equine veterinary journal v. 21 (5): p. 342-346. ill; 1989 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Ventilators; Lung ventilation; Artificial respiration; Oxygen; Carbon dioxide 198 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3 Idiopathic cecal rupture in foals after anesthesia for gastic endoscopy. Edwards, J.F.; Ruoff, W.W. Jr Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1991 Apr15. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 198 (8): p. 1421-1422. ill; 1991 Apr15. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Foals; Cecum; Rupture; Anesthesia; Endoscopy; Case reports 199 NAL Call. No.: 47.8 AM33P An improved procedure for intramagnal insemination of the chicken. Engel, H.N.; Froman, D.P.; Kirby, J.D. Champaign, Ill. : Poultry Science Association; 1991 Sep. Poultry science v. 70 (9): p. 1965-1969; 1991 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Hens; Artificial insemination; Laparotomy; Xylazine; Anesthetics; Ketamine; Laying performance Abstract: Intramagnal insemination is a useful technique in the analysis of spermatozoal function. Precise deposition of spermatozoa requires the use of laparotomy. However, hen-day egg production can be adversely affected by such a procedure. The present work demonstrates that postoperative hen-day egg production is affected by choice of anesthetic. Hens anesthetized with a mixture of ketamine and xylazine prior to laparotomy laid 14% fewer eggs (P < .05) when compared with intact controls. In contrast, the postoperative hen-day egg production of hens anesthetized with xylazine alone was comparable with that of intact controls (P > .05). Furthermore, the use of xylazine alone increased the case of handling sedated hens and decreased recovery time. Therefore, xylazine is recommended for anesthetizing hen prior to laparotomy. 200 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312 Improvement in arterial oxygen tension with change in posture in anaesthetised horses. Gleed, R.D.; Dobson, A. London : British Veterinary Association; 1988 Mar. Research in veterinary science 44 (2): p. 255-259; 1988 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Arteries; Oxygen; Tension; Blood circulation 201 NAL Call. No.: QD415.A1X4 The in vitro blood, fat and muscle concentrations of lignocaine and bupivacaine in the hindquarters of sheep. Upton, R.N.; Nancarrow, C.; McLean, C.F.; Mather, L.E.; Runciman, W.B. London : Taylor & Francis; 1991 Jan. Xenobiotica v. 21 (1): p. 13-22; 1991 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sheep; Lidocaine; Local anesthetics; Uptake; Blood; Skeletal muscle; Fat; Rump Abstract: 1. A method was developed for sampling muscle and fat from the hindquarters of sheep undergoing spinal anaesthesia. The method was used to measure the concentrations of lignocaine and bupivacaine in the blood, muscle and fat of the hindquarters of sheep during and after 180 min constant-rate infusions of the drugs. 2. For both drugs the muscle drug concentrations were a relatively constant ratio of the simultaneous arterial blood drug concentrations during and after the infusion. 3. There was uptake of both lignocaine and bupivacaine into subcutaneous fat during the infusions. At the end of the infusion the ratio of the fat: arterial blood drug concentrations were 1.54 (SD =0.57, n = 4) and 3.1 (SD = 1.4, n = 4) for lignocaine and bupivacaine, respectively. 4. The drug concentrations in fat declined relatively slowly after the infusion. The ratio of the fat: arterial blood drug concentrations 180 min after the end of the infusion was 21.5 (SD 4.0, n = 3) and for lignocaine, and 120 min after the end of the infusion was 9.54 (SD 5.2, n = 3) for bupivacaine. 5. It was concluded that the concentrations of lignocaine and bupivacaine in muscle were essentially in equilibrium with the arterial concentrations during and after the infusion. However, the concentrations of lignocaine and bupivacaine in fat were not in equilibrium with the arterial concentrations in the post-infusion period. 202 NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6 In vitro responses of equine digital vessels to dopamine and fenoldopam. Baxter, G.M.; Moore, J.N.; Tackett, R.L. Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1991 Jan. Equine veterinary journal v. 23 (1): p. 48-52; 1991 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Dopamine; Dosage effects; In vitro; Cardiovascular system 203 NAL Call. No.: QD415.A1X4 The in vitro uptake and metabolism of lignocaine, procainamide and pethidine by tissues of the hindquarters of sheep. Upton, R.N.; Mather, L.E.; Runciman, W.B. London : Taylor & Francis; 1991 Jan. Xenobiotica v. 21 (1): p. 1-12; 1991 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sheep; Lidocaine; Pethidine; Local anesthetics; Uptake; In vitro; Drug metabolism; Animal tissues; Liver; Skeletal muscle; Body fat; Skin; Blood; Rump; Limbs Abstract: 1. In vitro studies using tissue slices or tissue homogenates of liver, skeletal muscle, fat skin and blood were conducted to determine whether the uptake of procainamide, lignocaine and pethidine into the hindquarters of sheep was due to distribution or metabolism. Both homogenates and slice preparations of liver showed significant metabolism or uptake, confirming the viability of the preparations. 2. None of the drugs was metabolized in blood and there was minimal uptake of the drugs into the skin. 3. There was metabolism of pethidine in skeletal muscle and substantial uptake of pethidine into fat, indicating that the rapid rate of uptake and prolonged elution of pethidine in the hindquarters was due to both distribution and metabolism. 4. No metabolism of lignocaine in muscle was found, but there was substantial uptake into fat, indicating that the rapid rate of uptake and prolonged elution of lignocaine in the hindquarters was due to its distribution into fat. 5. There was negligible uptake of procainamide into either muscle or fat, presumably due to its relatively low lipophilicity. 204 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A In vivo muscle 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy during treatment of halothane-sensitive and halothane-nonsensitive pigs. Geers, R.; Decanniere, C.; Ville, H.; Hecke, P. van; Goedseels, V.; Vanstapel, F.; Bosschaerts, L.; Ley, J. de; Zhang, W.; Janssens, S. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1992 Apr. American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (4): p. 613-616; 1992 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Pigs; Halothane; Atp; Phosphocreatine; Muscles; Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; Prediction Abstract: In vivo muscle 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed on 10 female pigs originating from a homozygous halothane-sensitive line and on 10 female pigs from a homozygous halothane-nonsensitive fine. The mean concentration of phosphocreatine in the biceps femoris muscle of the anesthetized pigs decreased to 86% of the initial value after 11 minutes of halothane exposure (3%, oxygen flow 3 L/min). After the next 5.6 minutes, phosphocreatine concentration reached a minimal value of 52%, followed by a mean recovery to 76% of the initial value during the ensuing 11 minutes. Response was not observed in anesthetized homozygous halothane-nonsensitive pigs. Thus, a decrease to 86% of the initial value of phosphocreatine was 100% predictive for homozygous halothane-sensitive pigs with body weight ranging from 10 to 18 kg. 205 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Induction of equine postanesthetic myositis after halothane-induced hypotension. Lindsay, W.A.; Robinson, G.M.; Brunson, D.B.; Majors, L.J. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1989 Mar. American journal of veterinary research v. 50 (3): p. 404-410; 1989 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Halothane; Anesthesia; Hypotension; Muscles; Inflammation; Adverse effects; Nervous system diseases Abstract: Wick catheters were used to measure intracompartmental pressures of the extensor carpi radialis muscles and long heads of the triceps brachii muscles of 7 horses maintained under halothane anesthesia during controlled ventilation. Horses were positioned in left lateral recumbency on a water bed for 4 hours. Using a crossover design, 6 of the 7 horses were subjected to normotensive and hypotensive anesthesia on separate occasions. Hypotension was achieved by increasing the inspired halothane concentration. Hematologic and biochemical measurements were determined at designated intervals before, during and for 7 days after each anesthetic episode. Under hypotensive conditions, 2 horses developed severe, generalized myositis and were euthanatized. Three of the 5 other horses developed swelling of the downside masseter muscle, 4 demonstrated mild extensor deficits of the downside forelimb, and 1 had a severe extensor deficit of the uppermost hind limb. As a group, the hypotensive horses had markedly increased activities of serum enzymes (creatine kinase, aspartate transaminase, and blood lactate) and abnormalities in calcium-phosphorus homeostasis. Lameness or enzyme alterations were not observed in normotensive horses. Altough the intracompartmental pressure values were markedly increased in the muscle bellies of the compressed limbs of all horses, there was a statistically significant difference in intracompartmental pressures between the downside or compressed muscle compartments of the extensor carpi radialis of hypotensive and normotensive horses. High concentrations of halothane may predispose anesthetized horses to postanesthetic myositis, even when protective padding is used. Intracompartmental muscle pressure, as measured by the wick catheter, may not be a reliable predictor of equine postanesthetic lameness. 206 NAL Call. No.: 41.9 W64B Inefficacy of oral ketamine for chemical restraint in turkeys. Clutton, R.E. Ames, Iowa : Wildlife Disease Association; 1988 Apr. Journal of wildlife diseases v. 24 (2): p. 380-381; 1988 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Turkeys; Ketamine; Anesthesia; Restraint of animals 207 NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63 The influence of chronic pain on the analgesic effects of the alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, xylazine, in sheep. Ley, S.; Waterman, A.; Livingston, A. Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1991 Jun. Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 14 (2): p. 141-144; 1991 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sheep; Xylazine; Pain; Drug effects; Local anesthesia; Foot rot; Duration 208 NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43 The influence of detomidine and epinephrine on heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and cardiac arrhythmia in horses. Raekallio, M.; Vainio, O.; Karjalainen, J. Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1991 Nov. Veterinary surgery v. 20 (6): p. 468-473; 1991 Nov. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthetics; Epinephrine; Heart rate; Blood pressure; Arrhythmia; Cardiovascular system 209 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Influence of preinduction methoxamine, lactated Ringer solution, or hypertonic saline solution infusion or postinduction dobutamine infusion on anesthetic-induced hypotension in horses. Dyson, D.H.; Pascoe, P.J. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1990 Jan. American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (1): p. 17-21; 1990 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthetics; Guaifenesin; Halothane; Hypotension; Methoxamine; Solutions; Saline water; Cardiovascular agents Abstract: A controlled study of the cardiovascular responses in horses anesthetized with acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg of body weight, IV), guaifenesin (100 mg/kg, IV), thiamylal (5.0 mg/kg, IV), and halothane in O2 (1.2 to 1.4% end-expired concentration) was performed to determine whether hypotension could be prevented by use of various treatments. Six horses were given 5 treatments in a randomized sequence: no treatment (control), methoxamine (0.04 mg/kg IV), lactated Ringer solution (20.0 ml/kg, IV), 7.5% hypertonic saline solution (4.0 ml/kg, IV), or constant infusion of dobutamine (5.0 mg/kg/min, IV) during anesthesia. Heart rate, ECG, blood pressure, central venous pressure, cardiac output, blood gas analysis, PCV, and plasma total protein concentration were measured during the study. Compared with the control value, an increase in blood pressure during halothane administration was observed after administration of lactated Ringer solution, hypertonic saline solution, or dobutamine (P < 0.05). The improved blood pressure response to hypertonic saline solution and dobutamine was related to an increase in cardiac output, which was statistically significant (P < 0.05) Other statistically significant differences in cardiopulmonary responses among treatments were not observed during anesthesia. The PCV was increased in response to dobutamine infusion, and plasma total protein concentration was reduced in response to administration of hypertonic saline or lactated Ringer solution. 210 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Influence of tolazoline on caudal epidural administration of xylazine in cattle. Skarda, R.T.; St Jean, G.; Muir, W.W. III Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1990 Apr. American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (4): p. 556-560; 1990 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Cows; Xylazine; Detoxicants; Drug antagonism; Respiratory system; Central nervous system; Cardiovascular system; Stomach motility Abstract: Eight adult female cattle (6 Holstein, 1 Jersey, 1 Brown Swiss) were used to determine the antagonistic effects of tolazoline, an alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, on xylazine-induced (via caudal epidural administration) depression of CNS, respiratory, and cardiovascular activity and rumen motility. A 2% solution of xylazine HCl was injected into the epidural space at the first coccygeal interspace, using a dosage of 0.05 mg/kg of body weight, diluted to a 5-ml volume with sterile water, and administered at a rate of approximately 1 ml/30 s. Eight minutes after xylazine injection, either tolazoline (0.3 mg/kg) or saline solution (4 ml) was administered IV. All 8 cattle were treated, using both regimens in a random sequence; at least 1 week elapsed between treatments. Epidurally administered xylazine induced caudal analgesia (S3 to coccyx), as evaluated by no response to superficial and deep muscular pinprick, and induced sedation, cardiopulmonary depression, and inhibition of rumen motility, but all cattle remained standing. Tolazoline effectively reversed xylazine-induced rumen hypomotility, and partially antagonized xylazine-induced cardiopulmonary depression without affecting sedation and desirable local (S3 to coccyx) analgesic effects. 211 NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46 Injectable anesthesia in horses. Thurmon, J.C. Manhattan, Kan. : The Association; 1989. Proceedings of the annual convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners (34th): p. 529-541; 1989. Meeting held December 4-7, 1988, San Diego, CA. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Muscle relaxants; Analgesics; Anesthetics 212 NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43 Interstitial pH and pressure in the dependent biceps femoris muscle of laterally recumbent anesthetized horses. Norman, W.M.; Dodman, N.H.; Court, M.H. Philadelphia, Pa. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1988 Jul. Veterinary surgery v. 17 (4): p. 234-239; 1988 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Muscles; Ph; Pressure 213 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 C81 Intra-osseous pressure and pressure pulse gradients along the equine third metatarsal bone. Stolk, P.W.T.; Firth, E.C. Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell Veterinarian, Inc; 1990 Oct. Cornell veterinarian v. 80 (4): p. 317-328. ill; 1990 Oct. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Metatarsus; Internal pressure; Gradients; Anesthesia; Age 214 NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992 Intraspinal alpha 2-adrenergic analgesia in sheep. Eisenach, J.C. New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992. Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p. 277-280, 311-312; 1992. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sheep; Analgesics; Agonists; Spinal cord; Drug effects; Hypotension; Toxicity; Testing; Anesthesia 215 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69 Intravenous regional anesthesia of the bovine digit. Weaver, A.D. Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Co; 1991 Dec. Veterinary medicine v. 86 (12): p. 1227-1229; 1991 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Cattle; Digits; Local anesthesia; Injectable anesthetics 216 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69 Investigating xylazine's utility when used with Telazol in equine anesthesia. Short, C.E.; Tracy, C.H.; Sanders, E. Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Company; 1989 Feb. Veterinary medicine v. 84 (2): p. 228-233; 1989 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Neuroleptics; Xylazine; Drug combinations; Adverse effects; Heart rate; Respiration rate; Duration 217 NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6 An investigation of injection techniques for local analgesia of the equine distal tarsus and proximal metatarsus. Dyson, S.J.; Romero, J.M. Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1993 Jan. Equine veterinary journal v. 25 (1): p. 30-35; 1993 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Spain; Horses; Tarsus; Analgesics; Injection; Joints (animal); Metatarsus; Pain 218 NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6 Jet anaesthesia in horses. Young, S.S. Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1989 Sep. Equine veterinary journal v. 21 (5): p. 319-320; 1989 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Ventilators; Lung ventilation; Artificial respiration 219 NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6 Jugular thrombophlebitis resulting from an anaesthetic induction technique in the horse. Dickson, L.R.; Badcoe, L.M.; Burbidge, H.; Kannegieter, N.J. Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1990 May. Equine veterinary journal v. 22 (3): p. 177-179; 1990 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Thrombosis; Phlebitis; Anesthetics; Anesthesia; Pathology 220 NAL Call. No.: QL55.I5 The Large White female pig in research related to cancer treatment: general husbandry and anaesthesia. Dickinson, F.; Hubbard, N. Sussex : The Institute; 1990 Apr01. Animal technology : journal of the Institute of Animal Technology v. 41 (1): p. 35-41. ill; 1990 Apr01. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Pigs; Animal experiments; Laboratory rearing; Anesthesia Abstract: This paper is the accumulation of twenty years experience in the husbandry and anaesthesia of large swine and describes the methods we have adopted for the ease of carrying out the described procedures. 221 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641 Laryngotomy as a treatment for chronic laryngeal obstruction in cattle: a review of 130 cases. Gasthuys, F.; Verschooten, F.; Parmentier, D.; Moor, A. de; Steenhaut, M. London : The Association; 1992 Mar14. The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary Association v. 130 (11): p. 220-223; 1992 Mar14. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Cattle; Larynx; Blockage; Surgical operations; Anesthesia; Survival; Postoperative complications; Double muscling 222 NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6 Laryngotracheal lesions following routine orotracheal intubation in the horse. Heath, R.B.; Steffey, E.P.; Thurmon, J.C.; Wertz, E.M.; Meagher, D.M.; Hyyppa, T.; Van Slyke, G.L. Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1989 Nov. Equine veterinary journal v. 21 (6): p. 434-437. ill; 1989 Nov. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Tubes; Trachea; Mouth; Inhaled anesthetics; Lesions; Complications; Iatrogenic diseases 223 NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46 Lengthy electronic auscultation of the equine abdomen to monitor the effects of analgesics, sedatives and other drugs. Ehrhardt, E.E.; Lowe, J.E. Manhattan, Kan. : The Association; 1988. Proceedings of the annual convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners (33rd): p. 525-538; 1988. Meeting held on November 29 through December 2nd, 1987, New Orleans, Louisiana. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Abdomen; Analgesics; Drugs; Anesthetics; Drug effects; Pharmacokinetics; Monitoring 224 NAL Call. No.: SF601.V535 Llama anesthetic programs. Heath, R.B. Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders Company; 1989 Mar. The Veterinary clinic of North America : food animal practice v. 5 (1): p. 71-80. ill; 1989 Mar. In the series analytic: Llama medicine / edited by LaRue W. Johnson. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Llamas; Anesthesia; Management; Anesthetics 225 NAL Call. No.: 49 J82 Local and general anesthetic effects on behavior and performance of two- and seven-week-old castrated and uncastrated piglets. McGlone, J.J.; Hellman, J.M. Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1988 Dec. Journal of animal science v. 66 (12): p. 3049-3058; 1988 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Piglets; Anesthesia; Castration; Anesthetics; Animal behavior; Pain; Animal welfare; Body weight; Weight gain 226 NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43 Local anesthetics and nuclear medical bone images of the equine fore limb. Gaughan, E.M.; Wallace, R.J.; Kallfelz, F.A. Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1990 Mar. Veterinary surgery v. 19 (2): p. 131-135. ill; 1990 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Local anesthesia; Local anesthetics; Radiography; Technetium 227 NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6 Low dose flunixin meglumine: effects on eicosanoid production and clinical signs induced by experimental endotoxaemia in horses. Semrad, S.D.; Hardee, G.E.; Hardee, M.M.; Moore, J.N. London : British Equine Veterinary Association; 1987 May. Equine veterinary journal v. 19 (3): p. 201-206; 1987 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Analgesics; Dosage effect; Endotoxins; Toxemia; Symptoms; Pharmacokinetics 228 NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47 Management of anesthesia in the foal. Tranquilli, W.J.; Thurmon, J.C. Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders; 1990 Dec. The Veterinary clinics of North America : equine practice v. 6 (3): p. 651-663; 1990 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Foals; Anesthesia; Inhaled anesthetics; Injectable anesthetics; Newborn animals; Therapy; Monitoring 229 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641 Measurements of muscular microcirculation by laser Doppler flowmetry in isoflurane and halothane anaesthetised horses. Serteyn, D.; Coppens, P.; Mottart, E.; Michelet, S.; Micheels, J.; Philippart, C.; Lamy, M. London : British Veterinary Association; 1987 Oct03. The Veterinary record v. 121 (14): p. 324-326; 1987 Oct03. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Cardiovascular system; Halothane; Anesthetics; Anesthesia; Blood circulation; Muscles; Measurement 230 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69 Medical management of equine colic. Morris, D.D. Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Co; 1987 Feb. Veterinary medicine v. 82 (2): p. 158-176 (12 p. not consecutive); 1987 Feb. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Colic; Treatment; Fluids; Intravenous feeding; Dehydration (physiological); Pain; Electrolytes retention; Drugs; Drug therapy; Microorganisms 231 NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6 Metabolic and hormonal changes associated with arthroscopic surgery in the horse. Robertson, S.A.; Steele, C.J.; Chen, C.L. Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1990 Sep. Equine veterinary journal v. 22 (5): p. 313-316; 1990 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Surgical operations; Anesthesia; Xylazine; Hormones; Metabolism 232 NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992 Metabolic and hormonal changes associated with general anesthesia and surgery in horses. Robertson, S.A. New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992. Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p. 326-330, 359; 1992. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Surgical operations; Metabolism; Hormones; Stress; Postoperative care 233 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3 Methods of stimulating acupuncture points for treatment of chronic back pain in horses. Klide, A.M.; Martin, B.B. Jr Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1989 Nov15. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 195 (10): p. 1375-1379. ill; 1989 Nov15. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Acupuncture; Pain; Back 234 NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43 Minimal anesthetic concentration and cardiopulmonary dose response of isoflurane in ducks. Ludders, J.W.; Mitchell, G.S.; Rode, J. Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1990 Jul. Veterinary surgery v. 19 (4): p. 304-307; 1990 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ducks; Anesthetics 235 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Minimum anesthetic dose and cardiopulmonary dose response for halothane in chickens. Ludders, J.W.; Mitchell, G.S.; Schaefer, S.L. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1988 Jun. American journal of veterinary research v. 49 (6): p. 929-932; 1988 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Chickens; Anesthesia; Halothane; Dosage effect; Respiration rate; Heart rate Abstract: The minimum anesthetic dose (MAD) and the cardiopulmonary dose-response for halothane were determined in male chickens. The MAD for halothane was 0.85 +/- 0.09% (mean +/- SD), with a range of 0.75% to 0.98%. There was a significant (P less than 0.002) positive correlation between increasing concentrations of halothane and PaCO2, and significant negative correlations of halothane concentration with respiratory rate (P less than 0.04), arterial blood pH (P less than 0.008), and mean arterial blood pressure P less than 0.008). A significant correlation was not found between halothane concentration and heart rate or arterial blood bicarbonate concentration. It was concluded that the MAD for halothane in chickens is similar to values for minimum alveolar concentrations of halothane in mammalian species, and that there is substanial dose-dependent depression of cardiopulmonary function in chickens. 236 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Mixed venous oxygen tension as an estimate of cardiac output in anesthetized horses. Wetmore, L.A.; Derksen, F.J.; Blaze, C.A.; Eyster, G.E. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1987 Jun. American journal of veterinary research v. 48 (6): p. 971-976; 1987 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Heart output; Oxygen; Endotoxins; Estimation 237 NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47 Monitoring equine anesthesia. Riebold, T.W. Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders; 1990 Dec. The Veterinary clinics of North America : equine practice v. 6 (3): p. 607-624; 1990 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Monitoring; Cardiovascular system; Respiratory system; Central nervous system; Equipment; Blood pressure; Pulse; Electrocardiography 238 NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46 Monitoring the equine emergency patient. Hubbell, J.A.E. Manhattan, Kan. : The Association; 1990. Proceedings of the annual convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners. p. 255-257; 1990. Meeting held December 2-5, 1990, Lexington, KY. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Blood pressure 239 NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6 Naloxone-induced abdominal distress in the horse. Kamerling, S.G.; Hamra, J.G.; Bagwell, C.A. Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1990 Jul. Equine veterinary journal v. 22 (4): p. 241-243; 1990 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Horse diseases; Colic; Digestive disorders; Naloxone; Abdomen; Pain; Opioid peptides 240 NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6 Narcotics analgesics, their detection and pain measurement in the horse: a review. Kamerling, S.; Wood, T.; DeQuick, D.; Weckman, T.J.; Tai, C.; Blake, J.W.; Tobin, T. London : British Equine Veterinary Association; 1989 Jan. Equine veterinary journal v. 21 (1): p. 4-12. ill; 1989 Jan. Literature review. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Analgesics; Detection; Pain; Measurement; Pharmacodynamics; Receptors; Screening 241 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Neuromuscular and cardiovascular effects of atracurium administered to healthy horses anesthetized with halothane. Hildebrand, S.V.; Arpin, D. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1988 Jul. American journal of veterinary research v. 49 (7): p. 1066-1071. ill; 1988 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Halothane; Muscle relaxants; Dosage effect; Nervous system; Muscles; Cardiovascular system Abstract: Neuromuscular and cardiovascular effects of atracurium, a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent, were evaluated in 10 halothane-anesthetized adult horses. Hind limb digital extensor tension (hoof twitch) was measured with a strain gauge to quantitate the muscle relaxant effects of atracurium. Response of facial muscles was compared with hoof twitch. Five injections of atracurium were given. Initial mean (+/- SEM) dosage of 0.07 +/- 0.01 mg of atracurium/kg of body weight caused 98.6 +/-0.8% reduction of the preinjection hoof twitch. Subsequent dosages of 0.04 +/-0.003 mg/kg induced a degree of relaxation similar to that induced by the initial dose. Duration of paralysis from maximal effect to 10% recovery of twitch was 12.2 +/- 1.5 minutes for the first injection. This was significantly (P less than 0.05) different from subsequent paralysis periods, which lasted approximately 7 miutes. The 10% to 75% recovery time after all injections was similar--approximately 16 minutes. The facial muscles were less affected objectively by atracurium than was the hind limb. Atracurium did not cause cardiovascular changes. When the hoof twitch had recovered to 95% of its tension before atracurium administation, 0.5 mg of edrophonium/kg, was given to antagonize neuromuscular blockage. Within 5 minutes of edrophonium administration, twitch tension exceeded that measured before atracurium administrations. Within 2 minutes of edrophonium administration blood pressure began to increase and continued to increase approximately 10 mm of Hg above the value measured before edrophonium administration. Heart rate was not affected by edrophonium. Other muscarinic side effects of edrophonium were not observed. Of the 10 horses, 9 had good, unremarkable recovery to standing position. One horse had a violent recovery period. 242 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Neuromuscular and cardiovascular effects of atracurium in isoflurane-anesthetized chickens. Nicholson, A.; Ilkiw, J.E. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1992 Dec. American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (12): p. 2337-2342; 1992 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Fowls; Muscle relaxants Abstract: Atracurium besylate, a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent, was administered to 24 isoflurane-anesthetized domestic chickens. Birds were randomly assigned to 4 groups, and atracurium was administered at dosage of 0.15, 0.25, 0.35 or 0.45 mg/kg of body weight. The time of onset of twitch depression, the amount of maximal twitch depression, and the duration of muscular relaxation were recorded. After return to control twitch height, atracurium was further administered to achieve > 75% twitch depression. When twitch depression reached 75% during noninduced recovery, 0.5 mg of edrophonium/kg was administered to reverse the muscle relaxation. Throughout the experimental period, cardiovascular, arterial blood gas, and acid-base variables were monitored. The effective dosage of atracurium to result in 95% twitch depression in 50% of birds, (ED95/9595) was calculated, using probit analysis, to be 0.25 mg/kg, whereas the ED95/95 the dosage of atracurium to result in 95% twitch depression in 95% of birds, was calculated by probit analysis to be 0.46 mg/kg. The total duration of action at dosage of 0.25 mg/kg was 34.5 +/- 5.8 minutes; at the highest dosage (0.45 mg/kg), total duration increased to 47.8 +/- 10.3 minutes. The return to control twitch height was greatly hastened by administration of edrophonium. Small, but statistically significant changes in heart rate and systolic blood pressure, were associated with administration of atracurium and edrophonium. These changes would not be clinically relevant. In this study, atracurium was found to be safe and reliable for induction of muscle relaxation in isoflurane anesthetized chickens. 243 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Neuromuscular blockade by use of atracurium in anesthetized llamas. Hildebrand, S.V.; Hill, T. III Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1993 Mar. American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (3): p. 429-433; 1993 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Llamas; Anesthesia; Muscle relaxants; Dosage; Boluses; Intravenous injection; Adverse effects Abstract: Anesthesia was induced in 8 healthy llamas by administration of guaifenesin and ketamine, and was maintained with halothane in oxygen. On 2 separate experimental days, atracurium was given to induce 95 to 99% reduction of evoked hind limb digital extensor tension (twitch). For the first part of the study, atracurium was given iv as repeat boluses, with muscle twitch strength being allowed to return without intervention to 75% of baseline after each bolus before the subsequent bolus was given. A total of 5 bolus doses of atracurium was given. For the first bolus, 0.15 mg/kg of body weight iv, and for subsequent boluses, 0.08 mg/kg, induced desired relaxation. Onset of relaxation was slightly more rapid for repeat, compared with initial, bolus. Duration of relaxation and recovery time were similar to initial and repeat doses. Maximal twitch reduction was observed in 4 +/- 0.2 minutes (mean +/- SEM). Duration from maximal twitch reduction to 10% recovery was 6.3 +/- 0.4 minutes. Twitch recovery from 10 to 50% of baseline took 11.6 +/- 0.6 minutes. Twitch recovery from 10 to 75% recovery took 19.5 +/- 1.1 minutes. Recovery from 10% twitch to 50% fade took 12.8 +/- 0.5 minutes. Fade at 50% recovery of twitch was 39 +/- 0.02%. Significant (P < 0.05) animal-to-animal variation was observed in twitch recovery times. For the second part of the study, atracurium was initially given IV as a 0.15-mg/kg bolus, followed by infusion for 1 to 2 hours. Infusion rate required some early adjustment to maintain desired relaxation, but the rate that prevailed was 1.07 +/- 0.07 ml/kg/h (0.4 mg of atracurium/ml of saline solution). Recovery of muscle twitch was similar to that previously mentioned for repeat bolus administration, At the end of the study, edrophonium (0.5 mg/kg) with atropine (0.01 mg/kg, IV) was effective in antagonizing residual neuromuscular blockade by atracurium. All llamas recovered without injury from anesthesia, although 1 llama had a rough recovery. It was concl 244 NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47 Neuromuscular blocking agents in equine anesthesia. Hildebrand, S. Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders; 1990 Dec. The Veterinary clinics of North America : equine practice v. 6 (3): p. 587-606; 1990 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Muscle relaxants 245 NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47 Ophthalmic procedures and surgery in the standing horse. Wilkie, D.A. Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders; 1991 Dec. The Veterinary clinics of North America : equine practice v. 7 (3): p. 535-547; 1991 Dec. In the series analytic: Standing surgery / edited by Alicia L. Bertone. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Eyes; Surgery; Eyelids; Lacrimal apparatus; Cornea; Anesthesia 246 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 SO8 Ostrich (Struthio camelus) immobilisation using carfentanil and xylazine and reversal with yohimbine and naltrexone. Raath, J.P.; Quandt, S.K.F.; Malan, J.H. Pretoria : The Association; 1992 Dec. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association v. 63 (4): p. 138-140; 1992 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ostriches; Anesthesia 247 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Parasympathetic influence on the arrhythmogenicity of graded dobutamine infusions in halothane-anesthetized horses. Light, G.S.; Hellyer, P.W.; Swanson, C.R. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1992 Jul. American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (7): p. 1154-1160; 1992 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Halothane; Cardiovascular agents; Autonomic nervous system; Hemodynamics; Dosage; Arrhythmia Abstract: We investigated the influence of parasympathetic tone on the arrhythmogenicity of graded dobutamine infusions in horses anesthetized under clinical conditions. Six horses were used in 9 trials. Two consecutive series of graded dobutamine infusions were given IV; each continuous graded dobutamine infusion was administered for 20 minutes. The dobutamine infusion dosage (5, 10, 15, and 20 microgram/kg of body weight/min) was increased at 5- minute intervals. Isovolumetric saline solution vehicle (v) or atropine (A; 0.04 mg(kg) was administered IV, or bilateral vagotomy (VG) was performed as a treatment before the second series of dobutamine infusions. Treatment was not administered prior to the first dobutamine infusion. Significant interaction between treatment and dosage of dobutamine infusion existed for differences from baseline for mean arterial pressure, systolic arterial pressure, diastolic arterial pressure, heart rate, and cardiac index at dosages of 5 and 10 micrograms of dobutamine/kg/min, given IV and for heart rate at dosage of 15 micrograms of dobutamine/kg/min, given IV. Results for group-V horses were different from those for group-A and group-VG horses, but were not different between group-A and group-VG horses in all aforementioned cases, except for heart rate and cardiac index at dosage of 5 micrograms of dobutamine/kg/min, given IV. Normal sinus rhythm, second-degree atrioventricular block, and bradyarrhythmias predominated during low dobutamine infusion rates during the first infusion series (nontreated horses) and in group-V horses during the second infusion series. Only tachyarrhythmias were observed during the second infusion series in the horses of the A and VG groups. The modulating influence of parasympathetic nervous system activity on hemodynamics and development of arrhythmia was conspicuous during low dobutamine infusion rates. Significant differences were not observed in hemodynamic responses to dobutamine, with respect to parasympathet 248 NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6 Paravertebral thoracolumbar anaesthesia in 10 horses. Moon, P.F.; Suter, C.M. Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1993 Jul. Equine veterinary journal v. 25 (4): p. 304-308; 1993 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia 249 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V643 Pentobarbitone inhibits the stress response to transport in male goats. Sanhouri, A.A.; Jones, R.S.; Dobson, H. London : Bailliere Tindall; 1991 Jan. British veterinary journal v. 47 (1): p. 42-48; 1991 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Goats; Stress; Pentobarbital; Transport of animals; Anesthesia; Hydrocortisone; Blood plasma; Blood sugar; Heart rate; Respiration rate Abstract: Pentobarbitone (20 mg/kg i.v.) blocked plasma cortisol release when administered either before a 20 min journey or during a 2 h journey. This confirms that pentobarbitone can block stimulated, as well as resting, cortisol secretion. In general, blood glucose concentrations were not increased above 90 mg/100 ml until at least 30 min after the start of transport; however, this increase was also blocked by pentobarbitone administered 30 min into the 2 h journey. Significant increases in respiratory and heart rates occurred within 15 min of the start of transport; pentobarbitone caused an immediate decrease in these parameters. In conclusion, pentobarbitone was shown to reverse many metabolic changes induced by transport. 250 NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6 A percutaneous transtracheal catheter system for improved oxygenation in foals with respiratory distress. Hoffman, A.M.; Viel, L. Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1992 May. Equine veterinary journal v. 24 (3): p. 239-241; 1992 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Foals; Respiratory diseases; Oxygen; Therapy; Catheters 251 NAL Call. No.: 49 J82 Performance and health of weanling bulls after butorphanol and xylazine administration at castration. Faulkner, D.B.; Eurell, T.; Tranquilli, W.J.; Ott, R.S.; Ohl, M.W.; Cmarik, G.F.; Zinn, G. Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1992 Oct. Journal of animal science v. 70 (10): p. 2970-2974; 1992 Oct. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Calves; Steers; Castration; Analgesics; Liveweight gain; Feed intake; Feed conversion; Blood serum; Hydrocortisone; Haptoglobins Abstract: A total of 268 crossbred, 6- to 9-mo-old, bull calves (214 +/- 19 kg) were used in two separate 27-d experiments to assess the effects of butorphanol and xylazine administration (BXA) on the subsequent performance and health of beef calves. In each experiment, calves were randomly allotted to four treatment groups: 1) castration with BXA, 2) castration without BXA, 3) no castration with BXA, and 4) no castration without BXA. There were two replicates within each experiment. The intravenous administration of .07 mg/kg of butorphanol and .02 mg/kg of xylazine occurred 90 s before tail hold and castration procedures. Calves were placed in a squeeze chute and manually restrained by tail elevation. In Exp. 2, the cattle also were scored for chute activity (on a 1 to 5 scale with 5 being the most active). Cattle were weighed at the beginning and end of the experiment, feed intake was recorded daily, and cattle were monitored daily for respiratory disease. There were no castration X BXA interactions (P > .51). Castration reduced (P < .01) daily gain and gain/feed and tended (P = .13) to reduce feed intake. The administration of BXA had no effect (P > .05) on gain or gain/feed but did tend (P = .13) to reduce feed intake. No differences (P > .45) were observed in morbidity or mortality due to either BXA or castration. Castration and BXA increased (P < .01) blood cortisol levels on d 3, whereas control animals had reduced cortisol levels. Castration increased (P < .05) haptoglobin levels on d 3, but BXA had no effect (P > .05) on serum haptoglobin concentrations on d 3. Chute activity was reduced (P < .05) by castration and BXA. In this study, animal performance was reduced by castration. The administration of BXA did not alter stress indicators or improve performance of castrated bull calves. Serum haptoglobin may be a more specific indicator of the inflammatory process in cattle, whereas serum cortisol may be an indicator of the whole-body stress response. 252 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69 Performing epidural anesthesia in swine. Branson, K.R.; Thurmon, J.C. Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Co; 1990 Dec. Veterinary medicine v. 85 (12): p. 1345, 1348-1350. ill; 1990 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Pigs; Conduction anesthesia; Injectable anesthetics; Techniques; Complications 253 NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94 Peritracheolaryngeal abscess: an iatrogenic complication of endotracheal intubation in swine. Iliff-Sizemore, S.A.; Chrisp, C.E.; Rush, H.G. Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1989 Sep. Laboratory animal science v. 39 (5): p. 455-458. ill; 1989 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Pigs; Trachea; Larynx; Abscesses; Bacteria; Anesthesia; Tubes 254 NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63 The pharmacokinetics and locomotor activity of alfentanil in the horse. Pascoe, P.J.; Black, W.D.; Claxton, J.M.; Sansom, R.E. Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1991 Sep. Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 14 (3): p. 317-325; 1991 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Analgesics; Opioids; Pharmacokinetics; Dosage; Locomotion 255 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312 Pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered ketamine in the horse. Waterman, A.E.; Robertson, S.A.; Lane, J.G. London : British Veterinary Association; 1987 Mar. Research in veterinary science v. 42 (2): p. 162-166; 1987 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Ketamine; Pharmacokinetics; Anesthesia; Metabolites; Xylazine 256 NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992 Physiologic responses after caudal epidural administration of detomidine in horses and xylaxine in cattle. Skarda, R.T.; Muir, W.W. III New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992. Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p. 292-302, 312-313; 1992. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Cattle; Xylazine; Analgesics; Drug effects; Physiological functions; Cardiovascular system; Respiratory system; Statistical analysis 257 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641 Physiological responses of sheep to two hours anaesthesia with diazepam-ketamine. Coulson, N.M.; Januszkiewicz, A.J.; Ripple, G.R. London : The Association; 1991 Oct12. The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary Association v. 129 (15): p. 329-332; 1991 Oct12. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sheep; Anesthesia; Diazepam; Ketamine; Drug combinations; Respiration; Cardiovascular system; Adverse effects 258 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V643 Plasma concentrations of cortisol, testosterone, glucose and blood gases in male goats during anaesthesia with pentobarbitone sodium. Sanhouri, A.A.; Jones, R.S.; Dobson, H. London : Bailliere Tindall; 1990 Jan. British veterinary journal v. 146 (1): p. 36-42; 1990 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Goats; Male animals; Anesthesia; Pentobarbital; Cortisol; Testosterone; Blood glucose; Gases; Blood; Fasting 259 NAL Call. No.: SF951.E62 Plasma glucose concentrations in anesthetized foals. Adams, J.G.; Trim, C.M. Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Publishing Company; 1990 Feb. Equine practice v. 12 (2): p. 25-29; 1990 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Foals; Anesthesia; Blood sugar; Hypoglycemia; Solutions; Glucose; Recovery; Fasting 260 NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6 Plasma histamine levels during exploratory laparotomies in suspected equine grass sickness cases. Hodson, N.; Hunt, J.; Causon, R.C. Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1990 Sep. Equine veterinary journal v. 22 (5): p. 362-363; 1990 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Grass sickness; Digestive disorders; Anesthesia; Histamine; Laparotomy; Blood plasma 261 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Plasma lidocaine concentrations in conscious horses after cervicothoracic (stellate) ganglion block with 1% lidocaine HCl solution. Skarda, R.T.; Muir, W.W.; Couri, D. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1987 Jul. American journal of veterinary research v. 48 (7): p. 1092-1097; 1987 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Lidocaine; Anesthesia; Blood plasma; Ganglionic blockaders; Ganglia; Spines 262 NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43 Postanesthetic equine myopathy suggestive of malignant hyperthermia: a case report. Klein, L.; Ailes, N.; Fackelman, G.E.; Kellon, E.; Rosenberg, H. Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1989 Nov. Veterinary surgery v. 18 (6): p. 479-482; 1989 Nov. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Muscular diseases; Hyperthermia; Case studies; Halothane; Anesthesia; Etiology 263 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3 Postanesthetic hind limb adductor myopathy in five horses. Dodman, N.H.; Williams, R.; Court, M.H.; Norman, W.M. Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1988 Jul01. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 193 (1): p. 83-86; 1988 Jul01. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Limbs; Muscular diseases; Symptoms; Anesthesia; Surgery; Histopathology 264 NAL Call. No.: SF951.J65 Preliminary studies on the use of plasma beta-endorphin in horses as an indicator of stress and pain. McCarthy, R.N.; Jeffcott, L.B.; Clarke, I.J. Lake Elsinore, Calif. : William E. Jones, DVM; 1993 Apr. Journal of equine veterinary science v. 13 (4): p. 216-219; 1993 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Endorphins 265 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312 Preliminary studies on the use of propofol in the domestic pigeon (Columba livia). Fitzgerald, G.; Cooper, J.E. London : British Veterinary Association; 1990 Nov. Research in veterinary science v. 49 (3): p. 334-338; 1990 Nov. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Pigeons; Injectable anesthetics; Intravenous injection; Safety; Ketamine 266 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3 Premature ventricular contractions and apparent hypertension during anesthesia in an ostrich. Matthews, N.S.; Burba, D.J.; Cornick, J.L. Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1991 Jun01. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 198 (11): p. 1959-1961; 1991 Jun01. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ostriches; Anesthesia; Hypertension; Ventricles; Contraction; Anesthetics; Adverse effects; Case reports 267 NAL Call. No.: SF914.F6 Pre-slaughter CO2-anaesthesia in swine influence upon cerebral electrical activity, acid/base balance, blood oxygen tension and stress hormones. Forslid, Anders Uppsala : Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Dept. of Physiology,; 1987. 1 v. (various pagings) : ill. ; 25 cm. Includes bibliographies. Language: English Descriptors: Animal anesthesia; Slaughtering and slaughter-houses; Swine; Animal welfare 268 NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47 v.6 no.3 Principles and techniques of equine anesthesia. Riebold, T. W. Philadelphia : Saunders,; 1990. x p., p. 485-741 : ill. ; 24 cm. (Veterinary clinics of North America. Equine practice, 6, no. 3). December 1990. Includes bibliographical references and index. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Veterinary anesthesia 269 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69 Problems encountered when anesthetizing potbellied pigs. Ko, J.C.H.; Thurmon, J.C.; Tranquilli, W.A.; Benson, G.J.; Olson, W.A. Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Co; 1993 May05. Veterinary medicine v. 88 (5): p. 435-437, 440; 1993 May05. Language: English Descriptors: Miniature pigs; Anesthesia; Intramuscular injection; Intravenous injection; Inhalation; Animal anatomy 270 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3 Prolongation of anesthesia with xylazine, ketamine, and guaifenesin in horses: 64 cases (1986-1989). McCarty, J.E.; Trim, C.M.; Ferguson, D. Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1990 Dec15. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 197 (12): p. 1646-1650; 1990 Dec15. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Duration; Xylazine; Ketamine; Guaifenesin; Adverse effects 271 NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6 Prolongation of xylazine/ketamine induced recumbency time with temazepam in horses. Matthews, N.S.; Dollars, N.S.; Young, D.B.; Shawley, R.V. Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1991 Jan. Equine veterinary journal v. 23 (1): p. 8-10; 1991 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Xylazine; Ketamine; Benzodiazepines; Drug combinations 272 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3 Prophylactic use of dantrolene associated with prolonged postanesthetic recumbency in a horse. Valverde, A.; Boyd, C.J.; Dyson, D.H.; Pascoe, P.J. Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1990 Oct15. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 197 (8): p. 1051-1053; 1990 Oct15. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Postoperative complications; Muscle relaxants; Chemoprophylaxis; Muscular diseases; Case studies 273 NAL Call. No.: DISS F1987048 Pulmonary function in the anaesthetized horse analysis of gas exchange and effects of selective ventilation of dependent lung regions. Nyman, Gorel Uppsala : [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,?],; 1987. [160] p. : ill. ; 25 cm. Includes bibliographical references. Language: English Descriptors: Veterinary anesthesia; Horses; Physiology; Pulmonary gas exchange 274 NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43 Pulse oximetry in horses. Whitehair, K.J.; Watney, G.C.G.; Leith, D.E.; Debowes, R.M. Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1990 May. Veterinary surgery v. 19 (3): p. 243-248. ill; 1990 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Oxygen; Hemoglobin; Saturation; Measurement; Anesthesia; Instruments; Ears; Tongue 275 NAL Call. No.: TJ810.A1S6 Radiative cooling efficiency of white pigmented paints. Orel, B.; Gunde, M.K.; Krainer, A. Tarrytown, N.Y. : Pergamon Press; 1993 Jun. Solar energy v. 50 (6): p. 477-482; 1993 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Yugoslavia; Solar radiation; Radiators; Cooling systems; Paints 276 NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43 The reliability of endoscopic examination in assessment of arytenoid cartilage movement in horses. II. Influence of side of examination, reexamination, and sedation. Ducharme, N.G.; Hackett, R.P.; Fubini, S.L.; Erb, H.N. Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1991 May. Veterinary surgery v. 20 (3): p. 180-184; 1991 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Larynx; Respiratory system; Endoscopy; Evaluation; Video recordings; Analgesics; Xylazine 277 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AU72 Response of sheep to short term restraint by electro-immobilisation. Baxter, J.R. Brunswick, Victoria : Australian Veterinary Association; 1987 Jun. Australian veterinary journal v. 64 (6): p. 195; 1987 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sheep; Immobilization; Electrical treatment; Restraint of animals; Fleecing; Pain; Animal welfare 278 NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46 The responses to detomidine usage as a sole agent or in combination in the horse. Short, C.E.; Otto, K.; Gilbert, M.; Maylin, G.A. Manhattan, Kan. : The Association; 1989. Proceedings of the annual convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners (35th): p. 153-166; 1989. Meeting held December 3-6 1989, Boston, Massachusetts. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Analgesics; Safety; Anesthetics; Anesthesia 279 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Resuscitation of anesthetized endotoxemic pigs by use of hypertonic saline solution containing dextran. Hellyer, P.W.; Meyer, R.E.; Olson, N.C. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1993 Feb. American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (2): p. 280-286; 1993 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Pigs; Endotoxemia; Endotoxins; Escherichia coli; Resuscitation; Dextran; Solutions; Sodium chloride; Hemodynamics; Drug effects Abstract: We evaluated the biochemical and hemodynamic response to hypertonic saline solution plus dextran in isoflurane-anesthetized pigs infused IV with Escherichia coli endotoxin (5 micrograms/kg of body weight for 0 to 1 hour + 2 micrograms/kg for 1 to 4 hours). After 120 minutes of endotoxemia, pigs were treated with a bolus (4 ml/kg over 3 minutes) of either normal saline solution (NSS; 0.9% NaCl), or hypertonic saline solution plus dextran (HSSD; 7.5% NaCl + 6% dextran-70). Administration of HSSD significantly (P < 0.05) increased serum osmolality and concentrations of sodium and chloride for approximately 2 hours during endotoxemia. Plasma total protein concentration decreased significantly (P < 0.05) for 2 hours after treatment with HSSD, indicating hemodilution and increased plasma volume. Although HSSD transiently increased cardiac index (CI) for approximately 15 minutes, this effect was not sustained; however, the endotoxin-induced decrease in CI was ameliorated from 120 to 180 minutes. In pigs of the endotoxin + NSS group from 180 to 240 minutes, CI decreased significantly (P < 0.05), compared with baseline and control values. The endotoxin-induced increases in mean pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance were not attenuated by HSSD. At 135 minutes, total peripheral vascular resistance was transiently lower (for approx 15 minutes) in pigs treated with HSSD, compared with control pigs. The endotoxin-induced increase in plasma lactate concentration was not attenuated by HSSD, indicating continued peripheral O2 debt. We conclude that, despite sustained increases in serum osmolality and concentrations of sodium and chloride, HSSD has only transiently beneficial cardiopulmonary effects during endotoxemia in pigs. 280 NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43 Retrospective assessment of dobutamine therapy for hypotension in anesthetized horses. Donaldson, L.L. Philadelphia, Pa. : J.B. Lippincott Co; 1988 Jan. Veterinary surgery v. 17 (1): p. 53-57; 1988 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Hypotension; Drug therapy 281 NAL Call. No.: SF951.E62 A review of chemical restraint for standing procedures in the horse. Moll, H.D.; Pablo, L.S.; Purohit, R.C. Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Publishing Company; 1989 Jun. Equine practice v. 11 (6): p. 25-30; 1989 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Restraint of animals; Anesthetics; Neuroleptics 282 NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992 A review of equine pain models. Matthews, N.S. New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992. Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p. 403-407, 430-432; 1992. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Pain; Models; Analgesics; Evaluation 283 NAL Call. No.: SF601.A47 Role of socialization, stress and sex of chickens on response to anesthesia and on response to an organophosphate neurotoxicant. Odom, A.; Gross, W.B.; Ehrich, M. Manhattan, Kan. : Kansas State University; 1992 Apr. Veterinary and human toxicology v. 34 (2): p. 134-137; 1992 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Fowls; Stress; Pentobarbital; Neurotoxins 284 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3 Salmonella typhimurium abscess as a postoperative complication in a horse with colic. Blikslager, A.T.; Wilson, D.A.; Taylor, D.S.; MacFadden, K.E.; Fischer, J.R.; Fales, W.H. Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1991 Dec15. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 199 (12): p. 1757-1759; 1991 Dec15. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Colic; Postoperative complications; Abscesses; Salmonella typhimurium; Intramuscular injection; Analgesics; Case reports 285 NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6 The search for the ultimate equine sedative: are we 'Waiting for Godot'?. Hubbell, J.A.E. London : British Equine Veterinary Association; 1988 Sep. Equine veterinary journal v. 20 (5): p. 314-315; 1988 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Neuroleptics; Drugs; Anesthesia 286 NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46 Sedation, analgesia, and anesthesia in equine practice. Short, C.E. Lexington, Ky. : The Association; 1993. Proceedings of the annual convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners. p. 37-49; 1993. Meeting helding on November 29-December 2, 1992, Orlando, Florida. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Drug effects 287 NAL Call. No.: SF951.J65 Sedation and analgesia with Dormosedan (detomidine hydrochloride) or acepromazine for suturing of the vulvar lips in mares (Caslick's surgery). Hamm, D.; Jochle, W. Lake Elsinore, Calif. : William E. Jones, DVM; 1991 Mar. Journal of equine veterinary science v. 11 (2): p. 86-88; 1991 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Mares; Analgesics; Neuroleptics; Dosage; Vulva; Suture; Anesthesia; Drug effects 288 NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46 Sedation and anesthesia of the mare during obstetric manipulation. LeBlanc, M.M.; Norman, W.M. Lexington, Ky. : The Association; 1993. Proceedings of the annual convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners. p. 619-622; 1993. Meeting helding on November 29-December 2, 1992, Orlando, Florida. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Mares; Anesthetics; Dystocia 289 NAL Call. No.: SF601.A46 Selected problems in the draft horse. Goble, D.O. Manhattan, Kan. : The Association; 1989. Proceedings of the annual convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners (34th): p. 607-610; 1989. Meeting held December 4-7, 1988, San Diego, CA. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Draft animals; Feet; Hooves; Anesthesia; Laminitis; Osteochondritis; Horse diseases 290 NAL Call. No.: QP351.D4 Sensory control of the initiation of hatching in chicks: effects of a local anesthetic injected into the neck. Bekoff, A.; Sabichi, A.L. New York, N.Y. : John Wiley & Sons; 1987 Sep. Developmental psychobiology v. 20 (5): p. 489-495. ill; 1987 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Chicks; Hatching; Anesthetics; Neck; Embryos (animal); Sensory evaluation 291 NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6 Sequelae of myelography in the horse. Hubbell, J.A.E.; Reed, S.M.; Myer, C.W.; Muir, W.W. London : British Equine Veterinary Association; 1988 Nov. Equine veterinary journal v. 20 (6): p. 438-440; 1988 Nov. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Ataxia; Incidence; Diagnosis; Spinal cord; Radiography 292 NAL Call. No.: SF601.C24 Serum growth hormone release in response to a growth hormone-releasing factor analog during and after anesthesia in pigs. Dubreuil, P.; Lapierre, H.; Pelletier, G.; Petitclerc, D.; Couture, Y.; Gaudreau, P.; Morisset, J.; Brazeau, P. Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1988 Jul. Canadian journal of veterinary research; Revue canadienne de recherche veterinaire v. 52 (3): p. 304-307; 1988 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Pigs; Anesthesia; Somatotropin; Hormone secretion; Statistical analysis 293 NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992 The sheep as a model for experimental pain studies. Livingston, A.; Waterman, A.E.; Nolan, A.; Morris, R.; Ley, S.J.; Headley, P.M. New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992. Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p. 364-371, 399; 1992. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sheep; Pain; Animal experiments; Models; Analgesics; Testing; Morphology; Laboratory tests 294 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V643 Sheep slaughtering procedures. V. Responsiveness to potentially painful stimuli following electrical stunning. Gregory, N.G.; Wotton, S.B. London : Bailliere Tindall; 1988 Nov. British veterinary journal v. 144 (6): p. 573-580; 1988 Nov. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sheep; Slaughter; Pain; Electrical treatment; Teeth; Ears (animal) 295 NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63 Single-dose pharmacokinetics of detomidine in the horse and cow. Salonen, J.S.; Vaha-Vahe, T.; Vainio, O.; Vakkuri, O. Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1989 Mar. Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 12 (1): p. 65-72; 1989 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Cows; Analgesics; Dosage effect; Pharmacokinetics; Radioimmunoassay 296 NAL Call. No.: 444.8 G28 Somatostatin inhibition of thyrotropin-releasing hormone- and growth hormone-releasing factor-induced growth hormone secretion in young and adult anesthetized chickens. Scanes, C.G.; Harvey, S. Duluth, Minn. : Academic Press; 1989 Aug. General and comparative endocrinology v. 75 (2): p. 256-264; 1989 Aug. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Chickens; Thyrotropin releasing hormone; Somatotropin; Somatostatin; Inhibitors; Hormone secretion; Anesthesia; Young animals; Adults 297 NAL Call. No.: SF951.E62 Standing castration of the llama using butorphanol tartrate and local anesthesia. Barrington, G.M.; Meyer, T.F.; Parish, S.M. Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Publishing Company; 1993 May. Equine practice v. 15 (5): p. 35-39; 1993 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Llamas; Castration; Local anesthesia 298 NAL Call. No.: SF601.I4 Standing chemical restraint in the horse. Munroe, G.; Young, L. London : British Veterinary Association; 1991 Jul. In practice v. 13 (4): p. 163-166; 1991 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia 299 NAL Call. No.: QP1.P4 Stereotypic behavior, endogenous opioids, and postfeeding hypoalgesia in pigs. Rushen, J.; Passille, A.M.B. de; Schouten, W. Elmsford, N.Y. : Pergamon Press; 1990 Jul. Physiology & behavior v. 48 (1): p. 91-96; 1990 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Pigs; Tethering; Animal behavior; Feeding; Pain; Stress; Naloxone Abstract: Tethered sows, some of which performed marked behavioral stereotypies after feeding, were injected IM with 1 mg/kg of naloxone 30 min before feeding (with 2 saline control days). Tail-flick latencies on a pain-sensitivity test were recorded before and after feeding. On control days, tail-flick latencies after feeding were longer than those before feeding, and this effect was abolished by naloxone pretreatment. Thus, there is an opioid-based hypoalgesia after feeding. However, sows with marked behavioral stereotypies had shorter tail-flick latencies after feeding. Thus, we have no evidence that performance of behavioral stereotypies results in increased opioid activity. Naloxone reduced the time spent in behavioral stereotypies by approximately 30% but this may be due to a reduction in time spent active. Naloxone increased the frequency and reduced the mean duration of bouts of chain manipulating, operating the drinker and rooting. We suggest that endogenous opioids are involved in the positive feedback that maintains the persistence of behavior and inhibits switching between different activities. 300 NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992 Stress responses to anesthesia in horses. Taylor, P.M. New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992. Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p. 322-325, 358-359; 1992. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Drug effects; Stress 301 NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47 Supportive therapy in the anesthetized horse. Daunt, D.A. Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders; 1990 Dec. The Veterinary clinics of North America : equine practice v. 6 (3): p. 557-574; 1990 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Therapy; Equipment; Respiratory system; Fluid therapy; Cardiovascular system; Sodium bicarbonate; Hypotension; Sympathomimetics; Norepinephrine; Ephedrine; Dopamine; Isoprenaline; Calcium 302 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69 Surgical repair of equine eyelid lacerations. Schoster, J.V. Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Company; 1988 Oct. Veterinary medicine v. 83 (10): p. 1042-1044, 1046-1049. ill; 1988 Oct. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Eyes (animal); Lacerations; Sutures; Anesthesia; Immobilization 303 NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94 A technique for liver biopsy performed in Pekin ducks using anesthesia with Telazol. Carp, N.Z.; Saputelli, J.; Halbherr, T.C.; Mason, W.S.; Jilbert, A.R. Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1991 Oct. Laboratory animal science v. 41 (5): p. 474-475; 1991 Oct. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ducks; Liver; Biopsy; Anesthesia; Lidocaine; Injectable anesthetics; Safety; Duck hepatitis virus Abstract: Infection of Pekin ducks with duck hepatitis B virus is a useful model for studying the hepadenoviruses, of which human hepatitis B virus is the prototype. The utility of this model has been limited, however, by the difficulties associated with anesthetizing and obtaining liver biopsies from ducks. We developed a technique using Telazol, (13 mg/kg) to anesthetize ducks before surgical biopsy of the liver in ducks infected with duck hepatitis B virus. Eight Pekin ducks infected with duck hepatitis B virus underwent serial biopsies at 4- to 5-week intervals. There was one perioperative death in 34 surgical procedures with no evidence on intra-abdominal sepsis or wound complications. Telazol can be used safely and humanely to anesthetize ducks without the need for general endotracheal anesthesia. 304 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 C81 Telazol and xylazine anesthesia in sheep. Lin, H.C.; Tyler, J.W.; Wallace, S.S.; Thurmon, J.C.; Wolfe, D.F. Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell Veterinarian, Inc; 1993 Apr. Cornell veterinarian v. 83 (2): p. 117-124; 1993 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sheep; Anesthesia 305 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Temporal effects of halothane and isoflurane in laterally recumbent ventilated male horses. Dunlop, C.I.; Steffey, E.P.; Miller, M.F.; Woliner, M.J. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1987 Aug. American journal of veterinary research v. 48 (8): p. 1250-1255; 1987 Aug. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Halothane; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Heart rate; Blood pressure; Respiration rate 306 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641 Temporary bilateral laryngeal paralysis in a horse associated with general anaesthesia and post anaesthetic myositis. Dixon, P.M.; Railton, D.I.; McGorum, B.C. London : The Association; 1993 Jan09. The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary Association v. 132 (2): p. 29-32; 1993 Jan09. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Adverse effects 307 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Thermodilution estimation of cardiac output at high flows in anesthetized horses. Dunlop, C.I.; Hodgson, D.S.; Chapman, P.L.; Grandy, J.L.; Waldron, R.D. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1991 Nov. American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (11): p. 1893-1897; 1991 Nov. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Cardiac output; Estimation; Techniques; Blood flow Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare the thermodilution technique for estimation of cardiac output with the indocyanine green dye dilution technique at flows between 10 and 39 L/min in halothane-anesthetized horses. The estimation of area of dye dilution cardiac output curves was made by using the fore-'n-aft (FA) triangle method. This shorthand technique was compared with logarithmic exponential extrapolation and summation (extrapolated area), using 64 cardiac output curves. Then, 256 simultaneous thermodilution measurements were compared with dye dilution measurements calculated by use of the FA technique. Forty milliliters of iced 0.9% NaCl solution containing 15 mg of indocyanine green dye was used as the indicator. This was delivered in < 1 second to the right atrium, using a power injector. A thermistor positioned in the pulmonary artery detected the thermal indicator. Blood was withdrawn from the carotid artery through a densitometer cuvette to measure the dye concentration. The FA estimations of area were higher than those determined by use of extrapolated area. A multiplicative adjustment of 0.837 was estimated. On average, thermodilution estimates of cardiac output exceeded the adjusted FA determinations. Using a weighted linear regression, we determined the following calibration adjustment: thermal dilution cardiac output/1.048 = indocyanine green dye dilution cardiac output. 308 NAL Call. No.: 475 J824 Thin-layer chromatographic screening method for the tranquillizers azaperone, propiopromazine and carazolol in pig tissues. Haagsma, N.; Bathelt, E.R.; Engelsma, J.W. Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers; 1988 Jan29. Journal of chromatography v. 436 (1): p. 73-79; 1988 Jan29. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Pigs; Tissues; Intramuscular injection; Drug residues; Thin layer chromatography; Azaperone; Neuroleptics; Detection 309 NAL Call. No.: QP1.C6 Thyroid regulation of body temperature in anaesthetized chickens. Lam, S.K.; Harvey, S. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1990. Comparative biochemistry and physiology : A : Comparative physiology v. 95 (3): p. 435-439; 1990. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Chickens; Anesthesia; Thyroid function; Body temperature; Blood plasma; Triiodothyronine; Thyroxine; Somatostatin 310 NAL Call. No.: 448.8 J8293 Thyrotrophin-releasing hormone-induced growth hormone (GH) secretion in anaesthetized chickens: inhibition by GH-releasing factor at central sites. Ahene, C.A.; Lea, R.W.; Harvey, S. Bristol : The Journal; 1991 Jan. The Journal of endocrinology v. 128 (1): p. 13-19; 1991 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Cocks; Somatotropin; Thyrotropin releasing hormone; Hypothalamic releasing hormones; Somatostatin; Dopamine; Hormone secretion; Anesthesia Abstract: Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of GH-releasing factor (GRF) (at 1 or 10 microgram) to anaesthetized immature (6- to 8-weeks-old) or adult (>24-weeks-old) domestic fowl had no effect on basal GH concentrations in peripheral plasma, but suppressed (after 20 min) the acute GH response to exogenous (i.v.) thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) (1 microgram/kg). The i.c.v. injection of GRF also reduced the content of somatostatin (SRIF) and dopamine (DA) in the hypothalamus, while increasing the concentration of the DA metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid (DOPAC) and the DOPAC/DA ratio. The release of SRIF from hypothalamic tissue was stimulated in vitro by 100 nmol GRF/1. The inhibitory effect of i.c.v. GRF on TRH-induced GH secretion was blocked when it was simultaneously injected i.c.v. with SRIF antiserum. These results demonstrate central effects of GRF on avian hypothalamic function and suggest an inhibitory role for this peptide in GH regulation, possibly mediated through increased SRIF secretion. 311 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 SO8 Tiletamine hydrochloride in combination with zolazepam hydrochloride as an anaesthetic agent in sheep. Taylor, J.H.; Botha, C.J.; Swan, G.E.; Mulders, M.S.G.; Grobler, M.J. Pretoria : The Association; 1992 Jun. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association v. 63 (2): p. 63-65; 1992 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sheep; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Drug formulations; Dosage; Atropine; Preanesthetic medication; Blood pressure; Heart rate 312 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Time-related responses of spontaneously breathing, laterally recumbent horses to prolonged anesthesia with halothane. Steffey, E.P.; Kelly, A.B.; Woliner, M.J. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1987 Jun. American journal of veterinary research v. 48 (6): p. 952-957; 1987 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Halothane; Anesthesia; Cardiovascular system; Respiratory system 313 NAL Call. No.: QP1.C6 Tissue blood content in anaesthetised sheep and horses. Weaver, B.M.Q.; Staddon, G.E.; Pearson, M.R.B. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1989. Comparative biochemistry and physiology : A : Comparative physiology v. 94 (3): p. 401-404. ill; 1989. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sheep; Horses; Tissues; Anesthesia; Erythrocytes; Blood volume 314 NAL Call. No.: QP1.C6 Tissue perfusion in anaesthetised sheep. Weaver, B.M.Q.; Staddon, G.E.; Pearson, M.R.B. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1990. Comparative biochemistry and physiology : A : Comparative physiology v. 95 (3): p. 359-361; 1990. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sheep; Anesthesia; Tissue analysis; Radioactivity; Heart output; Blood flow 315 NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6 A tracheal tube-in-tube technique for functional separation of the lungs in the horse. Moens, Y.; Gootjes, P.; Lagerweij, E. Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1992 Mar. Equine veterinary journal v. 24 (2): p. 103-106; 1992 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Lungs; Anesthesia; Trachea; Tubes; Bronchi; Fiber optics 316 NAL Call. No.: 444.8 G28 Triiodothyronine inhibition of thyrotropin-releasing hormone- and growth hormone-releasing factor-induced growth hormone secretion in anesthetized chickens. Scanes, C.G.; Harvey, S. Duluth, Minn. : Academic Press; 1989 Mar. General and comparative endocrinology v. 73 (3): p. 477-484; 1989 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Chickens; Anesthesia; Triiodothyronine; Thyrotropin releasing hormone; Somatotropin; Hormone secretion; Age 317 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3 Use of acupuncture for the treatment of chronic back pain in horses: stimulation of acupuncture points with saline solution injections. Martin, B.B. Jr; Klide, A.M. Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1987 May01. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 190 (9): p. 1177-1180. ill; 1987 May01. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Back; Pain; Acupuncture; Treatment; Saline water; Injections 318 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V6456 The use of detomidine as a premedicant and sedative in horses. Jones, R.S. London : Wright; 1989. The Veterinary annual (29): p. 175-177; 1989. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Preanesthetic medication; Agonists; Neuroleptics; Analgesics; Anesthesia; Pharmacokinetics; Dosage; Adverse effects 319 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Use of end-tidal CO2 tension to predict arterial CO2 values in isoflurane-anesthetized equine neonates. Geiser, D.R.; Rohrbach, B.W. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1992 Sep. American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (9): p. 1617-1621; 1992 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Newborn animals; Carbon dioxide; Blood; Anesthesia; Inhaled anesthetics; Lung ventilation 320 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R3224 Use of epidural morphine to relieve pain in a horse. Valverde, A.; Little, C.B.; Dyson, D.H.; Motter, C.H. Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1990 Mar. The Canadian veterinary journal v. 31 (3): p. 211-212; 1990 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Pain; Conduction anesthesia; Morphine; Case reports 321 NAL Call. No.: SF951.V47 Use of halothane and isoflurane in the horse. Brunson, D.B. Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders; 1990 Dec. The Veterinary clinics of North America : equine practice v. 6 (3): p. 529-541; 1990 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Halothane; Nitrous oxide; Inhaled anesthetics; Respiratory system; Cardiovascular system 322 NAL Call. No.: SF601.J62 Use of inhalation anesthesia to facilitate surgical training on swine farms. Riebold, T.W.; Ferries, J.V.; Crisman, R.O. Blacksburg, Va. : The Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges; 1989. Journal of veterinary medical education v. 16 (2): p. 50-52. ill; 1989. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Pigs; Veterinary education; Surgical operations; Anesthesia; Apparatus; Halothane; Hyperthermia 323 NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43 The use of intraneural doxorubicin in association with palmer digital neurectomy in 28 horses. Fubini, S.L.; Cummings, J.F.; Todhunter, R.J. Philadelphia, Pa. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1988 Nov. Veterinary surgery v. 17 (6): p. 346-349; 1988 Nov. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Navicular disease; Bone fractures; Wings; Phalanges; Pain; Neurectomy; Nerve tissue; Neoplasms; Doxorubicin 324 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641 Use of propofol in sheep. Waterman, A.E. London : British Veterinary Association; 1988 Mar12. The Veterinary record v. 122 (11): p. 260; 1988 Mar12. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sheep; Anesthetics; Anesthesia; Pharmacodynamics 325 NAL Call. No.: SF951.J65 The use of tiletamine-zolazepam for "darting" feral horses. Matthews, N.S.; Myers, M.M. Lake Elsinore, Calif. : William E. Jones, DVM; 1993 May. Journal of equine veterinary science v. 13 (5): p. 264-267; 1993 May. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Equine Rescue, February 6-7, 1993, Santa Barbara, California. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: North Carolina; Horses; Feral herds; Anesthesia; Restraint of animals 326 NAL Call. No.: SF601.J6 Use of tolazoline hydrochloride to reverse multiple anesthetic episodes induced with xylazine hydrochloride and ketamine hydrochloride in white-tailed deer and goats. Dew, T.L. Lawrence, Kan. : The Journal; 1988 Mar. Journal of zoo animal medicine v. 19 (1/2): p. 8-13; 1988 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Goats; Odocoileus Virginianus; Immobilization; Anesthetics; Xylazine; Ketamine; Anesthesia; Drug antagonism 327 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69 Using injectable anesthetic drugs safely in horses. Matthews, N.S.; Hartsfield, S.M. Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Co; 1993 Feb. Veterinary medicine v. 88 (2): p. 154-159; 1993 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Injectable anesthetics; Anesthesia; Preoperative care; Safety 328 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69 Using perineural anesthesia to localize equine lameness. Gibson, K.T.; Stashak, T.S. Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Company; 1989 Nov. Veterinary medicine v. 84 (11): p. 1082, 1084-1086; 1989 Nov. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Legs; Lameness; Diagnostic techniques 329 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641 Variation in the analgesic effects of xylazine in different breeds of sheep. Ley, S.; Waterman, A.; Livingston, A. London : The Association; 1990 May19. The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary Association v. 126 (20): p. 508; 1990 May19. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sheep; Xylazine; Breed differences; Clun forest; Swaledale; Welsh mountain; Drug effects 330 NAL Call. No.: DISS F1992212 Ventilation and gas exchange in each lung of the anaesthetised horse the influence of body position and mechanical ventilation = Ventilatie en gasuitwisseling in iedere long bij het geanaestheseerde paarde : invloed van de lichaamspositie en van mechanische beademing.. Ventilatie en gasuitwisseling in iedere long bij het geanaestheseerde paarde, invloed van de lichaamspositie en van mechanische beademing Moens, Y. Utrecht? : s.n.,; 1992. 203 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. Thesis statement, summary, afterword, and vita in Dutch. Includes bibliographical references. Language: English 331 NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6 Ventilation-perfusion relationships in the anaesthetised horse. Nyman, G.; Hedenstierna, G. Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1989 Jul. Equine veterinary journal v. 21 (4): p. 274-281; 1989 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Ventilation; Statistical analysis 332 NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992 Visceral and peripheral pain detection models in the horse, using flunixin and carprofen. Schatzmann, U.; Gugelmann, M.; Cranach, J. von; Ludwig, B.M.; Rehm, W.F.; Baumgartner, T.; Stauffer, J.L. New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992. Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p. 411-420, 432-433; 1992. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Pain; Detection; Models; Antiinflammatory agents; Flunixin; Testing; Balloons; Pharmacokinetics; Analgesics 333 NAL Call. No.: SF601.I4 Welfare aspects of castration and tail docking of lambs. Wood, G.; Molony, V. London : British Veterinary Association; 1992 Jan. In practice v. 14 (1): p. 2-4, 6-7; 1992 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Uk; Lambs; Castration; Docking; Vasoconstriction; Infections; Pain; Local anesthesia; Blood plasma; Animal welfare; Complications; Veterinary equipment; Animal behavior; Hydrocortisone 334 NAL Call. No.: SF951.E62 Xylazine and butorphanol: survey of field use in the horse. Geiser, D.R.; Henton, J.E. Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Pub. Co; 1988 Jan. Equine practice v. 10 (1): p. 7-11; 1988 Jan. Literature review. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Xylazine; Analgesics; Drug combinations; Pharmacodynamics; Surveys 335 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A Xylazine and tiletamine-zolazepam anesthesia in horses. Hubbell, J.A.E.; Bednarski, R.M.; Muir, W.W. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1989 May. American journal of veterinary research v. 50 (5): p. 737-742; 1989 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Xylazine; Anesthetics; Anesthesia; Cardiovascular system; Respiratory system Abstract: The cardiopulmonary and anesthetic effects of xylazine in combination with a 1:1 mixture of tiletamine and zolazepam were determined in 6 horses. Each horse was given xylazine IV or IM, as well as tiletamine-zolazepam IV on 4 randomized occasions. Anesthetics were administered at the rate of 1.1 mg of xylazine/kg of body weight, IV, 1.1 mg of tiletamine-zolazepam/kg, IV (treatment 1); 1.1 mg of xylazine/kg, IV, 1.65 mg of tiletamine-zolazepam/kg, IV (treatment 2); 1.1 mg of xylazine/kg, IV, 2.2 mg of tiletamine-zolazepam/kg, IV (treatment 3); and 2.2 mg of xylazine/kg, IM, 1.65 mg of tiletamine-zolazepam/kg, IV (treatment 4). Tiletamine-zolazepam doses were the sum of tiletamine plus zolazepam. Xylazine, when given IV, was given 5 minutes before tiletamine-zolazepam. Xylazine, when given IM, was given 10 minutes before tiletamine-zolazepam. Tiletamine-zolazepam induced recumbency in all horses. Duration of recumbency in group 1 was 31.9 +/- 7.2 (mean +/- 1 SD) minutes. Increasing the dosage of tiletamine-zolazepam (treatments 2 and 3) significantly (P less than 0.05) increased the duration of recumbency. Xylazine caused significant (P less than 0.05) decreases in heart rate and cardiac output and significant (P less than 0.05) increases in central venous pressure and mean pulmonary artery pressure 5 minutes after administration. Respiratory rate was decreased. Arterial blood pressures increased significantly (P less than 0.05) after xylazine was administered IV in treatments 1 and 3, but the increases were not significant in treatment 2. Xylazine administered IM caused significant (P less than 0.05) increases in central venous pressure and significant (P less than 0.05) decreases in cardiac output. Tiletamine-zolazepam administration caused significant (P less than 0.05) decreases in arterial partial pressure of oxygen and arterial pH and significant (P less than 0.05) increases in arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide. These changes persisted for the durati 336 NAL Call. No.: SF955.E6 Xylazine and tiletamine-zolazepam for induction of anaesthesia maintained with halothane in 19 horses. Abrahamsen, E.J.; Hubbell, J.A.E.; Bednarski, R.M.; Muir, W.W.; Macioce, B.A. Newmarket : R & W Publications; 1991 May. Equine veterinary journal v. 23 (3): p. 224-225; 1991 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Horses; Anesthesia; Xylazine; Halothane; Blood pressure

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