NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL LIBRARY ARCHIVED FILE
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Anesthesia and Analgesia for Companion and Laboratory Animals

Provided by the Animal Welfare Information Center

United States Department of Agriculture
National Agricultural Library


January 1988 - January 1994

United States Department of Agriculture
National Agricultural Library
10301 Baltimore Blvd.
Beltsville, Maryland 20705-2351

QB 94-18

Updated by QB 95-12

Quick Bibliography Series Bibliographies in the Quick Bibliography Series of the National Agricultural Library, are intended primarily for current awareness, and as the title of the series implies, are not indepth exhaustive bibliographies on any given subject. However, the citations are a substantial resource for recent investigations on a given topic. They also serve the purpose of bringing the literature of agriculture to the interested user who, in many cases, could not access it by any other means. The bibliographies are derived from computerized on-line searches of the AGRICOLA data base. Timeliness of topic and evidence of extensive interest are the selection criteria.

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Quick Bibliography Series: QB 94-18

311 citations in English from AGRICOLA

Tim Allen
Animal Welfare Information Center

March 1994 National Agricultural Library Cataloging Record:

Allen, Tim
Anesthesia and analgesia for companion and laboratory animals.
(Quick bibliography series ; 94-18)
1. Animal anesthesia--Bibliography. 2. Laboratory animals--Bibliography. I. Title.
aZ5071.N3 no.94-18

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AGRICOLA

Citations in this bibliography were entered in the AGRICOLA database between January 1979 and the present.

SAMPLE CITATIONS
 
 Citations in this bibliography are from the National Agricultural Library's
 AGRICOLA database.  An explanation of sample journal article, book, and
 audiovisual citations appears below.
 
 JOURNAL ARTICLE:
 
   Citation #                                     NAL Call No.
    Article title.
    Author.  Place of publication:  Publisher.  Journal Title.
    Date.  Volume (Issue).  Pages.  (NAL Call Number).
 
 Example:
   1                             NAL Call No.:  DNAL 389.8.SCH6
    Morrison, S.B.  Denver, Colo.:  American School Food Service
    Association.  School foodservice journal.  Sept 1987. v. 41
    (8). p.48-50. ill.
 
 BOOK:
 
   Citation #                                   NAL Call Number
    Title.
    Author.  Place of publication:  Publisher, date. Information
    on pagination, indices, or bibliographies.
 
 Example:
   1                        NAL Call No.:  DNAL RM218.K36 1987
    Exploring careers in dietetics and nutrition.
    Kane, June Kozak.  New York:  Rosen Pub. Group, 1987.
    Includes index.  xii, 133 p.: ill.; 22 cm.  Bibliography:
    p. 126.
 
 AUDIOVISUAL:
 
   Citation #                                  NAL Call Number
    Title.
    Author.  Place of publication:  Publisher, date.
    Supplemental information such as funding.  Media format
    (i.e., videocassette):  Description (sound, color, size).
 
 Example:
   1                    NAL Call No.: DNAL FNCTX364.A425 F&N AV
    All aboard the nutri-train.
    Mayo, Cynthia.  Richmond, Va.:  Richmond Public Schools,
    1981.  NET funded.  Activity packet prepared by Cynthia
    Mayo.  1 videocassette (30 min.): sd., col.; 3/4 in. +
    activity packet.Anesthesia and Analgesia for Companion and Laboratory Animals
                                          January 1988 - January 1994
 
 
 
                             SEARCH STRATEGY
 
 Set        Items      Description
 
 
 1          20557      anesthe? or anasthe? or anaesthe? or analges? or pain? or
                       distress? or stress? or tranquil? or anxiolytic?
 2           2258      S1 and (rabbit? or dog? or cat? or puppy or puppies or kitten?
                       or rat or rats or mouse or mice or guinea (W) pig? or hamster?
                       or gerbil? or ferret? or vole?)
 3           1809      S2/ti(tle)
 4            871      S3 and PY=1988:1994
 5            861      S4 and LA=English
 6            484      S5 not stress?
 
 
 Anesthesia and Analgesia for Companion and Laboratory Animals
 
 
 
 1                                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Acupuncture analgesia: a review.
 Janssens, L.A.A.; Rogers, P.A.M.; Schoen, A.M.
 London : The Association; 1988 Apr09.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary Association v. 122
 (15): p. 355-358. ill; 1988 Apr09.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Acupuncture; Pain; Analgesics
 
 
 2                                                     NAL Call. No.: SF601.P76
 Acupuncture-produced surgical analgesia--physiology, indications, techniques,
 and limitations.
 Klide, A.M.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Co; 1992 Mar.
 Problems in veterinary medicine v. 4 (1): p. 200-206; 1992 Mar.  In the series
 analytic: Veterinary acupuncture / edited by A. M. Schoen.  Literature review.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Domestic animals; Anesthesia; Surgery; Mode of action;
 Acupuncture; Restraint of animals
 
 
 3                                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis in a dog after halothane anaesthesia and
 administration of flunixin meglumine and trimethoprim-sulphadiazine.
 McNeil, P.E.
 London : The Association; 1992 Aug15.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary Association v. 131
 (7): p. 148-151; 1992 Aug15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Postoperative complications; Nephritis; Renal failure;
 Halothane; Anesthesia; Flunixin; Trimethoprim; Sulfadiazine; Ischemia; Case
 reports
 
 
 4                                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Adaptation of human oscillometric blood pressure monitors for use in dogs.
 Hunter, J.S. Jr; McGrath, C.J.; Thatcher, C.D.; Remillard, R.L.; McCain, W.C.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1990 Sep.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (9): p. 1439-1442; 1990 Sep.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Monitors; Blood pressure; Measurement; Modification;
 Veterinary equipment
 
 Abstract:  Two digital oscillometric human blood pressure measuring devices
 were modified and evaluated as blood pressure monitors in 12 healthy
 anesthetized dogs. Direct arterial pressures were measured via cannulation of
 the dorsal pedal artery and were correlated with indirect measurements through
 an inflatable cuff placed over the dorsal pedal artery below the hock joint of
 the contralateral limb. Direct and indirect measurements were compared for
 systolic, diastolic, and calculated mean arterial pressures. Blood pressure
 ranges between 215/145 mm of Hg and 65/30 mm of Hg were obtained, using
 combinations of halothane, phenylephrine, calcium, and IV administered fluids.
 Machine A was found to be insufficient for clinical application, on the basis
 of correlation coefficients between direct and indirect pressures of 0.78,
 0.65, and 0.74 for systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures,
 respectively. Higher correlation coefficients between direct and indirect
 pressures (0.77, 0.87, and 0.87, respectively) were obtained with machine B.
 The results of the study reported here suggest machine B may be an effective
 blood pressure monitoring device in anesthetized dogs.
 
 
 5                                                      NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Adverse effects of administration of propofol with various preanesthetic
 regimens in dogs.
 Smith, J.A.; Gaynor, J.S.; Bednarski, R.M.; Muir, W.W.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1993 Apr01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 202 (7): p.
 1111-1115; 1993 Apr01.  Paper presented at the symposium on "Animals and the
 environment: Impacts on veterinary medicine," Boston, Massachusetts.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Preanesthetic medication; Anesthetics; Adverse effects;
 Diazepam; Anesthesia
 
 
 6                                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 alpha 2-Adrenergic receptor agonist effects on supraventricular and
 ventricular automaticity in dogs with complete atrioventricular block.
 Day, T.K.; Muir, W.W. III
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1993 Jan.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (1): p. 136-141; 1993 Jan.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Alpha-adrenergic receptors; Agonists; Narcotic antagonists;
 Xylazine; Ventricles
 
 Abstract:  Complete atrioventricular block was induced in 26
 pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs to determine the effects of the alpha
 2-adrenergic receptor agonists, xylazine and medetomidine, on supraventricular
 and ventricular automaticity. Prazosin and atipamezole, alpha-adrenoceptor
 antagonists, were administered to isolate alpha 1- or alpha 2-adrenoceptor
 effects. Six dogs served as controls and were given glycopyrrolate (0.1 mg/kg
 of body weight, IV) and esmolol (50 to 75 microgram/kg/min, IV) to induce
 parasympathetic and beta 1-adrenergic blockade, respectively. Eight dogs were
 given sequentially increasing doses of xylazine (n = 5), 0.000257 mg (10(-9)M)
 to 25.7 mg (10(-4)M) and medetomidine (n = 3), 0.000237 mg (10(-9)M) to 2.37
 mg (10(-5) < M) after parasympathetic and beta 1-adrenergic blockade. Twelve
 dogs were given xylazine (n = 6, 1.1 mg/kg, IV) or medetomidine (n = 6, 0.05
 mg/kg, IV) after parasympathetic and beta 1-adrenergic blockade. Three dogs
 given xylazine and 3 dogs given medetomidine were administered prazosin (0.1
 mg/kg, IV) followed by atipamezole (0.3 mg/kg, IV). The order of prazosin and
 atipamezole was reversed in the remaining 3 dogs given either xylazine or
 medetomidine. Complete atrioventricular block and administration of
 glycopyrrolate and esmolol resulted in stable supraventricular and ventricular
 rates over a 4-hour period. Increasing concentration of xylazine or
 medetomidine did not cause significant changes in supraventricular or
 ventricular rate. Xylazine and medetomidine, in the presence of the
 alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists, prazosin (alpha(1)) and atipamezole
 (alpha(2)), did not cause significant changes in supraventricular or
 ventricular rate. alpha 2-Adrenoceptor agonists do not induce direct alpha 1-
 or alpha 2-adrenoceptor-mediated depression of supraventricular or ventricular
 rate in dogs with complete atrioventricular block.
 
 
 7                                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Alterations in epinephrine-induced arrhythmogenesis after xylazine and
 subsequent yohimbine administration in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs.
 Tranquilli, W.J.; Thurmon, J.C.; Benson, G.J.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1988 Jul.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 49 (7): p. 1072-1075; 1988 Jul.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Adrenalin; Xylazine; Anesthetics; Heart rate;
 Blood pressure; Heart diseases
 
 Abstract:  Effects of xylazine (1.1 mg/kg of body weight, IV bolus, plus 1.1
 mg/kg/h infusion) and subsequent yohimbine (0.125 mg/kg, IV bolus)
 administration on the arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine (ADE) in isoflurane
 (1.8% endtidal)-anesthetized dogs were evaluated. The ADE was defined as the
 total dose of epinephrine that induced greater than or equal to 4 premature
 ventricular contractions within 15 seconds during a 3-minute infusion period
 or within 1 minute after the end of infusion. Total ADE values during
 isoflurane anesthesia, after xylazine administration, and after yohimbine
 injection were 36.6 +/- 8.45 micrograms/kg, 24.1 +/- 6.10 micrograms/kg, and
 45.7 +/- 6.19 micrograms/kg, respectively. Intravenous xylazine administration
 significantly ( P less than 0.05) increased blood pressure and decreased heart
 rate, whereas yohimbine administration induced a significant (P less than
 0.05) decrease in blood pressure. After yohimbine administration, the ADE
 significantly (P less than 0.05) increased above that after isoflurane plus
 xylazine administration. After yohimbine administration, blood pressure
 measured immediately before epinephrine-induced arrhythmia was significantly
 (P less than 0.05) less than the value recorded during isoflurane plus
 xylazine anesthesia. Heart rate was unchanged among treatments immediately
 before epinephrine-induced arrhythmia. Seemingly, yohimbine possessed a
 protective action against catecholamine-induced arrhythmias in dogs
 anesthetized with isoflurane and xylazine.
 
 
 8                                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V643
 Anaesthesia and central nervous system disease in small animals. I. general
 considerations.
 Court, M.H.; Dodman, N.H.; Norman, W.M.; Seeler, D.C.
 London : Bailliere Tindall; 1990 Jul.
 British veterinary journal v. 146 (4): p. 285-295; 1990 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cat; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Central nervous system;
 Nervous system diseases; Hypertension; Surgical operations; Physiopathology;
 Blood flow; Treatment
 
 
 9                                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V643
 Anaesthesia and central nervous system disease in small animals. II.
 anaesthetic management for specific diseases and procedures.
 Court, M.H.; Dodman, N.H.; Norman, W.M.; Seeler, D.C.
 London : Bailliere Tindall; 1990 Jul.
 British veterinary journal v. 146 (4): p. 296-308; 1990 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cat; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Nervous system diseases;
 Central nervous system; Neoplasms; Head; Injuries; Spinal diseases; Diagnostic
 techniques
 
 
 10                                                     NAL Call. No.: SF991.A3
 Anaesthesia: established principles and new developments.
 Taylor, P.M.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1988.
 Advances in small animal practice v. 1: p. 87-119. ill; 1988.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Respiration; Blood circulation;
 Monitoring
 
 
 11                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V643
 Anaesthesia for small animal patients with disease of the hepatic, renal or
 gastrointestinal system.
 Dodman, N.H.; Seeler, D.C.; Court, M.H.; Norman, W.M.
 London : Bailliere Tindall; 1989 Jan.
 British veterinary journal v. 145 (1): p. 3-22; 1989 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cat; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Liver diseases; Kidney
 diseases; Digestive system diseases
 
 
 12                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V643
 Anaesthesia for small animal patients with neuromuscular disease.
 Fikes, L.L.; Dodman, N.H.; Court, M.H.
 London : Bailliere Tindall; 1990 Nov.
 British veterinary journal v. 146 (6): p. 487-499; 1990 Nov.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Neuromuscular diseases; Anesthetics;
 Neurophysiology; Physiopathology; Symptoms; Breeds; Diagnosis; Risk; Adverse
 effects
 
 
 13                                                    NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 Anaesthetic effects of chloral hydrate, pentobarbitone and urethane in adult
 male rats.
 Field, K.J.; White, W.J.; Lang, C.M.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1993 Jul.
 Laboratory animals v. 27 (3): p. 258-269; 1993 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Anesthetics
 
 Abstract:  Chloral hydrate, pentobarbitone and urethane were evaluated and
 compared for onset, duration and depth of anaesthesia, cardiovascular and
 respiratory effects, nociception and mortality in adult male rats. Chloral
 hydrate (300 and 400 mg/kg) severely depressed the cardiovascular and
 respiratory systems. Duration of anaesthesia was linearly related to dose, and
 anaesthetic depth and analgesia were excellent. Pentobarbital (40 mg/kg)
 produced a short period light surgical anaesthesia. Moderate to severe
 respiratory and cardiovascular depression occurred. Duration of anaesthesia
 was not related to dose. Urethane (1.2 and 1.5 g/kg) caused moderate
 cardiovascular depression. In addition, mortality was high at the 1.5 g/kg
 dose. Duration of anaesthesia was greater than 24 h for most animals.
 Anaesthesia depth and analgesia were excellent.
 
 
 14                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V643
 Anaesthetic management of the traumatized small animal patient.
 Norman, W.M.; Dodman, N.H.; Court, M.H.; Seeler, D.C.
 London : Bailliere Tindall; 1989 Sep.
 British veterinary journal v. 145 (5): p. 410-425; 1989 Sep.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cat; Trauma; Anesthesia; Physiopathology; Respiratory
 system; Cardiovascular system; Central nervous system
 
 
 15                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 J8292
 Anaesthetic regimes for cataract removal in the dog.
 Young, S.S.; Barnett, K.C.; Taylor, P.M.
 London : British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 1991 May.
 The Journal of small animal practice v. 32 (5): p. 236-240; 1991 May.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cataract; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Muscle relaxants;
 Halothane; Nitrous oxide; Thiopental; Preoperative care; Surgery
 
 
 16                                                    NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Analgesia after lateral thoracotomy in dogs: epidural morphine vs. intercostal
 bupivacaine.
 Pascoe, P.J.; Dyson, D.H.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1993 Mar.
 Veterinary surgery v. 22 (2): p. 141-147; 1993 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Pain; Analgesics
 
 
 17                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Analgesia and behavioral responses of dogs given oxymorphone-acepromazine and
 meperidine-acepromazine after methoxyflurane and halothane anesthesia.
 Sawyer, D.C.; Rech, R.H.; Adams, T.; Durham, R.A.; Richter, M.A.; Striler,
 E.L.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1992 Aug.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (8): p. 1361-1368; 1992 Aug.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Pethidine; Analgesics; Anesthesia; Halothane;
 Methoxyflurane; Pain; Drug effects; Blood pressure; Pulse rate
 
 Abstract:  This study was designed to test analgesia, duration, and
 cardiovascular changes induced by meperidine (MEP) and oxymorphone (OXY)
 following methoxyflurane (MOF) and halothane (HAL) anesthesia. Eight healthy
 dogs were given atropine and acepromazine, and anesthesia was induced with
 thiamylal and maintained with 1.5 minimal alveolar concentration of MOF or HAL
 for 1 hour during controlled ventilation. Eight treatments were given with
 each anesthetic: 3 with MEP (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg, IV), 3 with oxymorphone
 (OXY; 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg, IV), and 2 placebos with sterile water. Test
 drugs were given at the end of anesthesia when early signs of recovery were
 evident. Minimal threshold stimulus/response nociception was assessed by use
 of an inflatable soft plastic colonic balloon. Blood pressures and pulse rate
 were measured with a noninvasive monitor. Meperidine and OXY were found to be
 effective analgesics and could be reversed with naloxone. Intravenous
 administration of 2.0 mg of MEP/kg provided analgesia for 36 +/- 6 minutes and
 39 +/- 15 minutes after MOF and HAL, respectively. In contrast, OXY was
 effective at all 3 doses with effects of IV administration of 0.2 mg of OXY/kg
 lasting 154 +/- 13 minutes and 152 +/- 12 minutes, after MOF and HAL,
 respectively. Analgesia could not be demonstrated after anesthesia for
 acepromazine, MOF, or HAL. Blood pressure was not changed by either anesthetic
 nor was it influenced by MEP or OXY. Pulse rate was significantly depressed by
 the higher doses of OXY following HAL, but was not changed by MEP following
 either anesthetic. This study demonstrated the longer duration of analgesia of
 OXY. In addition, we could not find that analgesia was provided by either MOF
 or HAL following recovery from anesthesia.
 
 
 18                                                    NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Analgesia in dogs after intercostal thoracotomy: a comparison of morphine,
 selective intercostal nerve block, and interpleural regional analgesia with
 bupivacaine.
 Thompson, S.E.; Johnson, J.M.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1991 Jan.
 Veterinary surgery v. 20 (1): p. 73-77; 1991 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Analgesics; Postoperative care; Morphine; Pain; Blood; Ph;
 Gases
 
 
 19                                                     NAL Call. No.: SF991.A3
 Analgesia in dogs and cats.
 Waterman, A.E.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1988.
 Advances in small animal practice v. 1: p. 159-181; 1988.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cat; Anesthesia; Analgesics; Pain; Treatment; Surgery;
 Pharmacology
 
 
 20                                                     NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6
 Analgesic activity of certain flavone derivatives: a structure-activity study.
 Thirugnanasambantham, P.; Viswanathan, S.; Mythirayee, C.; Krishnamurty, V.;
 Ramachandran, S.; Kameswaran, L.
 Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1990 Feb.
 Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 28 (2): p. 207-214; 1990 Feb.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Flavonoids; Derivatives; Structure activity relationships;
 Analgesics; Mice
 
 
 21                                                    NAL Call. No.: RS160.I47
 Analgesic and antiinflammatory effects of chasmanthera dependens.
 Onabanjo, A.O.; John, T.A.; Sokale, A.A.; Samuel, O.T.
 Lisse, Netherlands : Swets & Zeitlinger; 1991 Feb.
 International journal of pharmacognosy v. 29 (1): p. 24-28; 1991 Feb.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Menispermaceae; Medicinal plants; Pharmaceutical products; Plant
 extracts; Alkaloids; Tannins; Cardiac glycosides; Medicinal properties;
 Analgesics; Antiinflammatory agents; Drug toxicity; Mice
 
 
 22                                                    NAL Call. No.: RS160.I47
 Analgesic and antipyretic effects of Mucuna pruriens.
 Iauk, L.; Galati, E.M.; Kirjavainen, S.; Forestieri, A.M.; Trovato, A.
 Lisse, Netherlands : Swets & Zeitlinger; 1993 Aug.
 International journal of pharmacognosy v. 31 (3): p. 213-216; 1993 Aug.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mucuna pruriens; Medicinal properties; Plant extracts; Leaves;
 Fruits; Trichomes; Analgesics; Antipyretics; Pain; Fever; Inflammation; Rats;
 Mice
 
 
 23                                                     NAL Call. No.: 450 P697
 Analgesic and behavioural effects of Morinda citrifolia.
 Younos, C.; Rolland, A.; Fleurentin, J.; Lanhers, M.C.; Misslin, R.; Mortier,
 F.
 Stuttgart, W. Ger. : Georg Thieme Verlag; 1990 Oct.
 Planta medica v. 56 (5): p. 430-434; 1990 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Morinda citrifolia; Roots; Plant extracts; Analgesics;
 Pharmaceutical products; Medicinal properties; Mice; Naloxone
 
 
 24                                                     NAL Call. No.: 450 P697
 Analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties of Euphorbia hirta.
 Lanhers, M.C.; Fleurentin, J.; Dorfman, P.; Mortier, F.; Pelt, J.M.
 Stuttgart, W. Ger. : Georg Thieme Verlag; 1991 Jun.
 Planta medica v. 57 (3): p. 225-231; 1991 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Euphorbia hirta; Plant extracts; Pharmaceutical products; Mice;
 Rats; Analgesics; Antipyretics; Antiinflammatory agents
 
 
 25                                                     NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6
 Analgesic effect of Momordica charantia seed extract in mice and rats.
 Biswas, A.R.; Ramaswamy, S.; Bapna, J.S.
 Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Jan.
 Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 31 (1): p. 115-118; 1991 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Momordica charantia; Medicinal plants; Plant extracts;
 Analgesics; Mice; Rats
 
 
 26                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 J8292
 Analgesic effects of acupuncture in thoracolumbar disc disease in dogs.
 Still, J.
 London : British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 1989 May.
 The Journal of small animal practice v. 30 (5): p. 298-301. ill; 1989 May.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Acupuncture; Spinal diseases; Pain
 
 
 27                                                    NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 An analgesiometry system for use in rabbits with some preliminary data on the
 effects of buprenorphine and lofentanil.
 Wootton, R.; Cross, G.; Wood, S.; West, C.D.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1988 Jul.
 Laboratory animals v. 22 (3): p. 217-222. ill; 1988 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Anesthesia; Analgesics; Dosage effect; Measurement
 
 Abstract:  A low cost infrared skin heating system has been designed to
 measure the efficacy of analgesics in rabbits. Following construction of a
 prototype, it was used to access the effect of buprenorphine given
 subcutaneously and per rectum. Buprenorphine administered subcutaneously has a
 rapid onset of action, but its duration (8-10 h) appears slightly shorter than
 has been suggested previously; rectal administration appears to prolong its
 effect. Preliminary data show that lofentanil has a longer duration of action
 than buprenorphine and it may prove, therefore, to be a valuable long-acting
 analgesic in the rabbit.
 
 
 28                                                     NAL Call. No.: QH301.M6
 Analysis of the causes effecting facilatory and inhibitory influences of the
 sympathetic nervous system on parasympathetic chronotropic effects in
 anesthetized cats.
 Yashina, L.P.; Samonina, G.E.
 New York, N.Y. : Allerton Press; 1988.
 Moscow University biological sciences bulletin v. 43 (2): p. 13-19; 1988.
 Translated from: Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta, Biologiia, v. 43 (2), 1988,
 p. 15-21. (QH301.M58).  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English; Russian
 
 Descriptors: Cat; Anesthetics; Heart rate; Inhibition; Stimulation;
 Sympathetic nervous system; Physiology
 
 
 29                                            NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 Anesthesia and control of pain responses during surgery of the eye.
 Hartsfield, S.M.
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p. 338-347, 361;
 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cataract; Surgical operations; Anesthesia; Anesthetics;
 Pain; Eyes; Analgesics; Opioids; Drugs; Dosage; Muscle relaxants;
 Postoperative care; Postoperative complications; Inhaled anesthetics
 
 
 30                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.V523
 Anesthesia and pain control.
 Bednarski, R.M.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders Company; 1989 Nov.
 The Veterinary clinics of North America : Small animal practice v. 19 (6): p.
 1223-1238; 1989 Nov.  In the series analytic: Critical care / edited by R.B.
 Kirby and G.L. Stamp.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cat; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Pain; Emergencies
 
 
 31                                                 NAL Call. No.: SF407.F39B56
 Anesthesia and surgery.
 Fox, J.G.
 Philadelphia : Lea & Febiger; 1988.
 Biology and diseases of the ferret / [edited by] James G. Fox. p. 289-302.
 ill; 1988.  Literature review.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ferrets; Anesthesia; Injections; Anesthetics; Surgery;
 Immunization
 
 
 32                                                 NAL Call. No.: SF992.C37C36
 Anesthesia and the heart.
 Mason, D.E.; Hubbell, J.A.E.
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1988.
 Canine and feline cardiology / edited by Philip R. Fox. p. 591-603; 1988.
 Literature review.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cat; Anesthesia; Cardiovascular diseases; Anesthetics;
 Risks; Monitoring
 
 
 33                                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.P76
 Anesthesia for head and neck surgery.
 Hartsfield, S.M.; Jacobson, J.D.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Co; 1991 Jun.
 Problems in veterinary medicine v. 3 (2): p. 123-141; 1991 Jun.  In the series
 analytic: Head and Neck Surgery / edited by C.S. Hedlund.  Literature review.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Anesthesia; Surgical operations; Head; Neck;
 Preoperative care; Fasting; Preanesthetic medication; Anesthetics; Analgesics;
 Respiration; Air flow; Tubes; Postoperative care; Monitoring
 
 
 34                                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Anesthesia of pups and kittens.
 Grandy, J.L.; Dunlop, C.I.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1991 Apr01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 198 (7): p.
 1244-1249; 1991 Apr01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pups; Kittens; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Age differences;
 Pharmacokinetics; Respiratory system; Cardiovascular system; Liver; Kidneys;
 Thermoregulation
 
 
 35                                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Anesthetic and medical management of acute hemorrhage during surgery.
 Wagner, A.E.; Dunlop, C.I.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1993 Jul01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 203 (1): p. 40-45;
 1993 Jul01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Horses; Hemorrhage; Surgery; Anesthesia; Medical
 treatment; Blood volume; Losses; Hematocrit; Blood proteins
 
 
 36                                                    NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Anesthetic and nephrotoxic effects of Telazol in New Zealand white rabbits.
 Brammer, D.W.; Doerning, B.J.; Chrisp, C.E.; Rush, H.G.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1991 Oct.
 Laboratory animal science v. 41 (5): p. 432-435; 1991 Oct.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Injectable anesthetics; Intramuscular injection; Renal
 failure; Toxicity; Anesthesia; Complications
 
 Abstract:  Telazol was evaluated as an anesthetic for rabbits. Two groups of
 five rabbits each were injected intramuscularly with 32 or 64 mg/kg of
 Telazol, and the depth and duration of anesthesia period monitored. At both
 doses, the righting reflex was lost within 2 minutes postinjection. Animals in
 both groups responded to noxious stimuli for the duration of the anesthesia.
 Hematology and urinalyses were performed daily for 7 days postinjection.
 Hematologic parameters remained unchanged in both groups. In the high-dose
 group, blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels increased 1 day
 postinjection and continued steadily throughout the week. Elevations in urine
 protein and the presence of casts correlated with this increase. In the
 low-dose group, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels increased and
 protein was present in the urine of four of five rabbits beginning
 approximately 5 days postinjection. Histologically, severe renal tubular
 necrosis was evident 7 days postinjection in all high-dose rabbits and in
 three rabbits in the low-dose group. Our results indicate that Telazol does
 not produce analgesia in rabbits and is nephrotoxic at both 32 and 64 mg/kg.
 We conclude that Telazol is contraindicated for use in rabbits.
 
 
 37                                                     NAL Call. No.: SF601.A5
 Anesthetic and surgical management of intrathoracic segmental tracheal
 stenosis utilizing high-frequency jet ventilation.
 Whitfield, J.B.; Graves, G.M.; Lappin, M.R.; Toombs, J.P.; Crowe, D.T.;
 Bjorling, D.E.
 Golden, Colo. : The Association; 1989 Jul.
 The Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association v. 25 (4): p. 443-446.
 ill; 1989 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cat; Anesthesia; Trachea; Thorax; Abnormalities; Resection
 
 
 38                                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 Anesthetic breathing circuits for cats and small dogs.
 Romatowski, J.
 Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company; 1990 Feb.
 The Compendium on continuing education for the practicing veterinarian v. 12
 (2): p. 183-187, 190-193. ill; 1990 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cat; Anesthesia; Apparatus; Tubes; Circuits; Breathing;
 Resistance to air flow; Air flow; Heat loss
 
 
 39                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.V523
 Anesthetic considerations for the geriatric patient.
 Paddleford, R.R.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders Company; 1989 Jan.
 The Veterinary clinics of North America : Small animal practice v. 19 (1): p.
 13-31; 1989 Jan.  In the series analytic: Geriatrics and gerontology / edited
 by R.T. Goldston.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cat; Geriatrics; Anesthetics; Pharmacokinetics;
 Pharmacodynamics; Anesthesia
 
 
 40                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V643
 Anesthetic management of small animal patients with endocrine disease.
 Court, M.H.; Dodman, N.H.; Norman, W.M.; Seeler, D.C.
 London : Bailliere Tindall; 1988 Jul.
 British veterinary journal v. 144 (4): p. 323-342; 1988 Jul.  Literature
 review.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cat; Anesthesia; Adrenal gland diseases; Adrenal medulla;
 Thyroid diseases; Treatment
 
 
 41                                                    NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Anesthetic requirement of isoflurane is reduced in spontaneously hypertensive
 and Wistar-Kyoto rats.
 Cole, D.J.; Marcantonio, S.; Drummond, J.C.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1990 Sep.
 Laboratory animal science v. 40 (5): p. 506-509; 1990 Sep.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Anesthetics; Anesthesia; Hypertension
 
 Abstract:  The isoflurane requirement to keep 50% of rats (Rattus norvegicus)
 unresponsive to noxious stimuli (MAC) was determined in age matched
 Sprague-Dawley (SD, n = 8), Spontaneously Hypertensive (SHR, n = 8) and
 Wistar-Kyoto (WKY, n = 8) strains. Following induction and orotracheal
 intubation, each rat received isoflurane (1.65% end-tidal) for 120 minutes.
 Physiologic parameters were similar except for expected differences in mean
 arterial pressure (148 +/- 13mmHg-SHR group, 101 +/- 10mmHg-SD group and 94
 +/- 12mmHg-WKY group [mean +/- standard deviation]). Anesthetic equilibration
 was verified by infrared analysis of end-tidal gases. MAC was then determined
 in each rat by the tail clamp method and a group MAC calculated.
 
 
 42                                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Anesthetic techniques for neutering 6- to 14-week-old kittens.
 Faggella, A.M.; Aronsohn, M.G.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1993 Jan01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 202 (1): p. 56-62;
 1993 Jan01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kittens; Castration; Ovariectomy; Anesthesia; Guidelines; Safety;
 Adverse effects; Anesthetics
 
 
 43                                               NAL Call. No.: SF914.A53 1990
 Anesthetics and analgesics in rabbits.
 Hobbs, B.A.
 Columbia, Md. : American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, 1990? :.;
 1990.
 Anesthesia and analgesia in laboratory animals : proceedings -- 1990 Forum,
 American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, Columbia Inn, Columbia,
 Maryland, May 3-6, 1990. p. 64, 63, 62, 61; 1990.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Anesthetics; Analgesics
 
 
 44                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Antagonism by flumazenil of midazolam-induced changes in quantitative
 electroencephalographic data from isoflurane-anesthetized dogs.
 Keegan, R.D.; Greene, S.A.; Moore, M.P.; Gallagher, L.V.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1993 May.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (5): p. 761-765; 1993 May.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Benzodiazepines; Narcotic antagonists; Anesthetics;
 Electroencephalography
 
 Abstract:  Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) was assessed in 5 dogs
 anesthetized with 1.6% end-tidal concentration of isoflurane and after
 subsequent administration of the benzodiazepine midazolam (0.2 mg/kg of body
 weight, IV). Ventilation was controlled to maintain normocapnia. Effect of the
 benzodiazepine antagonist, flumazenil (0.04 mg/kg, IV), on QEEG in
 midazolam-isoflurane-anesthetized dogs was determined. Heart rate, arterial
 blood pressure, esophageal temperature, arterial pH and blood gas tensions,
 end-tidal CO2 concentration, and end-tidal isoflurane concentration were
 monitored throughout the study. A 21-lead linked-ear montage was used for
 recording the EEG data. Quantitative EEG data were stored on an optical disk
 for later analysis. Values for absolute power of EEG were determined for
 delta, theta, alpha, and beta-frequencies. Cardiovascular variables remained
 stable throughout the study. Midazolam administration was associated with
 decreased absolute power in all frequencies of EEG at all electrode sites.
 Administration of flumazenil antagonized midazolam-induced decreased absolute
 power of EEG in all frequencies at all electrode sites. We conclude that QEEG
 provides a noninvasive, objective measure of midazolam- and flumazenil-induced
 changes in cortical activity during isoflurane anesthesia.
 
 
 45                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Antagonism of ketamine-xylazine anesthesia in rats by administration of
 yohimbine, tolazoline, or 4-aminopyridine.
 Komulainen, A.; Olson, M.E.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1991 Apr.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (4): p. 585-588; 1991 Apr.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Anesthesia; Ketamine; Xylazine; Yohimbine; 4-aminopyridine;
 Drug antagonism; Dosage; Adverse effects
 
 Abstract:  Antagonism of ketamine-xylazine (85 mg of ketamine/kg of body
 weight and 15 mg of xylazine/kg, IM) anesthesia in rats by yohimbine (YOH; 1,
 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, IP), tolazoline (TOL; 10, 20, or 50 mg/kg, IP),
 4-aminopyridine 4-AP; 1 or 5 mg/kg, IP), or a combination of yohimbine and
 4-aminopyridine (YOH:4-AP, 1 mg/kg:1 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg:1 mg/kg, IP) was
 studied. All dosages of YOH, TOL, 4-Ap, and YOH:4-AP reduced the time to
 appearance of corneal and pedal reflexes. Only TOL was effective in reducing
 time to appearance of the crawl reflex and recovery time. Yohimbine, 4-AP,
 YOH:4-AP, and TOL were effective in reversing respiratory depression caused by
 ketamine-xylazine anesthesia, but anesthetic-induced hypothermia was not
 antagonized. When given to non-anesthetized rats, the antagonists had little
 influence on respiratory rate, but all antagonists caused significant (P <
 0.05) reduction in core body temperature for at least 90 minutes. When YOH was
 used as an anesthetic antagonist at dosage of 20 mg/kg, 20% mortality was
 observed and was attributable to acute respiratory arrest. The use of 4-AP and
 YOH:4-AP at the dosages studied induced moderate to severe muscular tremors.
 In conclusion, TOL at dosage of 20 mg/kg given IP, appears to be an
 appropriate antagonist for ketamine-xylazine anesthesia in rats.
 
 
 46                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Antagonistic activities of atipamezole, 4-aminopyridine and yohimbine against
 medetomidine/ketamine-induced anaesthesia in cats.
 Verstegen, J.; Fargetton, X.; Zanker, S.; Donnay, I.; Ectors, F.
 London : The Association; 1991 Jan.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary Association v. 128
 (3): p. 57-60; 1991 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Anesthesia; Drug antagonism; Narcotic antagonists;
 Yohimbine; 4-aminopyridine; Anesthetics; Ketamine
 
 
 47                                                     NAL Call. No.: 450 P697
 Anti-infammatory and analgesic effects of an aqueous extract of Harpagophytum
 procumbens.
 Lanhers, M.C.; Fleurentin, J.; Mortier, F.; Vinche, A.; Younos, C.
 Stuttgart, W. Ger. : Georg Thieme Verlag; 1992 Apr.
 Planta medica v. 58 (2): p. 117-123; 1992 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Harpagophytum procumbens; Plant extracts; Pharmaceutical
 products; Antiinflammatory agents; Analgesics; Rats; Mice
 
 
 48                                                     NAL Call. No.: 500 N484
 Antinociceptive effects of pyridoxine, thiamine, and cyanocobalamin in rats.
 Bartoszyk, G.D.; Wild, A.
 New York, N.Y. : The Academy; 1990.
 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences v. 585: p. 473-476; 1990.  In the
 series analytic: Vitamin B6 / edited by K. Dakshinamurti.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cyanocobalamin; Pyridoxine; Thiamin; Dosage effects; Pain; Rats
 
 
 49                                                     NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6
 Anxiolytic activity of Panax ginseng roots: an experimental study.
 Bhattacharya, S.K.; Mitra, S.K.
 Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Aug.
 Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 34 (1): p. 87-92; 1991 Aug.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Panax pseudoginseng; Roots; Diazepam; Anxiety; Behavior; Rats
 
 Abstract:  The putative anxiolytic activity of the white and red varieties of
 ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng, was investigated in rats and mice using a
 number of experimental paradigms of anxiety and compared with that of
 diazepam. Pilot studies indicated that single-dose administration of ginseng
 had little to no acute behavioral effects, hence the two varieties of ginseng
 were administered orally at two dose levels twice daily for 5 days, while
 diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered acutely. White and red varieties of
 ginseng (20 and 50 mg/kg) showed positive results when tested against several
 paradigms of experimental anxiety. Both were effective in the open-field and
 elevated plus-maze tests and reduced conflict behaviour in thirsty rats and
 footshock-induced fighting in paired mice. Ginseng also attenuated
 pentylenetetrazole-induced decrease in rat brain MAO activity, confirming its
 anxiolytic activity since this has been proposed to be an endogenous marker
 for anxiety. The effects induced by white and red ginseng (50 mg/kg X 5 days)
 were comparable to those induced by diazepam (1 mg/kg).
 
 
 50                                                    NAL Call. No.: SF911.B56
 Apnea associated with anesthesia.
 Dyson, D.H.
 Toronto : B.C. Decker, Inc; 1988.
 Decision making in small animal soft tissue surgery / Allen G. Binnington,
 Joanne R. Cockshutt. p. 184-185; 1988.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Asphyxia; Respiration; Ventilation
 
 
 51                                            NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 Assessment of analgesia by catecholamine analysis: resopnse to onychectomy in
 cats.
 Benson, G.J.; Lin, H.C.; Thurmon, J.C.; Olson, W.A.; Tranquilli, W.J.
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p. 436-439,
 476-477; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Analgesics; Catecholamines; Postoperative care; Surgical
 operations; Drug effects
 
 
 52                                                    NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 Assessment of discomfort in rats with hepatomegaly.
 Beynen, A.C.; Baumans, V.; Bertens, A.P.M.G.; Haas, J.W.M.; Hellemond, K.K.
 van; Herck, H. van; Peters, M.A.W.; Stafleu, F.R.; Tintelen, G. van
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1988 Oct.
 Laboratory animals v. 22 (4): p. 320-325; 1988 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Hepatomegaly; Pain; Assessment; Cholesterol
 
 Abstract:  An attempt was made to assess discomfort in rats with hepatomegaly
 induced by feeding a high cholesterol, high cholate diet. After 8 weeks, the
 rats displayed a more than two-fold increase in liver weight when compared
 with controls fed a commercial diet. In a small open field test, behaviour of
 rats with hepatomegaly was similar to the controls. Of 9 parameters scored per
 rat, only the response to pressure on the right hypochondrium (tension of
 overlying muscles) scored higher than in control animals. There was
 considerable discomfort between-assessor variation in the assignment of
 scores. It is suggested, tentatively, that hepatomegaly in rats caused by
 cholesterol plus cholate feeding, may not cause extreme discomfort. Upon
 'blind' palpation of control and test rats, an average of 60% of the rats with
 hepatomegaly were classified correctly.
 
 
 53                                                NAL Call. No.: QL55.F43 1987
 Assessment of discomfort induced by orbital puncture in rats.
 Beynen, A.C.; Baumans, V.; Haas, J.W.M.; Hellemond, K.K. van; Stafleu, F.R.;
 Tintelen, G. van
 Dordrecht : M. Nijhoff; 1988.
 New developments in biosciences : their implications for laboratory animal
 science : proceedings of the Third Symposium, Amsterdam, The Nethrlands, 1-5
 June 1987 / edited by Anton C. Beyneen and Henk A. Solleveld. p. 431-436. ill;
 1988.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Eyes (animal); Blood sampling; Sampling techniques; Pain;
 Assessment
 
 
 54                                                    NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Atraumatic endotracheal intubation in small rabbits.
 Conlon, K.C.; Corbally, M.T.; Bading, J.R.; Brennan, M.F.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1990 Mar.
 Laboratory animal science v. 40 (2): p. 221-222. ill; 1990 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Trachea; Tubes; Inhaled anesthetics; Anesthesia;
 Laboratory methods
 
 
 55                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Atrial fibrillation in halothane- and isoflurane-anesthetized dogs.
 Freeman, L.C.; Ack, J.A.; Fligner, M.A.; Muir, W.W. III
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1990 Jan.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (1): p. 174-177; 1990 Jan.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Halothane; Anesthetics; Anesthesia; Heart diseases
 
 Abstract:  Programmed electrical stimulation techniques were used to evaluate
 the effects of halothane and isoflurane on induction of atrial fibrillation in
 anesthetized dogs. Experiments were performed in 16 dogs anesthetized with
 alpha-chloralose. Critically timed premature stimuli were applied to the right
 atrial appendage and Bachmann bundle to determine the atrial fibrillation
 threshold, defined as the minimal current required to induce rapid, irregular
 atrial electrical activity of at least 8 seconds' duration. Atrial
 fibrillation thresholds were determined at baseline (0.0% inhalational
 anesthetic), 0.5 minimal alveolar concentration (MAC), and 1.0 MAC of
 halothane (n = 8) and isoflurane (n = 8). In the absence of inhalation
 anesthetic, it was significantly (P < 0.01) easier to induce atrial
 fibrillation at the Bachmann bundle vs the right atrial appendage. Atrial
 fibrillation threshold at the Bachmann bundle was not affected by increasing
 concentrations of halothane, but was increased by 1.0 MAC of isoflurane (P <
 0.05). It was concluded that at 1.0 MAC isoflurane, but not halothane, has
 antifibrillatory effects in atrial tissue.
 
 
 56                                                    NAL Call. No.: RB127.P34
 Attempts to gauge the relative importance of pre- and postsynaptic effects of
 morphine on the transmission of noxious messages in the dorsal horn of the rat
 spinal cord.
 Lombard, M.C.; Besson, J.M.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers; 1989 Jun.
 Pain : the journal of the International Association for the Study of Pain v.
 37 (3): p. 335-345. ill; 1989 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Spinal cord; Morphine; Neurophysiology; Neurons; Pain
 
 
 57                                                    NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Autonomic and cardiovascular effects of neuromuscular blockade antagonism in
 the dog.
 Clutton, R.E.; Boyd, C.; Flora, R.; Payne, J.; McGrath, C.J.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1992 Jan.
 Veterinary surgery v. 21 (1): p. 68-75; 1992 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Nervous system; Drug combinations;
 Cardiovascular system; Drug effects
 
 
 58                                                    NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Azaperone and azaperone-ketamine as a neuroleptic sedative and anesthetic in
 rats and mice.
 Olson, M.E.; Renchko, P.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1988 Jun.
 Laboratory animal science v. 38 (3): p. 299-304; 1988 Jun.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mice; Rats; Anesthesia; Ketamine; Azaperone; Drug combinations
 
 Abstract:  Azaperone alone and combined with ketamine were evaluated as
 sedative and anesthetic agents in outbred rats and mice. Using azaperone alone
 the duration of immobility was 1.9 to 10.8 hours for mice and 0.9 to 2.4 hours
 for rats. The withdrawal reflex was not eliminated from mice receiving
 azaperone alone; however, the withdrawal reflex was eliminated from 0.9 to 2.4
 hours in rats receiving azaperone. Azaperone produced a tachypnea in rats and
 male mice while a depressed respiratory rate was observed in female mice.
 Using azaperone combined with ketamine, the duration of immobilization was 1.1
 to 8.8 hours for mice and 1.3 to 6.0 hours for rats. The duration loss of the
 withdrawal reflex, which was used as an indication of surgical anesthesia, was
 0.9 to 1.8 hours for mice and 1.0 to 6.0 hours for rats. An increase in
 respiratory rate was observed in rats given the combination while mice given
 the combination showed transient tachypnea followed by bradypnea. Overall,
 azaperone alone was shown to provide sedation in mice as compared to a dose
 dependent anesthesia in rats. The azaperone-ketamine combination produced a
 surgical plane of anesthesia in both rats and mice. Azaperone and the
 azaperone-ketamine combination appear to be a suitable alternative to
 sedatives and anesthetics currently used in rats and mice.
 
 
 59                                                     NAL Call. No.: 450 P697
 Behavioural effects of the American traditional plant Eschscholzia
 californica: sedative and anxiolytic properties.
 Rolland, A.; Fleurentin, J.; Lanhers, M.C.; Younos, C.; Misslin, R.; Mortier,
 F.; Pelt, J.M.
 Stuttgart, W. Ger. : Georg Thieme Verlag; 1991 Jun.
 Planta medica v. 57 (3): p. 212-216; 1991 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Eschscholzia californica; Plant extracts; Pharmaceutical
 products; Mice; Locomotion; Sleep
 
 
 60                                                    NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 Carbon dioxide as a short-term restraint anaesthetic in rats with subclinical
 respiratory disease.
 Fenwick, D.C.; Blackshaw, J.K.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1989 Jul.
 Laboratory animals v. 23 (3): p. 220-228; 1989 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Inhaled anesthetics; Oxygen; Anesthesia; Carbon dioxide;
 Respiratory diseases; Safety; Restraint of animals
 
 Abstract:  The use of carbon dioxide (CO2) with, and without, oxygen (O2) as a
 short-term restraint anaesthetic for Wistar rats in which subclinical
 respiratory disease was endemic, was assessed in 3 separate experiments. In
 the first, rats were placed in a CO2 atmosphere generated from solid CO2 chips
 in a 701 plastic bin, and removed at time intervals ranging from 0 to 120 s
 after disappearance of the pedal reflex. Eight of 25 rats died, including 2
 which were removed immediately the pedal reflex disappeared; it was concluded
 that CO2 without O2 was not a suitable short-term anaesthetic for rats. In a
 second study, rats were anaesthetized in atmospheres of 50:50 and 80:20
 (CO2:O2) provided from commercially available cylinders, in 2 different
 environments--a 3.41 glass jar and a 171 plastic bin. Rats became excited in
 the plastic bin but not the glass jar. Rats in the glass jar displayed visible
 depression and cessation of whiskers movement significantly more quickly in
 the 80:20 (CO2:O2) than in the 50:50 mixture (4.2 +/- 0.98 s, n = 6, and 66.0
 +/- 4.9 s, n = 6 vs 13.8 +/- 2.77 s, n = 5 and 152.0 +/- 20.8 s, n = 5,
 respectively). Rats in the 171 plastic bin lost their pedal reflexes in a mean
 41.5 +/- 4.55 s (n = 11) in the 50:50 mixture and in a mean 30.9 +/- 6.38 s (n
 = 11) in the 80:20 (CO2:O2) group. Those left in the 50:50 mixture for 60 s
 and 180 s after disappearance of their pedal reflexes, recovered these
 reflexes in 20.2 +/- 0.44 s and 21.5 +/- 7.23 s respectively after removal
 from the gas. Respiration and heart beat ceased in one rat remaining in the
 50:50 mixture after 13 min 10 s. No untoward effects occurred in rats left in
 the 50:50 mixture for 180 s after disappearance of the pedal reflex, but 2
 died when left for an equivalent period in the 80:20 mixture. In the third
 study, examples of the practical use of a 50:50 mixture as a short term
 restraint anaesthetic are described. It was concluded that this mixture was a
 cheap, safe, and effective means of sh
 
 
 61                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Cardiac dysrhythmias during anesthesia for cervical decompression in the dog.
 Stauffer, J.L.; Gleed, R.D.; Short, C.E.; Erb, H.N.; Schukken, Y.H.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1988 Jul.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 49 (7): p. 1143-1146; 1988 Jul.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Heart diseases; Anesthesia; Spinal cord; Surgery
 
 Abstract:  In a retrospective study, the risk for cardiac dysrhythmias was
 evaluated in dogs undergoing ventral decompression and/or fenestration of the
 cervical spine (CERV) and compared with that for dogs undergoing dorsal
 laminectomy for decompression of the thoracic or lumbar spine (TL). The dogs
 in the CERV subset (48 dogs) tended to be heavier and older than the dogs in
 the TL subset (111 dogs). There was no apparent bias detected in treatment
 before anesthesia and surgery. The risk for dysrhythmias was 2.5 times greater
 in the CERV subset, compared with that in the TL subset (P less than 0.01).
 The risk for ventricular premature contraction was 3.5 times higher in the
 CERV group ( P less than 0.05). Bradycardia was found in any dogsfrom the CERV
 subset and was not found in any dogs from the TL subset. A logistic model was
 derived from the data and may be used to evaluate the risk for dysrhythmias in
 similar patients undergoing similar surgery and anesthesia. This model uses
 age, preoperative heart rate, and site of surgery (CERV or TL) to estimate the
 risk.
 
 
 62                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Cardiopulmonary and anesthetic effects of ketamine and its enantiomers in
 dogs.
 Muir, W.W. III; Hubbell, J.A.E.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1988 Apr.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 49 (4): p. 530-534; 1988 Apr.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Ketamine; Anesthesia; Blood pressure; Heart output; Blood
 chemistry; Cardiovascular system; Respiratory system
 
 
 63                                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Cardiopulmonary and behavioral effects of combinations of
 acepromazine/butorphanol and acepromazine/oxymorphone in dogs.
 Cornick, J.L.; Hartsfield, S.M.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1992 Jun15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 200 (12): p.
 1952-1956; 1992 Jun15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Opioids; Neuroleptics; Intravenous injection; Intramuscular
 injection; Drug combinations; Anesthesia; Heart rate; Respiration rate; Blood
 pressure; Body temperature; Blood; Ph; Bicarbonates; Oxygen; Carbon dioxide
 
 
 64                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Cardiopulmonary, anesthetic, and postanesthetic effects of intravenous
 infusions of propofol in Greyhounds and non-Greyhounds.
 Robertson, S.A.; Johnston, S.; Beemsterboer, J.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1992 Jun.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (6): p. 1027-1032; 1992 Jun.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Injectable anesthetics; Breeds; Crossbreds; Intravenous
 injection; Cardiovascular system; Recovery; Anesthesia; Adverse effects
 
 Abstract:  The cardiopulmonary, anesthetic, and postanesthetic effects of an
 iv infusion of the hypnotic agent propofol were assessed in 6 Greyhounds and 7
 non-Greyhounds. After IM injection of acetylpromazine and atropine, a bolus
 injection of propofol sufficient to allow endotracheal intubation (mean +/-
 SEM = 4.0 +/- 0.3 mg/kg of body weight in Greyhounds; 3.2 +/- 0.1 mg/kg in
 non-Greyhounds) was administered, followed by continuous infusion at a rate of
 0.4 mg/kg/min for 60 minutes, during which time dogs breathed 100% oxygen. In
 23% of all dogs (3 of 13), apnea developed after initial bolus administration
 of propofol. Arterial blood pressure was well maintained in all dogs, but
 heart and respiratory rates were decreased significantly (P < 0.05) during the
 infusion in Greyhounds. In Greyhounds, mild respiratory acidosis developed
 after 45 minutes, whereas arterial carbon dioxide tension was increased at all
 times after propofol administration in non-Greyhounds. In all dogs, PCV and
 total plasma proteins were unaffected by propofol. Rectal temperature
 decreased during treatment. Muscle tremors were observed in approximately 50%
 of dogs (in 3 of 6 Greyhounds and 3 of 7 non-Greyhounds) during and after
 infusion of propofol. Non-Greyhounds lifted their heads, assumed sternal
 recumbency, and stood 10 +/- 1, 15 +/- 3, and 28 +/- 5 minutes, respectively,
 after the end of the infusion; in Greyhounds, the corresponding times were 36
 +/- 4, 43 +/- 6, and 63 +/- 7 minutes.
 
 
 65                                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.C24
 Cardiopulmonary effects of a halothane/oxygen combination in healthy cats.
 Ingwersen, W.; Allen, D.G.; Dyson, D.H.; Pascoe, P.J.; O'Grady, M.R.
 Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1988 Jul.
 Canadian journal of veterinary research; Revue canadienne de recherche
 veterinaire v. 52 (3): p. 386-391; 1988 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cat; Anesthesia; Halothane; Oxygen; Pharmacodynamics; Respiration
 rate; Cardiovascular system
 
 
 66                                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.C24
 Cardiopulmonary effects of a halothane/oxygen combination in hypovolemic cats.
 Ingwersen, W.; Allan, D.G.; Dyson, D.H.; Black, W.D.; Goldberg, M.T.;
 Valliant, A.E.
 Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1988 Oct.
 Canadian journal of veterinary research; Revue canadienne de recherche
 veterinaire v. 52 (4): p. 428-433; 1988 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cat; Anesthesia; Halothane; Oxygen; Hypovolemia; Heart output;
 Respiration rate
 
 
 67                                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.C24
 Cardiopulmonary effects of a ketamine hydrochloride/acepromazine combination
 in healthy cats.
 Ingwersen, W.; Allen, D.G.; Dyson, D.H.; Pascoe, P.J.; O'Grady, M.R.
 Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1988 Jan.
 Canadian journal of veterinary research; Revue canadienne de recherche
 veterinaire v. 52 (1): p. 1-4; 1988 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cat; Ketamine; Anesthetics; Drug combinations; Drug effects;
 Stroke; Respiration rate; Heart output; Heart rate
 
 
 68                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Cardiopulmonary effects of halothane anesthesia in cats.
 Grandy, J.L.; Hodgson, D.S.; Dunlop, C.I.; Curtis, C.R.; Heath, R.B.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1989 Oct.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 50 (10): p. 1729-1732. ill; 1989
 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cat; Anesthesia; Halothane; Ventilation; Respiration rate;
 Cardiovascular system
 
 Abstract:  The cardiopulmonary effects of 2 planes of halothane anesthesia
 (halothane end-tidal concentrations of 1.78% [light anesthesia] and 2.75%
 [deep anesthesia]) and 2 ventilatory modes (spontaneous ventilation [SV] or
 mechanically controlled ventilation [CV]) were studied in 8 cats. Anesthesia
 was induced and maintained with halothane in O2 only, and each cat was
 administered each treatment according to a Latin square design. Cardiac
 output, arterial blood pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, heart rate,
 respiratory frequency, and PaO2, PaCO2, and pH were measured during each
 treatment. Stroke volume, cardiac index, and total peripheral resistance were
 calculated. A probability value of less than 5% was accepted as significant.
 In the cats, cardiac output, cardiac index, and stroke volume were reduced by
 deep anesthesia and CV, although only the reduction attributable to CV was
 significant. Systemic arterial pressure was significantly reduced by use of
 deep anesthesia and CV. Respiratory frequency was significantly lower during
 CV than during SV. Arterial P(O2) was significantly decreased at the deeper
 plane of anesthesia, compared with the lighter plane. At the deeper plane of
 anesthesia, arterial P(CO2) and pulmonary arterial pressure were significantly
 lower during CV than during SV. The deeper plane of halothane anesthesia
 depressed cardiopulmonary function in these cats, resulting in hypotension and
 considerable hypercapnia. Compared with SV, CV significantly reduced
 circulatory variables and should be used with care in cats. Arterial blood
 pressure was judged to be more useful for assessing anesthetic depth than was
 heart rate or respiratory frequency.
 
 
 69                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Cardiopulmonary responses to experimentally induced gastric dilatation in
 isoflurane-anesthetized dogs.
 Hodgson, D.S.; Dunlop, C.I.; Chapman, P.L.; Grandy, J.L.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1992 Jun.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (6): p. 938-943; 1992 Jun.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Inhaled anesthetics; Stomach diseases; Cardiovascular
 system; Heart rate; Blood pressure; Respiration
 
 Abstract:  Gastric dilatation was experimentally induced in 6 anesthetized
 dogs maintained with constant-dose isoflurane in oxygen. An intragastric
 balloon was used to distend the stomach with a constant 30 mm of Hg for 3.5
 hours. The PaCO2, was maintained between 35 and 45 mm of Hg, using
 intermittent positive-pressure ventilation. Cardiopulmonary measurements prior
 to stomach distension (baseline) were compared with measurements taken during
 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5 hours of stomach distension by analyzing the
 change from baseline in a randomized-block analysis with each dog as a block.
 After distending the stomach, cardiac index increased (P < 0.01) from 1.5 to
 3.5 hours. Stroke volume did not change, thus the increase in the, cardiac
 index was attributable to an increase in heart rate. During inflation,
 increases were observed in systemic arterial, pulmonary arterial, and right
 atrial pressure. Respiratory frequency was unchanged; however, to maintain
 PaCO2, constant, it was necessary to progressively increase peak airway
 pressure. Although PaO2, tended to decrease during gastric dilation, the dogs
 were never hypoxemic. These results indicate that when our methods are used to
 maintain a constant anesthetic dose of isoflurane in oxygen, an observed
 increase in cardiovascular performance is expected. This differs from other
 studies in anesthetized dogs that have shown reduction in cardiovascular
 performance following gastric dilatation.
 
 
 70                                                    NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Cardiorespiratory effects of combined midazolam and butorphanol in
 isoflurane-anesthetized cats.
 Gross, M.E.; Smith, J.A.; Tranquilli, W.J.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1993 Mar.
 Veterinary surgery v. 22 (2): p. 159-162; 1993 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Neuroleptics; Drug combinations; Anesthesia
 
 
 71                                                    NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Cardiorespiratory effects of the intravenous administration of
 tiletamine-zolazepam to cats.
 Hellyer, P.; Muir, W.W. III; Hubbell, J.A.E.; Sally, J.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : J.B. Lippincott Co; 1988 Mar.
 Veterinary surgery v. 17 (2): p. 105-110. ill; 1988 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cat; Injections; Anesthetics; Respiration rate; Blood pressure;
 Drug combinations
 
 
 72                                                    NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Cardiorespiratory effects of the intravenous administration of
 Tiletamine-zolazepam to dogs.
 Hellyer, P.; Muir, W.W. III; Hubbell, J.A.E.; Sally, J.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1989 Mar.
 Veterinary surgery v. 18 (2): p. 160-165; 1989 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Respiration; Heart rate; Benzodiazepine; Cycloheximide;
 Anesthetics; Drug combinations
 
 
 73                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Cardiovascular and respiratory effects of propofol adminsitration in
 hypovolemic dogs.
 Ilkiw, J.E.; Pascoe, P.J.; Haskins, S.C.; Patz, J.D.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1992 Dec.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (12): p. 2323-2327; 1992 Dec.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthetics; Dosage effects
 
 Abstract:  Cardiopulmonary effects of propofol were studied in hypovolemic
 dogs from completion of, until 1 hour after administration. Hypovolemia was
 induced by withdrawal of blood from dogs until mean arterial pressure of 60 mm
 of Hg was achieved. After stabilization at this pressure for 1 hour, 6 mg of
 propofol/kg of body weight was administered IV to 7 dogs, and cardiopulmonary
 effects were measured. After blood withdrawal and prior to propofol
 administration, oxygen utilization ratio increased, whereas mean arterial
 pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure, central venous pressure, pulmonary
 capillary wedge pressure, cardiac index, oxygen delivery, mixed venous oxygen
 tension, and mixed venous oxygen content decreased from baseline. Three
 minutes after propofol administration, mean pulmonary arterial pressure,
 pulmonary vascular resistance, oxygen utilization ratio, venous admixture, and
 arterial and mixed venous carbon dioxide tensions increased, whereas mean
 arterial pressure, arterial oxygen tension, mixed venous oxygen content,
 arterial and mixed venous pH decreased from values measured prior to propofol
 administration. Fifteen minutes after propofol administration, mixed venous
 carbon dioxide tension was still increased; however by 30 minutes after
 propofol administration, all measurements had returned to values similar to
 those measured prior to propofol administration.
 
 
 74                                                    NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Cardiovascular changes in unanesthetized and ketamine-anesthetized
 Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 2.8-GHz radiofrequency radiation.
 Jauchem, J.R.; Frei, M.R.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1991 Jan.
 Laboratory animal science v. 41 (1): p. 70-75; 1991 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Radiation; Ketamine; Anesthesia; Body temperature; Heart
 rate; Blood pressure; Strain differences
 
 Abstract:  Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 2.8-GHz radiofrequency
 radiation, first while unanesthetized and then while anesthetized with
 ketamine (150 mg/kg, I.M.). Irradiation at a power density of 60 mW/cm2
 (whole-body average specific absorption rate of approximately 14 W/kg) was
 conducted for sufficient duration to increase colonic temperature from 38.5 to
 39.5 degrees C. The time required for the temperature increase was
 significantly longer in the anesthetized state. During irradition, heart rate
 increased significantly both with and without anesthesia, while mean arterial
 blood pressure increased only when the rats were unanesthetized. The heart
 rate increase in the anesthetized state contrasts with a lack of change in a
 previous study of Fischer rats. This difference between anesthetized
 Sprague-Dawley and Fischer rats should be considered when comparing
 cardiovascular data obtained from these two strains of rats.
 
 
 75                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Cardiovascular effects of butorphanol administration in isoflurane-O2
 anesthetized healthy dogs.
 Tyner, C.L.; Greene, S.A.; Hartsfield, S.M.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1989 Sep.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 50 (8): p. 1340-1342; 1989 Sep.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Analgesics; Cardiovascular system; Drug effects;
 Anesthetics
 
 Abstract:  Cardiovascular consequences of butorphanol tartrate (0.2 mg/kg of
 body weight, IV) administration during isoflurane (1.7% end-tidal
 concentration) anesthesia were determined in mechanically ventilated healthy
 dogs. Butorphanol administration caused significant (P less than or equal to
 0.05) reductions in mean, systolic, and diastolic arterial blood pressures;
 cardiac output; and rate-pressure product.
 
 
 76                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Cardiovascular effects of butorphanol in halothane-anesthetized dogs.
 Greene, S.A.; Hartsfield, S.M.; Tyner, C.L.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1990 Aug.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (8): p. 1276-1279; 1990 Aug.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Analgesics; Halothane; Anesthesia; Cardiovascular system;
 Detoxicants
 
 Abstract:  Cardiovascular effects of butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg of body weight,
 IV) and responses associated with subsequent administration of naloxone (0.04
 mg/kg, IV) were studied in halothane (1.2% end-tidal
 concentration)-anesthetized dogs. Transient, but statistically significant (P
 < 0.05), decreases in heart rate, mean and diastolic arterial blood pressures,
 and rate-pressure product were observed after butorphanol administration.
 Cardiac index, stroke volume, and systemic vascular resistance did not change
 significantly. Except for the decrease in heart rate, changes in the values of
 the cardiovascular variables measured after butorphanol administration did not
 appear to be clinically relevant. Sixty minutes after butorphanol
 administration, naloxone was given. Statistically significant (P < 0.05)
 increases in heart rate, arterial blood pressures, cardiac index, and
 rate-pressure product, along with dysrhythmias were observed. Stroke volume
 and systemic vascular resistance remained unchanged after administration of
 naloxone. Naloxone administration was associated with changes indicative of
 increased myocardial oxygen consumption.
 
 
 77                                                    NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Cardiovascular function and serum catecholamine concentrations after
 anesthesia and surgery in the dog.
 Rawlings, C.A.; Tackett, R.L.; Bjorling, D.E.; Arnold, T.H. Jr
 Philadelphia, Pa. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1989 Jul.
 Veterinary surgery v. 18 (4): p. 255-260; 1989 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Surgical operations; Pain; Thermoregulation;
 Cardiovascular system; Catecholamines; Blood serum; Blood flow; Body
 temperature
 
 
 78                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V6456
 Children's pets (excluding the rabbit).
 Taylor, N.R.
 London : Wright; 1990.
 The Veterinary annual (30): p. 335-341; 1990.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Hamsters; Golden hamsters; Cricetulus; Phodopus; Gerbils;
 Meriones libycus; Meriones unguiculatus; Guinea pigs; Mice; Mus musculus;
 Rats; Rattus norvegicus; Pet care; Anesthesia; Antibiotics; Dosage; Water
 intake; Antifungal agents; Antiparasitic agents
 
 
 79                                                    NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 Cisternal CSF and serum concentrations of morphine following epidural
 administration in the dog.
 Valverde, A.; Conlon, P.D.; Dyson, D.H.; Burger, J.P.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1992 Mar.
 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 15 (1): p. 91-95; 1992
 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Morphine; Conduction anesthesia; Blood serum; Cerebrospinal
 fluid
 
 
 80                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 J8292
 Clinical effectiveness of atipamezole as a medetomidine antagonist in cats.
 Vaha-Vahe, A.T.
 London : British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 1990 Apr.
 The Journal of small animal practice v. 31 (4): p. 193-197; 1990 Apr.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cat; Analgesics; Detoxicants; Drug antagonism; Drug effects;
 Adverse effects; Dosage effect
 
 
 81                                                    NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 The clinical effectiveness of atipamezole as a medetomidine antagonist in the
 dog.
 Vaha-Vahe, A.T.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1990 Jun.
 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 13 (2): p. 198-205;
 1990 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Analgesics; Narcotic antagonists; Dosage; Drug antagonism;
 Adverse effects
 
 
 82                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Clinical evaluation of propofol as an intravenous anaesthetic agent in cats
 and dogs.
 Morgan, D.W.T.; Legge, K.
 London : The Association; 1989 Jan14.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary Association v. 124
 (2): p. 31-33; 1989 Jan14.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cat; Dogs; Anesthetics; Anesthesia; Safety; Adverse effects;
 Pharmacology
 
 
 83                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 J8292
 Clinical observations on medetomidine/ketamine anaesthesia and its antagonism
 by atipamezole in the cat.
 Young, L.E.; Jones, R.S.
 London : British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 1990 May.
 The Journal of small animal practice v. 31 (5): p. 221-224; 1990 May.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Ketamine; Drug antagonism;
 Antagonists
 
 
 84                                                    NAL Call. No.: SF981.C64
 Clinical observations on the simultaneous administration of xylazine and
 ketamine for anesthesia in the cat.
 Duke, T.; Hale, G.J.; Jones, R.S.
 Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Publishing Company; 1988 Aug.
 Companion animal practice v. 2 (8): p. 3-6; 1988 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cat; Anesthesia; Xylazine; Ketamine; Dosage effect
 
 
 85                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V643
 The clinical pharmacology of agents used to manage cardiovascular instability
 during general anaesthesia in small animals.
 Norman, W.N.; Dodman, N.H.; Seeler, D.C.; Court, M.H.
 London : Bailliere Tindall; 1988 Jan.
 British veterinary journal v. 144 (1): p. 5-20. ill; 1988 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cat; Anesthesia; Adverse effects; Cardiovascular agents;
 Heart rate; Blood pressure; Regulation; Pharmacology
 
 
 86                                                NAL Call. No.: SF915.J6 1988
 Clinical stages of general anesthesia., 6th ed.
 Booth, N.H.
 Ames, Iowa : Iowa State University Press; 1988.
 Veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics / edited by Nicholas H. Booth, Leslie
 E. McDonald. p. 171-180. ill; 1988.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Analgesics
 
 
 87                                                    NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Closed system delivery of halothane and isoflurane with a vaporizer in the
 anesthetic circle.
 Bednarski, R.M.; Muir, W.W. III
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1991 Sep.
 Veterinary surgery v. 20 (5): p. 353-356; 1991 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Halothane; Surgical equipment
 
 
 88                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 J8292
 Coaxial anaesthetic circuits in small animals.
 Cullen, L.K.
 London : British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 1989 May.
 The Journal of small animal practice v. 30 (5): p. 294-297; 1989 May.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cat; Anesthesia; Circuits; Values; Gases; Flow
 
 
 89                                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.C24
 Comparative hemodynamic effects of halothane and halothane-acepromazne at
 equipotent doses in dogs.
 Boyd, C.J.; McDonell, W.N.; Valliant, A.
 Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1991 Apr.
 Canadian journal of veterinary research; Revue canadienne de recherche
 veterinaire v. 55 (2): p. 107-112; 1991 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Halothane; Cardiovascular agents; Hemodynamics; Anesthesia;
 Phenothiazines; Neuroleptics; Dosage effects
 
 
 90                                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.C24
 Comparative pharmacokinetics of Yohimbine in steers, horses and dogs.
 Jernigan, A.D.; Wilson, R.C.; Booth, N.H.; Hatch, R.C.; Akbari, A.
 Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1988 Apr.
 Canadian journal of veterinary research; Revue canadienne de recherche
 veterinaire v. 52 (2): p. 172-176; 1988 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Horses; Steers; Anesthetics; Indoles; Pharmacokinetics
 
 
 91                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 A comparative study of medetomidine/ketamine and xylazine/ketamine anaesthesia
 in dogs.
 Moens, Y.; Fargetton, X.
 London : The Association; 1990 Dec08.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary Association v. 127
 (23): p. 567-571; 1990 Dec08.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Ketamine; Drug combinations; Xylazine;
 Agonists; Safety; Adverse effects; Dosage effects
 
 
 92                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Comparative study of the pharmacokinetics of alfentanil in rabbits, sheep, and
 dogs.
 Ilkiw, J.E.; Benthuysen, J.A.; McNeal, D.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1991 Apr.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (4): p. 581-584; 1991 Apr.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Sheep; Rabbits; Analgesics; Pharmacokinetics; Species
 differences; Anesthesia
 
 Abstract:  The central arterial pharmacokinetics of alfentanil, a short-acting
 opioid agonist, were studied in rabbits, sheep, and dogs after short-duration
 infusion of the drug. Alfentanil was infused until a set end point
 (high-amplitude, slow-wave activity on the EEG) was reached. This required a
 larger alfentanil dose and a higher alfentanil arterial concentration in
 sheep, compared with rabbits and dogs. The plasma concentration-time data for
 each animal were fitted, using nonlinear regression, and in all animals, were
 best described by use of a triexponential function. In this study, differences
 in the disposition kinetics of alfentanil among the 3 species were found for
 only distribution clearance and initial distribution half-life. In dogs,
 compared with rabbits and sheep, the first distribution half-life was longer,
 probably because of pronounced drug-induced bradycardia (mean +/- SD, 48 +/-
 21 beats/min). Distribution clearance was faster in sheep, compared with dogs,
 also probably because of better blood flow in sheep. Elimination half-life was
 similar in all species (rabbits, 62.4 +/- 11.3 minutes; sheep, 65.1 +/- 27.1
 minutes; dogs, 58.3 +/- 10.3 minutes). This rapid half-life resulted from a
 small steady-state volume of distribution (rabbits, 908.3 +/- 269.0 ml/kg;
 sheep, 720.0 +/- 306.7 ml/kg; dogs, 597.7 +/- 290.2 ml/kg) and rapid systemic
 clearance (rabbits, 19.4 +/- 5.3 ml/min/kg; sheep, 13.3 +/- 3.0 ml/min/kg;
 dogs, 18.7 +/- 7.5 ml/min/kg). On the basis of these pharmacokinetic
 variables, alfentanil should have short duration of action in rabbits, sheep,
 and dogs. This may be beneficial in veterinary practice where rapid recovery
 would be expected after bolus administration for short procedures or after
 infusion for longer procedures.
 
 
 93                                                    NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Comparison of cerebrospinal fluid pressure in propofol- and
 thiopental-anesthetized eucapnic dogs.
 Wooten, T.L.; Lowrie, C.T.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1993 Mar.
 Veterinary surgery v. 22 (2): p. 148-150; 1993 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cerebrospinal fluid; Anesthesia
 
 
 94                                                    NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Comparison of direct and indirect blood pressure measurement in anesthetized
 dogs.
 Sawyer, D.C.; Brown, M.; Striler, E.L.; Durham, R.A.; Langham, M.A.; Rech,
 R.H.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1991 Apr.
 Laboratory animal science v. 41 (2): p. 134-138; 1991 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Blood pressure; Pulse rate; Measurement; Tarsus; Carpus;
 Monitors; Catheters; Aorta
 
 Abstract:  This study was conducted to determine whether blood pressures and
 pulse rate could be determined accurately by indirect measurements from the
 front and hind legs of 15- to 40-kg dogs anesthetized with isoflurane.
 Indirect measurements from each animal were compared to direct measurements
 obtained from a catheter placed into the abdominal aorta via the femoral
 artery at four ranges of systolic pressure. When systolic pressure was above
 80 mm Hg, indirect measurements were either the same as direct measurements or
 slightly lower. However, when systolic pressures were below 80 mm Hg, indirect
 systolic pressure measurements were 6 to 15% higher than direct measurements.
 Larger differences in diastolic pressures were found, which resulted in
 differences in mean pressure. The most accurate measurements were found when
 the cuff width-to-limb circumference ratio was between 0.4 and 0.6 and when
 systolic pressure was between 80 and 100 mm Hg.
 
 
 95                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 J8292
 A comparison of endotracheal and intravenous routes for atropine
 administration in anaesthetised dogs.
 Bor, A.; Jones, R.S.; Richards, D.L.S.
 London : British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 1991 Apr.
 The Journal of small animal practice v. 32 (4): p. 180-182; 1991 Apr.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Atropine; Intravenous injection; Trachea; Application
 methods; Heart rate; Dosage
 
 
 96                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Comparison of histamine release induced by morphine and oxymorphone
 administration in dogs.
 Robinson, E.P.; Faggella, A.M.; Henry, D.P.; Russell, W.L.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1988 Oct.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 49 (10): p. 1699-1701; 1988 Oct.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Histamine; Morphine; Analgesics; Intravenous feeding;
 Animal behavior
 
 Abstract:  Cardiovascular effects (vasodilatation, hypotension) of morphine
 administration have been attributed to central actions and peripheral
 histamine release. In the study reported here, we compared plasma histamine
 (Hm) concentrations after morphine sulfate and oxymorphone HCl administration
 in conscious dogs. Five healthy adult dogs (mean body weight, 10.1 kg) were
 randomly administered morphine (2 mg/kg of body weight, IV or oxymorphone (0.2
 mg/kg, IV) by a 5-second bolus injection at weekly intervals. Venous blood
 samples (5 ml) were collected from jugular veins before and at 1, 2, 5, 15,
 30, and 60 minutes after drug administration. Behavioral changes were
 recorded. Plasma was analyzed by a radioenzymatic technique, using purified
 histamine N-methyltransferase as an enzyme catalyst (sensitivity of assay, 40
 pg Hm/ml). Mean base-line Hm value for all dogs was 0.55 ng/ml. The mean Hm
 value was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the base-line value at 1, 2, 5,
 15, and 60 minutes after morphine administration (531.4, 251.0, 113.0, 31.5
 and 1.0 ng of Hm/ml, respectively), but there were no significant increases in
 histamine values from base-line values at any time after oxymorphone
 administration. All dogs given morphine and 1 dog given oxymorphone showed
 excitatory behavior; 2 dogs given morphine and 3 dogs given oxymorphone
 salivated profusely.
 
 
 97                                               NAL Call. No.: SF914.A53 1990
 Comparison of indirect and direct blood pressure measurement in the
 anesthetized dog.
 Sawyer, D.C.; Brown, M.; Striler, E.L.; Durham, R.A.
 Columbia, Md. : American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, 1990? :.;
 1990.
 Anesthesia and analgesia in laboratory animals : proceedings -- 1990 Forum,
 American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, Columbia Inn, Columbia,
 Maryland, May 3-6, 1990. p. 27-30; 1990.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Blood pressure
 
 
 98                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Comparison of inhalation-to-perfusion ratio in anesthetized dogs with
 barrel-shaped thorax vs dogs with deep thorax.
 Clercx, C.; Brom, W.E. van den; Vries, H.W. de
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1991 Jul.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (7): p. 1097-1103; 1991 Jul.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Thorax; Conformation; Anesthesia; Ratios; Lungs; Gravity;
 Lung ventilation
 
 Abstract:  Interregional, as well as intraregional (local), distributions of
 the inhalation-to-perfusion ratio were analyzed in the lungs of 20 prone
 anesthetized healthy dogs--10 dogs with barrel-shaped thorax (Beagles) and 10
 dogs with deep thorax (Greyhound-type dogs)--using 99mTc inhalation-perfusion
 lung scintigraphy. Dorsoventral and lateral views were analyzed. In both types
 of dogs, the ratio between the mean inhalation and perfusion values
 (interregional mismatching factor) decreased from craniad to caudad and the
 decrease was more sustained in the right than in the left lung. However, the
 total decrease was less in Greyhound-type dogs than in Beagles
 (cranial-to-caudal decrease of 14 and 27%, respectively, in the left lung, and
 62 and 56%, respectively, in the right lung). The dorsal-to-ventral
 distribution of interregional mismatching factor was different in the 2 types
 of dogs. In Beagles, it increased from dorsal to ventral zones by about 50% of
 the initial dorsal zone value, whereas in Greyhound-type dogs, only a slight
 dorsal-to-ventral decrease was evident, with the exception of the more ventral
 zone. Differences in the intraregional mismatching factor (rho) indicated that
 the intraregional inhalation-to-perfusion inequalities were more pronounced
 within the caudal regions and within the ventral zones of the lungs in both
 types of dogs, and in the more cranial zones in the lungs of Beagles. However,
 the degree of intraregional mismatching was generally lower in Greyhound-type
 dogs. Thus, the gravitational force is not the dominating determinant of
 interregional or intraregional inhalation-to-perfusion ratio distributions in
 the lungs of anesthetized prone dogs. Its influence is modulated by other
 factors morphologic characteristics, such as the shape and size of the thorax,
 and body weight of the dog. In particular, the height of the thorax in
 Greyhound-type dogs could permit the gravitational force to exert a more
 determinant influence than it does in Beagle
 
 
 99                                                    NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 A comparison of ketamine/xylazine and ketamine/xylazine/acepromazine
 anesthesia in the rabbit.
 Lipman, N.S.; Marini, R.P.; Erdman, S.E.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1990 Jul.
 Laboratory animal science v. 40 (4): p. 395-398; 1990 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Anesthesia; Drug combinations; Ketamine; Xylazine;
 Preanesthetic medication; Neuroleptics
 
 Abstract:  Parenteral anesthetic combinations such as ketamine and xylazine
 have become the agents of choice for anesthesia in the rabbit, because they
 are effective, easily administered and inexpensive. A number of recent reports
 have recommended including acepromazine in this combination, but a critical
 evaluation of this combination in the rabbit has not been reported. Five adult
 New Zealand white rabbits were anesthetized intramuscularly with ketamine (35
 mg/kg) and xylazine (5 mg/kg) with or without acepromazine (0.75 mg/kg). The
 study was conducted in a double blind fashion, where each rabbit was
 administered both combinations at a minimum of 7 day intervals. Physiologic
 parameters were evaluated including heart rate, respiratory rate, central
 arterial blood pressure, pedal, palpebral and postural reflex activity. The
 duration of general anesthesia, estimated by the time elapsed between the loss
 and return of the palpebral reflex, was greater (mean = 99 +/- 20 minutes)
 when acepromazine was employed in the combination compared to (mean = 77 +/- 5
 minutes) when ketamine/xylazine were used alone. Mean central arterial blood
 pressure reached a lower level when acepromazine was utilized (mean = 46 +/- 8
 mm/Hg) than when it was not (mean = 57 +/- 12 mm/Hg.) The addition of
 acepromazine in a ketamine/xylazine combination resulted in a 28% longer
 period of anesthesia, a 19% lower mean central arterial blood pressure and a
 32% longer recovery of postural reflexes. The ketamine/xylazine/acepromazine
 combination is a useful regimen for normovolemic animals when anesthetic
 duration greater than that produced by ketamine/xylazine alone is required.
 
 
 100                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C24
 Comparison of medetomidine and fentanyl-droperidol in dogs: sedation,
 analgesia, arterial blood gases and lactate levels.
 Pettifer, G.R.; Dyson, D.H.
 Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1993 Apr.
 Canadian journal of veterinary research; Revue canadienne de recherche
 veterinaire v. 57 (2): p. 99-105; 1993 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Medetomidine; Fentanyl; Droperidol; Analgesics; Restraint
 of animals; Nontarget effects; Body temperature; Respiration rate; Heart rate;
 Blood chemistry; Respiratory gases; Lactic acid
 
 
 101                                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 A comparison of medetomidine-propofol and medetomidine-midazolam-propofol
 anesthesia in rabbits.
 Ko, J.C.H.; Thurmon, J.C.; Tranquili, W.J.; Benson, G.J.; Olson, W.A.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1992 Oct.
 Laboratory animal science v. 42 (5): p. 503-507; 1992 Oct.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Anesthesia; Drug combinations
 
 
 102                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Comparison of several combinations for anesthesia in rabbits.
 Hobbs, B.A.; Rolhall, T.G.; Sprenkel, T.L.; Anthony, K.L.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1991 May.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (5): p. 669-674; 1991 May.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Anesthesia; Drug combinations; Injectable anesthetics;
 Heart rate; Respiration rate; Body temperature; Reflexes; Safety
 
 Abstract:  Few safe and effective anesthesia regimens have been described for
 use in rabbits, partially because of the susceptibility of this species to
 sometimes fatal respiratory depression. Although inhalant anesthetics are
 generally safer than injectable anesthetics, their use may be limited by lack
 of equipment or facilities. This study was conducted to compare effects of
 several injectable anesthetics in rabbits on response to noxious stimuli,
 heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature. Six injectable
 anesthetic combinations were administered to rabbits:
 xylazine-ethyl-(l-methyl-propyl) malonyl-thio-urea salt (EMTU), ketamine-EMTU,
 xylazine-pentobarbital, xylazine-acepromazine-ketamine (XAK), ketamine-chloral
 hydrate, and ketamine-xylazine. All combinations induced a depression of
 respiratory rate. Although rectal temperature values were reduced to some
 degree in each group, the most profound hypothermia was induced by XAK. The
 combination that induced the longest duration of anesthesia was XAK. It was
 concluded that XAK was preferable for longer periods of anesthesia (60 to 120
 minutes), although it induces severe hypothermia. For short periods of
 anesthesia, xylazine-pentobarbital, xylazine-EMTU, or ketamine-xylazine were
 deemed adequate; however, xylazine-EMTU induced the best survivability and
 consistency.
 
 
 103                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 A comparison of surgical training with live anesthetized dogs and cadavers.
 Carpenter, L.G.; Piermattei, D.L.; Salman, N.D.; Orton, E.C.; Nelson, A.W.;
 Smeak, D.D.; Jennings, P.B. Jr; Taylor, R.A.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1991 Nov.
 Veterinary surgery v. 20 (6): p. 373-378; 1991 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Surgical operations; Training; Cadavers
 
 
 104                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Comparison of the clinical utility of medetomidine/ketamine and
 xylazine/ketamine combinations for the ovariectomy of cats.
 Verstegen, J.; Fargetton, X.; Donnay, I.; Ectors, F.
 London : The Association; 1990 Oct27.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary Association v. 127
 (17): p. 424-426; 1990 Oct27.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Ovariectomy; Ketamine; Xylazine; Analgesics; Anesthesia;
 Drug combinations; Adverse effects; Duration; Dosage
 
 
 105                                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R3224
 Comparison of the efficacy of three premedicants administered to cats.
 Dyson, D.H.; Pascoe, P.J.; Honeyman, V.; Rahn, J.E.
 Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1992 Jul.
 The Canadian veterinary journal v. 33 (7): p. 462-464; 1992 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Preanesthetic medication; Drug combinations; Drug effects;
 Anesthesia; Heart rate; Respiration rate; Catheters
 
 
 106                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Comparison of the hemodynamic effects of halothane alone and halothane
 combined with epidurally administered morphine for anesthesia in ventilated
 dogs.
 Valverde, A.; Dyson, D.H.; Cockshutt, J.R.; McDonell, W.N.; Valliant, A.E.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1991 Mar.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (3): p. 505-509; 1991 Mar.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Halothane; Morphine; Hemodynamics; Drug
 combinations
 
 Abstract:  The hemodynamic effects of 1.5 minimal alveolar concentration of
 halothane alone (1.6% end-tidal) and 1.5 minimal alveolar concentration of
 halothane (1.1% end-tidal concentration) combined with epidurally administered
 morphine were compared during controlled ventilation in 10 dogs used on 2
 occasions and randomly allocated to 2 groups. Arterial blood pressure, cardiac
 index, stroke volume, left ventricular work, and pulmonary arterial pressure
 were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in dogs of the morphine-treated group
 before administration of morphine. After epidural administration of morphine
 (0.1 mg/kg of body weight diluted in 0.26 ml of saline solution/kg),
 hemodynamic changes were not observed, and the aforementioned variables
 remained significantly (P < 0.05) higher than values in dogs of the halothane
 only group. Compared with halothane (1.6%) alone, the reduction in halothane
 end-tidal concentration (1.1%) associated with epidurally administered
 morphine is beneficial in maintaining hemodynamic function.
 
 
 107                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Comparison of the postoperative analgesic and sedative effects of carprofen
 and papaveretum in the dog.
 Nolan, A.; Reid, J.
 London : The British Veterinary Association; 1993 Sep04.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary Association v. 133
 (10): p. 240-242; 1993 Sep04.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Non-steroidal antiinflammatory agents; Opioids
 
 
 108                                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 J8292
 A comparison of the postoperative analgesic and sedative effects of flunixin
 and papaveretum in the dog.
 Reid, J.; Nolan, A.M.
 London : British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 1991 Dec.
 The Journal of small animal practice v. 32 (12): p. 603-608; 1991 Dec.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Flunixin; Analgesics; Anesthesia; Pain; Drug effects
 
 
 109                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF901.V47
 A comparison of three local anaesthetic techniques for skin biopsy in dogs.
 Henfrey, J.I.; Thoday, K.L.; Head, K.W.
 Elmsford, N.Y. : Pergammon Press, Inc; 1991.
 Veterinary dermatology v. 2 (1): p. 21-27; 1991.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Local anesthesia; Lidocaine; Epinephrine; Cutaneous
 application; Local anesthetics; Skin; Biopsy; Adverse effects; Artefacts
 
 
 110                                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Comparison of xylazine with tiletamine-zolazepam (Telazol) and
 xylazine-ketamine anesthesia in rabbits.
 Popilskis, S.J.; Oz, M.C.; Gorman, P.; Florestal, A.; Kohn, D.F.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1991 Jan.
 Laboratory animal science v. 41 (1): p. 51-53; 1991 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Anesthesia; Xylazine; Anesthetics; Drug combinations;
 Ketamine
 
 Abstract:  Although widely used to provide short term anesthesia,
 ketamine-xylazine does not always produce satisfactory anesthesia. We compared
 the efficacy of ketamine-xylazine to tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine for
 producing surgical anesthesia in rabbits. Four of six rabbits receiving
 ketamine-xylazine and all of the 12 animals given
 tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine were anesthetized successfully. The mean
 surgical anesthesia time in the ketamine-xylazine group was 35 +/- 6 minutes
 as compared to the tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine group, 72 +/- 8 minutes (p <
 0.05). There was no significant difference in the interval between the
 injection of the different anesthetic mixtures and the loss of either the
 righting reflex, the jaw reflex or the toe web pinch reflex. Respiratory rates
 and arterial oxygen partial pressure were higher in the ketamine-xylazine
 group (p < 0.05). However, in both groups arterial blood pressure and arterial
 PO2 were lowered, while arterial PCO2 was elevated. No nephrotoxicity
 occurred. Tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine provides effective surgical anesthesia
 in rabbits and in many cases may be preferable to conventional
 ketamine-xylazine regimen.
 
 
 111                                                  NAL Call. No.: QL785.A725
 Conditioned inhibition of analgesia.
 Wiertelak, E.P.; Watkins, L.R.; Maier, S.F.
 Austin, Tex. : Psychonomic Society; 1992 Nov.
 Animal learning & behavior v. 20 (4): p. 339-349; 1992 Nov.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pain; Rats
 
 Abstract:  Stimuli that predict the occurrence of aversive events come to
 elicit conditioned analgesia. Experiments 1A and 1B examined the possibility
 that conditioning can inhibit analgesia when stimuli are paired in a backward
 fashion with a shock US (Pavlovian CS-s). Analgesia conditioned in response to
 shock context exposure was reversed during the CS- (light) presentation after
 four sessions. The ability of the CS- to function as a conditioned inhibitor
 of analgesia was then evaluated in both summation (Experiment 1A) and
 retardation-of-acquisition testing (Experiments 1A and 1B). The results
 support the conclusion that a stimulus presented after shock in a backward
 fashion comes to be a conditioned inhibitor of analgesia. Experiments 2A and
 2B examined the assumption that the results obtained with our pain sensitivity
 measure (tailflicking in response to radiant heat) reflect changes in
 responsiveness to painful input, rather than a general motor inhibition or
 general insensitivity to sensory input. In Experiment 2A, tailflick responding
 to painful and nonpainful input was compared in animals receiving either
 morphine or saline. In Experiment 2B, tailflick responding to painful and
 nonpainful input to the tail was compared in both the shock and a neutral
 context. in both experiments, only the painful input yielded changes in
 responsivity. The results support the conclusion that the alterations in pain
 sensitivity produced by the CS- for shock represents a conditioned inhibition
 specific to pain.
 
 
 112                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Development of an opiate-based anaesthetic technique for use in dogs with
 cardiomyopathy.
 Williamson, H.A.; Cumming, D.V.E.; Cobb, M.A.; Pattison, C.W.; Yacoub, M.H.;
 Clayton Jones, D.G.
 London : The Association; 1991 Nov02.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary Association v. 129
 (18): p. 398-400; 1991 Nov02.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Fentanyl; Halothane; Nitrous oxide;
 Cardiomyopathy; Safety
 
 
 113                                                   NAL Call. No.: RB127.P34
 Differentiating analgesic and non-analgesic drug activities on rat hot plate:
 effect of behavioral endpoint.
 Carter, R.B.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers; 1991 Nov.
 Pain : the journal of the International Association for the Study of Pain v.
 47 (2): p. 211-220; 1991 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Analgesics; Assays; Animal behavior
 
 
 114                                                  NAL Call. No.: QD415.A1X4
 Distribution in female rats of an anaesthetic intravenous dose of
 14C-propofol.
 Simons, P.J.; Cockshott, I.D.; Douglas, E.J.; Gordon, E.A.; Knott, S.; Ruane,
 R.J.
 London : Taylor & Francis; 1991 Oct.
 Xenobiotica v. 21 (10): p. 1325-1335; 1991 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Intravenous injection; Pharmacokinetics; Animal tissues;
 Distribution; Females; Rats
 
 Abstract:  1. Bolus i.v. doses of 14C-propofol (9 mg/kg) were administered to
 female rats for measurement of tissue levels of total 14C and propofol from 2
 min to 24 h post-dose; wholebody autoradiography was studied at 6 min, 2 h and
 24 h post-dose, and also involved 15-day pregnant rats. 2. The blood propofol
 concentration-time profile was fitted by a tri-exponential function
 corresponding to a three-compartment open model. Data show rapid distribution
 during the mixing period into highly perfused tissues and muscle, comprising
 the central compartment, and slower uptake into less well-perfused skin and
 adipose tissues comprising the deeper compartments. 3. The initial decline in
 blood propofol concentration was associated with redistribution (t(1/2) 4
 min), the second decline (15-240 min post-dose) was associated with metabolism
 (t(1/2) 33 min) and the third decline reflected slow depletion of drug from
 deep tissue compartments (t(1/2) 6.4 h). 4. Blood and brain propofol
 concentrations on waking (at 7 min post-dose) were 4 micrograms/ml and 9
 micrograms/g respectively; the model shows that, at this time, 30% of the dose
 was lost from the central compartment by redistribution and a similar amount
 by metabolism. 5. Tissue profiles of total 14C and propofol diverged for
 highly perfused tissues (other than brain) because of slow clearance of
 metabolites, accentuated by enterohepatic recirculation.
 
 
 115                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Distribution of material injected intramuscularly in dogs.
 Autefage, A.; Fayolle, P.; Toutain, P.L.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1990 Jun.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (6): p. 901-904. ill; 1990 Jun.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Radioactive iodine; Intramuscular injection; Muscles;
 Distribution; Pharmacokinetics
 
 Abstract:  A radiopaque marker was injected, using needles of various lengths,
 into the cervical musculature, the lumbar epaxial musculature, and the cranial
 and caudal muscular masses of the thighs of anesthetized dogs. After this
 procedure, the dogs were euthanatized and deep-frozen. The bodies were then
 sectioned, and the slices were radiographed to determine the fate of the
 injected material. Material that was injected into the neck or caudal region
 of the thigh was determined to be located in the muscle bellies or dispensed
 throughout the intermuscular fascial sheaths. In contrast, material injected
 into the lumbar area and cranial region of the thigh was located entirely in
 the muscle bellies. It was concluded that the best sites for injection in dogs
 are the lumbar epaxial musculature or the quadriceps femoris muscle when IM
 administration is imperative.
 
 
 116                                                  NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L33
 Dorsal metatarsal, penile, and sublingual vein injections of anesthetized rats
 using a simplified inhalation anesthetic.
 Martinic, G.; Taylor, J.
 New York, N.Y. : Nature Publishing Company; 1993 Jan.
 Lab animal v. 22 (1): p. 38-44; 1993 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Anesthesia
 
 
 117                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Dose response to butorphanol administered subcutaneously to increase visceral
 nociceptive threshold in dogs.
 Sawyer, D.C.; Rech, R.H.; Durham, R.A.; Adams, T.; Richter, M.A.; Striler,
 E.L.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1991 Nov.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (11): p. 1826-1830; 1991 Nov.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Analgesics; Pain; Subcutaneous injection; Dosage; Dosage
 effects
 
 Abstract:  Butorphanol (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg/kg of body
 weight, and placebo) was given sc to 8 healthy unmedicated dogs to determine
 its efficacy for visceral analgesia, using a colonic balloon for minimal
 threshold nociceptor stimulation. Degree of sedation; systolic, diastolic, and
 mean arterial pressure; and pulse rate were recorded. The highest 3 dosages,
 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg/kg, were found to be most effective, with 0.8 mg/kg the
 only dosage that was significantly different from control responses at the
 45-minute interval. Duration of analgesia ranged from 23 to 53 minutes for all
 6 dosages and dosing durations were not significantly different from one
 another. Blood pressures did not change, but pulse rate was significantly
 decreased by 0.8 mg of butorphanol/kg. We concluded that butorphanol is an
 effective visceral analgesic of relatively short duration in the dog.
 
 
 118                                                   NAL Call. No.: 442.9 SO1
 Dose-response of intravenous butorphanol to increase visceral nociceptive
 threshold in dogs.
 Houghton, K.J.; Rech, R.H.; Sawyer, D.C.; Durham, R.A.; Adams, T.; Langham,
 M.A.; Striler, E.L.
 Baltimore, Md. : Williams & Wilkins; 1991 Jul.
 Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine v. 197 (3):
 p. 290-296; 1991 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Analgesics; Dosage; Dosage effects; Duration; Blood
 pressure; Pulse rate; Intravenous injection
 
 Abstract:  This study was designed to determine the effective analgesic dose
 of butorphanol administered intravenously to obtund visceral nociception, as
 well as to determine duration of this effect. Additionally, cardiovascular
 changes and sedative effects were defined. Eight healthy dogs were each given
 five doses of butorphanol (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/kg) plus a
 sterile water placebo intravenously in a randomized blinded format.
 Antinociception was assessed using an inflatable Silastic balloon inserted
 into the colon. Blood pressures and pulse rates were measured with a
 noninvasive monitor. The greatest efficacy and longest duration of
 antinociception were produced by 0.4 mg/kg of butorphanol, with a duration of
 38 +/- 9 min. Arterial blood pressure and pulse rate did not vary at
 antinociceptive doses. Mild sedation was observed at all doses, which
 generally lasted longer than the antinociceptive effects. These data suggest
 that butorphanol can be given alone intravenously to provide visceral
 antinociception lasting 30-45 min without significant side effects.
 
 
 119                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Drug therapy in cats: a therapeutic category approach.
 Boothe, D.M.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1990 May15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 196 (10): p.
 1659-1669; 1990 May15.  Third of a series.  Literature review.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cat; Drug therapy; Antiinfective agents; Analgesics;
 Antihistaminics; Antiinflammatory agents; Hormones; Anthelmintics; Drugs
 
 
 120                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Duration of etomidate-induced adrenocortical suppression during surgery in
 dogs.
 Dodam, J.R.; Kruse-Elliott, K.T.; Aucoin, D.P.; Swanson, C.R.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1990 May.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (5): p. 786-788; 1990 May.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Surgical operations;
 Corticotrophin
 
 Abstract:  Plasma cortisol concentrations were compared in canine surgical
 patients given etomidate (2 mg/kg of body weight, IV) or thiopental sodium (12
 mg/kg, IV) for anesthetic induction. Blood samples to determine plasma
 concentrations of etomidate were obtained at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes and
 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours after induction. Adrenocortical function
 was evaluated before surgery by use of adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation
 tests. Dogs in both induction groups had high plasma cortisol concentrations
 after induction. Dogs given thiopental had a significant increase (P < 0.05)
 in plasma cortisol concentration from baseline at 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 12
 hours after induction. Dogs given etomidate had a significant increase (P <
 0.05) in plasma cortisol concentration from baseline at 5, 6, and 8 hours
 after induction. A comparison of plasma cortisol concentrations determined at
 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 hours after induction with thiopental or etomidate revealed
 a higher (P < 0.05) concentration in dogs given thiopental. The disposition of
 etomidate was best described by a 2-compartment model, with a redistribution
 half-life of 0.12 +/- 0.04 minute and a terminal half-life of 1.70 +/- 0.27
 minute. Plasma cortisol concentrations did not correlate with plasma etomidate
 concentrations. We conclude that, compared with thiopental, a single bolus
 injection of etomidate reduces the adrenocortical response to anesthesia and
 surgery from 2 to 6 hours after induction. Because cortisol concentrations
 were significantly higher than baseline, and because cardiopulmonary function
 is maintained after a single bolus injection of etomidate, it can be
 considered a safe induction agent in dogs.
 
 
 121                                                      NAL Call. No.: QP1.P4
 Effect of a high-fat diet on firing rate of sympathetic nerves innervating
 brown adipose tissue in anesthetized rats.
 Sakaguchi, T.; Arase, K.; Fisler, J.S.; Bray, G.A.
 Elmsford, N.Y. : Pergamon Press; 1989 Jun.
 Physiology & behavior v. 45 (6): p. 1177-1182; 1989 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Anesthesia; Source fat; Sympathetic nervous system; Brown
 fat; Obesity
 
 
 122                                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.A5
 The effect of acepromazine maleate on the anesthetic potency of halothane and
 isoflurane.
 Webb, A.I.; O'Brien, J.M.
 Golden, Colo. : The Association; 1988 Nov.
 The Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association v. 24 (6): p. 609-613;
 1988 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Promazine; Halothane; Anesthetics; Dosage effect;
 Intramuscular injection
 
 
 123                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.9 AM37
 The effect of anesthesia on the radiographic appearance of the coxofemoral
 joints.
 Aronson, E.; Kraus, K.H.; Smith, J.
 Raleigh, N.C. : American College of Veterinary Radiology; 1991 Jan.
 Veterinary radiology v. 32 (1): p. 2-5. ill; 1991 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Radiography; Hips; Hip dysplasia; Anesthesia; Joints
 (animal); Classification
 
 
 124                                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Effect of bleeding site on clinical laboratory testing of rats: orbital venous
 plexus versus posterior vena cava.
 Dameron, G.W.; Weingand, K.W.; Duderstadt, J.M.; Odioso, L.W.; Dierkman, T.A.;
 Schwecke, W.; Baran, K.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1992 Jun.
 Laboratory animal science v. 42 (3): p. 299-301; 1992 Jun.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Blood sampling; Vena cava; Veins; Laboratory tests; Blood
 chemistry; Hematology; Blood coagulation
 
 Abstract:  We sought to determine if there were any, differences in the
 results of clinical laboratory tests between blood samples collected from the
 orbital venous plexus and the posterior vena cava of adult male rats. Thirty
 healthy adult male Sprague Dawley rats were anesthetized by ether inhalation,
 and blood samples were collected successively from the orbital venous plexus
 (OVP) and the posterior vena cava (PVC) for hematologic (n = 10), serum
 chemistry (n = 10), and coagulation (n = 10) analyses. The prothrombin and
 partial thromboplastin times of samples from the OVP were prolonged (17% and
 288%, respectively) when compared with samples from the PVC. Respective
 hematologic biases were as follows: red blood cell count (7%), hemoglobin
 (6%), hematocrit (5%), mean corpuscular volume (-3%), mean corpuscular
 hemoglobin (-1%), mean corpuscular hemoglobin content (1%), white blood cell
 count (13%), and platelet count (-7%). Respective serum chemistry biases were
 as follows: sorbitol dehydrogenase (-7%), glucose (-7%), blood urea nitrogen
 (-10%), creatinine (-2%), total protein (4%), albumin (2%), globulin (9%),
 alkaline phosphatase (5%), lactate dehydrogenase (-6%), aspartate
 aminotransferase (-5%), alanine aminotransferase (-2%), total bilirubin (0%),
 direct bilirubin (0%), magnesium (-17%), sodium (4%), potassium (0), chloride
 (4%), calcium (-2%), phosphorous (-17%), cholesterol (3%), triglycerides
 (24%), creatinine kinase (-8%), 5'nucleotidase (0%), and total bile acids
 (4%). For hematologic testing, there were no biologically significant
 differences between samples collected from the OVP and PVC. The coagulation
 times and serum Mg and P showed biologically significant differences between
 samples collected from the OVP and PVC. We recommend that coagulation times
 not be measured on plasma samples collected from the OVP.
 
 
 125                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF724.T72
 Effect of chloramphenicol on duration of xylazine/pentobarbitone anaesthesia
 in dogs.
 Adetunji, A.; Adewumi, J.O.A.
 Ibadan, Nigeria : Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan; 1990.
 Tropical veterinarian v. 8 (3/4): p. 149-155; 1990.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia
 
 
 126                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Effect of gentamicin administration on the neuromuscular blockade induced by
 atracurium in cats.
 Forsyth, S.F.; Ilkiw, J.E.; Hildebrand, S.V.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1990 Oct.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (10): p. 1675-1678; 1990 Oct.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Gentamicin; Muscle relaxants; Anesthetics; Recovery; Drug
 combinations
 
 Abstract:  Atracurium besylate, a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking
 agent, was administered as an infusion to 8 anesthetized cats in which
 neuromuscular blockade was assessed, using the train-of-four response. Once
 50% depression of the first-twitch (T1) response was achieved, the infusion
 was held constant for 60 minutes before being discontinued and the recovery
 time was determined. The time for recovery was recorded as the time for the
 train-of-four ratio (T4 ratio) to increase from 50% to 75%. After recovery,
 atracurium infusion was reinstituted and the cats were again maintained for 60
 minutes at 50% depression. A single bolus of gentamicin sulfate (2.0 mg/kg of
 body weight) was administered IV, and the infusion was continued for another
 60 minutes before it was discontinued and the time for recovery was recorded.
 Within 1 minute of gentamicin administration, the mean +/= SD T1 response
 decreased from 49 +/- 5% to 33 +/- 8% of baseline and the T4 ratio decreased
 from 28 +/- 19% to 14 +/- 11%. Peak effect occurred at 5 minutes, with a T1
 response of 29 +/- 6% of baseline and a T4 ratio of 13 +/- 12%. By 60 minutes
 after gentamicin administration, the T1 response had increased to 38 +/- 7% of
 baseline and the T4 ratio had increased to 21 +/- 13%. The time for recovery
 significantly (P less than 0.03) increased from 9.9 +/- 3.4 minutes during the
 control study to 18.1 +/- 10.7 minutes during the gentamicin study. In this
 study, gentamicin potentiated the neuromuscular blockade induced by atracurium
 and increased the recovery time. Residual blockade, observed after gentamicin
 administration was reversed with edrophonium.
 
 
 127                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Effect of midazolam preanesthetic administration on thiamylal induction
 requirement in dogs.
 Tranquilli, W.J.; Graning, L.M.; Thurmon, J.C.; Benson, G.J.; Moum, S.G.;
 Lentz, E.L.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1991 May.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (5): p. 662-664; 1991 May.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Preanesthetic medication; Anesthetics; Dosage;
 Requirements; Tubes; Trachea
 
 Abstract:  The thiamylal sparing effect of midazolam was studied in 30 healthy
 Beagle and mixed-breed dogs. Using a replicated Latin square design, all dogs
 were given placebo (saline solution) and 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg of
 midazolam/kg of body weight prior to IV administration of thiamylal sodium.
 The 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg dosages significantly decreased the amount of thiamylal
 required to obtund swallowing reflex and easily achieve endotracheal
 intubation. Midazolam at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg reduced thiamylal requirement by
 16.4% and 18.9%, respectively, whereas the 0.05 mg/kg dosage decreased
 thiamylal requirement by only 6.8%. The 0.2 mg/kg dosage did not further
 decrease thiamylal requirement beyond that achieved with the 0.1 mg/kg dosage
 of midazolam. This study demonstrates that the preanesthetic IV administration
 of midazolam reduces the thiamylal dose necessary to accomplish intubation.
 The optimal preanesthetic dosage (lowest dosage with significant effect) was
 0.1 mg/kg.
 
 
 128                                               NAL Call. No.: QL55.F43 1987
 Effect of morphinomimetics in different pain tests.
 Dhasmana, K.M.; Banerjee, A.K.; Rating, W.
 Dordrecht : M. Nijhoff; 1988.
 New developments in biosciences : their implications for laboratory animal
 science : proceedings of the Third Symposium, Amsterdam, The Nethrlands, 1-5
 June 1987 / edited by Anton C. Beyneen and Henk A. Solleveld. p. 437-442;
 1988.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Pain; Tests; Morphine; Drug effects
 
 
 129                                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 The effect of mouse euthanasia technique on subsequent lymphocyte
 proliferation and cell mediated lympholysis assays.
 Howard, H.L.; McLaughlin-Taylor, E.; Hill, R.L.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1990 Sep.
 Laboratory animal science v. 40 (5): p. 510-514; 1990 Sep.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mice; Euthanasia; Lymphocyte transformation; Cytotoxic t
 lymphocytes; Methoxyflurane; Pentobarbital; Carbon dioxide; Halothane;
 Dislocations
 
 Abstract:  The purpose of this study was to determine the effects that
 specific euthanasia methods have on mitogen induced lymphocyte proliferation
 (LP) and the induction of alloantigen specific cytolytic T-lymphocytes (CTL).
 Mice were euthanatized by cervical dislocation (CD), or anesthesia with
 methoxyflurane or pentobarbital followed by CD (M-CD or P-CD respectively),
 CO2 overexposure (CO2-OD) or halothane overexposure (H-OD). Mitogenic
 lymphoproliferation was increased in cells derived from mice euthanatized by
 M-CD and P-CD. In contrast, the cytolytic profile of CTL derived from mice
 euthanatized by P-CD, CO2-OD and H-OD was decreased. The results of this study
 show that euthanasia techniques involving the use of methoxyflurane,
 pentobarbital, CO2 and halothane affect in vitro lymphoproliferation and CTL
 function. We conclude that the method of euthanasia influences certain
 immunologic parameters and selection of a particular technique should be given
 careful consideration.
 
 
 130                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Effect of posture and anaesthesia on the distribution of pulmonary perfusion
 and lung configuration in beagle dogs.
 Clercx, C.; Brom, W.E. van den; Vries, H.W. de
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1989 Nov.
 Research in veterinary science v. 47 (3): p. 359-366. ill; 1989 Nov.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Posture; Anesthesia; Lungs; Ratios; Blood flow
 
 
 131                                                    NAL Call. No.: SF774.C5
 Effect of posture and anesthesia on the distribution of pulmonary perfusion
 and the lung configuration in dogs.
 Clercx, C.; Brom, W.E. van den; Vries, H.W. de
 S.l. : s.n., 1988? :.; 1988.
 Scintigraphical analyses of pulmonary function in dogs; Scintigrafische
 longfunktie analyse bij de hond; Analyses scintigraphiques de la function
 pulmonaire chez le chien / door Cecile Clercx. p. 52-66. ill; 1988.  Dutch and
 French Summaries on pages 141-149.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Radiorespirometry; Blood circulation; Radiography; Posture;
 Anesthesia; Lungs
 
 
 132                                                 NAL Call. No.: 442.8 J8222
 The effect of pre-ovulatory anaesthesia on ovulation in laparoscopically
 inseminated domestic cats.
 Howard, J.G.; Barone, M.A.; Donoghue, A.M.; Wildt, D.E.
 Colchester : The Journal; 1992 Sep.
 Journal of reproduction and fertility v. 96 (1): p. 175-186; 1992 Sep.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Intrauterine insemination; Ovulation; Laparoscopy;
 Anesthesia; Preovulatory period; Pmsg; Hcg; Pregnancy; Conception rate;
 Embryonic development
 
 
 133                                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 J8292
 Effect of thiopentone and propofol on lower oesophageal sphnicter and barrier
 pressure in the dog.
 Waterman, A.E.; Hashim, M.A.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1992 Nov.
 The Journal of small animal practice v. 33 (11): p. 530-533; 1992 Nov.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Thiopental; Injectable anesthetics; Anesthesia; Esophageal
 sphincter; Internal pressure; Preanesthetic medication
 
 
 134                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF901.V47
 The effect of tiletamine-zolazepam anesthesis on the response to intradermally
 injected histamine in cats.
 Mueller, R.S.; Ihrke, P.J.; Kass, P.H.; Bettenay, S.V.
 Oxford, U.K. : Pergammon Press, Inc; 1991.
 Veterinary dermatology v. 2 (3/4): p. 119-123; 1991.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Anesthesia; Histamine; Injection
 
 
 135                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.A47
 Effect of yohimbine on xylazine-induced diuresis in rats.
 Mohammad, F.K.; Ahmed, F.A.; Al-Kassim, N.A.H.
 Manhattan, Kan. : American Academy of Veterinary and Comparative Toxicology;
 1989 Feb.
 Veterinary and human toxicology v. 31 (1): p. 13-15; 1989 Feb.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Xylazine; Diuresis; Drug antagonism; Anesthetics; Rats
 
 
 136                                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 An effective combination of anaesthetics for 6-h experimentation in the golden
 Syrian hamster.
 Reid, W.D.; Davies, C.; Pare, P.D.; Pardy, R.L.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1989 Apr.
 Laboratory animals v. 23 (2): p. 156-162; 1989 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Golden hamster; Anesthetics; Drug combinations; Pentobarbital;
 Urethane; Chloralose; Anesthesia
 
 Abstract:  The anaesthetics described for use in hamsters to date are suitable
 for the perfomance of short-term experimentation. However, an anaesthetic
 regimen was required which would provide a stable preparation for 6 h and
 hence, a suitable combination was developed. In the first set of experiments,
 the effect of anaesthetics (chloralose, urethane, and pentobarbital) were
 examined alone and in combination on arterial blood measurements. In the
 second set of experiments the effect of the combination of anaesthetics on
 arterial blood measurements and minute ventilation was examined for up to 6 h.
 Chloralose, urethane and pentobarbital when used alone in the hamster were
 considered inadequate for our needs. Chloralose did not produce adequate
 surgical anaesthesia whereas urethane and pentobarbital resulted in marked
 respiratory depression. Urethane also produced a trend toward metabolic
 acidosis. In contrast, the combination of agents resulted in surgical
 anaesthesia and the arterial blood measurements were adequate. Further, the
 use of the combination of anaesthetics in hamsters resulted in a stable
 preparation where arterial blood measurements and minute ventilation were
 maintained in a good range for up to 6 h. The combination of chloralose,
 urethane and sodium pentobarbital in hamsters should prove useful in long-term
 non-recovery experimentation which requires early surgical intervention,
 minimal respiratory depression and an even depth of anaesthesia.
 
 
 137                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Effects of acepromazine, pethidine and atropine premedication on lower
 oesophageal sphincter pressure and barrier pressure in anaesthetised cats.
 Hashim, M.A.; Waterman, A.E.
 London : The British Veterinary Association; 1993 Aug14.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary Association v. 133
 (7): p. 158-160; 1993 Aug14.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Preanesthetic medication; Esophageal sphincter
 
 
 138                                                    NAL Call. No.: 450 P697
 Effects of agarwood extracts on the central nervous system in mice.
 Okugawa, H.; Ueda, R.; Matsumoto, K.; Kawanishi, K.; Kato, A.
 Stuttgart, W. Ger. : Georg Thieme Verlag; 1993 Feb.
 Planta medica v. 59 (1): p. 32-36; 1993 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Aquilaria; Plant extracts; Mice; Central nervous system;
 Analgesics
 
 
 139                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Effects of amitraz on nerve conduction and neuromuscular transmission in
 anaesthetised dogs.
 Cullen, L.K.; Reynoldson, J.A.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1990 Mar.
 Research in veterinary science v. 48 (2): p. 162-164; 1990 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Amitraz; Ataxia; Adverse effects; Neurons; Conductivity;
 Velocity; Transmission
 
 
 140                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Effects of atropine and glycopyrrolate on esophageal, gastric, and tracheal pH
 in anesthetized dogs.
 Roush, J.K.; Keene, B.W.; Eicker, S.W.; Bjorling, D.E.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1990 Jan.
 Veterinary surgery v. 19 (1): p. 88-92. ill; 1990 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Preanesthetic medication; Atropine; Ph; Esophagus; Stomach;
 Trachea; Heart rate; Anesthesia; Respiration rate
 
 
 141                                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 The effects of buprenorphine, nalbuphine and butorphanol alone or following
 halothane anaesthesia on food and water consumption and locomotor movement in
 rats.
 Liles, J.H.; Flecknell, P.A.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1992 Jul.
 Laboratory animals v. 26 (3): p. 180-189; 1992 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Anesthesia; Halothane; Analgesics; Locomotion; Food
 consumption; Water intake; Pain
 
 Abstract:  Locomotor activity and food and water consumption are potentially
 indices of post-operative pain in laboratory rodents, but it is important to
 establish whether these variables are directly affected by opioid analgesics
 or by halothane anaesthesia in normal rats. The effects of three opioids,
 buprenorphine, nalbuphine and butorphanol administered alone or following
 halothane anaesthesia, were studied in groups of normal non-operated adult
 Wistar rats. All 3 analgesics affected food intake and activity levels, but
 had little or no effect on water intake. Buprenorphine caused a significant
 elevation of activity levels and a reduction in food intake at clinical doses
 (0.01 and 0.05 mg/kg s/c. Nalbuphine (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg s/c) caused a
 reduction in food intake but had a smaller stimulatory effect on locomotion.
 Butorphanol (0.4 mg/kg s/c) caused a reduction in food intake and elevation in
 activity. These results suggest that water consumption is likely to be a more
 reliable variable to use when assessing post-operative pain and the efficacy
 of analgesics in rats.
 
 
 142                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.A47
 Effects of chloramphenical, cimetidine and phenobarbital on and tolerance to
 xylazine-ketamine anesthesia in dogs.
 Nossaman, B.C.; Amouzadeh, H.R.; Sangiah, S.
 Manhattan, Kan. : American Academy of Veterinary and Comparative Toxicology;
 1990 Jun.
 Veterinary and human toxicology v. 32 (3): p. 216-219; 1990 Jun.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Xylazine; Ketamine; Chloramphenicol;
 Cimetidine; Phenobarbital; Tolerances
 
 
 143                                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 The effects of different anaesthetic agents on the estimation of uterine
 vascular permeability in mice.
 Milligan, S.R.; Edwards, C.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1988 Oct.
 Laboratory animals v. 22 (4): p. 343-346; 1988 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mice; Uterus; Anesthetics; Injections; Permeability; Blood
 vessels
 
 Abstract:  Vascular permeability in the uterus and other tissues of mice was
 assessed using the accumulation of 125I-human serum albumin 30 min after its
 intravenous injection. The anaesthetic agent employed for the 125I-albumin
 injection differentially affected the estimates of vascular permeability:
 intraperitoneal (i.p.) tribromoethanol of pentobarbitone sodium produced
 significantly higher values for the uterus and body wall than ether. The i.p.
 administration of either Saffan or pentobarbitone sodium reduced estimates of
 vascular permeability in the duodenum. These results emphasize the importance
 of the choosing a suitable anaesthetic agent in vascular studies of the uterus
 and other abdominal tissues.
 
 
 144                                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Effects of isoflurane anesthesia on glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in
 Yucatan minipigs.
 Laber-Laird, K.; Smith, A.; Swindle, M.M.; Colwell, J.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1992 Dec.
 Laboratory animal science v. 42 (6): p. 579-581; 1992 Dec.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Miniature pigs; Inhaled anesthetics
 
 Abstract:  Isoflurane's effect on intravenous glucose tolerance and insulin
 secretion was studied in six Yucatan minipigs. Unanesthetized animals, with
 previously placed indwelling venous catheters, were tested while resting
 comfortably in slings. The same animals were then retested during isoflurane
 anesthesia. Serum glucose and insulin concentrations were measured at
 predetermined times in response to an intravenous bolus of dextrose. The
 glucose disappearance rate (k), baseline plasma insulin concentration, the
 area under the insulin response curve, and the insulinogenic index were
 significantly lower in the anesthetized animals than in controls. The results
 of this study indicate that anesthesia with isoflurane significantly alters
 the glucose/insulin response to an intravenous glucose tolerance test and,
 therefore, is unsuitable for studies when glucose tolerance is to be assessed.
 
 
 145                                                     NAL Call. No.: 450 Q22
 Effects of Jasminum officinale flowers on the central nervous system of the
 mouse.
 Elisha, E.E.; Al-Maliki, S.J.; Ibrahem, D.K.
 Lisse : Swets & Zeitlinger; 1988 Dec.
 International journal of crude drug research v. 26 (4): p. 221-227; 1988 Dec.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Iraq; Jasminum officinale; Medicinal plants; Flowers; Plant
 extracts; Medicinal properties; Neurophysiology; Central nervous system;
 Aggressive behavior; Toxicity; Anesthesia; Convulsions; Inhibition; Mice
 
 
 146                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Effects of mechanical and pharmacologic manipulations on portal pressure,
 central venous pressure, and heart rate in dogs.
 Swalec, K.M.; Smeak, D.D.; Brown, J.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1991 Aug.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (8): p. 1327-1335; 1991 Aug.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Internal pressure; Cardiovascular system; Heart rate;
 Surgery; Catheters; Portal vein; Blockage; Anesthesia; Bandages;
 Consciousness; Correlation; Propranolol
 
 Abstract:  Central venous pressure (CVP), portal pressure (PP), and heart rate
 (HR) were monitored in 6 female, sexually intact, middle-age Beagles during
 temporary portal vein obstruction, anesthetic recovery, abdominal bandaging,
 and propranolol administration. Intraoperative baseline PP was 7.3 mm of Hg
 (+/- 1.7 SD). Portal pressure was significantly increased throughout portal
 vein occlusion, but returned to baseline values 2 minutes after release of the
 ligature. Central venous pressure was significantly decreased throughout
 portal vein occlusion, but did not differ significantly from baseline values 3
 minutes after release of the portal vein ligature. Portal pressure increased
 significantly (8 +/- 3.3 mm of Hg) over baseline values after application of
 an abdominal bandage; however, CVP did not change significantly. During
 postoperative monitoring, CVP and PP did not change significantly from
 respective 18-hour mean postoperative values in resting dogs. At 60 and 75
 minutes after surgery, heart rate was significantly increased over the 18-hour
 mean. Portal pressure and CVP, respectively, were significantly increased over
 intraoperative baseline values in the first hour and the first 8 hours after
 surgery. Postoperative CVP and HR were significantly correlated. Individual
 measurements of PP in dogs that were abdominal pressing during barking or
 defecation were significantly increased (9 +/- 3 mm of Hg) above measurements
 taken after cessation of abdominal press. Portal pressure measurements in
 standing dogs decreased 7.5 +/- 2 mm of Hg, compared with measurements of the
 same dog in lateral recumbency. Central venous pressure was inaccurate in dogs
 performing abdominal press. Portal pressure did not decrease significantly
 from baseline after injection of propranolol (2 mg/kg, IV). Central venous
 pressure was significantly decreased at 2.5 and 3.0 hours after propranolol
 injection, and HR was significantly decreased from 1 to 3.5 hours after
 injection. Heart rate quickly
 
 
 147                                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 Effects of pentobarbital and ketamine-xylazine anaesthesia on somatosensory,
 brainstem auditory and peripheral sensory-motor responses in the rat.
 Goss-Sampson, M.A.; Kriss, A.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1991 Oct.
 Laboratory animals v. 25 (4): p. 360-366; 1991 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Anesthesia; Pentobarbital; Ketamine; Xylazine; Drug
 combinations; Bioelectric potential; Brain stem; Peripheral nerves;
 Electrophysiology
 
 Abstract:  Somatosensory, brainstem auditory evoked and peripheral
 sensory-motor responses were recorded in rats anaesthetized with either
 pentobarbital or a ketamine-xylazine combination. This was carried out in
 order to assess which of these agents degraded responses to a lesser extent
 and thus would be more suitable for monitoring experimental effects. Neither
 of the anaesthetic agents affected peripheral sensory or motor conduction, nor
 were there any interpeak latency changes of the early components of the
 brainstem auditory response. However, pentobarbital anaesthesia resulted in an
 increase in latency of the initial positive component of the somatosensory
 cortical evoked potential and attenuation of the following negative component.
 During the recovery stages of ketamine-xylazine anaesthesia the longer latency
 evoked potential components were observed to emerge.
 
 
 148                                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 The effects of prolonged ketamine-xylazine intravenous infusion on arterial
 blood pH, blood gases, mean arterial blood pressure, heart and respiratory
 rates, rectal temperature and reflexes in the rabbit.
 Wyatt, J.D.; Scott, R.A.W.; Richardson, M.E.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1989 Sep.
 Laboratory animal science v. 39 (5): p. 411-416; 1989 Sep.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Veins; Injections; Ketamine; Xylazine; Arteries; Blood
 ph; Gases; Blood pressure; Heart rate; Rectum; Temperatures; Reflexes
 
 Abstract:  The prolonged and safe maintenance of general anesthesia in rabbits
 with commonly used injectable agents is difficult. Protracted, stable
 anesthesia with short recovery time has been described in humans using
 continuous intravenous infusion of ketamine with or without sedatives, muscle
 relaxants and paralytics. This study evaluated the anesthetic plane achieved
 and respiratory and cardiovascular effects produced with a ketamine-xylazine
 intravenous infusion in New Zealand White rabbits. Ten female rabbits were
 anesthetized with intramuscularly administered ketamine hydrochloride (35
 mg/kg) and xylazine hydrochloride (5 mg/kg) after the preanesthetic, baseline
 measurements of arterial blood pO2, pCO2 and pH and heart and respiratory
 rates were recorded. The above parameters as well as mean arterial blood
 pressure, righting, palpebral, pedal, and jaw reflexes were monitored ten
 minutes after the intramuscularly administered dosage and throughout 4 hours
 of infusion. Results showed moderate hypotension (21.2% deviation from normal,
 p less than 0.008) and profound hypoxemia (45% deviation from baseline, p less
 than 0.001) 10 minutes after the intramuscularly administered induction
 dosage. Then, the 4 hour infusion of ketamine (1 mg/minute) and xylazine (0.1
 mg/minute) was started. Hypotension progressed (49.1% deviation from normal, p
 less than 0.008), but hypoxemia and hypercarbemia gradually improved with no
 resultant change (p greater than 0.1) in arterial pH. There was no significant
 change (p greater than 0.1) in respiratory rate but varying qualities of
 respiration were observed. Both mean arterial pO2 and pCO2 values returned to
 baseline within 20 minutes after completion of infusion. Heart rate and rectal
 temperature remained stable during the trial. The righting reflex was
 abolished in all rabbits throughout the study. The other reflexes that were
 lost initially slowly returned to most rabbits by the end of infusion. It was
 concluded that ketamine-xylazine co
 
 
 149                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Effects of sedation of intradermal skin testing in flea-allergic dogs.
 Beale, K.M.; Kunkle, G.A.; Chalker, L.; Cannon, R.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1990 Jan01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 197 (7): p. 861-864;
 1990 Jan01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Xylazine; Ketamine; Neuroleptics; Analgesics; Skin tests;
 Histamine; Allergies; Siphonaptera; Hypersensitivity
 
 
 150                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.A47
 Effects of some hepatic microsomal enzyme inducers and inhibitors on
 xylazine-ketamine anesthesia.
 Amouzadeh, H.R.; Sangiah, S.; Qualls, C.W. Jr
 Manhattan, Kan. : American Academy of Veterinary and Comparative Toxicology;
 1989 Dec.
 Veterinary and human toxicology v. 31 (6): p. 532-534. ill; 1989 Dec.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Anesthesia; Xylazine; Ketamine; Enzymes; Inhibitors; Rats;
 Adverse effects
 
 
 151                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.A47
 Effects of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on xylazine-ketamine anesthesia.
 Amouzadeh, H.R.; Sangiah, S.
 Manhattan, Kan. : American Academy of Veterinary and Comparative Toxicology;
 1990 Feb.
 Veterinary and human toxicology v. 32 (1): p. 19-22; 1990 Feb.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Xylazine; Ketamine; Anesthesia; Diabetes; Insulin; Rats; Blood
 glucose
 
 
 152                                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 The effects of surgical procedures, halothane anaesthesia and nalbuphine on
 locomotor activity and food and water consumption in rats.
 Flecknell, P.A.; Liles, J.H.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1991 Jan.
 Laboratory animals v. 25 (1): p. 50-60; 1991 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Surgery; Anesthesia; Halothane; Opium; Feed intake; Water
 intake; Locomotion
 
 Abstract:  A study was undertaken to investigate the effects of surgical
 procedures on food and water intake and spontaneous locomotor activity in
 laboratory rats. The influence of anaesthesia with halothane and
 administration of the opioid analgesic nalbuphine was investigated in normal
 rats and in animals which underwent either unilateral nephrectomy or jugular
 vein cannulation. Both nephrectomy and jugular cannulation were associated
 with a significant reduction in food and water consumption and a depression in
 locomotor activity levels. The reduction in activity following nephrectomy was
 reversed by administration of 6 doses of nalbuphine at 4 hourly intervals.
 Administration of nalbuphine at the same dose rate following halothane
 anaesthesia in normal rats resulted in a stimulation of activity. The
 prevention of the depressant effects of surgery by this opioid appears to be
 due to its stimulatory effect rather than a specific analgesic action. The
 degree of depression of food and water consumption after nephrectomy was
 significantly reduced following 6 doses of nalbuphine. This beneficial effect
 of repeated administration of an opioid may be related to the compound's
 analgesic action.
 
 
 153                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Effects of thiopental, ketamine, diazepam, xylazine, and nitrous oxide on EEG
 spike activity and convulsive behavior during enflurane anesthesia in
 atropinized cats: effect of increasing inhalant concentrations.
 Hikasa, Y.; Kubota, M.; Takase, K.; Kakuta, T.; Ogasawara, S.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1993 Jul.
 Veterinary surgery v. 22 (4): p. 311-317; 1993 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Anesthesia
 
 
 154                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Effects of thiopental, ketamine, diazepam, xylazine, and nitrous oxide on EEG
 spike activity and convulsive behavior during enflurane anesthesisa in
 spontaneously breathing atropinized cats: effect of surgical depth.
 Hikasa, Y.; Kojima, N.; Takase, K.; Ogasawara, S.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1993 Jul.
 Veterinary surgery v. 22 (4): p. 318-325; 1993 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Anesthesia
 
 
 155                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Effects of thiopentone, propofol, alphaxalone-alphadolone, ketamine and
 xylazine-ketamine on lower oesophageal sphincter pressure and barrier pressure
 in cats.
 Hashim, M.A.; Waterman, A.E.
 London : The Association; 1991 Aug17.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary Association v. 129
 (7): p. 137-139; 1991 Aug17.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Esophageal sphincter; Internal pressure; Thiopental;
 Injectable anesthetics; Ketamine; Xylazine; Adverse effects
 
 
 156                                                      NAL Call. No.: QP1.P4
 Effects of undernutrition during suckling on novelty-induced analgesia in
 young and adult rats.
 Vendite, D.; Rocha, J.B.T.; Souza, D.O.
 Elmsford, N.Y. : Pergamon Press; 1990 Feb.
 Physiology & behavior v. 47 (2): p. 393-395; 1990 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Suckling; Undernutrition; Analgesics; Protein energy
 malnutrition
 
 
 157                                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 Effects of urethane, alphaxolone/alphadolone, or halothane with or without
 neuromuscular blockade on survival during repeated episodes of global cerebral
 ischaemia in the rat.
 Holder, D.S.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1992 Apr.
 Laboratory animals v. 26 (2): p. 107-113; 1992 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Urethane; Halothane; Anesthetics; Anesthesia; Blood
 pressure; Survival; Ischemia; Muscle relaxants; Lung ventilation
 
 Abstract:  The effect of 4 anaesthetic regimes on blood pressure and survival
 was investigated during repeated episodes of cerebral ischaemia in the rat
 induced by diathermy of the vertebral arteries and reversible occlusion of the
 carotid arteries. The best results were obtained with inspired halothane with
 neuromuscular blockade and artificial ventilation, followed in order by
 halothane, intravenous alphaxolone/alphadolone, and intraperitoneal urethane
 with spontaneous ventilation.
 
 
 158                                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 The effects of various anesthetics on tissue levels of
 fructose-2,6-bisphosphate in rats.
 Kasten, T.; Colliver, J.A.; Montrey, R.D.; Dunaway, G.A.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1990 Jul.
 Laboratory animal science v. 40 (4): p. 399-401; 1990 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Anesthetics; Fructose-bisphosphatase; Kidneys; Brain;
 Heart; Muscles; Liver; Euthanasia
 
 Abstract:  We report that the short-term use of various anesthetic agents
 prior to decapitation causes alteration of the levels of
 fructose-2,6-bisphosphate in kidney, brain, heart, muscle, and liver. These
 data indicate that even light anesthesia can not be used when levels of this
 metabolite are to be determined. Also, it appears that the use of any of these
 anesthetics can profoundly alter glucose utilization in many tissues.
 
 
 159                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Effects of various sedatives on air cystometry in dogs.
 Johnson, C.A.; Beemsterboer, J.M.; Gray, P.R.; Slusser, P.G.; Goullaud, E.J.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1988 Sep.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 49 (9): p. 1525-1528. ill; 1988
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Drug combinations; Anesthetics; Diagnostic techniques;
 Muscles; Adverse effects; Restraint of animals
 
 Abstract:  The effects of various sedatives on air cystometry in dogs were
 investigated. Oxymorphone plus acepromazine, xylazine alone, atropine plus
 xylazine, and diazepam plus ketamine were compared for interference with the
 detrusor reflex, adequacy of patient restraint, and development of adverse
 side effects. Atropine plus xylazine was the best of the 4 drug combinations
 tested, because it had the least interference with the detrusor reflex,
 bradycardia did not develop, and excellent restraint was obtained. Pain and
 hematuria were common whenever intravesicular pressure exceeded 40 cm of H2O,
 yet pressures that high were rarely necessary to stimulate the detrusor
 reflex.
 
 
 160                                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Effects of yohimbine on bradycardia and duration of recumbency in
 ketamine/xylazine anesthetized ferrets.
 Sylvina, T.J.; Berman, N.G.; Fox, J.G.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1990 Mar.
 Laboratory animal science v. 40 (2): p. 178-182; 1990 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ferrets; Ketamine; Xylazine; Yohimbine; Anesthesia; Heart rate;
 Duration; Intramuscular injection; Drug antagonism
 
 Abstract:  Eleven adult ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) were anesthetized with
 ketamine hydrochloride (25 mg/kg, IM) and xylazine hydrochloride (2 mg/kg,
 IM). Fifteen minutes post-ketamine/xylazine injection, ferrets were treated
 with yohimbine hydrochloride at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg, or an equal volume of
 physiologic saline, intramuscularly. Each ferret served as its own control by
 randomly receiving both treatments with a minimum interval of 2 weeks between
 treatments on any one ferret. At 15 minutes post-ketamine/xylazine injection,
 mean heart rate measurements for both treatment groups were 27% less than the
 mean heart rate measurement reported for unanesthetized ferrets. Intramuscular
 administration of yohimbine antagonized the ketamine/xylazine induced
 bradycardia in 10 of the 11 ferrets, (p = 0.0001). In yohimbine treated
 ferrets, an increase in mean heart rate measurement was noted 5 minutes after
 the intramuscular administration of yohimbine, and followed, over the next 15
 minutes, by a progressive increase in mean heart rate. However, a
 corresponding decrease in mean heart rate measurement was observed in saline
 treated controls. Fifteen minutes after the injection of yohimbine, the mean
 heart rate measurement of yohimbine treated animals had increased to 194 beats
 per minute. This mean heart rate measurement is nearly 30% greater than the
 mean heart rate of 150 beats per minute measured at 15 minutes post-saline
 injection in saline treated controls. Also, yohimbine treatment significantly
 reduced duration of recumbency in 10 of 11 ferrets (p = 0.0001). Mean duration
 of recumbency for yohimbine treated ferrets was 41 +/- 9.7 minutes, whereas
 mean duration of recumbency for saline treated ferrets was determined to be 80
 +/- 11.4 minutes. Intramuscular administration of yohimbine effectively
 reverses ketamine/xylazine induced bradycardia and significantly reduces
 duration of recumbency in ketamine/xylazine anesthetized ferrets.
 
 
 161                                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Efficacy of tribromoethanol anesthesia in mice.
 Papaioannou, V.E.; Fox, J.G.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1993 Apr.
 Laboratory animal science v. 43 (2): p. 189-192; 1993 Apr.  Paper presented at
 a conference entitled "The Scid Mouse in Biomedical and Agricultural
 Research," August 5-7, 1992, Guelph, Canada.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mice; Anesthetics; Adverse effects
 
 Abstract:  We undertook a retrospective study to evaluate the efficacy,
 safety, and suitability of tribromoethanol (0.2 ml/10 g body weight of a 1.2%
 solution) as a surgical anesthetic in mice. We compiled records of embryo
 transfer during a 2.5-year period (1989-1991) and examined mice subjected to
 several other procedures requiring anesthesia. We documented a low rate of
 mortality and morbidity (< 1%) and the absence of any significant abdominal
 adhesions or inflammatory response. The rapid induction and recovery, adequate
 surgical plane of anesthesia, and lack of complications make this anesthetic
 effective and simple to use. Precautions necessary to prevent decomposition of
 the anesthetic, storage in the dark at 4 degrees C, were minimal.
 
 
 162                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Elective gonadectomy in dogs: A review.
 Salmeri, K.R.; Olson, P.N.; Bloomberg, M.S.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1991 Apr01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 198 (7): p.
 1183-1192; 1991 Apr01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Bitches; Castration; Ovariectomy; Age; Sex hormones;
 Biological development; Skeleton; Obesity; Animal behavior; Secondary sexual
 traits; Urinary tract; Anesthesia; Disease resistance
 
 
 163                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 Enantioselectivity in the anaesthetic effect of ketamine in dogs.
 Deleforge, J.; Davot, J.L.; Boisrame, B.; Delatour, P.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1991 Dec.
 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 14 (4): p. 418-420;
 1991 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Ketamine; Enantiomers; Anesthesia; Intravenous injection;
 Tolerance; Metabolites; Drug effects; Dosage
 
 
 164                                           NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 Epidural opioid administration for postoperative pain relief in the dog.
 Dodman, N.H.; Clark, G.H.; Court, M.H.; Fikes, L.L.; Boudrieau, R.J.
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p. 274-277,
 310-311; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Postoperative care; Pain; Analgesics; Local anesthesia;
 Morphine; Opioids; Clinical experience
 
 
 165                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Epidural vs. intramuscular oxymorphone analgesia after thoracotomy in dogs.
 Popilskis, S.; Kohn, D.; Sanchez, J.A.; Gorman, P.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1991 Nov.
 Veterinary surgery v. 20 (6): p. 462-467; 1991 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Thorax; Surgical operations; Pain; Analgesics; Conduction
 anesthesia; Intramuscular injection
 
 
 166                                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Evaluation of a combination of tiletamine and zolazepam as an anesthetic for
 ferrets.
 Payton, A.J.; Pick, J.R.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1989 May.
 Laboratory animal science v. 39 (3): p. 243-246; 1989 May.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ferrets; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Drug combinations; Evaluation;
 Safety
 
 Abstract:  A combination of equal parts by weight of tiletamine hyrochloride
 and zolazepam hydrochloride was evaluated clinically in 12 adult male ferrets.
 Two dosage levels of 12 mg/kg and 22 mg/kg were evaluated. Both doses produced
 excellent immobilization, the length of which was dose dependent. However,
 only the higher dose consistently produced good muscle relaxation. Excessive
 pain upon injection was not noted nor was residual lameness evident.
 Electrocardiagraphically, notching of the QRS complex was noted on both doses.
 Anesthesia with poor analgesia occurred at the lower dose, while ferrets
 receiving the higher dose showed more variability in the degree of analgesia.
 It was concluded that this combination administered intramuscularly provided
 excellent immobilization, variable muscle relaxation and a generally smooth
 induction and recovery. At the higher dose, analgesia was adequate for minor
 surgical procedures of short duration.
 
 
 167                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Evaluation of accuracy of pulse oximetry in dogs.
 Jacobson, J.D.; Miller, M.W.; Matthews, N.S.; Hartsfield, S.M.; Knauer, K.W.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1992 Apr.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (4): p. 537-540; 1992 Apr.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Blood; Hemoglobin; Oxygen; Estimation; Meters; Probes;
 Accuracy; Carbon dioxide
 
 Abstract:  The accuracy of a pulse oximeter was evaluated over a wide range of
 arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions, using 2 probes (finger probe and
 ear probe) and 2 monitoring sites (tongue and tail) in anesthetized dogs. The
 arterial oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (SaO2) measured directly with a
 multiwavelength spectrophotometer was compared with saturation estimated by
 pulse oximetry (SpO2). Linear regression analysis of the pooled data from 399
 simultaneous measurements of SpO2 and SaO2 indicated a highly significant
 correlation Of SpO2 with SaO2 (r = 0.97; P less than or equal to 0.0001).
 Although the mean difference (+/- SD) between SpO2 and SaO2 for pooled data
 was small (-0.06 +/- 6.8%), SPO2 tended to underestimate high SaO2 values
 (greater than or equal to 70%) and to overestimate low SaO2 values (< 70%).
 When SaO2 values were greater than or equal to 70%, the ear probe applied to
 the tail was less accurate (produced a significantly greater SpO2-SaO2
 difference) than the ear probe on the tongue, or the finger probe at either
 site. When SaO2 values were less than or equal to 50%, the finger probe
 applied at the tail was more accurate (produced significantly smaller
 SpO2-SaO2 differences) than the ear probe at either site. When SaO2 values
 were less than or equal to 70%, high arterial carbon dioxide tension (greater
 than or equal to 60 mm of Hg) was associated with greater overestimation of
 SaO2.
 
 
 168                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C24
 Evaluation of acepromazine/meperidine/atropine predication followed by
 thiopental anesthesia in the cat.
 Dyson, D.H.; Allen, D.G.; Ingwersen, W.; Pascoe, P.J.
 Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1988 Oct.
 Canadian journal of veterinary research; Revue canadienne de recherche
 veterinaire v. 52 (4): p. 419-422; 1988 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cat; Anesthesia; Atropine; Drug combinations; Injections;
 Thiopental; Blood pressure; Heart rate; Gases
 
 
 169                                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 An evaluation of analgesia associated with the immobility response in
 laboratory rabbits.
 Danneman, P.J.; White, W.J.; Marshall, W.K.; Lang, C.M.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1988 Feb.
 Laboratory animal science v. 38 (1): p. 51-57; 1988 Feb.  Literature review.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Analgesics; Restraint of animals; Immobilization
 
 Abstract:  The immobility response (IR) was studied in rabbits to evaluate its
 analgesic properties and reliability as a method of restraint. The
 participation of the endogenous opioid system in IR was studied indirectly by
 evaluating the effects of the narcotic antagonist naloxone on this phenomenon.
 Twenty-four adult New Zealand White rabbits were subjected to six noxious
 stimuli while restrained by IR and while restrained under control conditions.
 Testing on each animal was repeated under both conditions following the
 administration of naloxone. The noxious stimuli consisted of three levels of
 electric shock (10 volts, 30 volts, and 50 volts) applied to the shaved
 forearm, and mechanical pressure applied to the pinna, front toe, and hind
 toe. Withdrawal and changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration
 were used as indicators of pain perception. Distress associated with noxious
 electrical and pressure stimulation was significantly reduced by IR, which
 suggested that the phenomenon does have a significant analgesic component.
 However, the rabbits showed wide variability in their susceptibility to IR
 induction, and even animals which did not withdraw in response to noxious
 stimulation under IR sometimes exhibited physiological changes suggestive of
 distress. Therefore, IR should not be considered as a reliable or humane
 alternative to analgesic/anesthetic drugs for laboratory rabbits. Naloxone had
 little effect on IR or IR-associated analgesia.
 
 
 170                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Evaluation of atropine, glucagon, and metoclopramide for facilitation of
 endoscopic intubation of the duodenum in dogs.
 Matz, M.E.; Leib, M.S.; Monroe, W.E.; Davenport, D.J.; Nelson, L.P.; Kenny,
 J.E.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1991 Dec.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (12): p. 1948-1950; 1991 Dec.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Duodenum; Endoscopy; Atropine; Glucagon; Drugs; Intestinal
 motility
 
 Abstract:  Modification of gastroduodenal motility has been proposed to aid
 endoscopic examination of the duodenum in dogs. The objective of this study
 was to evaluate the use of the following pharmacologic agents for facilitation
 of endoscopic intubation of the duodenum in 6 clinically normal dogs:
 metoclopramide HCl (0.2 mg/kg of body weight), atropine sulfate (0.045 mg/kg),
 glucagon (0.06 mg/kg), and isotonic saline solution. In a randomized, blinded,
 crossover design, the ease of endoscopic duodenal intubation was qualitatively
 scored by 3 endoscopists (in random order), using the following scale:
 immediate entry; rapid entry-moderate manipulation; difficult entry-multiple
 attempts; and no entry after 2 minutes. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental
 and maintained with halothane. The 4 agents were diluted to a fixed volume and
 randomly administered. Duodenal intubation was attempted 2 minutes after IV
 injection of 1 of the agents. Four endoscopic procedures (1 for each agent)
 were performed on each dog with a minimum of 5 days between each procedure. In
 this study, no agent facilitated endoscopic duodenal intubation at the dose
 used. Instead, atropine and metoclopramide made duodenal intubation
 significantly more difficult, compared with use of saline solution. Difference
 between intubation after administration of glucagon and saline solution was
 not seen. On the basis of our findings, the use of these agents for
 facilitating endoscopic duodenal intubation is not recommended. In addition,
 in this study, we found that experience in endoscopic intubation is an
 important factor in determining the ease of duodenal intubation.
 
 
 171                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF895.P76
 An evaluation of five different sedative/anaesthetic regimens for H-reflex
 recording in the dog.
 Malik, R.; Pearson, M.R.B.; Ho, S.
 Santa Barbara, CA : Brillig Hill, Inc; 1992.
 Progress in veterinary neurology v. 3 (3): p. 87-90; 1992.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Australia; Dogs; Reflexes; Anesthesia; Greyhounds; Fentanyl;
 Droperidol; Xylazine; Ketamine; Halothane
 
 
 172                                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Evaluation of Greyhound susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia using
 halothane-succinylcholine anesthesia and caffeine-halothane muscle
 contractures.
 Cosgrove, S.B.; Eisele, P.H.; Martucci, R.W.; Gronert, G.A.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1992 Oct.
 Laboratory animal science v. 42 (5): p. 482-485; 1992 Oct.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Susceptibility; Adverse effects
 
 
 173                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 C81
 Evaluation of ketamine-xylazine in Syrian hamsters.
 Payton, A.J.; Forsythe, D.B.; Dixon, D.; Myers, P.H.; Clark, J.A.; Snipe, J.R.
 Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell Veterinarian, Inc; 1993 Apr.
 Cornell veterinarian v. 83 (2): p. 153-161; 1993 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Hamsters; Anesthesia
 
 
 174                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 An evaluation of medetomidine/ketamine and other drug combinations for
 anaesthesia in cats.
 Verstegen, J.; Fagetton, X.; Donnay, I.; Ectors, F.
 London : The Association; 1991 Jan12.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary Association v. 128
 (2): p. 32-35; 1991 Jan12.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Anesthesia; Analgesics; Ketamine; Anesthetics; Drug
 combinations; Adverse effects
 
 
 175                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF895.P76
 Evaluation of periosteal nociception in the cat.
 Mandsager, R.E.; Raffe, M.R.
 Santa Barbara, CA : Brillig Hill, Inc; 1991.
 Progress in veterinary neurology v. 2 (4): p. 237-242; 1991.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Pain; Bone fractures; Experiments; Bones; Periosteum;
 Models; Analgesics
 
 
 176                                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Evaluation of telazol-xylazine as an anesthetic combination for use in Syrian
 hamsters.
 Forsythe, D.B.; Payton, A.J.; Dixon, D.; Myers, P.H.; Clark, J.A.; Snipe, J.R.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1992 Oct.
 Laboratory animal science v. 42 (5): p. 497-502; 1992 Oct.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Hamsters; Anesthesia; Anesthetics
 
 
 177                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effects of a low dose of acetaminophen
 following surgery in dogs.
 Mburu, D.N.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1991 Mar.
 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 14 (1).: p. 109-111;
 1991 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Acetaminophen; Antiinflammatory agents; Postoperative care;
 Dosage; Swelling; Pain
 
 
 178                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Evaluation of the Doppler ultrasonic method of measuring systolic arterial
 blood pressure in cats.
 Grandy, J.L.; Dunlop, C.I.; Hodgson, D.S.; Curtis, C.R.; Chapman, P.L.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1992 Jul.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (7): p. 1166-1169; 1992 Jul.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Blood pressure; Ultrasonic devices; Ultrasound; Arteries
 
 Abstract:  The accuracy of the Doppler technique for indirect systolic blood
 pressure measurement was assessed in 16 anesthetized cats. Eight cats were
 anesthetized with isoflurane and 8 were anesthetized with halothane.
 Anesthetic depth and mode of ventilation were varied to obtain a wide range of
 arterial blood pressure. A Doppler transducer was placed on the palmer surface
 of the left fore-limb over the common digital branch of the radial artery to
 detect blood flow, and a blood pressure monitoring cuff with a width 37% the
 limb circumference was placed half way between the elbow and the carpus. To
 enable direct arterial pressure measurements, the left femoral artery was
 catheterized and the blood pressure waveforms recorded simultaneously.
 Systolic blood pressure measured by use of the Doppler ultrasonic technique
 was significantly lower than that obtained from the femoral artery catheter.
 Using linear regression, we determined a clinically useful calibration
 adjustment for Doppler indirect blood pressure measurement in cats: femoral
 systolic pressure = Doppler systolic pressure + 14 mm of Hg.
 
 
 179                                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 An evaluation of three intravenous anesthetic regimens in New Zealand rabbits.
 Borkowski, G.L.; Danneman, P.J.; Russell, G.B.; Lang, C.M.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1990 May.
 Laboratory animal science v. 40 (3): p. 270-276; 1990 May.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Injectable anesthetics; Ears; Anesthesia; Intravenous
 injection; Heart rate; Respiration rate; Blood pressure; Body temperature;
 Responses; Blood; Gases
 
 Abstract:  Intravenous anesthetics can be readily administered to rabbits
 through the marginal ear vein. In this study, three intravenous anesthetic
 protocols were evaluated in New Zealand White rabbits. The three anesthetic
 regimens were: (a) pentobarbital (40 mg/kg); (b) ketamine-xylazine (25-5
 mg/kg); (c) midazolam-xylazine-alfentanil (1-1-0.1 mg/kg). The anesthetics
 were injected slowly over defined time intervals. Reactions to noxious stimuli
 were determined before and after administration of the anesthetics.
 Additionally, the effects of the anesthetic agents on the rabbit's
 cardiopulmonary system were evaluated. Rabbits anesthetized with
 midazolam-xylazine-alfentanil did not have a pedal withdrawal or ear pinch
 reflex throughout the testing period. The ketamine-xylazine combination
 produced a shorter duration of non-responsiveness to noxious stimuli. Rabbits
 anesthetized with pentobarbital had the greatest variability in response to
 noxious stimuli. Apnea occurred in at least one rabbit in each group. A side
 effect unique to the midazolam-xylazine-alfentanil group was the occurrence of
 opisthotonus or seizure activity during or shortly after the administration of
 alfentanil. Hypotension, hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis were
 characteristic of the cardiopulmonary effects of the anesthetics. When
 choosing an anesthetic regimen for rabbits, intravenous infusion should be
 considered as an option. Advantages include ease of administration,
 possibility of redosing as required, and minimal requirements for equipment.
 Disadvantages of intravenous anesthetic infusion in rabbits include potential
 for lethal overdose and metabolic alterations after administration.
 
 
 180                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Evaluation of three midazolam-xylazine mixtures preliminary trials in dogs.
 Tranquilli, W.J.; Gross, M.E.; Thurmon, J.C.; Benson, G.J.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1990 Mar.
 Veterinary surgery v. 19 (2): p. 168-172; 1990 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Benzodiazepines; Xylazine; Drug combinations; Yohimbine;
 Drug antagonism; Narcotic antagonists; Anesthesia; Central nervous system
 
 
 181                                                   NAL Call. No.: SB298.J66
 Evidence of the sedative effect of neroli oil, cironellal and phenylethyl
 acetate on mice.
 Jager, W.; Buchbauer, G.; Jirovetz, L.; Dietrich, H.; Plank, C.
 Wheaton, Ill. : Allured Publishing Company; 1992 Jul.
 Journal of essential oil research : JEOR v. 4 (4): p. 387-394; 1992 Jul.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Citrus aurantium; Essential oils; Acetates; Linalool; Perfumery;
 Inhalation; Blood serum; Mice; Volatile compounds; Anesthetics; Medicinal
 properties
 
 Abstract:  The sedative effects of neroli oil, Citrus aurantium (L.) subsp.
 aurantium, citronellal and phenylethyl acetate on mice were investigated in a
 series of experimental procedures. Under standardized experimental conditions
 the motility of female mice was reduced from arbitrarily graded 100% for
 untreated animals to 34.73% by neroli oil, to 50.18% by citronellal and 54.94%
 by phenylethyl acetate, respectively. In the serum of animals exposed for one
 hour, the concentration of the fragrances was analyzed by GC/FID and found to
 be 0.85 ng/mL for neroli oil, 2.53 ng/mL for citronellal and 5.35 ng/mL for
 phenylethyl acetate.
 
 
 182                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C24
 Failure of sodium pentobarbital anesthesia to alter 1-desamino-8-D-arginine
 vasopressin-induced elevations of plasma Factor VIII/von Willebrand factor in
 normal dogs.
 Johnstone, I.B.; Crane, S.
 Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1988 Oct.
 Canadian journal of veterinary research; Revue canadienne de recherche
 veterinaire v. 52 (4): p. 416-418; 1988 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Pentobarbital; Vasopressins; Blood plasma
 
 
 183                                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 Fentanyl and medetomidine anaesthesia in the rat and its reversal using
 atipamazole and either nalbuphine or butorphanol.
 Hu, C.; Flecknell, P.A.; Liles, J.H.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1992 Jan.
 Laboratory animals v. 26 (1): p. 15-22; 1992 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Anesthesia; Fentanyl; Agonists; Antagonists; Opioids; Drug
 combinations
 
 Abstract:  The intraperitoneal injection of anaesthetic agents is a simple and
 convenient method of anaesthetizing rats. However, all of the anaesthetic
 combinations in current use which are administered by intraperitoneal
 injection produce prolonged sedation, and full recovery of consciousness may
 take several hours. Fentanyl, a micro agonist opioid, and medetomidine, an
 alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist were mixed and administered as a single
 intraperitoneal injection. Combinations of 300 microgram/300 microgram/kg and
 300 microgram/200 microgram/kg of fentanyl/medetomidine were shown to produce
 surgical anaesthesia in the rat. This anaesthetic regimen produced significant
 respiratory depression (P < 0.01) and animals did not regain their righting
 reflex until 193 +/- 21 min (mean +/- 1 SD) after injection. Administration by
 intraperitoneal injection of atipamezole, a specific alpha 2-adrenoceptor
 antagonist (1 mg/kg) mixed with a micro antagonist/k agonist opioid
 (nalbuphine, 2 mg/kg or butorphanol 0.4 mg/kg), resulted in a rapid (< 8 min)
 reversal of anaesthesia and the associated respiratory depression, and
 apparent full recovery of consciousness.
 
 
 184                                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 Four methods for general anaesthesia in the rabbit: a comparative study.
 Peeters, M.E.; Gil, D.; Teske, E.; Eyzenbach, V.; Brom, W.E. v.d.; Lumeij,
 J.T.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1988 Oct.
 Laboratory animals v. 22 (4): p. 355-360; 1988 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Metabolism; Physiology
 
 Abstract:  The efficacy and safety of pentobarbitone, ketamine/xylazine,
 fentanyl/fluanisone/diazepam, and halothane/nitrous oxide anaesthesia were
 compared in 4 groups of six New Zealand White rabbits. Heart and respiratory
 rates, body temperature, reflexes, blood pressure and blood gases were
 measured. Pentobarbitone appeared to be unsuitable for anaesthesia in rabbits,
 as 5 of the 6 rabbits to whom it was administered, required artificial
 respiration or died. The combinations of ketamine/xylazine and
 fentanyl-fluanisone/diazepam both produced unpredictable levels of anaesthesia
 together with a substantial decline in arterial blood pressure and PO2.
 Despite a severe drop in blood pressure (up to 37.5%), anaesthesia with
 halothane and nitrous oxide was found to be superior to the other anaesthetic
 agents.
 
 
 185                                                    NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6
 From ethnobotanical uses of Strychnos henningsii to antiinflammatories,
 analgesics and antispasmodics.
 Tits, M.; Damas, J.; Quetin-Leclercq, J.; Angenot, L.
 Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Sep.
 Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 34 (2/3): p. 261-267; 1991 Sep.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Africa; Strychnos henningsii; Traditional medicines; Ethnobotany;
 Antiinflammatory agents; Analgesics; Spasms; Pharmacology; Bark; Rats
 
 Abstract:  Strychnos henningsii Gilg is used in African traditional medicine
 for the treatment of various ailments, including rheumatism, gastrointestinal
 complaints and snake bites. Different preliminary pharmacological experiments
 are described. The results show that some of the reported folk medicinal
 applications of S. henningsii can be at least partially explained by the
 presence of retuline-like alkaloids, whose use could lead to new
 antinociceptive (antiinflammatory and analgesic) and antispasmodic drugs.
 
 
 186                                                      NAL Call. No.: QP1.P4
 Glycemic control of pain threshold in diabetic and control rats.
 Lee, J.H.; McCarty, R.
 Elmsford, N.Y. : Pergamon Press; 1990 Feb.
 Physiology & behavior v. 47 (2): p. 225-230; 1990 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Glycemia; Pain; Rats; Experimental diabetes; Blood glucose;
 Alloxan; Nervous system diseases
 
 
 187                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Hemodynamic effects of atropine and glycopyrrolate in
 isoflurane-xylazine-anesthetized dogs.
 Lemke, K.A.; Tranquilli, W.J.; Thurmon, J.C.; Benson, G.J.; Olson, W.A.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1993 Mar.
 Veterinary surgery v. 22 (2): p. 163-169; 1993 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Drugs; Hemodynamics
 
 
 188                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Hemodynamic effects of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in
 halothane-anesthetized dogs.
 Bednarski, R.M.; Muir, W.W. III
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1989 Jul.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 50 (7): p. 1106-1109. ill; 1989
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Male animals; Anesthesia; Halothane; Ventilation; Drug
 effects; Blood pressure; Heart output; Heart rate
 
 Abstract:  Hemodynamic effects of spontaneous ventilation, intermittent
 positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV), and high-frequency oscillatory
 ventilation (HFOV) were compared in 6 dogs during halothane anesthesia.
 Anesthesia was induced with IV thiamylal Na and was maintained with halothane
 (end-tidal concentration, 1.09%). During placement of catheters, dogs breathed
 spontaneously through a conventional semiclosed anesthesia circuit. Data were
 collected, and dogs were mechanically ventilated, using IPPV or HFOV in random
 order. Ventilation was adjusted to maintain PaCO2 between 38 and 43 mm of Hg
 during IPPV and HFOV. Cardiac index, aortic blood pressure, and maximum rate
 of increase of left ventricular pressure were significantly (P less than 0.05)
 less during HFOV than during spontaneous ventilation, whereas right atrial and
 pulmonary artery pressure were significantly greater during HFOV than during
 spontaneous ventilation. During IPPV, only the maximum rate of increase of
 left ventricular pressure was significantly less than that during spontaneous
 ventilation.
 
 
 189                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Hemodynamic effects of intravenous midazolam-xylazine-butorphanol in dogs.
 Gross, M.E.; Thurmon, J.C.; Benson, G.J.; Olson, W.A.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1990 Mar.
 Veterinary surgery v. 19 (2): p. 173-180; 1990 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Benzodiazepines; Xylazine; Drug combinations; Hemodynamics;
 Anesthesia
 
 
 190                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF778.J68
 High-frequency jet ventilation in anesthetized, paralyzed dogs and cats via
 transtracheal and endotracheal tube routes.
 Haskins, S.C.; Orima, H.; Yamamoto, Y.; Patz, J.D.
 Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Pub; 1991 Jul.
 Journal of veterinary emergency and critical care v. 1 (2): p. 55-60; 1991
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Lung ventilation; Veterinary equipment
 
 
 191                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Impedance cardiography by use of a spot-electrode array to track changes in
 cardiac output in anesthetized dogs.
 Kiesler, T.W.; Voorhees III, W.D.; Wessale, J.L.; Pham, C.K.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1990 Jun01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 196 (11): p.
 1804-1810. ill; 1990 Jun01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Electrocardiography; Heart output; Anesthesia; Thorax;
 Electrodes
 
 
 192                                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 An improved method of endotracheal intubation in rabbits.
 Bechtold, S.V.; Abrutyn, D.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1991 Dec.
 Laboratory animal science v. 41 (6): p. 630-631; 1991 Dec.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Trachea; Tubes; Laboratory methods; Preanesthetic
 medication; Anesthesia
 
 
 193                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Increasing halothane concentration abolishes anesthesia-associated arrhythmias
 in cats and dogs.
 Muir, W.W. III; Hubbell, J.A.E.; Flaherty, S.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1988 Jun15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 192 (12): p.
 1730-1735. ill; 1988 Jun15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cat; Anesthesia; Halothane; Heart diseases; Ventricles
 
 
 194                                              NAL Call. No.: SF914.A53 1990
 Induction techniques and maintenance systems for isoflurane in cats.
 Sawyer, D.C.; Durham, R.A.; Striler, E.L.; Langham, M.
 Columbia, Md. : American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, 1990? :.;
 1990.
 Anesthesia and analgesia in laboratory animals : proceedings -- 1990 Forum,
 American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, Columbia Inn, Columbia,
 Maryland, May 3-6, 1990. p. 21-25; 1990.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Inhaled anesthetics
 
 
 195                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Influence of sedative and anesthetic agents on intradermal skin test reactions
 in dogs.
 Moriello, K.A.; Eicker, S.W.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1991 Sep.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (9): p. 1484-1488; 1991 Sep.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthetics; Neuroleptics; Skin tests; Drug effects
 
 Abstract:  To determine the effects of 9 sedative/anesthetic drug protocols on
 intradermal skin testing, an experimental state of type-I hypersensitivity was
 created. Intradermal skin tests were performed on 6 dogs, using positive and
 negative controls and a series of tenfold dilutions of ASC-1 allergen prior to
 drug administration. Approximately 4 hours later, the dogs were given 1 of the
 following drugs: acepromazine (low dose and high dose); ketamine hydrochloride
 with diazepam; thiamylal; oxymorphone; halothane; methoxyflurane; or
 isoflurane. The intradermal skin test then was repeated, and was scored
 objectively and subjectively. Objective scores were unaffected by any of the
 drugs. Subjective scores were affected in that acepromazine decreased wheal
 size and the induration of the intradermal skin test reaction sites.
 
 
 196                                                  NAL Call. No.: SF910.5.V4
 Injectable anaesthetic agents for cats.
 Dyson, D.H.; Allen, D.G.
 Stuttgart : F.K. Schattauer Publishers; 1992 Aug.
 Veterinary and comparative orthopaedics and traumatology : V.C.O.T. v. 5 (3):
 p. 128-130; 1992 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Anesthetics; Injectable anesthetics; Xylazine; Ketamine;
 Thiopental; Pethidine; Diazepam; Benzodiazepines
 
 
 197                                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R3224
 Injectable anesthetic agents for cats.
 Dyson, D.H.; Allen, D.G.
 Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1991 May.
 The Canadian veterinary journal v. 32 (5): p. 314-316; 1991 May.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Injectable anesthetics; Anesthesia
 
 
 198                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.B56
 Intraoperative or postoperative pain.
 Pascoe, P.J.
 Toronto : B.C. Decker, Inc; 1988.
 Decision making in small animal soft tissue surgery / Allen G. Binnington,
 Joanne R. Cockshutt. p. 186-187; 1988.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Surgery; Pain; Treatment; Methoxyflurane; Analgesics
 
 
 199                                               NAL Call. No.: SF915.J6 1988
 Intrathecal and epidural anesthesia., 6th ed.
 Booth, N.H.
 Ames, Iowa : Iowa State University Press; 1988.
 Veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics / edited by Nicholas H. Booth, Leslie
 E. McDonald. p. 424-439. ill; 1988.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle; Sheep; Goats; Pigs; Cat; Anesthesia; Spinal cord; Drugs;
 Anesthetics; Injections; Pharmacodynamics
 
 
 200                                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Intravenous chloralose is a safe anesthetic for longitudinal use in beagle
 puppies.
 Grad, R.; Witten, M.L.; Quan, S.F.; McKelvie, D.H.; Lemen, R.J.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1988 Aug.
 Laboratory animal science v. 38 (4): p. 422-425; 1988 Aug.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Pups; Anesthesia; Veins; Injections; Chloralose
 
 Abstract:  Chloralose is an intravenous anesthetic which preserves vagal and
 central baroreceptor reflexes, thus rendering it useful for physiologic
 research. However, chloralose is recommended for terminal experiments only,
 due to concerns relating to long-term toxicity. We investigated the safety of
 chloralose in longitudinal pulmonary function studies in beagle puppies.
 Twelve puppies received chloralose anesthesia repeatedly (8-12 times per dog)
 between the ages of 80 and 300 days. Constant anesthetic depth was maintained
 reliably throughout the course of the experiments. Recovery lasted
 approximately 4 hours in each experiment and occurred in four definable
 stages. Following recovery, the puppies exhibited normal health and growth as
 compared with other colony animals. There was no biochemical evidence of acute
 renal, hepatic, pancreatic or cardiac toxicity prior to and immediately after
 anesthesia, and no evidence of chronic toxicity following completion of the
 study protocol, after a total cumulative dose of 1.18 g/kg chloralose. These
 studies demonstrate that intravenous chloralose is a safe anesthetic for
 longitudinal use.
 
 
 201                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Introduction of anaesthesia in dogs and cats with propofol.
 Weaver, B.M.Q.; Raptopoulos, D.
 London : The Association; 1990 Jun23.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary Association v. 126
 (25) AGL: p. 617-620; 1990 Jun23.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cat; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Adverse effects
 
 
 202                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Introduction to the quantitative technique of closed circuit anesthesia in
 dogs.
 Moens, Y.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : J.B. Lippincott Co; 1988 Mar.
 Veterinary surgery v. 17 (2): p. 98-104. ill; 1988 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Circuits; Quantitative techniques
 
 
 203                                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Ketamine/xylazine/butorphanol: a new anesthetic combination for rabbits.
 Marini, R.P.; Avison, D.L.; Corning, B.F.; Lipman, N.S.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1992 Feb.
 Laboratory animal science v. 42 (1): p. 57-62; 1992 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Anesthesia; Ketamine; Xylazine; Drug combinations;
 Neuroleptics; Opioids; Heart rate; Respiration rate; Blood pressure; Blood;
 Gases; Reflexes
 
 Abstract:  Ketamine is often used in combination with tranquilizers to produce
 surgical anesthesia in rabbits. While generally effective, there is
 considerable variation in the depth and duration of anesthesia achieved with
 ketamine combinations. Butorphanol is a mixed agonist-antagonist opioid that
 is widely used in a variety of other species. In this study, the commonly used
 ketamine (35 mg/kg)/xylazine (5 mg/kg) combination is compared with ketamine
 (35 mg/kg)/xylazine (5 mg/kg)/butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg). Rabbits were
 anesthetized on consecutive weeks with one of the two regimens. Physiologic
 parameters including heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure and arterial
 blood gases (pH, PO2, PCO2) were measured throughout anesthesia. Loss of
 palpebral, pedal and righting reflexes were recorded and reflexes were
 subsequently evaluated. The addition of butorphanol prolonged reflex loss to
 140% (X = 68 min +/- 20 SEM) of control for palpebral reflex; 506% (X = 52 min
 +/- 18 SEM) of control for pedal reflex; and 159% (X = 128 min +/- 21 SEM) of
 control for righting reflex. Addition of butorphanol to ketamine/ xylazine
 resulted in mild alterations in the physiologic changes traditionally
 associated with this combination. Butorphanol can be safely added to the
 ketamine/xylazine combination in rabbits and results in moderate increases in
 the duration of reflex loss.
 
 
 204                                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 Ketamine-xylazine anaesthesia in the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus).
 Curl, J.L.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1988 Oct.
 Laboratory animals v. 22 (4): p. 309-312; 1988 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Hamsters; Strains; Anesthesia; Ketamine; Xylazine; Drug
 combinations; Photoperiod
 
 Abstract:  The combination of ketamine-xylazine was assessed as a surgical
 anaesthetic in Djungarian hamsters acclimatized to both long (16 h light : 8 h
 dark) and short (8 h light : 16 h dark) photoperiods. It was concluded that 50
 mg/kg of ketamine with 10 mg/kg of xylazine or 100 mg/kg of ketamine with 5-10
 mg/kg of xylazine when given together by intraperitoneal injection was a
 satisfactory general anaesthetic. Two hundred mg/kg of ketamine with 10 mg/kg
 xylazine caused death in 13 of 24 animals. There were no clinically
 significant effects on depth of anaesthesia due to photoperiod.
 
 
 205                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Kinetics of uptake and effects of topical indomethacin application on protein
 concentration in the aqueous humor of dogs.
 Spiess, B.M.; Mathis, G.A.; Franson, K.L.; Leber, A.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1991 Jul.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (7): p. 1159-1163; 1991 Jul.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Indometacin; Topical application; Body fluids; Eyes;
 Protein content; Pharmacokinetics
 
 Abstract:  The pharmacokinetic properties of indomethacin and its effects on
 aqueous protein values were studied in 15 clinically normal Beagles. The dogs
 were treated every 6 hours with 1% indomethacin suspension in 1 eye, with the
 other eye serving as a control. After 24 hours, the dogs were anesthetized and
 samples of aqueous humor (AH) were drawn by aqueocentesis at 0, 15, 30, 60,
 and 90 minutes after initial paracentesis. Additional samples were drawn at
 the time of euthanasia, 180 (6 dogs) and 360 minutes (9 dogs) minutes after
 initial paracentesis. Blood samples were obtained at each treatment and at
 each aqueocentesis. The eyes were enucleated after dogs were euthanatized.
 Aqueous protein concentrations and indomethacin concentrations in AH, plasma,
 and different ocular tissues were determined. Topical indomethacin
 administration had no effect on baseline protein concentrations of AH. It
 reduced protein concentrations in AH significantly at all times after initial
 aqueocentesis. This reduction was approximately 30%. Indomethacin in the AH is
 mostly protein-bound. Concentrations were 350 ng/ml in primary AH and 1,305
 ng/ml in secondary AH, 90 minutes after initial aqueocentesis. Free-drug
 concentrations were relatively constant at about 220 ng/ml. Indomethacin
 administered topically is readily absorbed by the ocular adnexae, reaching a
 steady-state concentration of 25 ng/ml in blood plasma 18 hours after the
 start of treatment. Plasma concentrations were 50 times lower than
 therapeutically effective concentrations. High indomethacin concentrations
 were found in the cornea only. Low concentrations were found in the iris and
 ciliary body, the lens, and in the choroid. On the basis of our findings, we
 conclude that topically administered indomethacin is effective in reducing
 protein concentrations in secondary AH and is rapidly eliminated from the eye.
 
 
 206                                                    NAL Call. No.: SF774.C5
 Lack of gravitational influence on distribution of regional and intraregional
 inhalation-to-perfusion mismatching in anesthetized dogs.
 Clercx, C.; Brom, W.E. van den; Vries, H.W. de
 S.l. : s.n., 1988? :.; 1988.
 Scintigraphical analyses of pulmonary function in dogs; Scintigrafische
 longfunktie analyse bij de hond; Analyses scintigraphiques de la function
 pulmonaire chez le chien / door Cecile Clercx. p. 40-50; 1988.  Dutch and
 French Summaries on pages 141-149.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Radiorespirometry; Blood circulation; Radiography; Lungs;
 Respiration; Ventilation; Gravity
 
 
 207                                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Long term anesthesia using a continuous infusion guaifenesin, ketamine, and
 xylazine in cats.
 Brown, M.J.; McCarthy, T.J.; Bennett, B.T.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1991 Jan.
 Laboratory animal science v. 41 (1): p. 46-50; 1991 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Anesthesia; Guaifenesin; Ketamine; Xylazine; Drug
 combinations; Safety; Dosage; Duration
 
 Abstract:  Cats (Felis catus) were anesthetized with a solution containing
 guaifenesin, ketamine and xylazine (GKX) in 0.9% saline. Anesthesia was
 induced by intravenous (IV) injection and was maintained for 6 hours by IV
 infusion. Heart rate, respiratory rate and PvO2 did not change significantly
 during the 6 hour monitoring period and remained consistently within the
 published normal ranges for cats. Although the PvCO2 did not change
 significantly, many values were abnormal. Venous pH decreased to slightly
 below normal values. Lead 11 ECG tracings showed no abnormalities. Loss of
 response to pedal pinch and jam, tone indicates maintenance of a surgical
 plane of anesthesia and adequate muscle relaxation throughout the 6 hour
 anesthetic period. Cats exhibited voluntary motor movement and were in sternal
 recumbency in just over 2 hours and were showing no residual clinical effects
 of the anesthesia 16 hours later. Although a transient mild acidosis was
 observed, we conclude that GKX provides a safe, effective and easily
 administered anesthetic regime for cats for periods up to 6 hours.
 
 
 208                                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 Long-term anaesthesia with alfentanil and midazolam for lung transplantation
 in the dog.
 Flecknell, P.A.; Hooper, T.L.; Fetherstony, G.; Locke, T.J.; McGregor, C.G.A.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1989 Jul.
 Laboratory animals v. 23 (3): p. 278-284; 1989 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthetics; Lungs; Transplantation; Anesthesia;
 Cardiovascular system; Cardiac output; Blood pressure
 
 Abstract:  An anaesthetic regime was developed for lung transplantation in the
 dog using a continuous infusion of alfentanil and midazolam. This combination
 of agents provided excellent analgesia and also produced loss of
 consciousness. Cardiovascular stability was well maintained over a 24-h period
 of anaesthesia following lung transplantation. Although no animals were
 allowed to recover from anaesthesia in the present series, the regime
 described is likely to be suitable for recovery anaesthesia, particularly
 since both of the agents used can be reversed with specific antagonists.
 
 
 209                                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 A low cost tail-cuff method for the estimation of mean arterial pressure in
 conscious rats.
 Zatz, R.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1990 Mar.
 Laboratory animal science v. 40 (2): p. 198-201. ill; 1990 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Blood pressure; Estimation; Tail; Veterinary equipment
 
 Abstract:  Methods utilized in the determination of systolic tail-cuff
 pressure (TCP) in awake rats are aimed at detecting the earliest possible tail
 pulsations as the cuff is deflated. In the method described in this study, a
 small, inexpensive electret microphone is used as a sensor, connected to the
 tail by a piece of rubber tubing. This design provides selective attenuation
 of tail pulsations appearing as the cuff is deflated between systolic and mean
 arterial pressures. In this manner, tail pulsations are detected only when the
 cuff pressure is lowered below the mean arterial pressure, thus providing an
 estimation of the latter. The method was validated in prewarmed awake
 normotensive and hypertensive rats by simultaneous comparison with directly
 measured systolic and mean pressures or with a conventional tail-cuff method.
 Validation studies were also carried out in anesthetized rats undergoing wide
 variations of arterial pressure by parenteral injections of norepinephrine or
 nitroprusside. Close agreement was observed between TCP determined with this
 method and directly obtained mean, but not systolic, pressure. Thus, the
 method described in this study constitutes an inexpensive alternative to
 conventional tail-cuff methods. Mean, rather than systolic pressure, appears
 to be evaluated in the conscious rat by employing this method.
 
 
 210                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Malignant hyperthermia in dogs.
 Nelson, T.E.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1991 Mar15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 198 (6): p. 989-994;
 1991 Mar15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Adverse effects; Hyperthermia; Susceptibility;
 Muscles; Halothane; Caffeine; Progeny; Calcium ions
 
 
 211                                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 A mask system for halothane anesthesia of guinea pigs.
 Franz, D.R.; Dixon, R.S.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1988 Dec.
 Laboratory animal science v. 38 (6): p. 743-744. ill; 1988 Dec.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Guinea pigs; Anesthesia; Halothane; Apparatus
 
 
 212                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Measurements of left and right ventricular pressures and their derivatives by
 transcutaneous puncture in rats.
 Hamlin, R.L.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1992 Jan.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (1): p. 34-35; 1992 Jan.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Ventricles; Blood pressure; Determination; Recordings
 
 Abstract:  Eighteen rats were anesthetized with xylazine/ketamine and placed
 in right lateral recumbency, and a small incision was made in the skin of the
 left hemithorax. A 21-gauge, 1-inch, short-beveled hypodermic needle, attached
 directly to a pressure transducer filled with degassed saline solution, was
 advanced through the incision into the left ventricle and then advanced
 through the septum into the right ventricle. High-fidelity tracings of right
 and left ventricular pressures and their derivatives were obtained through
 this approach in 13 rats. In 5 rats, measurements of right ventricular
 pressures were obtained by additional right ventricular puncture through the
 incision in the left hemithorax. Right and left ventricular pressures were
 recorded on single occasions in 18 rats, twice at 2-week intervals in 6 rats,
 and 3 times at 2-week intervals in 3 rats. Minimal hemopericardium was
 observed, but most rats had evidence of hemorrhage on the visceral
 pericardium. Left and right ventricular pressures can be measured rapidly,
 safely, and repeatedly in anesthetized rats by this method.
 
 
 213                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69
 Measuring how dogs respond to Telazol-xylazine combinations.
 Sanders, E.; Short, C.E.; Keegan, R.; Tracy, C.H.
 Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Company; 1989 Feb.
 Veterinary medicine v. 84 (2): p. 222-227; 1989 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Xylazine; Neuroleptics; Drug
 combinations; Blood pressure; Heart rate; Respiration; Duration
 
 
 214                                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 J8292
 Medetomidine, a new sedative-analgesic for use in the dog and its reversal
 with atipamezole.
 Clarke, K.W.; England, G.C.W.
 London : British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 1989 Jun.
 The Journal of small animal practice v. 30 (6): p. 343-345, 347-348; 1989 Jun.
  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Analgesics; Neuroleptics; Xylazine; Detoxicants; Adverse
 effects
 
 
 215                                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 J8292
 Medetomidine as a premedicant in dogs and its reversal by atipamezole.
 Young, L.E.; Brearley, J.C.; Richards, D.L.S.; Bartram, D.H.; Jones, R.S.
 London : British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 1990 Nov.
 The Journal of small animal practice v. 31 (11): p. 554-556, 557-559; 1990
 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Preanesthetic medication; Halothane; Nitrous oxide;
 Thiopental; Anesthesia; Narcotic antagonists; Recovery
 
 
 216                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Medetomidine-butorphanol-midazolam for anaesthesia in dogs and its reversal by
 atipamezole.
 Verstegen, J.; Petcho, A.
 London : The Association; 1993 Apr03.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary Association v. 132
 (14): p. 353-357; 1993 Apr03.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Narcotic antagonists
 
 
 217                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Median effective dosage of propofol for induction of anesthesia in dogs.
 Watney, G.C.G.; Pablo, L.S.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1992 Dec.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (12): p. 2320-2322; 1992 Dec.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthetics; Dosage
 
 Abstract:  The median effective dosage (ED50) of propofol for induction of
 anesthesia was determined in 25 dogs premedicated with acepromazine, 0.05
 mg/kg of body weight, and in 35 unpremedicated dogs. The ED50 was found to be
 2.2 mg/kg in premedicated dogs and was 3.8 mg/kg in unpremedicated dogs. The
 mean +/- SD total dosage of propofol required to induce anesthesia in
 premedicated animals was 2.8 +/- 0.5 mg/kg and was 4.7 +/- 1.3 mg/kg in
 unpremedicated animals. Signs of excitement were observed in 5 of the
 unpremedicated dogs, but in none of those that were premedicated.
 
 
 218                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V643
 The medical implications of canine obesity and their relevance to anaesthesia.
 Clutton, R.E.
 London : Bailliere Tindall; 1988 Jan.
 British veterinary journal v. 144 (1): p. 21-28; 1988 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Obesity; Etiology
 
 
 219                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Methemoglobinemia associated with dermal application of benzocaine cream in a
 cat.
 Wilkie, D.A.; Kirby, R.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1988 Jan01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 192 (1): p. 85-86;
 1988 Jan01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cat; Anesthetics; Topical application; Adverse effects;
 Methemoglobinemia
 
 
 220                                           NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 A method for assessing noxious stimuli in anesthetized dogs.
 Moore, M.P.; Greene, S.A.; Keegan, R.D.
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p. 439-446, 477;
 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Electroencephalography
 
 
 221                                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 A method for hyperthermic treatment of mouse skin.
 Gragtmans, N.J.; Jevcak, J.J.; Mitchel, R.E.J.; Morrison, D.P.; McCann, R.A.;
 Murphy, J.W.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1992 Apr.
 Laboratory animals v. 26 (2): p. 122-126; 1992 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mice; Skin; Animal models; Disease models; Hyperthermia;
 Carcinogenesis; Promoters; Carcinogens
 
 Abstract:  The Sencar mouse skin system is a recognized model for tumour
 initiation, promotion and progression. The current interest in the effect of
 hyperthermia on this multi-stage tumorigenesis model prompted the need for a
 technique to accurately heat a section of dorsal skin of a large number of
 mice for 30 min per heat treatment. In the technique described, experimental
 groups of 25 female Sencar mice were treated at 7-8 weeks of age under general
 methoxyflurane anaesthesia. Treatment consisted of the application of
 initiating and/or promoting agents with or without hyperthermia. For
 hyperthermic skin treatments, each group of mice was placed onto a platform in
 a water bath so that the dorsal skin of the mice was in contact with 44
 degrees C temperature controlled water.
 
 
 222                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 Method of objective assessment of analgesia in the dog.
 Hamlin, R.L.; Bednarski, L.S.; Schuler, C.J.; Weldy, P.L.; Cohen, R.B.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1988 Jun.
 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 11 (2): p. 215-220.
 ill; 1988 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Xylazine; Dosage effect
 
 
 223                                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 A modified anaesthetic induction chamber for rats.
 Gwynne, B.J.; Wallace, J.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1992 Jul.
 Laboratory animals v. 26 (3): p. 163-166; 1992 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Anesthesia; Laboratory equipment; Halothane; Oxygen; Waste
 gases
 
 Abstract:  The anaesthetic induction chamber for rats described in this paper
 has been designed for use in conjunction with a controlled delivery of
 halothane/O2 mixture and an anaesthetic scavenger system. Using this system
 rapid induction of anaesthesia is achieved using low levels of anaesthetic
 vapour without risk to the operator.
 
 
 224                                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 Monitoring of blood gas parameters and acid-base balance of pregnant and
 non-pregnant rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in routine experimental
 conditions.
 Barzago, M.M.; Bortolotti, A.; Omarini, D.; Aramayona, J.J.; Bonati, M.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1992 Apr.
 Laboratory animals v. 26 (2): p. 73-79; 1992 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Pregnancy; Blood; Gases; Acid base equilibrium;
 Anesthesia
 
 Abstract:  Blood gas parameters and acid-base balance values were determined
 in adult pregnant New Zealand rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in standard
 laboratory housing conditions and during anaesthesia with an association of
 ketamine-chlorpromazine, administered before surgical procedures. All the
 variables were also studied in adult non-pregnant female, used as controls. No
 differences in pH, sO2c, O2Hb, COHb, sO2m and a-vDO2 were found between
 pregnant and non-pregnant rabbits in physiological conditions and during
 anaesthesia. Ketamine-chlorpromazine and pregnancy seemed to change the other
 parameters used to assess the acid-base balance and the oxygenation
 conditions. Anaesthesia affected only Hb, O2Ct, O2Cap, C2O2 and P50. The
 additive effect of pregnancy and anaesthesia modified pCO2, PO2, HCO3-, TCO2,
 BEb, SBC, BEecf, A-aDO2, RI, MetHb, RHb, CaO2 and CvO2. The patterns described
 are close to those of other species, suggesting the New Zealand rabbit might
 be a reliable animal model for monitoring selected variables.
 
 
 225                                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 J8292
 Muscle relaxants in canine anaesthesia. 1. History and the drugs.
 Jones, R.S.
 London : British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 1992 Aug.
 The Journal of small animal practice v. 33 (8): p. 371-375; 1992 Aug.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Muscle relaxants; History; Suxamethonium
 
 
 226                                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 J8292
 Muscle relaxants in canine anaesthesia 2: Clinical application.
 Jones, R.S.
 London : British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 1992 Sep.
 The Journal of small animal practice v. 33 (9): p. 423-429; 1992 Sep.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Muscle relaxants
 
 
 227                                                    NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6
 Myrcene mimics the peripheral analgesic activity of lemongrass tea.
 Lorenzetti, B.B.; Souza, G.E.P.; Sarti, S.J.; Filho, D.S.; Ferreira, S.H.
 Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Aug.
 Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 34 (1): p. 43-48; 1991 Aug.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cymbopogon citratus; Myrcene; Analgesics; Essential oils;
 Chromatography; Folk medicine; Rats
 
 Abstract:  Oral administration of a infusion of lemongrass (Cymbopogon
 citratus) fresh leaves to rats produced a dose-dependent analgesia for the
 hyperalgesia induced by subplantar injections of either carrageenin or
 prostaglandin E2, but did not affect that induced by dibutyryl cyclic AMP.
 These results indicate a peripheral site of action which was confirmed with
 the essential oil obtained by steam distillation of the leaves. Silica gel
 column fractionation of the essential oil allowed the identification of
 myrcene as the major analgesic component in the oil. Identification of the
 components was made by thin-layer chromatography and checked by mass
 spectrometry. The peripheral analgesic effect of myrcene was confirmed by
 testing a standard commercial preparation on the hyperalgesia induced by
 prostaglandin in the rat paw test and upon the contortions induced by
 intraperitoneal injections of iloprost in mice. In contrast to the central
 analgesic effect of morphine, myrcene did not cause tolerance on repeated
 injection in rats. This analgesic activity supports the use of lemongrass tea
 as a "sedative" in folk medicine. Terpenes such as myrcene may constitute a
 lead for the development of new peripheral analgesics with a profile of action
 different from that of the aspirin-like drugs.
 
 
 228                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.B56
 Neck pain.
 Parent, J.; Cochrane, S.M.
 Toronto : B.C. Decker, Inc; 1988.
 Decision making in small animal soft tissue surgery / Allen G. Binnington,
 Joanne R. Cockshutt. p. 138-139; 1988.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Neck; Pain; Dislocations; Diagnosis; Cerebrospinal fluid;
 Biopsy; Resection
 
 
 229                                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R3224
 Nephrotoxicity in dogs associated with methoxyflurane anesthesia and flunixin
 meglumine analgesia.
 Mathews, K.A.; Doherty, T.; Dyson, D.H.; Wilcock, B.; Valliant, A.
 Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1990 Nov.
 The Canadian veterinary journal v. 31 (11): p. 766-771; 1990 Nov.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Methoxyflurane; Flunixin; Anesthesia; Drug combinations;
 Adverse effects; Kidney diseases; Uremia; Renal function
 
 
 230                                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Nephrotoxicity of tiletamine in New Zealand white rabbits.
 Doerning, B.J.; Brammer, D.W.; Chrisp, C.E.; Rush, H.G.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1992 Jun.
 Laboratory animal science v. 42 (3): p. 267-269; 1992 Jun.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Injectable anesthetics; Muscle relaxants; Kidneys; Drug
 toxicity; Dosage; Histopathology; Intramuscular injection
 
 Abstract:  Tiletamine and zolazepam, the two constituents of Telazol, were
 evaluated independently to determine mine which agent was responsible for the
 nephrotoxicity caused by Telazol in New Zealand White rabbits. Five rabbits
 were injected i.m. with 32 mg/kg of tiletamine, four animals received 7.5
 mg/kg of tiletamine, and five rabbits received 32 mg/kg of zolazepam.
 Urinalysis was performed and blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine were
 monitored for 7 days postinjection. In all five rabbits injected with the high
 dose of tiletamine, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine rose by 3 days
 postinjection and increased steadily throughout the week. By 4 days
 postinjection, urine protein and glucose were elevated and cellular and
 protein casts were present. No serum chemistry or urine abnormalities were
 detected in rabbits receiving low doses of tiletamine, zolazepam, or in the
 four control rabbits. All animals were euthanized and necropsied at 7 days
 postinjection. Histopathology showed severe renal tubular necrosis in all five
 rabbits injected with 32 mg/kg tiletamine. Mild nephrosis was present in three
 of four rabbits injected with 7.5 mg/kg of tiletamine. No lesions were present
 in the zolazepam-injected or control rabbits. The results of this study show
 that tiletamine is the constituent responsible for the nephrotoxicity of
 Telazol in rabbits. They further demonstrate that doses commonly used for
 anesthetic induction or restraint can produce renal lesions in rabbits.
 
 
 231                                                   NAL Call. No.: RB127.P34
 Neurokinin and NMDA antagonists (but not a kainic acid antagonist) are
 antinociceptive in the mouse formalin model.
 Murray, C.W.; Cowan, A.; Larson, A.A.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers; 1991 Feb.
 Pain : the journal of the International Association for the Study of Pain v.
 44 (2): p. 179-185; 1991 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mice; Animal models; Antagonists; Pain; Substance p; Aspartic
 acid; Receptors; Opioids; Formaldehyde; Tests
 
 
 232                                                   NAL Call. No.: 447.8 AM3
 Neuropeptide regulation of feeding in dogs.
 Inui, A.; Okita, M.; Nakajima, M.; Inoue, T.; Sakatani, N.; Oya, M.; Morioka,
 H.; Okimura, Y.; Chihara, K.; Baba, S.
 Bethesda, Md. : American Physiological Society; 1991 Sep.
 American journal of physiology v. 261 (3,pt.2): p. R588-R594; 1991 Sep.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Norepinephrine; Neuropeptides; Opioid peptides;
 Somatoliberin; Appetite control; Satiety; Food intake
 
 Abstract:  Norepinephrine and four families of neuropeptides, namely,
 neuropeptide Y (NPY), opioid peptides, galanin, and growth hormone-releasing
 factor (GRH), have been shown to stimulate feeding after central
 administration. Because these studies were mainly done on laboratory rats, the
 present study was designed to ascertain the central stimulators of feeding in
 dogs. We have shown that porcine and human pancreatic polypeptides (PPs), when
 administered into the third cerebral ventricle (intracerebroventricularly),
 increased food and water intake of satiated animals but that the COOH-terminal
 fragments [hPP-(18-36) and hPP-(23-36)] did not do so at the same molar dose
 (11.9 nmol). The K-opioid receptor agonist dynorphin A-(1-17) also stimulated
 food and water intake, whereas alpha-neoendorphin and Met-enkephalin did not.
 These results suggest the structural specificity of PPs and dynorphin peptides
 for stimulating feeding. Surprisingly, neither intracerebroventricular
 injections of NPY and peptide YY nor intracerebroventricular pretreatment with
 anti-hNPY gamma-globulin modulated feeding, stressing the species differences
 in the feeding response to exogenous substances and the underlying physiology.
 Intracerebroventricular injections of norepinephrine, GRH, galanin, and
 pancreastatin also failed to increase food intake, although most substances
 tended to or did increase water intake. These results suggest that
 neuropeptides play a role in a species-specific way in modulating appetite
 regulation.
 
 
 233                                                    NAL Call. No.: 450 P697
 Neurotropic action of the hydroalcoholic extract of Melissa officinalis in the
 mouse.
 Soulimani, R.; Fleurentin, J.; Mortier, F.; Misslin, R.; Derrieu, G.; Pelt,
 J.M.
 Stuttgart, W. Ger. : Georg Thieme Verlag; 1991 Apr.
 Planta medica v. 57 (2): p. 105-109; 1991 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Melissa officinalis; Plant extracts; Essential oils; Analgesics;
 Mice
 
 
 234                                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 A new anesthetic agent for use in the gerbil.
 Hrapkiewicz, K.L.; Stein, S.; Smiler, K.L.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1989.
 Laboratory animal science v. 39 (4): p. 338-341; 1989.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Gerbils; Anesthesia; Anesthetics
 
 Abstract:  Gerbils have been neglected in published reports on anesthesia.
 This study compared several dosages of Telazol used for anesthesia in the
 gerbil. Each group of animals injected with Telazol was evaluated for onset
 and duration of anesthesia and analgesia. Results showed Telazol to be a safe
 anesthetic and when dosed at 60 mg/kg to be suitable for major surgical
 procedures. Lower dosages of Telazol, in contrast, provided immobility and
 analgesia suitable for less nocioceptive and noninvasive experimental
 manipulations. Dosages of Telazol required for surgical depth of analgesia and
 anesthesia were accompanied by a prolonged recovery time. Gerbils should be
 monitored closely to insure a safe recovery when using the higher dosages.
 
 
 235                                           NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 Pain control with medetomidine in dogs, cats, and laboratory animals.
 Vainio, O.
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p. 213-219,
 222-223; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Laboratory animals; Rats; Mice; Pain; Tests; Drugs;
 Drug effects; Physiological functions
 
 
 236                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 Pain. II. Control of pain in animals.
 Sackman, J.E.
 Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company; 1991 Feb.
 The Compendium on continuing education for the practicing veterinarian v. 13
 (2): p. 181-187, 190-192; 1991 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Analgesics; Pain; Opium alkaloids; Receptors;
 Narcotic antagonists; Antiinflammatory agents; Arachidonic acid; Mode of
 action; Treatment; Dosage
 
 
 237                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 Pain: its perception and alleviation in dogs and cats. 1. The physiology of
 pain.
 Sackman, J.E.
 Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company; 1991 Jan.
 The Compendium on continuing education for the practicing veterinarian v. 13
 (1): p. 71-75, 79. ill; 1991 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Pain; Physiology; Peripheral nerves; Animal anatomy;
 Endorphins; Analgesics; Neurotransmitters
 
 
 238                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate in rabbits.
 Portnoy, L.G.; Hustead, D.R.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1992 Apr.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (4): p. 541-543; 1992 Apr.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Analgesics; Pharmacokinetics; Half life; Intravenous
 injection; Subcutaneous injection
 
 Abstract:  The pharmacokinetic properties of butorphanol tartrate were
 determined in 7 rabbits after iv and sc injection (0.5 mg/kg of body weight).
 A 2-compartment model (biexponential) best represented the concentration vs
 time curve after IV injection. The half-life was calculated to be 1.64 hours
 via IV administration, whereas SC injection resulted in an elimination
 half-life of 3.16 hours.
 
 
 239                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Pharmacokinetics of etomidate in cats.
 Wertz, E.M.; Benson, G.J.; Thurmon, J.C.; Tranquilli, W.J.; Davis, L.E.;
 Koritz, G.D.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1990 Feb.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (2): p. 281-285; 1990 Feb.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cat; Anesthetics; Injections; Anesthesia; Pharmacokinetics
 
 Abstract:  Pharmacokinetic variables of etomidate were determined after IV
 administration of etomidate (3.0 mg/kg of body weight). Blood samples were
 collected for 6 hours. Disposition of this carboxylated imidazole best
 conformed to a 2- (n = 2) and a 3- compartment (n = 4) open pharmacokinetic
 model. The pharmacokinetic values were calculated for the overall best-fitted
 model, characterized as a mixed 2- and 3-compartmental model. The first and
 most rapid distribution half-life was 0.05 hour and a second distribution
 half-life was 0.35 hour. Elimination half-life was 2.89 hours, apparent volume
 of distribution was 11.87 +/- 4.64 L/kg, apparent volume of distribution at
 steady state was 4.88 +/- 2.25 L/kg, apparent volume of the central
 compartment was 1.17 +/- 0.70 L/kg, and total clearance was 2.47 +/- 0.78
 L/kg/h.
 
 
 240                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Pharmacokinetics of intramuscularly administered pethidine in dogs and the
 influence of anaesthesia and surgery.
 Waterman, A.E.; Kalthum, W.
 London : The Association; 1989 Mar25.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary Association v. 124
 (12): p. 293-296; 1989 Mar25.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthetics; Anesthesia; Surgical operations;
 Pharmacokinetics; Intramuscular injection; Blood plasma
 
 
 241                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Pharmacokinetics of propofol in mixed-breed dogs and Greyhounds.
 Zoran, D.L.; Riedesel, D.H.; Dyer, D.C.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1993 May.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (5): p. 755-760; 1993 May.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Greyhound; Crossbreds; Anesthetics; Pharmacokinetics;
 Anesthesia; Recovery; Breed differences
 
 Abstract:  Pharmacokinetics and recovery characteristics of propofol in
 Greyhounds and mixed-breed dogs were compared. In all dogs, disposition of
 propofol was adequately described by a 2-compartment open model, with a rapid
 distribution phase followed by a slower elimination phase. When findings in
 Greyhounds were compared with those in mixed-breed dogs, significant
 differences were observed in mean concentrations of propofol in blood,
 recovery characteristics, and estimates for apparent volume of distribution,
 volume of distribution at steady state, and total body clearance. In addition,
 Greyhounds recovered from anesthesia at higher concentrations of propofol than
 did mixed-breed dogs. A secondary peak in blood propofol concentration was
 observed in 8 of 10 Greyhounds and in 5 of 8 mixed-breed dogs. This peak
 corresponded to the time of return of the righting reflex.
 
 
 242                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Pharmacologic features of butorphanol in dogs and cats.
 Hosgood, G.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1990 Jan01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 196 (1): p. 135-136;
 1990 Jan01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cat; Analgesics; Pharmacodynamics; Pharmacokinetics;
 Adverse effects
 
 
 243                                                    NAL Call. No.: 475 J824
 Picogram level determination of meditomidine in dog serum by capillary gas
 chromatography with negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry.
 Vuorilehto, L.; Salonen, J.S.; Anttila, M.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers; 1989 Dec29.
 Journal of chromatography v. 497: p. 282-287; 1989 Dec29.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Serums; Analgesics; Determination; Gas chromatography; Mass
 spectrometry
 
 
 244                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF895.P76
 A pilot study of the effects of anesthesia with isoflurane, thiopental,
 methohexital, propofol, or nitrous oxide on magnetic motor evoked potentials
 in the dog.
 Young, S.S.; Sylvestre, A.M.
 Santa Barbara, CA : Brillig Hill, Inc; 1992.
 Progress in veterinary neurology v. 3 (3): p. 91-94; 1992.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ontario; Dogs; Thiopental; Nitrous oxide; Anesthesia;
 Barbiturates; Halogenated hydrocarbons
 
 
 245                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Platelet aggregation in dogs after sedation with acepromazine and atropine and
 during subsequent general anesthesia and surgery.
 Barr, S.C.; Ludders, J.W.; Looney, A.L.; Gleed, R.D.; Erb, H.N.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1992 Nov.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 53 (11): p. 2067-2070; 1992 Nov.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beagle; Dogs; Platelets; Aggregation; Atp; Anesthesia; Halothane;
 Luminescence; Luciferase
 
 Abstract:  Platelet aggregation and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release were
 measured by use of the impedance method in blood samples obtained from 25
 adult female Beagles before and after sedation with acepromazine (0.13 mg/kg
 of body weight) and atropine (0.05 mg/kg), and during general anesthesia.
 General anesthesia was induced by IV administration of thiamylal (average
 dosage, 2.1 mg/kg, range, 1.2 to 4.2 mg/kg) and was maintained with halothane
 in oxygen. Samples of jugular venous blood were obtained from each dog, using
 citrate as anticoagulant. Platelet count was done on each sample. Platelet
 aggregation and ATP released from the aggregating platelets were measured
 within 2.5 hours of sample collection, using a whole-blood aggregometer.
 Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or collagen was used as aggregating agent. For
 each aggregating agent, platelet aggregation and ATP release were measured
 over 6 minutes. After sedation with acepromazine and atropine, significant (P
 < 0.01) reduction was observed in platelet count (from median values of
 341,000 cells/microliter to 283,000 cells/microliter) and in the ability of
 platelets to aggregate in response to ADP (from 14.0 to 7.0 Ohms). During the
 same period, maximal release of ATP in response to collagen also was reduced
 (from 5.56 micromoles to 4.57 micromoles; P < 0.01); however, this difference
 ceased to be significant when ATP release was normalized for platelet count.
 During general anesthesia and surgery (200 minutes after sedation), platelet
 count and aggregation responses to ADP and collagen had returned to
 presedation values. None of the dogs in this study appeared to have hemostasis
 problems during surgery. In conclusion, sedation with acepromazine and
 atropine induces measurable inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation
 that resolves during subsequent general anesthesia and surgery. Transient
 inhibition of platelet aggregation is not manifested by a change in gross
 hemostasis during surgery.
 
 
 246                                                   NAL Call. No.: 442.8 L62
 Possible participation of endogenous opioid peptides on the mechanism involved
 in analgesia induced by vouacapan.
 Duarte, I.D.G.; Ferreira-Alves, D.L.; Nakamura-Craig, M.
 Elmsford, N.Y. : Pergamon Press; 1992.
 Life sciences v. 50 (12): p. 891-897; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Seeds; Plant extracts; Opioid peptides;
 Analgesics; Mode of action; Rats; Mice
 
 Abstract:  The involvement of opioid peptides in the mechanism of action of
 vouacapan, a new experimental compound extracted from seeds of Pterodon
 poligalaeflorus Benth, was investigated both in mice utilizing acetic acid
 writhing response and in rats utilizing inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by
 carrageenan and modified Randall-Selitto method. Vouacapan, in both models,
 caused a dose-dependent analgesia when injected p.o., s.c. and i.p. The
 analgesic effect was partially blocked by naloxone, nalorphine and
 n-methyl-nalorphine. Significant tolerance to analgesic effect was observed
 following repeated administration of vouacapan or morphine. On the last day of
 treatment, cross administration revealed symmetrical and asymmetrical
 cross-tolerance between vouacapan and morphine, in rats and mice,
 respectively. We conclude that a release of endorphins could be involved in
 the analgesic mechanism of vouacapan in both models studied.
 
 
 247                                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 Post-operative analgesia following thoracotomy in the dog: an evaluation of
 the effects of bupivacaine intercostal nerve block and nalbuphine on
 respiratory function.
 Flecknell, P.A.; Kirk, A.J.B.; Liles, J.H.; Hayes, P.H.; Dark, J.H.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1991 Oct.
 Laboratory animals v. 25 (4): p. 319-324; 1991 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Postoperative care; Pain; Analgesics; Duration; Blood;
 Gases
 
 Abstract:  Pain following thoracotomy reduces pulmonary ventilation in man and
 a similar effect is believed to occur in animals. The effects of two analgesic
 regimens on arterial blood gas parameters were studied in dogs following
 thoracotomy. Post-operative analgesia was provided with intermittent
 nalbuphine, either alone or in combination with an intercostal nerve block
 using bupivacaine. Arterial blood gas analysis was carried out at 4, 8 and 16
 h post-operatively, both before the administration of nalbuphine and again 30
 min later. Animals which received nalbuphine alone had a significant rise in
 arterial oxygenation following administration of this analgesic. This effect
 was not observed at 4 and 8 h postoperatively in dogs which had an intercostal
 block with bupivacaine, but was seen at 16 h post-operatively when it could be
 anticipated that the effects of bupivacaine would have waned. These results
 suggest that intercostal block with bupivacaine can provide analgesia for over
 8 h, and that the duration of action of nalbuphine in controlling
 post-operative pain in the dog is probably less than 4 h.
 
 
 248                                                  NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L33
 Post-operative analgesia in rabbits and rodents.
 Flecknell, P.A.
 New York, N.Y. : Nature Publishing Company; 1991 Oct.
 Lab animal v. 20 (9): p. 34-37; 1991 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Laboratory animals; Postoperative care; Pain; Analgesics
 
 
 249                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Postoperative catecholamine response to onychectomy in isoflurane-anesthetized
 cats: effect of analgesics.
 Benson, G.J.; Wheaton, L.G.; Thurmon, J.C.; Tranquilli, W.J.; Olson, W.A.;
 Davis, C.A.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1991 May.
 Veterinary surgery v. 20 (3): p. 222-225; 1991 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Anesthesia; Analgesics; Surgical operations; Postoperative
 care; Catecholamines; Morphine; Xylazine; Salicylates; Pain
 
 
 250                                                  NAL Call. No.: SF601.V523
 Postoperative epidural analgesia.
 McMurphy, R.M.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders Company; 1993 Jul.
 The Veterinary clinics of North America : Small animal practice v. 23 (4): p.
 703-716; 1993 Jul.  In the series analytic: Stifle surgery / edited by James
 K. Roush.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Conduction anesthesia
 
 
 251                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Potency of rapidly acting barbiturates in dogs, using inhibition of the
 laryngeal reflex as the end point.
 Turner, D.M.; Ilkiw, J.E.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1990 Apr.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (4): p. 595-597; 1990 Apr.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Barbiturates; Thiopental; Larynx; Reflexes; Anesthesia;
 Dosage effect
 
 Abstract:  Thiopental, thiamylal, and methohexital were administered to 30
 dogs to determine equipotent doses necessary to inhibit laryngeal reflexes.
 The doses studied were 7.1, 10.0, 14.1, 20.0, and 28.3 mg of thiopental/kg of
 body weight; 5.7, 8.0, 11.3, 16.0, and 22.6 mg of thiamylal/kg; and 3.5, 5.0,
 7.1, 10.0, and 14.1 mg of methohexital/kg. At 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 minutes after
 injection, the presence or absence of the laryngoscopic reflex, pedal reflex,
 and jaw tone were recorded. The times for return of each reflex, as well as
 the ability to walk 10 steps without assistance, were also recorded. Using the
 method of least squares, a probit analysis was performed on the quantal
 responses at 1 minute. The effective dose in 50% of the population for the
 laryngoscopic reflex was chosen as the end point for intubation, and the
 computed doses necessary to achieve this end point were 19.4 mg of
 thiopental/kg, 18.4 mg of thiamylal/kg, and 9.7 mg of methohexital/kg. When
 potencies of the drugs were compared with that of thiopental (1), thiamylal
 was found to be equipotent (1.06) and methohexital twice as potent (2.0). At
 the accepted clinical dose, recovery times for thiopental (71.1 +/- 7.2
 minutes) and thiamylal (75.3 +/- 7.7 minutes) were similar, and twice that for
 methohexital (33.9 +/- 4.6 minutes).
 
 
 252                                                   NAL Call. No.: QP501.B64
 Pregnancy and pentobarbital anaesthesia modify hepatic synthesis of
 acylglycerol glycerol and glycogen from gluconeogenic precursors during
 fasting in rats.
 Zorzano, A.; Herrera, E.
 London : The Biochemical Society; 1988 Dec01.
 The Biochemical journal v. 256 (2): p. 487-491; 1988 Dec01.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Pregnancy; Pentobarbital; Anesthesia; Liver; Glycerol;
 Fasting; Gluconeogenesis; Blood glucose; Glycogen
 
 
 253                                                    NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6
 Preliminary studies on the antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of
 Calotropis procera root extract.
 Basu, A.; Chaudhuri, A.K.N.
 Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Mar.
 Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 31 (3): p. 319-324; 1991 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Calotropis procera; Roots; Plant extracts; Analgesics;
 Antiinflammatory agents; Edema; Mice; Rats
 
 Abstract:  A chloroform-soluble fraction from Calotropis procera roots showed
 significant dose-related antiinflammatory activity in rats using the
 pharmacologic models of carrageenin-induced pedal oedema, cotton pellet
 granuloma and formaldehyde-induced arthritis. In addition, significant
 analgesic potential was demonstrated using acetic acid-induced writhing in
 mice.
 
 
 254                                                   NAL Call. No.: RS164.P59
 A preliminary study of Cedronella canariensis (L.) var. canariensis extracts
 for antiinflammatory and analgesic activity in rats and mice.
 Lopez-Garcia, R.E.; Rabanal, R.M.; Darias, V.; Martin-Herrera, D.; Carreiras,
 M.C.; Rodriguez, B.
 Sussex : John Wiley & Sons; 1991 Dec.
 Phytotherapy research : PTR v. 5 (6): p. 273-275; 1991 Dec.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Canary Islands; Labiatae; Plant extracts; Medicinal plants;
 Antiinflammatory agents; Analgesics; Antipyretics; Drug toxicity; Folk
 medicine; Rats; Mice
 
 
 255                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Prescription and use of analgesics in dogs and cats in a veterinary teaching
 hospital: 258 cases (1983-1989).
 Hansen, B.; Hardie, E.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1993 May01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 202 (9): p.
 1485-1494; 1993 May01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Analgesics; Pain; Prescriptions; Frequency;
 Postoperative care
 
 
 256                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.P76
 Problems and complications associated with endocrine surgery in the dog and
 cat.
 Matthiesen, D.T.; Mullen, H.S.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Co; 1990 Dec.
 Problems in veterinary medicine v. 2 (4): p. 627-667; 1990 Dec.  In the series
 analytic: Endocrinology / edited by R. Nichols.  Literature review.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Surgical operations; Neoplasms; Preoperative care;
 Postoperative complications; Endocrine diseases; Metastasis; Pancreas; Adrenal
 glands; Animal anatomy; Parathyroid; Thyroid gland; Anesthesia; Preanesthetic
 medication; Pituitary; Literature reviews
 
 
 257                                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 J8292
 Propofol anaesthesia in cats.
 Brearley, J.C.; Kellagher, R.E.B.; Hall, L.W.
 London : British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 1988 May.
 The Journal of small animal practice v. 29 (5): p. 315-322; 1988 May.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cat; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Surgery
 
 
 258                                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V6456
 Propofol anaesthesia in the dog and cat.
 Jones, R.S.
 London : Wright; 1990.
 The Veterinary annual (30): p. 200-202; 1990.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Anesthesia; Anesthetics
 
 
 259                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Pulsus alternans during halothane anesthesia in a dog.
 Bailey, J.E.; Muir, W.W. III; Skarda, R.T.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1993 Jan.
 Veterinary surgery v. 22 (1): p. 79-84; 1993 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ohio; Dogs; Halothane; Pulse rate; Anesthesia; Surgery;
 Pyloroplasty
 
 
 260                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 Quantitative electroencephalography for measurement of central nervous system
 responses to diazepam and the benzodiazepine antagonist, flumazenil, in
 isoflurane-anaesthetized dogs.
 Greene, S.A.; Moore, M.P.; Keegan, R.D.; Gallagher, L.V.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1992 Sep.
 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 15 (3): p. 259-266;
 1992 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Diazepam; Antagonists; Drug antagonism;
 Electroencephalography; Measurement
 
 
 261                                           NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 Quantitative electroencephalography for monitoring responses to noxious
 electrical stimulation in dogs anesthetized with halothane or with halothane
 and morphine.
 Greene, S.A.; Moore, M.P.; Keegan, R.D.; Gallagher, L.V.; Rosenthal, J.C.
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p. 459-465,
 478-479; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Pain; Electrical stimulation; Anesthetics; Central nervous
 system; Electroencephalography; Morphine; Halothane; Animal experiments
 
 
 262                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Quantitative electroencephalography in dogs anesthetized with 2.0% end-tidal
 concentration of isoflurane anesthesia.
 Moore, M.P.; Greene, S.A.; Keegan, R.D.; Gallagher, L.; Gavin, P.R.; Kraft,
 S.L.; DeHaan, C.; Klappenbach, K.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1991 Apr.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (4): p. 551-560. ill; 1991 Apr.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Electroencephalography; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Brain;
 Physiological functions
 
 Abstract:  Quantitative electroencephalography was assessed in dogs under
 controlled, 2% end-tidal isoflurane anesthetic conditions, and each variable
 at each electrode site was tested for normal distribution. With the
 quantitative electroencephalographic system used, 16 values for each of 21
 electrode sites were evaluated. Absolute power ratios also were evaluated. The
 methods for quantitative electroencephalographic recording and analysis appear
 to be readily adaptable to the dog. Most of the data do not conform to a
 normal distribution. Therefore, distribution-free nonparametric statistics
 should be used when looking for differences under experimental or clinical
 conditions. Quantitative electroencephalography appears to be a sensitive
 noninvasive method that could be used to evaluate brain function under
 anesthetic, clinical, and experimental settings.
 
 
 263                                                NAL Call. No.: Slide no.379
 Rabbits introduction to use in research..  Rabbits, introduction to use in
 research
 Van Hoosier, G. L.; DiGiacomo, R. F.
 University of Washington, Health Sciences Center for Educational Resources
 Seattle, WA : produced and distributed by University of Washington, Health
 Sciences Center for Educational Resources,; 1990.
 46 slides : col. + 1 sound cassette (19 min.) + 1 guide. (Laboratory animal
 medicine and science. Series 2 ; V-9001).  Publication date on guide: 1991.
 Sound accompaniment compatible for automatic and manual operation.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits as laboratory animals; Animal welfare
 
 Abstract:  Presents laws and guidelines, historical use in research and
 testing, development of alternatives, attributes as research animals,
 recognition of pain and disease, and signs and significance of common
 diseases.
 
 
 264                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Radiographic evaluation of nonanesthetized and nonsedated dogs for hip
 dysplasia.
 Farrow, C.S.; Back, R.T.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1989 Feb15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 194 (4): p. 524-526.
 ill; 1989 Feb15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Radiography; Anesthesia; Hip dysplasia; Breeds
 
 
 265                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V643
 Recommended techniques in small animal anaesthesia. IV. Anaesthesia and
 cardiac disease.
 Seeler, D.C.; Dodman, N.H.; Norman, W.; Court, M.
 London : Bailliere Tindall; 1988 Mar.
 British veterinary journal v. 144 (2): p. 108-122; 1988 Mar.  Literature
 review.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cat; Anesthesia; Anesthetics; Physiopathology; Heart
 diseases; Monitoring
 
 
 266                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Reduction of isoflurane anesthetic requirement by medetomidine and its
 restoration by atipamezole in dogs.
 Ewing, K.K.; Mohammed, H.O.; Scarlett, J.M.; Short, C.E.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1993 Feb.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (2): p. 294-299; 1993 Feb.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Medetomidine; Inhaled anesthetics; Dosage; Narcotic
 antagonists; Anesthesia; Drug antagonism
 
 Abstract:  The isoflurane-sparing effect of the alpha 2-adrenergic agonist
 medetomidine (30 micrograms/kg of body weight, IV) was tested in 7 dogs, using
 a blinded, randomized-block study design. The baseline minimal alveolar
 concentration (MAC) of isoflurane was 1.18 vol% (95% confidence interval
 [0.97,1.39]). Medetomidine significantly (P < 0.003) reduced isoflurane MAC by
 47.2%. Atipamezole (0.3 mg/kg, IV), an alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist,
 completely reversed the effect of medetomidine on isoflurane MAC. Atipamezole
 alone did not significantly alter isoflurane MAC. After medetomidine
 administration, marked bradycardia developed in all dogs and persisted for
 more than 2 hours. Mean arterial blood pressure increased acutely, but later
 decreased, and hypotension persisted for more than 2 hours. Atipamezole
 reversed the bradycardic and hypotensive effects of medetomidine. Results of
 this study indicate that medetomidine may be useful in clinical cases in which
 isoflurane MAC-reduction is desirable and that atipamezole might be used to
 reverse desirable and undesirable effects of medetomidine during isoflurane
 anesthesia.
 
 
 267                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Reduction of the ventricular arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine by ketamine
 administration in halothane-anesthetized cats.
 Bednarski, R.M.; Sams, R.A.; Majors, L.J.; Ashcraft, S.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1988 Mar.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 49 (3): p. 350-354; 1988 Mar.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cat; Ketamine; Halothane; Anesthesia; Adrenalin; Heart rate;
 Blood pressure; Dosage effect
 
 
 268                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Relative effects of xylazine-atropine, xylazine-atropine-ketamine, and
 xylazine-atropine-pentobarbital combinations and time-course effects of the
 latter two combinations on brain stem auditory-evoked potentials in dogs.
 Tokuriki, M.; Matsunami, K.; Uzuka, Y.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1990 Jan.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (1): p. 97-102; 1990 Jan.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Xylazine; Atropine; Ketamine; Pentobarbital; Drug
 combinations; Drug effects; Brain; Electric potential
 
 Abstract:  Brain stem auditory-evoked potentials (BAEP) were recorded in 4
 dogs to analyze the relationship between acoustic stimulus intensities and
 peak latencies of each wave, and to investigate the relative effects of
 xylazine-atropine-ketamine, and xylazine-atropine-pentobarbital combinations
 and the time-course effects of the latter 2 drug combinations on BAEP. Click
 stimulations fixed at a stimulus rate of 10/s and a frequency of 4 kHz were
 delivered at intensities ranging from 10- to 110-dB sound pressure level (SPL)
 in 10-dB steps for analyzing the relationship between the acoustic stimulus
 intensities and the peak latencies and at an intensity of 110-dB SPL for
 investigating the effects of the sedative and the anaesthetic drug
 combinations and their time-course effects on BAEP. Waves I and VI were
 identified with stimulus intensity of greater than or equal to 50-dB SPL. Wave
 VII was observed in some records, but was excluded from statistical analysis.
 As intensity was increased from 50- to 110-dB SPL, the latency decreased for
 all waves during xylazine-atropine-ketamine anesthesia. There were no
 statistically significant differences in the peak latencies of each wave in
 BAEP among xylazine-atropine, xylazine-atropine-ketamine, and
 xylazine-atropine-pentobarbital combinations 20 minutes after drug
 administration, except that the latency of wave VI during xylazine-atropine
 sedation was significantly (P < 0.01) shorter than that detected during
 xylazine-atropine-ketamine or xylazine-atropine-pentobarbital anesthesia.
 There were no significant changes in peak latencies of waves I, II, III, V,
 and VI for 90 minutes after administration of the xylazine-atropine-ketamine
 combination and for 120 minutes after administration of the
 xylazine-atropine-pentobarbital combination. It was concluded that BAEP did
 not change over time after xylazine-atropine-ketamine or xylazine-atropine
 pentobarbital administration.
 
 
 269                                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 Responses of laboratory animals to some injectable anaesthetics.
 Smith, W.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1993 Jan.
 Laboratory animals v. 27 (1): p. 30-39; 1993 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Laboratory animals; Injectable anesthetics
 
 Abstract:  Xylazine, ketamine, methohexitone and alphadalone/alphaxalone, were
 administered intraperitoneally, intramuscularly or intravenously to mice,
 rats, guineapigs and rabbits. Times for disappearance and reappearance of
 reflexes were recorded, and duration of loss of reflex. Delivering a
 predetermined dose gave a varying individual response, ranging from inadequate
 anaesthesia to death. Using reflexes to assess depth of anaesthesia was of
 limited value. Reflex movements to noxious stimuli generally persisted even at
 dose rates that caused prolonged recovery times and death. Conversely, in rats
 there was no response to a cutaneous stimulus in some animals even though
 recumbency was almost restored.
 
 
 270                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Reversal of atracurium neuromuscular block with neostigmine in the dog.
 Jones, R.S.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1990 Jan.
 Research in veterinary science v. 48 (1): p. 96-98; 1990 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Neostigmine; Drug antagonism; Anesthesia; Muscle relaxants;
 Time; Dosage effect
 
 
 271                                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 Reversal of fentanyl/fluanisone neuroleptanalgesia in the rabbit using mixed
 agonist/antagonist opioids.
 Flecknell, P.A.; Liles, J.H.; Wootton, R.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1989 Apr.
 Laboratory animals v. 23 (2): p. 147-155; 1989 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Anesthesia; Fentanyl; Neuroleptics; Opium; Drug
 antagonism; Drug synergy
 
 Abstract:  The reversal of the neuroleptanalagesic combination of
 fentanyl/fluanisone using mixed agonist/antagonist opioids has been
 investigated in the rabbit. All of the compounds studied (naloxone,
 nalbuphine, meptazinol, butorphanol, buprenorphine, pentazocine, doxapram)
 reversed the respiratory depression and sedation produced by
 fentanyl/fluanisone. Fentanyl/fluanisone produced profound analgesia for 180
 min, which was rapidly and completely antagonized by naloxone. The mixed
 agonist/antagonist opioids produced a reduction in the degree of analgesia
 but, in contrast to naloxone, analgesic activity persisted from 120 min
 (meptazinol) to 420 min (buprenorphine). Administration of buprenorphine to
 rabbits anaesthetized with fentanyl/fluanisone and midazolam confirmed that
 the reversal of respiratory depression was accompanied by the return of
 arterial pH, PCO2 and PCO2 to preanaesthetic values. The use of
 neuroleptanalgesic anaesthetic regimens, which have been shown to provide
 effective surgical anaesthesia, combined with reversal using a mixed
 agonist/antagonist opioid to provide postoperative analgesia, appears to be a
 valuable refinement of current laboratory animal anaesthetic practice.
 
 
 272                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 Reversal of medetomidine sedation by atipamezole in dogs.
 Vainio, O.; Vaha-Vahe, T.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1990 Mar.
 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 13 (1): p. 15-22; 1990
 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthetics; Anesthesia; Drug antagonism; Narcotic
 antagonists; Adverse effects
 
 
 273                                                    NAL Call. No.: 500 N21P
 Rheoreceptors in the carotid sinus of dog.
 Hajduczok, G.; Chapleau, M.W.; Abboud, F.M.
 Washington, D.C. : The Academy; 1988 Oct.
 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of
 America v. 85 (19): p. 7399-7403; 1988 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Pressoreceptors; Neurophysiology; Blood pressure;
 Anesthesia
 
 
 274                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 Sedative and analgesic effects of medetomidine in dogs.
 Vainio, O.; Vaha-Vahe, T.; Palmu, L.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1989 Jun.
 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 12 (2): p. 225-231;
 1989 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Analgesics; Anesthesia; Drug effects
 
 
 275                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69
 Selecting the right analgesics: indications and dosage requirements.
 Tranquilli, W.J.; Fikes, L.L.; Raffe, M.R.
 Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Company; 1989 Jul.
 Veterinary medicine v. 84 (7): p. 692-697; 1989 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cat; Analgesics; Dosage effect; Anesthetics; Pain
 
 
 276                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Side effects of etomidate in dogs.
 Muir, W.W. III; Mason, D.E.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1989 May15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 194 (10): p.
 1430-1434; 1989 May15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthetics; Anesthesia; Adverse effects; Diazepam;
 Morphine; Drugs
 
 
 277                                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 A simple laryngoscopic technique for the endotracheal intubation of rabbits.
 Macrae, D.J.; Guerreiro, D.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1989 Jan.
 Laboratory animals v. 23 (1): p. 59-61. ill; 1989 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Anesthesia; Larynx; Trachea; Endoscopy
 
 Abstract:  A safe and reliable technique for the endotracheal intubation of
 rabbits is described. Direct laryngoscopy is followed by intubation of the
 trachea with a fine catheter, and subsequent advancement of the endotracheal
 tube over this catheter.
 
 
 278                                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 A simple method for collection of blood from the rat foot.
 Snitily, M.U.; Gentry, M.J.; Mellencamp, M.A.; Preheim, L.C.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1991 Jun.
 Laboratory animal science v. 41 (3): p. 285-287; 1991 Jun.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Blood sampling; Collection; Feet; Anesthesia
 
 
 279                                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 A simple technique for artificial cardiac pacing in closed chest anesthetized
 rats.
 Hoffman, A.; Keiser, H.R.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1990 Jul.
 Laboratory animal science v. 40 (4): p. 426-427; 1990 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Heart; Electrodes; Catheterization
 
 
 280                                                  NAL Call. No.: QD415.A1X4
 Species differences in blood profiles, metabolism and excretion of
 14C-propofol after intravenous dosing to rat, dog and rabbit.
 Simons, P.J.; Cockshott, I.D.; Douglas, E.J.; Gordon, E.A.; Knott, S.; Ruane,
 R.J.
 London : Taylor & Francis; 1991 Oct.
 Xenobiotica v. 21 (10): p. 1243-1256; 1991 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthetics; Intravenous injection; Drug metabolism;
 Excretion; Species differences; Rabbits; Rats
 
 Abstract:  1. Bolus i.v. doses of 14C-propofol (7-10 mg/kg) to rat, dog and
 rabbit, or an infusion dose (0.47 mg/kg per min for 6 h) to dog were
 eliminated primarily in urine (60-95% dose); faecal elimination (13-31%)
 occurred for rat and dog, but was minimal (< 2%) for rabbit. 2. After bolus
 administration, blood 14C concentrations were maximal (8-30 micrograms
 equiv./ml) at 2-15 min; these declined rapidly during the 0-2 h period and
 thereafter more slowly. Propofol concentrations were maximal (4-16
 micrograms/ml) at 2 min and the profiles were best fitted by a tri-exponential
 (rat and dog) or bi-exponential (rabbit) equation. Duration of sleep ranged
 from 5 to 8 min. 3. Infusion of 14C-propofol in dog gave a blood 14C
 concentration of 117 micrograms equiv./ml at the end of the 6 h infusion
 period; this declined at a similar rate to that after the bolus dose. Propofol
 concentration on termination of infusion was 13 micrograms/ml; thereafter,
 propofol concentrations declined less rapidly than after the bolus dose.
 Waking occurred about 44 min post-infusion. 4. Propofol was cleared by
 conjugation of the parent molecule or its quinol metabolite; hydroxylation of
 an isopropyl group also occurred in rat and rabbit. Biliary excretion leading
 to enterohepatic recirculation, and in turn increased sulphate conjugation,
 occurred in rat and dog, but not rabbit, resulting in a marked interspecies
 variation in drug clearance and metabolite profiles.
 
 
 281                                                    NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6
 Studies on the constituents of Aconitum species. IX. The pharmacological
 properties of pyro-type aconitine alkaloids, components of processed aconite
 powder 'Kako-bushi-matsu': analgesic, antiinflammatory and acute toxic
 activities.
 Murayama, M.; Mori, T.; Bando, H.; Amiya, T.
 Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Dec.
 Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 35 (2): p. 159-164; 1991 Dec.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Japan; China; Aconitum; Analgesics; Antiinflammatory agents;
 Toxic substances; Alkaloids; Mice; Traditional medicines
 
 Abstract:  Eight pyro-type aconitine alkaloids contained in the processed
 aconite powder 'Kako-bushi-matsu were studied for their analgesic,
 antiinflammatory and acute toxic actions. All these compounds showed
 significant analgesic and antiinflammatory actions. Among the pyro-type
 alkaloids was lower than that of each of the parent alkaloids, aconitine,
 mesaconitine, hypaconitine and jesaconitine. However, pyro-type aconitine
 alkaloids had very low toxicity, and the decreasing rates of the toxicity in
 changing from the parent alkaloids to the pyro-type aconitine alkaloids were
 much larger than those relating to the analgesic activity. Eight pyro-type
 aconitine alkaloids were found to inhibit the carrageenin-induced hind paw
 edema at 2 to 6 h after the carrageenin subplantar injection. Consequently, it
 was demonstrated that the pyro-type aconitine alkaloids produced through the
 processing of raw aconite roots. 'Bushi' have a role in the medicinal effects
 of the processed aconite powder 'Kako-bushi-matsu.
 
 
 282                                           NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 Studies on the role of adrenergic receptors in a model of tonic pain.
 Tasker, R.A.R.
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p. 155, 164,
 175-176; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Laboratory animals; Rats; Pain; Alpha-adrenergic receptors;
 Drugs; Testing; Drug effects; Analgesics; Yohimbine; Dosage; Methoxamine
 
 
 283                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 Surgical and anesthetic management of puppies and kittens.
 Hosgood, G.
 Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company, Inc; 1992 Mar.
 The Compendium on continuing education for the practicing veterinarian v. 14
 (3): p. 345-348, 350-353, 356-359; 1992 Mar.  Literature review.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Puppies; Kittens; Preoperative care; Surgery; Respiratory system;
 Cardiovascular system; Liver; Kidneys; Age differences; Case reports;
 Anesthetics; Metabolism; Monitoring; Body temperature regulation;
 Pharmacokinetics; Sutures; Postoperative care; Antibiotics; Bandages;
 Literature reviews
 
 
 284                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Surgical techniques for neutering 6- to 14-week-old kittens.
 Aronsohn, M.G.; Faggella, A.M.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1993 Jan01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 202 (1): p. 53-55;
 1993 Jan01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kittens; Castration; Ovariectomy; Postoperative complications;
 Anesthesia; Age
 
 
 285                                                    NAL Call. No.: SF985.F4
 Suspected adverse reaction to xylazine-ketamine anesthesia in a cat.
 Raptopoulos, D.; Papazoglou, L.; Galatos, A.
 Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Publishing Co; 1993 Jul.
 Feline practice v. 21 (4): p. 29-29; 1993 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cats; Xylazine; Ketamine; Adverse effects
 
 
 286                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Suspected malignant hyperthermia after halothane anesthesia in a cat.
 Bellah, J.R.; Robertson, S.A.; Buergelt, C.D.; McGavin, A.D.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1989 Nov.
 Veterinary surgery v. 18 (6): p. 483-488; 1989 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cat; Halothane; Anesthesia; Hyperthermia; Case studies
 
 
 287                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Thermal burns in four dogs during anesthesia.
 Dunlop, C.I.; Daunt, D.A.; Haskins, S.C.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1989 May.
 Veterinary surgery v. 18 (3): p. 242-246. ill; 1989 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthesia; Burns; Hypothermia
 
 
 288                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF915.J63
 Thiamylal- and halothane-sparing effect of diazepam in dogs.
 Muir, W.W. III; Bednarski, L.; Bednarski, R.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1991 Mar.
 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics v. 14 (1).: p. 46-50; 1991
 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Diazepam; Preanesthetic medication; Halothane; Anesthetics;
 Dosage
 
 
 289                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Thiamylal-sparing effect of midazolam for canine endotracheal intubation. A
 clinical study of 118 dogs.
 Greene, S.A.; Benson, G.J.; Hartsfield, S.M.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1993 Jan.
 Veterinary surgery v. 22 (1): p. 69-72; 1993 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Washington; Illinois; Texas; Dogs; Benzodiazepines; Anesthesia;
 Surgery; Neuroleptics
 
 
 290                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Thoracic vertebral osteochondroma in a cat.
 Reidarson, T.H.; Metz, A.L.; Hardy, R.M.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1988 Apr15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 192 (8): p.
 1102-1104. ill; 1988 Apr15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cat; Neoplasms; Spinal diseases; Pain; Surgical operations
 
 
 291                                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Tissue response to intramuscular and intraperitoneal injections of ketamine
 and xylazine in rats.
 Smiler, K.L.; Stein, S.; Hrapkiewicz, K.L.; Hiben, J.R.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1990 Jan.
 Laboratory animal science v. 40 (1): p. 60-64. ill; 1990 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Ketamine; Xylazine; Intramuscular injection;
 Intraperitoneal injection; Anesthesia; Lesions; Strain differences; Muscles;
 Necrosis
 
 Abstract:  Ketamine-xylazine is a widely accepted anesthetic combination for
 laboratory animals. Although frequently recommended for administration by
 intramuscular (IM) or intraperitoneal (IP) routes, the potential for tissue
 damage following either route of administration in the rat has not been
 investigated. This study evaluated tissue damage after IM use at two doses in
 Fischer 344 and Sprague-Dawley rats. Tissue reactions following IP injections
 of ketamine-xylazine were compared to lesions produced by IM injections in
 animals euthanatized on 1, 3 and 14 days post-injection. Results showed muscle
 necrosis present in nearly all ketamine-xylazine injected limbs.
 Intraperitoneal injections produced no significant lesions in the peritoneal
 cavity when careful IP injection techniques were used. Ketamine-xylazine
 should not be administered by the IM route for survival procedures in these
 two widely used strains of rats.
 
 
 292                                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V6456
 Toxic hazards to cats.
 Evans, R.J.
 London : Scientechnica; 1988.
 The Veterinary annual v. 28: p. 251-260; 1988.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cat; Poisoning; Toxic substances; Analgesics; Insecticides; Heavy
 metals; Ethylene glycol; Poisonous plants
 
 
 293                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF911.V43
 Trigger points in 48 dogs with myofascial pain syndromes.
 Janssens, L.A.A.
 Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1991 Jul.
 Veterinary surgery v. 20 (4): p. 274-278; 1991 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Pain; Lameness; Anesthetics; Analgesics
 
 
 294                                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 The use lignocaine-prilocaine local anaesthetic cream for pain-free
 venepuncture in laboratory animals.
 Flecknell, P.A.; Liles, J.H.; Williamson, H.A.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1990 Apr.
 Laboratory animals v. 24 (2): p. 142-146; 1990 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Laboratory animals; Local anesthetics; Local anesthesia;
 Lidocaine; Intravenous injection; Ointments
 
 Abstract:  An assessment was made of the effects of topical application of a
 eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics (EMLA cream) in a number of species of
 laboratory animals. Application of EMLA cream enabled percutaneous insertion
 of catheters into the cephalic vein in dogs and cats and the marginal ear vein
 in rabbits without causing any detectable pain or discomfort. Application to
 the tail in rats prior to percutaneous cannulation of the lateral tail vein
 did not produce a significant reduction in the behavioural responses to
 venepuncture. EMLA cream represents a useful refinement of current techniques
 for intravenous injection in some species, and is especially valuable when the
 procedure is to be undertaken by an inexperienced operator.
 
 
 295                                              NAL Call. No.: SF914.A53 1990
 Use of analgesic for postsurgical pain in dogs and cats.
 Sawyer, D.C.
 Columbia, Md. : American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, 1990? :.;
 1990.
 Anesthesia and analgesia in laboratory animals : proceedings -- 1990 Forum,
 American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, Columbia Inn, Columbia,
 Maryland, May 3-6, 1990. p. 93-99; 1990.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Analgesics
 
 
 296                                                  NAL Call. No.: SF910.5.V4
 Use of epidural morphine in the dog for pain relief.
 Valverde, A.; Dyson, D.H.; McDonell, W.N.; Pascoe, P.J.
 Stuttgart : F.K. Schattauer Publishers; 1989 Jun.
 Veterinary and comparative orthopaedics and traumatology : V.C.O.T. v. 2 (2):
 p. 55-58. ill; 1989 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Morphine; Pain; Conduction anesthesia
 
 
 297                                                   NAL Call. No.: 410.9 P94
 Use of ketamine-HCl anesthesia in studies of chylomicron-triglyceride
 metabolism in the rat.
 Brown, C.M.; Layman, D.K.
 Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; 1990 Mar.
 Laboratory animal science v. 40 (2): p. 183-185; 1990 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Anesthesia; Ketamine; Chylomicron lipids; Lipid metabolism;
 Skeletal muscle; Heart; Kidneys
 
 Abstract:  Ketamine with 10% acepromazine (Km/Ac) was evaluated for use in an
 investigation of plasma chylomicron-triglyceride clearance in rats. Clearance
 rate and the half-life of radiolabeled (14C) chylomicron triglycerides plus
 tissue uptake of 14C-fatty acids were equal in Km/Ac anesthetized and
 non-anesthetized rats. Km/Ac was found to be a suitable anesthesia in rats for
 the study of plasma chylomicron-triglyceride clearance.
 
 
 298                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Use of low-flow and closed-system anesthesia.
 Wagner, A.E.; Bednarski, R.M.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1992 Apr01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 200 (7): p.
 1005-1010; 1992 Apr01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Anesthesia; Oxygen; Flow
 
 
 299                                                   NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L3
 The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the relief of pain in
 laboratory rodents and rabbits.
 Liles, J.H.; Flecknell, P.A.
 London : Royal Society of Medicine Services; 1992 Oct.
 Laboratory animals v. 26 (4): p. 241-255; 1992 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rats; Mice; Rabbits; Pain; Antiinflammatory agents; Analgesics;
 Dosage; Adverse effects
 
 Abstract:  The data concerning the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory
 drugs (NSAIDs) and evidence for their efficacy in laboratory rats and mice are
 reviewed. This information is then extrapolated to clinical situations and
 dose rates that take account of ulcerogenic side effects are recommended.
 NSAIDs have the potential to be a very useful group of analgesics and should
 always be considered when attempting to provide pain relief in laboratory
 animals.
 
 
 300                                                   NAL Call. No.: 391.8 F73
 Use of ophthalmic topical anaesthetics.
 Seabaugh, V.M.; Chambers, W.A.; Green, S.; Gupta, K.C.; Hill, R.N.; Hurley,
 P.M.; Lambert, L.A.; Lee, C.C.; Lee, J.K.; Liu, P.T.
 Exeter : Pergamon Press; 1993 Feb.
 Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the
 British Industrial Biological Research Association v. 31 (2): p. 95-98; 1993
 Feb.  Workshop on "Updating Eye Irritation Test Methods: Proposals for
 Regulatory Consensus," held September 26-27, 1991, Washington, D.C.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Eyes; Anesthetics; Irritant properties; Testing; Topical
 application; Rabbits
 
 
 301                                           NAL Call. No.: SF910.P34A55 1992
 Use of opioids in providing postoperative analgesia in the dog: a double-blind
 trial of pethidine, pentazocine, buprenorphine, and butorphanol.
 Waterman, A.E.; Kalthum, W.
 New York : Churchill Livingstone; 1992.
 Animal pain / edited by Charles E. Short, Alan Van Poznak. p. 466-476, 479;
 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Opioids; Postoperative care; Analgesics; Trials; Pethidine;
 Anesthetics; Drug effects
 
 
 302                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Use of pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiography to determine aortic and pulmonary
 velocity and flow variables in clinically normal dogs.
 Brown, D.J.; Knight, D.H.; King, R.R.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1991 Apr.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (4): p. 543-550. ill; 1991 Apr.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Echocardiography; Velocity; Blood flow; Normal values;
 Aorta; Pulmonary artery; Cardiac output; Hemodynamics
 
 Abstract:  Transcutaneous pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiography was used to
 obtain velocity signals from the aortic and pulmonary roots of clinically
 normal adult dogs tranquilized with acepromazine. Doppler-derived variables
 included peak ejection velocity, ejection time, and velocity-time integral.
 The cross-sectional areas of the left and right ventricular outflow tracts
 were estimated from diameters of the respective orifices measured from
 two-dimensional echocardiographic images. These data were used to calculate
 stroke volume and cardiac output for each ventricle. Linear, single variable
 regressions of ejection time, velocity-time integral, and peak velocity with
 body weight showed no significant correlations. Significant correlations
 existed between body weight and estimated left and right ventricular stroke
 volume and cardiac output. A close correspondence existed between pulmonary
 and aortic determinations of velocity-time integral, stroke volume, and
 cardiac output. These results provide an initial framework for interpretation
 of clinical data by veterinary cardiologists.
 
 
 303                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.J62
 Use of the laboratory rabbit in the small animal student surgery laboratory.
 Boothe, H.W.; Hartsfield, S.M.
 Blacksburg, Va. : The Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges;
 1990.
 Journal of veterinary medical education v. 17 (1): p. 16-18; 1990.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Veterinary education; Surgery; Rabbits; Anesthesia; Surgical
 operations; Learning experiences; Animal anatomy; Animal testing alternatives
 
 
 304                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 Using bupivacaine hydrochloride for lumbosacral epidural analgesia.
 Heath, R.B.; Broadstone, R.V.; Wright, M.; Grandy, J.L.
 Lawrenceville, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company; 1989 Jan.
 The Compendium on continuing education for the practicing veterinarian v. 11
 (1): p. 50-52, 54-55. ill; 1989 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Limbs; Surgery; Analgesics; Anesthesia; Loins; Spines
 
 
 305                                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Vaporizer in circle for delivery of isoflurane to dogs.
 Bednarski, R.M.; Gaynor, J.S.; Muir, W.W. III
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1993 Mar15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 202 (6): p. 943-948;
 1993 Mar15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Anesthetics; Vaporization; Veterinary equipment; Drug
 delivery systems; Safety
 
 
 306                                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 J8292
 Vecuronium infusion in the dog.
 Jones, R.S.; Young, L.E.
 London : British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 1991 Oct.
 The Journal of small animal practice v. 32 (10): p. 509-512; 1991 Oct.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Muscle relaxants; Anesthesia; Dosage; Neostigmine; Atropine
 
 
 307                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Ventricular arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine in dogs and cats anesthetized
 with tiletamine/zolazepam and halothane.
 Bednarski, R.M.; Muir, W.W. III
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association; 1990 Sep.
 American journal of veterinary research v. 51 (9): p. 1468-1470; 1990 Sep.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Epinephrine; Dosage; Arrhythmia; Halothane;
 Injectable anesthetics; Anesthesia
 
 Abstract:  The ventricular arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine (ADE) was
 determined in 6 dogs anesthetized with halothane alone or with halothane after
 injection of tiletamine/zolazepam (TZ). Respiratory rate and tidal volume were
 controlled and sodium bicarbonate was administered to maintain arterial pH and
 blood gas values within reference range. Heart rate and arterial blood
 pressure were recorded during determination of the ADE. The ADE (mean +/- SD)
 was no different during anesthesia with use of halothane alone (8.9 +/- 4.3)
 than it was when injections of TZ preceded administration of halothane (6.7
 +/- 2.8). Tiletamine/zolazepam was also administered IV immediately after
 determination of the ADE during halothane-induced anesthesia. The TZ
 administered in this manner did not alter the ADE. Blood pressure and heart
 rate were significantly greater during infusion of epinephrine thn immediately
 prior to infusion. The administration of TZ did not a lter blood pressure
 response. The ADE was also determined in 6 cats anesthetized with halothane
 preceded by administration of TZ. The ADE (mean +/- SD) was 0.7 +/- 0.23
 microgram/kg, a value similar to that reported for cats during anesthesia with
 halothane alone.
 
 
 308                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 The veterinarian's responsibility: assessing and managing acute pain in dogs
 and cats. I.
 Johnson, J.M.
 Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company; 1991 May.
 The Compendium on continuing education for the practicing veterinarian v. 13
 (5): p. 804-807; 1991 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Pain; Treatment; Animal welfare; Postoperative care
 
 
 309                                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 The veterinarian's responsibility: assessing and managing acute pain in dogs
 and cats. II.
 Johnson, J.M.
 Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company; 1991 Jun.
 The Compendium on continuing education for the practicing veterinarian v. 13
 (6): p. 911-916, 921; 1991 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Pain; Analgesics; Animal welfare; Opioids; Drug
 combinations; Postoperative care
 
 
 310                                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Xylazaine or medetomidine premedication before propofol anaesthesia.
 Cullen, L.K.; Reynoldson, J.A.
 London : The Association; 1993 Apr10.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary Association v. 132
 (15): p. 378-383; 1993 Apr10.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dogs; Preanesthetic medication; Anesthetics
 
 
 311                                                  NAL Call. No.: 391.8 T662
 Xylazine-induced pulmonary edema in rats.
 Amouzadeh, H.R.; Sangiah, S.; Qualls, C.W. Jr; Cowell, R.L.; Mauromoustakos,
 A.
 Orlando, Fla. : Academic Press; 1991 May.
 Toxicology and applied pharmacology v. 108 (3): p. 417-427; 1991 May.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Xylazine; Drug toxicity; Lungs; Edema; Etiology; Rats
 
 Abstract:  Inhibitors of cytochrome P450, such as SK&F 525-A, prolong the
 duration of xylazine-ketamine anesthesia and cause pulmonary edema (PE) and
 death in rats. To determine the cause of PE, Sprague-Dawley rats were given a
 single dose of xylazine (21 mg/kg, im) alone or in combination with ketamine
 (45 mg/kg, im) and/or SK&F 525-A (50 mg/kg, ip) and percentage lung to body
 weight (%LW/BW) ratios (as an indicator of PE) were compared. The results
 indicated that xylazine caused PE which was independent of ketamine and was
 enhanced by SK&F 525-A. Subsequently, it was determined that 42 mg/kg
 xylazine, im, is an optimal edemagenic dose. Xylazine (42 mg/kg, im) increased
 the %LW/BW ratio as compared to control. Pleural effusion (PLE) of various
 amounts was observed in 75% of the animals. The pleural fluid to serum protein
 ratio for xylazine was similar to that obtained for alpha-naphthylthiourea (5
 mg/kg, ip). Extensive serous PLE and alveolar edema with hemorrhage were found
 at necropsy in xylazine-treated rats. Pretreatment with yohimbine (4.2 mg/kg),
 prazosin (20 mg/kg), tolazoline (20 mg/kg), yohimbine (4.2 mg/kg) plus
 prazosin (20 mg/kg), atropine (20 mg/kg), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (7.8
 g/kg), allopurinol (50 mg/kg), superoxide dismutase (20,000 U/kg), catalase
 (20,000 U/kg), BW755C (50 mg/kg), ibuprofen (50 mg/kg), cystathionine (100
 mg/kg) plus taurine (100 mg/kg) did not affect the %LW/BW ratio. PLE was
 increased by yohimbine, yohimbine plus prazosin, and allopurinol, reduced by
 DMSO, and not changed in other groups. The results indicate that xylazine
 caused increased-permeability PE characterized by rapid onset, cellular damage
 and protein-rich pleural fluid. PE may not be mediated by adverse
 cardiovascular effects of xylazine and oxygen radicals are possibly involved
 in its etiology.
 
 

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