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Alternative Farming Systems Information Center of the National Agricultural Library
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture


Irrigating Efficiently
January 1988 - February 1994

 TITLE: Irrigating Efficiently
 AUTHOR:  Joe Makuch and Bonnie Emmert
          Water Quality Information Center
          National Agricultural Library
 PUBLICATION DATE:  June 1994
 SERIES:  QB 94-35
 NAL Call no.:   aZ5071.N3 no.94-35
 CONTACT:  Alternative Farming Systems Information Center
           National Agricultural Library
           Room 123, 10301 Baltimore Ave.
           Beltsville, MD  20705-2351
           Telephone:  (301) 504-6559
           http://afsic.nal.usda.gov 
 
 
 ==============================================================
                                              ISSN:  1052-5378
 United States Department of Agriculture
 National Agricultural Library
 10301 Baltimore Blvd.
 Beltsville, Maryland  20705-2351
 
 
 Irrigating Efficiently
 January 1988 - February 1994
 
  Quick Bibliography Series:  QB 94-35
 
 
 264 citations from AGRICOLA
 
 Joe Makuch and Bonnie Emmert
 Water Quality Information Center
 
   
 June 1994
 
 
 
 National Agricultural Library Cataloging Record:
 
 Makuch, Joe
   Irrigating efficiently.
   (Quick bibliography series ; 94-35)
   1. Irrigation efficiency--Bibliography. I. Emmert, Bonnie.
   II. Title.
 aZ5071.N3 no.94-35
 

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 Citations in this bibliography are from the National
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 JOURNAL ARTICLE:
 
   Citation #                                     NAL Call No.
   Article title.
   Author.  Place of publication:  Publisher.  Journal Title.
   Date.  Volume (Issue).  Pages.  (NAL Call Number).
 
 Example:
   1                             NAL Call No.:  DNAL 389.8.SCH6
   Morrison, S.B.  Denver, Colo.:  American School Food Service
   Association.  School foodservice journal.  Sept 1987. v. 41
   (8). p.48-50. ill.
 
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   1                        NAL Call No.:  DNAL RM218.K36 1987
   Exploring careers in dietetics and nutrition.
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   Includes index.  xii, 133 p.: ill.; 22 cm.  Bibliography:
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 AUDIOVISUAL:
 
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 Example:
   1                    NAL Call No.: DNAL FNCTX364.A425 F&N AV
   All aboard the nutri-train.
   Mayo, Cynthia.  Richmond, Va.:  Richmond Public Schools,  
 1981.  NET funded.  Activity packet prepared by Cynthia
   Mayo.  1 videocassette (30 min.): sd., col.; 3/4 in. +
   activity packet.
 
 

 
 
                     Irrigating Efficiently
 
 SEARCH STRATEGY
 
 
 Set     Items   Description
 ===     =====   ============
 
 S1      19650   SH=P210
 
 S2      23      (LOW()ENERGY()PRECISION()APPLICATION OR 
                 LEPA)/TI,DE,ID
 
 S3      6271    (EFFICIENCY OR WATER()CONSERVATION)/DE,ID
 
 S4      6291    S2 OR S3
 
 S5      604     S1 AND S4
 
 S6      598     RD S5 (unique items)
 
 S7      279     S6 AND PY=(1988 OR 1989 OR 1990 OR 1991 OR 
                 1992 OR 1993 OR 1994)
 
 
 
 
 Irrigating Efficiently
 
 
 
 1                      NAL Call. No.: S612.2.N38 1990
 AGWATER--irrigation management and planning expert system.
 Hawkins, T.; Burt, C.M.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1990.
 Visions of the future : proceedings of the Third National
 Irrigation Symposium held in conjunction with the 11th Annual
 International Irrigation Exposition, October 28-November 1,
 1990, Phoenix Civic Plaza, Phoenix, Arizona. p. 64-68; 1990.
 (ASAE publication ; 04-90).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Irrigation; Computer software; Water
 use efficiency
 
 
 2                            NAL Call. No.: 64.8 C883
 Alfalfa yield and plant water relations with variable
 irrigation.
 Grimes, D.W.; Wiley, P.L.; Sheesley, W.R.
 Madison, Wis. : Crop Science Society of America; 1992 Nov.
 Crop science v. 32 (6): p. 1381-1387; 1992 Nov.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Medicago sativa; Arid climate;
 Semiarid climate; Cultivars; Varietal reactions; Water use
 efficiency; Irrigation scheduling; Sprinkler irrigation;
 Evapotranspiration; Water potential; Water stress; Crop yield;
 Yield losses
 
 Abstract:  In the arid and semiarid western USA, alfalfa
 (Medicago sativa L.) grown for forage requires large amounts
 of water for high productivity. Managing alfalfa to achieve
 the best possible water-use efficiency (WUE) is essential for
 the crop to remain competitive for water supplies both within
 and outside agriculture. This study was conducted in the San
 Joaquin Valley of California, to define alfalfa forage yield
 and plant water relation responses of three alfalfa cultivars
 (CUF 101, Moapa 69, and WL 318) to contrasting irrigation
 intensities and establish critical plant water-status values
 for irrigation scheduling. A single line-source sprinkler
 system provided a variable water supply. The soil was a
 Hanford sandy loam, silty substratum (coarse-loamy, mixed,
 nonacid, thermic typic xerorthent). Maximum total season crop
 evapotranspiration (ET(c)) of 1000 mm gave 26.3 Mg ha-1 of hay
 yield that was similar for the three cultivars. A linear hay
 yield (Y(h))-ET(c) relationship was defined as Y(h) = -0.212 +
 0.0265 ET(c) (r2 = 0.82). Water-use efficiency, 23.1 Mg ha-1
 dry matter per meter of water used as ET(c), was comparable
 with other C(3) species. As midday plant water potential
 declined below -1 MPa, yield reductions were observed for all
 cultivars. Increased crop water stress index (CWSI) was
 correlated (r = 0.84) with declining midday plant water
 potential below the -1 MPa yield-limiting midday plant water
 potential threshold. Absolute values of midday plant water
 potential or CWSI associated with a given yield reduction were
 cultivar-dependent; Moapa 69 and WL 318 responded alike, but
 each differed from CUF 101. Plant-based water-status
 measurements provided a practical and reliable index for
 assessing the adequacy of supplied irrigation water.
 
 
 3                            NAL Call. No.: TD930.A32
 Anaerobic digestion of wastes containing pyrolignitic acids.
 Andreoni, V.; Bonfanti, P.; Daffonchio, D.; Sorlini, C.;
 Villa, M.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1990.
 Biological wastes v. 34 (3): p. 203-214; 1990.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Wood; Pyrolysis; Residues; Waste treatment;
 Anaerobic digestion; Removal; Efficiency; Methane production
 
 
 4                               NAL Call. No.: SB1.H6
 Analysis of efficiency of overhead irrigation in container
 production.
 Beeson, R.C. Jr; Knox, G.W.
 Alexandria, Va. : American Society for Horticultural Science;
 1991 Jul.
 HortScience v. 26 (7): p. 848-850; 1991 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Rhododendron; Pittosporum tobira;
 Sprinkler irrigation; Container grown plants; Irrigation;
 Efficiency; Overhead sprayers; Leaf area; Canopy; Density;
 Spacing; Containers; Size
 
 Abstract:  Volume of water captured in a container as a
 function of sprinkler type, spacing, plant type, and container
 size was measured for marketable-sized plants. Percent water
 captured was calculated and a model to predict this value
 derived. Percent water captured was inversely related to the
 leaf area contained in the cylinder over the container when
 containers were separated, and with total plant leaf area at a
 pot-to-pot spacing. This relationship was independent of leaf
 curvature (concave vs. convex). Canopy densities were less
 related to percent water captured than leaf areas. Irrigation
 application efficiencies separated by spacing ranged from 37%
 at a close spacing to 25% at a spacing of 7.6 cm between
 containers. Container spacing, canopy shedding, and possibly
 some canopy retention of water later lost by evaporation were
 determined to be the main factors associated with the low
 efficiencies. The results suggest that higher irrigation
 application efficiencies would be maintained only if plants
 were transplanted to larger containers before reaching maximum
 canopy size rather than spacing existing containers to achieve
 more room for canopy growth.
 
 
 5                              NAL Call. No.: 10 EX72
 Analysis of experiments involving line source sprinkler
 irrigation.
 Morgan, D.D.V.; Carr, M.K.V.
 Cambridge : Cambridge University Press; 1988 Apr.
 Experimental agriculture v. 24 (2): p. 169-176; 1988 Apr. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sprinkler irrigation; Water use efficiency; Rate
 of wetting; Performance testing; Analysis of covariance;
 Coverage; Dispersion; Spraylines
 
 
 6                            NAL Call. No.: 75.8 P842
 Antitranspirant effects on yield, quality and water use
 efficiency of Russet Burbank potatoes.
 Stark, J.C.; Dwelle, R.B.
 Orono, Me. : Potato Association of America; 1989 Sep.
 American potato journal v. 66 (9): p. 563-574; 1989 Sep. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Idaho; Solanum tuberosum; Antitranspirants; Crop
 management; Crop quality; Crop yield; Drought resistance;
 Evapotranspiration; Irrigation systems; Water stress; Water
 use efficiency
 
 
 7                               NAL Call. No.: SB1.H6
 Application method affects water application efficiency of
 spray stake-irrigated containers.
 Lamack, W.F.; Niemiera, A.X.
 Alexandria, Va. : The American Society for Horticultural
 Science; 1993 Jun.
 HortScience : a publication of the American Society for
 Horticultural Science
 v. 28 (6): p. 625-627; 1993 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Tagetes erecta; Container grown plants; Trickle
 irrigation; Application methods; Application rates; Water use
 efficiency; Water deficit; Irrigation scheduling; Pine bark
 
 Abstract:  Studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of
 water application medium moisture deficit, water application
 rate, and intermittent application on water application
 efficiency {[(amount applied - amount leached)/amount applied]
 X 100} of spray stake-irrigated, container-grown plants. Pine
 bark-filled containers were irrigated to replace moisture
 deficits of 600, 1200, or 1800 ml; deficits were returned in
 single, continuous applications of 148, 220, or 270 ml-min-1.
 Efficiency was unaffected by medium at a 600-ml deficit was
 irrigated with 400 or 600 ml (65% and 100% water replacement,
 respectively); deficits were returned in a single, continuous
 application or in intermittent 100-ml applications with 30-min
 intervals between irrigations. Application efficiency was
 greater with intermittent irrigation (95% and 84% for 400- and
 600-ml replacement, respectively) than with continuous 100-,
 or 150-ml aliquots with 20, 40, or 60 min between applications
 in a factorial design. Efficiency increased with decreasing
 application volume and increasing time between applications.
 Highest efficiency (86%) was achieved with an irrigation
 regimen of 50-ml applications with at least 40 min between
 applications, compared to 62% for the control treatment (a
 single, continuous application of 600 ml). Our results suggest
 that growers using spray stakes would waste less water by
 applying water intermittently rather than continuously.
 
 
 8                     NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM3PS (IR)
 Applying partial irrigation in Pakistan.
 Trimmer, W.L.
 New York, N.Y. : American Society of Civil Engineers; 1990
 May.
 Journal of irrigation and drainage engineering v. 116 (3): p.
 342-353; 1990
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pakistan; Irrigation systems; Crop yield; Water
 conservation; Water management; Cost benefit analysis;
 Optimization
 
 
 9                            NAL Call. No.: TC801.I66
 Automatic dam management and river regulation for irrigation
 purposes.
 Tardieu, H.
 Dordrecht : Martinus Nijhoff Publishers; 1988.
 Irrigation and drainage systems : an international journal v.
 2 (1): p. 53-61. maps; 1988.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: France; Irrigation; Canals; Dams; Rivers; Water
 management; Water use efficiency
 
 
 10                           NAL Call. No.: TC801.I66
 Automation of border irrigation in South-East Australia: an
 overview.
 Malano, H.M.; Patto, M.
 Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1992 Feb.
 Irrigation and drainage systems : an international journal v.
 6 (1): p. 9-26; 1992 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Australia; Border irrigation; Irrigated farming;
 Automatic irrigation systems; Irrigation equipment;
 Hydraulics; Performance; Application; Efficiency
 
 
 11                             NAL Call. No.: 81 C128
 Avocado irrigation.
 Bender, G.S.; Engle, M.M.
 Saticoy, Calif. : The Society; 1988.
 California Avocado Society yearbook v. 72: p. 183-191; 1988.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Persea Americana; Irrigation systems;
 Water use efficiency; Irrigation scheduling
 
 
 12                           NAL Call. No.: 282.8 J82
 Bargaining rules for a thin spot water market.
 Saleth, R.M.; Braden, J.B.; Eheart, J.W.
 Madison, Wis. : University of Wisconsin Press; 1991 Aug.
 Land economics v. 67 (3): p. 326-339; 1991 Aug.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Illinois; Maize; Irrigation water; Markets;
 Efficiency; Crop yield; Farm size; Watersheds; Right of
 access; Game theory; Simulation models
 
 
 13                          NAL Call. No.: 100 C12CAG
 Benefits and costs of improving pumping efficiency.
 Hanson, B.R.
 Berkeley, Calif. : The Station; 1988 Jul.
 California agriculture - California Agricultural Experiment
 Station
 v. 42 (4): p. 21-22; 1988 Jul.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation systems; Pumps; Efficiency; Cost
 benefit analysis; Energy conservation; Performance
 
 
 14                          NAL Call. No.: 292.9 AM34
 Benefits of transferring streamflow priority from agricultural
 to non-agricultural use.
 Bosch, D.J.
 Bethesda, Md. : American Water Resources Association; 1991
 May.
 Water resources bulletin v. 27 (3): p. 397-405; 1991 May. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Virginia; River water; Irrigation; Irrigation
 water; Water reservoirs; Watersheds; Stream flow; Water
 allocation; Water use efficiency; Yields; Simulation models
 
 Abstract:  In Virginia, as in many states, priority to
 streamflow is held by riparian landowners who are
 predominantly agricultural users. The streamflow may also have
 a high potential value to nonagricultural users who do not
 have riparian rights. The potential benefits of transferring
 streamflow priority rights from agricultural to non-
 agricultural use were evaluated using simulation for an
 eastern Virginia watershed. Lowering irrigators' priority to
 streamflow reduced crop yields and irrigated returns in some
 years because of inadequate water supplies. However, the
 transfer of priorities increased the likelihood that the urban
 reservoir would be able to withdraw water from the stream
 without interruption. As a result, priority trades reduced the
 size of reservoir needed to meet a given water requirement by
 municipal users. The resulting savings in reservoir
 construction and maintenance costs more than offset the losses
 to irrigators. Net savings could be achieved even if the
 reservoir were required to release water periodically to
 maintain a minimum level of instream flow. The conclusion is
 that the state should encourage trading of access to
 streamflow in order to increase the use efficiency of
 streamflows. Alternative means by which the state can
 facilitate water exchanges are discussed.
 
 
 15                             NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Bermuda grass response to leaching fractions, irrigation
 salinity, and soil types.
 Devitt, D.A.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1989 Nov.
 Agronomy journal v. 81 (6): p. 893-901; 1989 Nov.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cynodon dactylon; Water uptake; Saline water;
 Water reuse; Irrigation water; Root distribution; Sandy loam
 soils; Silt; Loam soils; Clay soils; Leaching; Water use
 efficiency
 
 Abstract:  Reuse of wastewater as an irrigation source for
 turfgrass is becoming a more viable and appealing option in
 arid environments where competition for good-quality water is
 increasing. The objective of this research was to determine
 the impact that varied leaching fractions, irrigation
 salinity, and soil types had on root growth and distribution,
 and fractional water uptake of bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon
 (L.) Pers.]. Bermudagrass was grown for a 2-yr period in large
 columns packed with three different soil types (sandy loam,
 silt loam, and clay). Saline water was synthesized and applied
 at three different salinity levels (electrical conductivities
 of 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 dS m-1). Irrigations were applied 3 d
 wk-1 at a rate beyond measured evapotranspiration (ET) to
 establish three different leaching fractions (0.09, 0.18, and
 0.27). The soil salinity (ECe), soil solution chloride (CI-),
 root density, and volumetric water contents were measured in
 soil cores taken with depth and time. Dry matter of weekly
 grass clippings was measured and recorded throughout the 2-yr
 period. Plant water status was monitored by measuring canopy
 temperatures and leaf xylem water potentials. Results
 indicated that bermudagrass was very tolerant to the range of
 salinity-leaching conditions imposed. However, differences
 were noted by treatments, with the sandy soil showing as much
 as a 25% yield decrement at the highest salinity level.
 Salinity of the irrigation water (EC1), rather than soil
 salinity (ECe), was more highly correlated with most of the
 soil-plant-water relationships observed. Root length density
 was best described by a hyperbolic function. Only limited
 success was found in correlating root length density with
 fractional water uptake. In addition, poor correlations were
 found between soil salinity with depth and fractional water
 uptake. These findings indicate that the ability to predict
 water uptake based on root distribution and/or soil salinity
 would be poor and that great
 
 
 16                         NAL Call. No.: 275.29 C76B
 Capillary irrigation--an overview.
 Corbett, E.G.
 Storrs, Conn. : The Service; 1990 Dec.
 Cooperative Extension Service, College of Agriculture,
 University of Connecticut : [bulletin] v. 2 (6): p. 5-6; 1990
 Dec.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Planting stock; Trickle irrigation; Water
 conservation; Groundwater pollution
 
 
 17                           NAL Call. No.: 64.8 C883
 Carbon isotope discrimination, water relations, and
 photosynthesis in tall fescue.
 Johnson, R.C.
 Madison, Wis. : Crop Science Society of America; 1993 Jan.
 Crop science v. 33 (1): p. 169-174; 1993 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Washington; Festuca arundinacea; Genotypes; Water
 use efficiency; Carbon; Isotopes; Water relations; Gas
 exchange; Photosynthesis; Irrigated conditions
 
 Abstract:  Carbon isotope discrimination (delta) shows promise
 for estimating water-use efficiency (WUE) in crop species.
 Research was undertaken to examine delta and water relations
 of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) accessions and to
 determine if low delta is associated with high gas exchange
 WUE as predicted by theory. The accession PI 438522 had lower
 a than the accession PI 231522 in both a dryland and an
 irrigated field environment and at two sampling dates.
 Correlations among delta, water potential, solute potential,
 and turgor pressure were not significant under irrigation.
 Under dryland conditions, correlations among these factors
 were generally significant and positive for PI 49522, but not
 significant for PI 231561. In a greenhouse experiment, plants
 selected for low delta from the irrigated field environment
 had lower delta and internal leaf [CO2] (Ci), and a higher
 ratio of CO2 assimilation rate (A) to transpiration than high-
 delta selections. This was true for both well-watered plants
 and plants stressed with a -0.38 MPa polyethylene glycol
 solution. Stomatal conductance and A were positively
 correlated with delta, suggesting that lower stomatal
 conductance was a factor leading to lower Ci and delta. The
 results suggest that associations between water relations and
 delta vary depending on accession and environment, but
 selecting tall fescue plants for low delta does identify
 genotypes with low Ci and high WUE. Using delta for germplasm
 enhancement of WUE in tall fescue appears promising.
 
 
 18                           NAL Call. No.: TC801.I66
 Case study on an integrated operation planning of multiple
 reservoirs for irrigation in Japan.
 Kakudo, H.; Senga, Y.
 Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1991 May.
 Irrigation and drainage systems : an international journal v.
 5 (2): p. 115-128; 1991 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Japan; Reservoirs; Operation; Planning;
 Irrigation water; Drought; Simulation; Water conservation;
 Water use; Case studies; Equations
 
 
 19                            NAL Call. No.: 55.9 SP8
 Centrifugal pump selection considerations.
 O'Brien, R.
 Arlington, Va. : The Association; 1988.
 Technical conference proceedings - Irrigation Association. p.
 67-73. ill; 1988.  Paper presented at the "Conference on
 Conserving Energy, Water and Other Resources Through
 Irrigation," October 25-28, 1987, Orlando, Florida.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation equipment; Hydraulic systems;
 Centrifugal pumps; Selection criteria; Design criteria;
 Performance traits; Efficiency
 
 
 20                            NAL Call. No.: SB476.G7
 Checklist of water conservation strategies.
 Beard, J.B.
 Overland Park, Kan. : Intertec Publishing Corporation; 1988
 Apr.
 Grounds maintenance v. 23 (4): p. IR-6, IR-8, IR-9, IR-18;
 1988 Apr.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Lawns and turf; Irrigated conditions; Water
 conservation
 
 
 21                     NAL Call. No.: 1 Ag84Ab no.608
 Chemigation, a technology for the future?.
 Gollehon, Noel R.
 United States, Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service
 Washington, DC : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research
 Service,; 1990; A 1.75:608.
 16 p. : ill., map ; 28 cm. (Agriculture information bulletin ;
 no. 608).
 Caption title.  Shipping list no.: 90-453-P.  July 1990. 
 Includes bibliographical references (p. 15).
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Agricultural chemicals; United States;
 Fertilizer-pesticide mixtures; United States; Application;
 Fertilizers; Government policy; United States; Irrigation
 efficiency; United States
 
 
 22                     NAL Call. No.: S612.2.N38 1990
 Chemigation with LEPA center pivots.
 New, L.; Knutson, A.; Fipps, G.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1990.
 Visions of the future : proceedings of the Third National
 Irrigation Symposium held in conjunction with the 11th Annual
 International Irrigation Exposition, October 28-November 1,
 1990, Phoenix Civic Plaza, Phoenix, Arizona.
 p. 453-458; 1990. (ASAE publication ; 04-90).  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Center pivot irrigation; Fertigation;
 Insecticides; Mite control
 
 
 23                       NAL Call. No.: SB369.I5 1988
 Citrus irrigation in Israel--making do with less water.
 Goell, A.
 Rehovot, Israel : Balaban; 1988.
 Citriculture : proceedings of the Sixth International Citrus
 Congress : Middle-East, Tel Aviv, Israel, March 6-11, 1988 /
 scientific editors, R. Goren and K. Mendel, editor, N. Goren.
 p. 699-706; 1988.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Israel; Citrus; Orchards; Irrigation; Water
 conservation; Irrigation scheduling; Water requirements;
 Technology; Innovation adoption; Water stress
 
 
 24                         NAL Call. No.: SB317.5.H68
 A comparative cost analysis of vegetable irrigation systems.
 Prevatt, J.W.; Clark, G.A.; Stanley, C.D.
 Alexandria, VA : American Society for Horticultural Science;
 1992 Jan.
 HortTechnology v. 2 (1): p. 91-94; 1992 Jan.  Proceedings of
 the Workshop, "Impact of Runoff Water Quality on Future
 Nursery Crop Production," held at the 87th ASHS Annual
 Meeting, November 8, 1990, Tucson, Arizona. Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Irrigation systems; Subsurface
 irrigation; Trickle irrigation; Cost analysis; Fixed costs;
 Variable costs; Sandy soils; High water tables; Water use
 efficiency; Crop production
 
 
 25                             NAL Call. No.: 80 AC82
 Comparison of drip and basin irrigation systems in banana
 orchards on the southern coast of Turkey.
 Cevik, B.; Kaska, N.; Tekinel, O.; Pekmezci, M.; Yaylali, N.;
 Paydas, S.
 Wageningen : International Society for Horticultural Science;
 1988 Sep.
 Acta horticulturae (228): p. 213-218. ill; 1988 Sep.  Paper
 presented at the Fourth International Symposium on Water
 Supply and Irrigation in the Open and Under Protected
 Cultivation, August 26-28, 1985, Padova, Italy. Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Turkey; Musa; Orchards; Basin irrigation; Trickle
 irrigation; Water use efficiency; Yield response functions;
 Fruit; Chemical composition; Crop quality
 
 
 26                             NAL Call. No.: 81 SO12
 Comparison of subsurface trickle and furrow irrigation on
 plastic-mulched and bare soil for tomato production.
 Bogle, C.R.; Hartz, T.K.; Nunez, C.
 Alexandria, Va. : The Society; 1989 Jan.
 Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science v.
 114 (1): p. 40-43; 1989 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Lycopersicon esculentum; Trickle irrigation;
 Subsurface irrigation; Furrow irrigation; Plastic mulches;
 Mulching; Water use efficiency; Crop yield
 
 Abstract:  Subsurface trickle and furrow irrigation of fresh-
 market tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), with or without
 plastic mulch, were compared for three consecutive growing
 seasons. Plots were irrigated when available soil water was
 40% depleted. Marketable tomato yield was 22% greater for
 plants grown with trickle irrigation than with furrow
 irrigation. Use of black plastic mulch resulted in 31% and 16%
 greater marketable tomato yield in Spring 1983 and 1984, than
 similar bare-soil (unmulched) treatments, respectively. In
 Fall 1983, use of white/black (top/bottom) laminated plastic
 mulch reduced yields by 12% compared to similar unmulched
 treatments. Total water (irrigation plus precipitation)
 applied to furrow-irrigated plots nearly equalled pan
 evaporation (Epan). Trickle-irrigated plots received less than
 45% of Epan in all seasons, resulting in increased water-use
 efficiency with drip irrigation. Trickle irrigation as applied
 did not affect soluble salts concentration in the soils.
 
 
 27                          NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Comparison of surge and cablegation to continuous furrow
 irrigation.
 Israeli, I.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1988.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche
 collection)
 (fiche no.
 88-2014): 15 p. ill., maps; 1988.  Paper presented at the 1988
 Summer Meeting of the American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers. Available for purchase from: The American Society
 of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950 Niles Road, St.
 Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order Dept. at (616)
 429-0300 for information and prices.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Colorado; Irrigation systems; Energy
 conservation; Water conservation
 
 
 28                             NAL Call. No.: 80 G85W
 Computer irrigation scheduling.
 Zoldoske, D.
 Willoughby, Ohio : Meister Pub. Co; 1988 Apr.
 Western fruit grower v. 108 (4): p. 6-7. ill; 1988 Apr.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation scheduling; Computer applications;
 Water use efficiency; Computer software; Soil moisture;
 Evapotranspiration
 
 
 29                            NAL Call. No.: aS622.S6
 Conserving Colorado's Ogallala Aquifer.
 Peavy, L.
 Washington, D.C. : The Service; 1992 Jul.
 Soil & water conservation news - U.S. Deptartment of
 Agriculture, Soil
 Conservation Service v. 13 (2): p. 20; 1992 Jul.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Colorado; Water management; Irrigation; Gypsum
 blocks; Water conservation; Aquifers
 
 
 30                           NAL Call. No.: TC801.I66
 Considerations for sizing water delivery systems.
 Tod, I.C.; Wallender, W.W.; Henderson, D.W.; Devries, J.J.
 Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1990 May.
 Irrigation and drainage systems : an international journal v.
 4 (2): p. 171-179; 1990 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation systems; Design; Irrigation water;
 Water distribution; Systems; Water requirements; Water use;
 Efficiency; Farms; Models; Costs 
 
 
 31                     NAL Call. No.: S612.2.N38 1990
 Constant hole spacing trail tubes.
 Chu, S.T.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1990.
 Visions of the future : proceedings of the Third National
 Irrigation Symposium held in conjunction with the 11th Annual
 International Irrigation Exposition, October 28-November 1,
 1990, Phoenix Civic Plaza, Phoenix, Arizona. p. 121-126; 1990.
 (ASAE publication ; 04-90).  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sprinkler irrigation; Tubes; Water conservation
 
 
 32                             NAL Call. No.: HC55.N3
 Constraints to improved energy efficiency in agricultural
 pumpsets: the case of India.
 Sadaphal, P.M.; Natarajan, B.
 Oxford : Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd; 1992 Aug.
 Natural resources forum v. 16 (3): p. 221-225; 1992 Aug. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: India; Irrigation equipment; Pumps; Electricity;
 Energy consumption; Efficiency; Agricultural sector;
 Constraints
 
 
 33                         NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Cotton irrigation management with LEPA systems.
 Bordovsky, J.P.; Lyle, W.M.; Lascano, R.J.; Upchurch, D.R.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1992 May.
 Transactions of the ASAE v. 35 (3): p. 879-884; 1992 May. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Gossypium; Irrigation scheduling;
 Irrigation systems; Soil water; Water use
 
 Abstract:  Irrigations were applied to short-season cotton at
 Halfway, Texas, using a LEPA irrigation system at intervals of
 2, 4, 8, and 12 days in 1986 and at 3, 6, 9, and 18 days in
 1987 and 1988. The four interval treatments were grouped for
 analysis and referred to as 3D, 5D, 9D, and 15D. Irrigation
 quantities at each interval were 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 times
 a base irrigation amount (BI) which equalled estimated cotton
 evapotranspiration (ET) less rainfall. The DRY treatments
 received preplant irrigations only. The 3D treatments resulted
 in higher cotton lint yield and seasonal irrigation water use
 efficiencies than other irrigation intervals. Root length
 densities in the 3D treatments were higher than in the 15D
 treatment at both the 0.4BI and 1.OBI irrigation quantities.
 Irrigation interval treatments caused small detectable
 differences in seasonal soil water content at the 0.4BI
 irrigation level. Average cotton lint yields were reduced as
 irrigation amounts increased. The 0.4BI and 0.6BI treatment
 yields were significantly higher than those of the 0.8BI and
 the 1.OBI quantities. The 3D X 0.4BI treatment produced the
 highest annual lint yield of 1134 kg/ha from average
 irrigations totaling 81 mm/yr compared to the 15D X 1.OBI
 (traditional) treatment which yielded 945 kg/ha from 202 mm/yr
 of seasonal irrigation. Deficit irrigation of short-season
 cotton using a LEPA system and a 3D interval can enhance lint
 yield and conserve groundwater on the Southern High Plains of
 Texas.
 
 
 34                             NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Cotton management strategies for a short growing season
 environment: water-nitrogen considerations.
 Morrow, M.R.; Krieg, D.R.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1990 Jan.
 Agronomy journal v. 82 (1): p. 52-56; 1990 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Gossypium hirsutum; Water use efficiency;
 Water supplies; Dry farming; Irrigated farming; Nitrogen
 fertilizers; Timing; Nitrogen uptake; Heat sums; Crop yield;
 Yield components; Boll; Lint; Yield response functions;
 Interactions
 
 Abstract:  The Southern High Plains of Texas represents the
 largest contiguous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production
 area in the USA. Water supply represents the greatest
 limitation to production under rainfed conditions. Where
 supplemental irrigation is used, growing season length
 represents a major limitation to attainment of high yields of
 desirable quality fiber and seed. The primary objective of
 this research project was to determine the inter-relationships
 between H2O, N, and heat unit supplies as they affect lint
 yield of cotton. Field experiments were conducted during a 4-
 yr period at a sandy soil (fine, loamy, mixed, thermic family
 of Aridic Paleustalf) site. Water supply was varied through
 irrigation with treatments ranging from dryland to fully
 irrigated. Superimposed on the water supplies were N rate
 treatments applied preplant and sidedress in a factorial
 design. Lint yield (LY) was defined as a function of
 components including plant density, bolls per plant and
 average boll size. Regression analysis was used to determine
 LY response to treatments. Lint yield was most highly
 correlated with boll number per unit ground area with equal
 contribution from plant density and bolls per plant. Water
 supply was most responsible for boll number; however,
 increasing N supply within each H2O regime resulted in a
 positive response in boll number per plant. Multiple
 regression analysis revealed that LY responded to H2O and N
 supplies during the fruiting period to a greater extent than
 to preflower supplies. Within any heat unit regime, LY was
 maximized as water supply increased by maintaining a constant
 ratio of 0.2 kg N ha-1 mm-1 H2O.
 
 
 35                           NAL Call. No.: TC823.P52
 Cotton response to high frequency irrigation.
 Bordovsky, J.P.; Lyle, W.M.
 New York, N.Y. : The Society; 1988.
 Planning now for irrigation and drainage in the 21st century :
 proc of a conference : Lincoln, Nebraska, July 18-21, 1988 /
 sponsored by the Irrig and Drain Div of the American Soc of
 Civil Engineers ; edited by D.R. Hay. p. 297-304; 1988. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Gossypium hirsutum; Crop yield; Irrigation
 systems; Tests 
 
 36                           NAL Call. No.: S612.I756
 Crop coefficients and water requirements of irrigated wheat
 (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Nigerian savannah zone.
 Abdulmumin, S.
 Berlin, W. Ger. : Springer International; 1988.
 Irrigation science v. 9 (3): p. 177-186. maps; 1988.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nigeria; Triticum aestivum; Irrigation; Savannas;
 Water requirements; Coefficient of determination; Water use
 efficiency; Projects; Hydraulic systems; Lysimeters
 
 
 37                    NAL Call. No.: SB185.6.C74 1992
 Crop production function in relation to irrigation methods,
 limited water and variability.
 Bresler, E.
 United States-Israel Binational Agricultural Research and
 Development Fund
 Bet Dagan, Israel : BARD,; 1992. 123 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.  Final
 report.  Project no. IS-1309-87. Includes bibliographical
 references (p. 111-116).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Crops and water; Crop yields; Irrigation
 efficiency
 
 
 38                             NAL Call. No.: 81 SO12
 Crop-water production functions for sweet corn.
 Braunworth, W.S. Jr; Mack, H.J.
 Alexandria, Va. : The Society; 1989 Mar.
 Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science v.
 114
 (2): p.
 210-215; 1989 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oregon; Zea mays; Water requirements; Water use
 efficiency; Evapotranspiration; Yield components; Yield
 response functions; Crop yield; Available water capacity;
 Field capacity; Maximum yield; Irrigated farming; Mathematical
 models
 
 Abstract:  Sweet corn (Zea mays L.) was irrigated using
 randomized complete block and line source experimental designs
 in 1984 and 1985 on a mixed, mesic Cumulic Ultic Haploxeroll
 soil. Irrigations were scheduled when approximately 50% of the
 available water was depleted in the root zone of the 100%
 treatment to refill the zone to 0% to 100% of field capacity
 (five irrigation levels). Four yield parameters were measured
 for all plots: yield of all ears before husking, yield of good
 husked ears, kernel yield (fresh), and total dry matter
 production of plants and ears. Maximum relative total unhusked
 ear yield and near-maximum evapotranspiration (ET) were
 obtained at 85% of maximum water applied, indicating that high
 yields can be maintained with deficit irrigation. Without
 irrigation, only 44% of maximum yield was obtained. Maximum
 water use efficiency (WUE), defined as the total unhusked ear
 yield in kg.ha-1.mm-1ET, occurred between 407 and 418 mm of
 ET. The maximum WUE corresponded to approximately 313 mm water
 applied (WA); maximum yield, however, occurred within the
 range of 449 to 518 mm WA. Irrigation treatments to achieve
 maximum WUE were predicted to result in a 10% yield reduction.
 
 
 39                    NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM3Ps (IR)
 Design and operation of on-farm irrigation ponds.
 Mehta, B.K.; Goto, A.
 New York, N.Y. : American Society of Civil Engineers, c1983-;
 1992 Sep.
 Journal of irrigation and drainage engineering v. 118 (5): p.
 659-673; 1992 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Thailand; Cabt; Irrigation water; Ponding; Farm
 storage; Water use efficiency; Diurnal variation; Simulation
 models
 
 
 40                           NAL Call. No.: HD1750.W4
 Determinants of irrigation technology choice.
 Negri, D.H.; Brooks, D.H.
 Lincoln, Neb. : Western Agricultural Economics Association;
 1990 Dec.
 Western journal of agricultural economics v. 15 (2): p.
 213-223; 1990 Dec.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Irrigated farming; Sprinkler irrigation;
 Runoff irrigation; Technology; Decision making; Water
 conservation; Groundwater; Profit functions; Probability
 analysis; Water costs; Labor costs; Topography; Soil;
 Characteristics; Climate
 
 
 41                         NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Development and testing of a water management model (WATRCOM):
 field testing.
 Parsons, J.E.; Doty, C.W.; Skaggs, R.W.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1991 Jul.
 Transactions of the ASAE v. 34 (4): p. 1674-1682; 1991 Jul.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Carolina; Drainage; Hydraulics; Water
 conservation; Water management; Water table; Watersheds;
 Simulation models
 
 Abstract:  Water table observations from the 1000 ha watershed
 of Mitchell Creek near Tarboro, NC, were used to field test
 the water management model, WATRCOM. Soil properties and
 channel boundary conditions from three sections of the
 watershed along with weather data from years 1983 and 1984
 were used to simulate the hydrology of the area with and
 without channel water level control. Six transects containing
 27 water table observation wells were selected for testing.
 All simulations were based on measured field parameters and no
 calibration simulations were made to optimize parameters to
 fit observed data. A total of 14,000 daily water table
 observations were compared with simulated data. The root mean
 square error in simulated water tables at each well ranged
 from 0.05 to 0.24 m. When the data were pooled by section, the
 root mean square error ranged from 0.10 to 0. 17 m.
 
 
 42                          NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Drainage efficiency and cracking clay soils.
 Tod, I.C.; Grismer, M.E.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1988.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche
 collection) (fiche no. 88-2588): 16 p.; 1988.  Paper presented
 at the 1988 Winter Meeting of the American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers. Available for purchase from: The
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950
 Niles Road, St. Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order
 Dept. at (616) 429-0300 for information and prices.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Irrigation; Subsurface drainage;
 Efficiency; Deep percolation; Soil water movement; Drain
 pipes; Spacing; Cracking; Clay soils; Numerical analysis
 
 
 43                           NAL Call. No.: aZ5071.N3
 Drip and trickle irrigation for water conservation--January
 1987-August 1990.
 MacLean, J.T.
 Beltsville, Md. : The Library; 1990 Nov.
 Quick bibliography series - U.S. Department of Agriculture,
 National
 Agricultural Library (U.S.). (91-23): 80 p.; 1990 Nov. 
 Updates QB 89-35.
 Bibliography.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Trickle irrigation; Water conservation; Water
 requirements; Bibliographies
 
 
 44                       NAL Call. No.: SB319.2.N6G84
 Drip irrigation for pecan trees.
 Hohn, C.
 Las Cruces, NM : The Service; 1988 Mar.
 Guide H - New Mexico State University, Cooperative Extension
 Service (611): 1 p.; 1988 Mar.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Carya illinoensis; Orchards; Trickle irrigation;
 Water requirements; Efficiency
 
 
 45                           NAL Call. No.: SB245.B42
 Drip irrigation: lowering installation costs, increasing
 yields and improving water-use efficiency.
 Henggeler, J.C.
 Memphis, Tenn. : National Cotton Council; 1988.
 Proceedings of the...Beltwide Cotton Production Conference. p.
 31-32; 1988.
 Meeting held January 3-8, 1988, New Orleans, Louisiana.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Gossypium; Trickle irrigation;
 Installations; Costs; Crop yield; Water use efficiency
 
 
 46                              NAL Call. No.: SB1.H6
 Drip-irrigation scheduling for fresh-market tomato production.
 Hartz, T.K.
 Alexandria, Va. : American Society for Horticultural Science;
 1993 Jan.
 HortScience v. 28 (1): p. 35-37; 1993 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Lycopersicon esculentum; Trickle
 irrigation; Irrigation scheduling; Irrigated conditions; Water
 use efficiency; Crop yield; Fruits; Size
 
 Abstract:  Drip-irrigation scheduling techniques for fresh-
 market tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) production were
 compared in three growing seasons (1989-91). Three regimes
 were evaluated: EPK [reference evapotranspiration (ET,
 corrected Penman) X programmed crop coefficients], ECC (ET X a
 crop coefficient based on estimated percent canopy coverage),
 and SMD (irrigation at 20% available soil moisture depletion).
 EPK coefficients ranged from 0.2 (crop establishment) to 1.1
 (full canopy development). Percent canopy coverage was
 estimated from average canopy width + row width. Irrigation in
 the SMD treatment was initiated at -24 kPa soil matric
 tension, with recharge limited to 80% of daily ET(o). The EPK
 and ECC regimes gave similar fresh fruit yields and size
 distributions in all years. With the EPK scheduling technique,
 there was no difference in crop response between daily
 irrigation and irrigation three times per week. In all
 seasons, ECC scheduling resulted in less total water applied
 than EPK scheduling and averaged 76% of seasonal ET(o) vs. 86%
 for EPK. Irrigating at 20% SMD required an average of only 64%
 of seasonal ET(o); marketable yield was equal to the other
 scheduling techniques in 1989 and 1991, but showed a modest
 yield reduction in 1990. Using an SMD regime to schedule early
 season irrigation and an ECC system to guide application from
 mid-season to harvest may be the most appropriate approach for
 maximizing water-use efficiency and crop production
 productivity.
 
 
 47                           NAL Call. No.: HD1750.W4
 A dynamic analysis of water savings from advanced irrigation
 technology.
 Hornbaker, R.H.; Mapp, H.P.
 Lincoln, Neb. : Western Agricultural Economics Association;
 1988
 Dec.
 Western journal of agricultural economics v. 13 (2): p.
 307-315; 1988 Dec.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sorghum; Irrigation scheduling; Technology;
 Growth models; Recursive programming; Innovation adoption;
 Sprinkler irrigation; Decision making; Computer simulation;
 Simulation models 
 
 
 48                              NAL Call. No.: S1.N32
 Early to bed, early to harvest.
 Cramer, C.
 Emmaus, Pa. : Regenerative Agriculture Association; 1988 Feb.
 The New farm v. 10 (2): p. 14-17; 1988 Feb.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kansas; Zea mays; Glycine max; Minimum tillage
 systems; Furrow irrigation; Soil and water conservation;
 Energy conservation   
 
 
 49                         NAL Call. No.: aHD1735.C76
 Economic and technical adjustments in irrigation due to
 declining
 ground
 water.
 Crosswhite, William M.; Dickason, Clifford; Pfeiffer, Robert
 United States, Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research
 Service, Resources and
 Technology Division
 Washington : D.C. (1301 New York Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C.
 20005-4788) :
 U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service,
 Resources and
 Technology
 Division,; 1990.
 vi, 35 p. : ill., map ; 28 cm. (ERS staff report ;
 AGES-9018.).
 Cover title.
 "February 1990"--p. iii.  Includes bibliographical references
 (p.
 34-35).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation; Economic aspects; United States;
 Water, Underground; United States; Water conservation; United
 States   
 
 
 50                              NAL Call. No.: S1.T49
 Economic feasibility of conversion to a lower energy precision
 application
 irrigation system in the Texas High Plains.
 Hutton, J.D.; Segarra, E.; Ervin, R.T.; Graves, J.W.
 Canyon, Tex. : The Consortium; 1989.
 Texas journal of agriculture and natural resources : a
 publication
 of the
 Agricultural Consortium of Texas v. 3: p. 11-14; 1989. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Zea mays; Center pivot irrigation;
 Sprinkler irrigation; Economic viability; Returns; Costs; Crop
 production; Water use efficiency; Crop yield; Feasibility
 studies   
 
 
 51                          NAL Call. No.: 292.9 AM34
 Economic impacts of the limited irrigation-dryland (LID)
 furrow
 irrigation
 system.
 Harman, W.L.; Stewart, B.A.; Musick, J.T.; Dusek, D.A.
 Minneapolis, Minn. : American Water Resources Association;
 1989
 Apr.
 Water resources bulletin v. 25 (2): p. 367-376; 1989 Apr. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Sorghum; Dry farming; Irrigation systems;
 Furrow irrigation; Economic impact; Water resource management;
 Yields; Water use efficiency   
 
 
 52                          NAL Call. No.: 100 C12CAG
 Economic incentives for irrigation drainage reduction.
 Letey, J.; Dinar, A.; Knapp, K.C.
 Berkeley, Calif. : The Station; 1988 May.
 California agriculture - California Agricultural Experiment
 Station
 v. 42 (3):
 p. 12-13; 1988 May.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Irrigation systems; Irrigation water;
 Water management; Drainage water; Water use efficiency;
 Economic factors; Incentives; Water costs; Price policy; Fees  
 
 
 
 53                          NAL Call. No.: 281.8 AU74
 Economic optimisation of sprinkler irrigation considering
 uncertainty of
 spatial water distribution.
 Feinerman, E.; Shani, Y.; Bresler, E.
 Victoria : Australian Agricultural Economics Society; 1989
 Aug.
 The Australian journal of agricultural economics v. 33 (2): p.
 88-107; 1989
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Maize; Irrigation water; Sprinkler irrigation;
 Physical planning; Water use efficiency; Farmers' attitudes;
 Decision making; Risks; Economic evaluation; Water costs;
 Production functions; Coefficient of relationship; Stochastic
 processes; Optimization methods; Econometric models   
 
 
 54                             NAL Call. No.: 80 AC82
 Effect of different irrigation systems on yield of tomatoes
 grown
 under
 plastic greenhouses.
 Kaniszewski, S.; Dysko, J.
 Wageningen : International Society for Horticultural Science;
 1988
 Sep.
 Acta horticulturae (228): p. 105-107; 1988 Sep.  Paper
 presented at
 the Fourth
 International Symposium on Water Supply and Irrigation in the
 Open
 and Under
 Protected Cultivation, August 26-28, 1985, Padova, Italy. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Lycopersicon esculentum; Greenhouse
 experimentation; Plastic cladding; Irrigation systems; Yield
 response functions; Water use efficiency   
 
 
 55                      NAL Call. No.: S592.17.A73A74
 Effect of irrigation intervals on yield and water use
 efficiency of
 sunflower
 (Helianthus annuus L.) in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia.
 Al-Ghamdi, A.S.; Hussain, G.; Al-Noaim, A.A.
 Washington, DC : Taylor & Francis; 1991 Oct.
 Arid soil research and rehabilitation v. 5 (4): p. 289-296;
 1991
 Oct.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Saudi arabia; Helianthus annuus; Irrigation
 scheduling; Crop yield; Water use efficiency   
 
 
 56                             NAL Call. No.: 10 EX72
 Effect of irrigation regimes on the water status, vegetative
 growth
 and rubber
 production of guayule plants.
 Benzioni, A.; Mills, D.; Forti, M.
 Cambridge : Cambridge University Press; 1989 Apr.
 Experimental agriculture v. 25 (2): p. 189-197; 1989 Apr. 
 This
 record
 corrects ID No. ADL 89050716 which was entered under the wrong
 journal
 citation.  Includes references.
 
 Language: 
 English  Descriptors: Israel; Parthenium argentatum;
 Irrigation systems; Trickle irrigation; Water use efficiency;
 Growth; Rubber; Yields; Water stress; Soil water content   
 
 
 57                         NAL Call. No.: S596.53.S69
 The effect of seeding rate, timing of nitrogen application and
 frequency of
 irrigation on wheat growth, yield and water use.
 Nel, A.A.; Dijkhuis, F.J.
 Pretoria : Bureau for Scientific Publications, Foundation for
 Education, Science and Technology; 1990 Aug.
 South African journal of plant and soil; Suid-Afrikaanse
 tydskrif
 vir plant en
 grond v. 7 (3): p. 163-166; 1990 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Triticum aestivum; Seeding; Nitrogen;
 Fertilizers; Application; Sprinkler irrigation; Growth rate;
 Plant density; Crop yield; Water use efficiency; Timing   
 
 
 58                             NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Effect of soil surface treatments of runoff and wheat yields
 under
 irrigation.
 Stern, R.; Van Der Merwe, A.J.; Laker, M.C.; Shainberg, I.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Jan.
 Agronomy journal v. 84 (1): p. 114-119; 1992 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Triticum aestivum; Irrigation water; Runoff;
 Infiltration; Clay loam soils; Soil treatment; Polyacrylamide;
 Phosphogypsum; Surface treatment; Dikes; Soil structure;
 Irrigation scheduling; Water use efficiency; Soil water
 content; Crop yield; Grain; Growth rate  
 
 Abstract:  In arid and semi-arid regions, where soil structure
 is unstable, surface runoff due to seal formation reduces
 irrigation water use efficiency. This study was conducted to
 determine the efficiency of surface treatments in reducing
 runoff and increasing wheat crop productivity. Surface runoff
 from wheat plots on a non-sodic, silty clay loam soil
 (Rhodudalf silty clay loam), sprinkler irrigated with a good
 quality irrigation water, was collected using flumes and
 collection boxes. Percentages runoff were 36.1% of the total
 irrigation during the growing season for the control (Ct),
 12.8% for phosphogypsum (PG), 1.4% for polyacrylamide plus PG
 (PAM), and 1.1% for pitting plus PG (Pt) treatments. The
 mulching effect of the growing canopy did not reduce runoff
 during consecutive irrigations as the season progressed. Water
 content in the profile was correlated with the amount of water
 that infiltrated into the soil. The crop biomass production in
 the Pt and PAM treatments was significantly higher than the PG
 and Ct treatments (8.81 and 7.91 vs. 6.41 and 5.47 Mg ha-1,
 respectively). The Pt and PAM treatments also gave
 significantly higher grain yield (3.66 and 3.02 vs. 2.25 and
 2.12 Mg ha-1, respectively). The Pt, PAM, and PG treatments
 resulted in significantly higher irrigation water use
 efficiency (IWUE) than the Ct. The PAM is the least known
 treatment and is given special attention in this study. In
 regions where water is scarce and costly, improving the
 efficiency of irrigation by tillage or soil ameliorants should
 be considered.   
 
 
 59                            NAL Call. No.: HD101.S6
 The effect of spatial variability of irrigation applications
 on
 risk-efficient
 irrigation strategies.
 Bernardo, D.J.
 Experiment, Ga. : The Association; 1988 Jul.
 Southern journal of agricultural economics - Southern
 Agricultural
 Economics
 Association v. 20 (1): p. 77-86; 1988 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oklahoma; Sorghum; Crop yield; Irrigation
 scheduling; Risks; Water use efficiency; Application depth;
 Spacing; Stochastic processes; Simulation models      
 
 
 60                             NAL Call. No.: 10 J822
 Effect of supplementary irrigation during reproductive growth
 on
 winter and
 spring chickpea (Cicer arietinum) in a Mediterranean
 environment.
 Saxena, M.C.; Silim, S.N.; Singh, K.B.
 Cambridge : Cambridge University Press; 1990 Jun.
 The Journal of agricultural science v. 114 (pt.3): p. 285-293;
 1990
 Jun.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Syria; Cicer arietinum; Cultivars; Irrigation;
 Reproductive physiology; Leaf water potential; Water deficit;
 Water use efficiency; Sowing date; Seed production; Yield
 increases   
 
 
 61                           NAL Call. No.: S612.I756
 Effect of tillage and furrow irrigation timing on efficiency
 of
 preplant
 irrigation.
 Undersander, D.J.; Regier, C.
 Berlin, W. Ger. : Springer International; 1988.
 Irrigation science v. 9 (1): p. 57-67; 1988.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Sorghum bicolor; Plant production;
 Preplanting treatment; Tillage; Furrow irrigation; Irrigation
 scheduling; Water use efficiency   
 
 
 62                            NAL Call. No.: S612.I49
 Effect of varying soil moisture regimes on seeds yield, water
 use
 and water
 use efficiency of some Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.)
 Czern
 and Coss)
 genotypes.
 Chaudhry, N.; Singh, T.; Singh, H.; Faroda, A.S.
 Jodhpur : The Society; 1988.
 Transactions of Indian Society of Desert Technology and
 University
 Centre of
 Desert Studies v. 13: p. 33-40; 1988.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Haryana; Brassica juncea; Genotypes; Seed
 production; Water use efficiency; Yields; Soil moisture; Dry
 conditions; Irrigated conditions; Water use; Arid zones   
 
 
 63                          NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Effect of water supply on performance of alfalfa.
 Jensen, E.H.; Miller, W.W.; Mahannah, C.N.; Read, J.J.;
 Kimbell, M.K.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1988 Apr.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 1 (2): p. 152-155; 1988
 Apr.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Medicago sativa; Irrigation requirements; Water
 use efficiency   
 
 
 64                           NAL Call. No.: S612.I756
 Effects of irrigation regimes on the yield and water use of
 strawberry.
 Serrano, L.; Carbonell, X.; Save, R.; Marfa, O.; Penuelas, J.
 Berlin, W. Ger. : Springer International; 1992.
 Irrigation science v. 13 (1): p. 45-48; 1992.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Spain; Fragaria ananassa; Crop yield; Fruits;
 Weight; Soil water potential; Fertigation; Irrigation
 scheduling; Water use efficiency; Water deficit; Yield
 response functions  
 
 Abstract:  Strawberry plants (Fragaria X annanasa D. cv
 Chandler) were grown in field plots and in drainage lysimeters
 under controlled soil moisture regimes. Four irrigation
 treatments were established by watering the plants when soil
 water potential reached -0.01, -0.03, -0.05 and -0.07 MPa. The
 maximum yield was attained at -0.01 MPa soil water potential.
 Differences in yield were caused by both changes in the number
 of fruits per plant and in the fresh weight per fruit. Yield
 reductions were associated with reductions in total
 assimilation rate resulting from the decreased assimilatory
 surface area in plants irrigated at lower soil water
 potentials. The crop water production function calculated on a
 fruit fresh weight basis resulted in a yield response factor
 (Ky) of 1.01.   
 
 
 65                          NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Effects of nitrogen source, application timing, and
 dicyandiamide
 on
 furrow-irrigated rice.
 Hefner, S.G.; Tracy, P.W.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Oct.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 4 (4): p. 536-540; 1991
 Oct.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Missouri; Oryza sativa; Flooded rice; Furrow
 irrigation; Nitrogen metabolism; Nutrient sources; Urea
 ammonium nitrate; Urea; Ammonium sulfate; Sulfur coated urea;
 Application date; Dicyandiamide; Denitrification;
 Nitrification; Volatilization; Losses from soil systems; Crop
 yield; Grain; Panicles; Cell differentiation; Tillering;
 Heading; Plant analysis; Soil analysis; Nutrient content;
 Nitrate nitrogen; Ammonium nitrogen; Soil chemistry; Nutrient
 deficiencies; Water management; Water conservation   
 
 
 66                             NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Effects of ozone and water stress on canopy temperature, water
 use, and water
 use efficiency of alfalfa.
 Temple, P.J.; Benoit, L.F.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1988 May.
 Agronomy journal v. 80 (3): p. 439-447; 1988 May.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Medicago sativa; Ozone; Water stress; Canopy;
 Temperature relations; Water use; Water use efficiency;
 Irrigation; Soil water deficit; Evapotranspiration;
 Thermometers   
 
 
 67                          NAL Call. No.: 280.8 J822
 The effects of pricing policies on water conservation and
 drainage.
 Caswell, M.; Lichtenberg, E.; Zilberman, D.
 Ames, Iowa : American Agricultural Economics Association; 1990
 Nov.
 American journal of agricultural economics v. 72 (4): p.
 883-890; 1990 Nov.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Cotton; Irrigated farming; Trickle
 irrigation; Drainage; Innovation adoption; Water conservation;
 Farm management; Farmland; Farm inputs; Water costs; Price
 policy; Environmental policy; Pollution; Profitability;
 Simulation models  
 
 Abstract:  A general model of adoption of input-conserving
 technologies by competitive firms is introduced using drip
 irrigation as an example. An environmental regulation such as
 a drainage effluent charge is shown to influence adoption.
 Early adopters are likely to be producers with less efficient
 fixed assets (land of low quality or antiquated capital),
 higher input costs (higher water prices or greater depth to
 groundwater), and in more environmentally sensitive regions.
 Simulations show that drainage regulations can be expected to
 play a major role in adoption of more efficient irrigation
 technologies in California. Thus, conservation may be a key to
 solving resource scarcity problems and reducing external
 environmental costs.   
 
 
 68                       NAL Call. No.: SB319.2.F6F56
 Effects of reclaimed wastewater on leaf and soil mineral
 composition and fruit
 quality of citrus.
 Zekri, M.; Koo, R.C.J.
 S.l. : The Society; 1991 Jun.
 Proceedings of the ... annual meeting of the Florida State
 Horticulture
 Society v. 103: p. 38-41; 1991 Jun.  Meeting held December
 17-19, 1990, Lake
 Buena Vista, Florida.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Citrus; Irrigation; Waste water; Water
 conservation; Crop quality; Foliar diagnosis; Mineral
 nutrition; Soil water   
 
 
 69                            NAL Call. No.: 100 OR3M
 Effects of straw mulch and irrigation rate on soil loss and
 runoff.
 Shock, C.; Futter, H.; Perry, R.; Swisher, J.; Hobson, J.
 Corvallis, Or. : The Station; 1988 Feb.
 Special report - Oregon State University, Agricultural
 Experiment
 Station
 (816): p. 38-47; 1988 Feb.  In the series analytic: Potato,
 onion, and sugar
 beet research.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oregon; Solanum tuberosum; Straw mulches; Soil
 and water conservation; Furrow irrigation; Operation on
 slopes; Erosion control; Runoff water   
 
 
 70                          NAL Call. No.: 292.8 W295
 Effects of uncertainties on the limits of on-farm improvement
 in
 irrigation
 rehabilitation.
 Sritharan, S.I.; Clyma, W.
 Washington, D.C. : American Geophysical Union; 1992 Oct.
 Water resources research v. 28 (10): p. 2559-2567; 1992 Oct.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Egypt; Developing countries; Surface
 irrigation; Application date; Application depth; Water use
 efficiency; Water flow; Hydraulics; Water yield  
 
 Abstract:  Procedures for analyzing the effects of
 uncertainties on the on-farm time of application and applied
 depth of irrigation have been presented using two parameter-
 gamma densities for the different variables. The critical
 coefficient of variation (CV) in delivered farm flow rate
 beyond which variations in targeted depths cause more
 deviations in time of application is found to be 0.25. For a
 typical set of values for on-farm variables, reducing the CV
 of farm flow below 0.12 does not improve the variance in
 applied depth for the case of fixed CV values of 0.10 for farm
 area and time of application. A distribution function for time
 of application has been derived which will enable the
 computation of reliable levels of application time. Solving
 the yield problems considering the application system
 hydraulics in a deterministic mode does not lead to large
 errors when the variances in the on-farm variables do not
 exceed 0.20. Generally, for shorter basins which are common in
 many countries, higher efficiencies can be achieved.
 Efficiencies less than 85% begin to occur when the length of
 the basin exceeds 275 ft (84 m) for typical values of field
 parameters in soils belonging to the Soil Conservation Service
 infiltration family of 3.0.   
 
 
 71                            NAL Call. No.: 55.9 SP8
 Efficiency in irrigation, a key to water conservation.
 Craw, G.
 Arlington, Va. : The Association; 1988.
 Technical conference proceedings - Irrigation Association. p.
 150-161. ill; 1988.  Paper presented at the "Conference on
 Conserving Energy, Water and
 Other Resources Through Irrigation," October 25-28, 1987,
 Orlando, Florida.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Water conservation; Irrigation systems;
 Efficiency; Coverage; Distribution; Patterns; Spacing;
 Pressure; Nozzles   
 
 
 72                         NAL Call. No.: SB317.5.H68
 Efficiency of fertigation programs for Baltic Ivy and Asiatic
 lily.
 Holcomb, E.J.; Gamez, S.; Beattie, D.; Elliott, G.C.
 Alexandria, VA : American Society for Horticultural Science;
 1992
 Jan.
 HortTechnology v. 2 (1): p. 43-46; 1992 Jan.  Proceedings of
 the
 Short Course
 " Drip Irrigation of Vegetable Crops" held at the 88th ASHS
 Annual
 Meeting, July 25, 1991, Pennsylvania State University,
 University Park.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Hedera helix; Lilium; Irrigation; Irrigation
 systems; Growth; Fertigation; Npk fertilizers; Application
 rates; Nutrient requirements; Water use efficiency; Water
 conservation; Greenhouse culture   
 
 
 73                          NAL Call. No.: SB379.A9A9
 Efficient irrigation saves water.
 Engle, M.M.
 Fallbrook, Calif. : Rancher Publications; 1988 Aug.
 California grower v. 12 (8): p. 12-13, 21, 28. ill; 1988 Aug.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Irrigation systems; Efficiency;
 Evaluation; Water; Distribution; Fruit trees; Water
 conservation   
 
 
 74                          NAL Call. No.: 280.8 J822
 Efficient spatial allocation of irrigation water.
 Chakravorty, U.; Roumasset, J.
 Ames, Iowa : American Agricultural Economics Association; 1991
 Feb.
 American journal of agricultural economics v. 73 (1): p.
 165-173; 1991 Feb.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation water; Water allocation; Spatial
 variation; Marginal analysis; Water costs; Water use
 efficiency; Taxes; Location theory; Simulation models; Demand
 functions  
 
 Abstract:  In the presence of conveyance losses, the efficient
 quantity of water applied falls with distance from the water
 source, but the amount of water "sent" (including conveyance
 losses) actually increases with distance from the source,
 except toward the tail end of the irrigation system. This
 implies that if marginal cost pricing were implemented,
 farmers at the middle and lower reaches of the system would
 have to pay more money for less water received. The model is
 illustrated and alternative financing schemes compared for an
 empirically derived demand function for irrigation water.   
 
 
 75                     NAL Call. No.: S612.2.N38 1990
 Efficient turf water management: a step by step approach.
 Kah, G.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1990.
 Visions of the future : proceedings of the Third National
 Irrigation Symposium
 held in conjunction with the 11th Annual International
 Irrigation
 Exposition, October 28-November 1, 1990, Phoenix Civic Plaza,
 Phoenix, Arizona.
 p. 77-81; 1990. (ASAE publication ; 04-90).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Lawns and turf; Irrigation systems;
 Water use efficiency; Cost control   
 
 
 76                        NAL Call. No.: 100 T31S (1)
 Efficient use of water in the garden and landscape.
 Parsons, J.; Cotner, S.; Roberts, R.; Finch, C.; Welsh, D.
 College Station, Tex. : The Station; 1990 Jun.
 B - Texas Agricultural Experiment Station v.): 23 p.; 1990
 Jun.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Irrigation water; Water use efficiency;
 Landscape; Gardening; Vegetables   
 
 
 77                           NAL Call. No.: HD1750.W4
 Energy and agriculture in Utah: responses to water shortages.
 Keith, J.E.; Martinez Gerstl, G.A.; Snyder, D.L.; Glover, T.F.
 Lincoln, Neb. : Western Agricultural Economics Association;
 1989
 Jul.
 Western journal of agricultural economics v. 14 (1): p. 85-97.
 maps; 1989 Jul.
  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Utah; Water allocation; Irrigation; Drought;
 Energy resources; Water use efficiency; Water availability;
 Probabilistic models; Shadow prices; Energy cost of production 
  
 
 
 78                            NAL Call. No.: S601.A34
 Energy budget studies of some multiple cropping patterns of
 the
 Central
 Himalaya.
 Sharma, S.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier; 1991 Aug.
 Agriculture, ecosystems and environment v. 36 (3/4): p.
 199-206; 1991 Aug.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: India; Rice; Wheat; Soybeans; Millets; Multiple
 cropping; Energy consumption; Efficiency; Rain; Irrigated
 farming; Input output analysis; Crop yield   
 
 
 79                           NAL Call. No.: 60.18 J82
 Ermelo weeping lovegrass response to clipping, fertilization,
 and
 watering.
 Masters, R.A.; Britton, C.M.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1990 Sep.
 Journal of range management v. 43 (5): p. 461-465; 1990 Sep.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Eragrostis curvula; Shoot pruning; Plant height;
 Regrowth; Herbage; Npk fertilizers; Growth rate; Irrigation
 scheduling; Dry matter accumulation; Crude protein; Crop
 yield; Crop quality; Water use efficiency; Root systems;
 Biomass   
 
 
 80                        NAL Call. No.: 275.29 OR32C
 Estimating water flow rates.
 Trimmer, W.L.
 Corvallis, Or. : The Service; 1991 Oct.
 Extension circular EC - Oregon State University, Extension
 Service
 (1369): 3
 p.; 1991 Oct.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oregon; Water flow; Estimation; Statistics;
 Methodology; Water conservation; Irrigation   
 
 
 81                             NAL Call. No.: 26 AG87
 Evaluacion del riego por surcos en San Juan de Lagunillas,
 estado
 Merida
 [Evaluation of furrow irrigation in San Juan de Lagunilla,
 Merida
 State, Venezuela].
 Solorzano, G.I.R. de; Grassi, C.J.
 Maracay, Venezuela : Centro Nacional de Investigaciones
 Agropecuarias; 1988
 Jan.
 Agronomia tropical v. 38 (1/3): p. 47-72; 1988 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  Spanish
 
 Descriptors: Venezuela; Furrow irrigation; Water management;
 Water use efficiency   
 
 
 82                              NAL Call. No.: HD1.A3
 Evaluating the performance of tank irrigation systems.
 Palanisami, K.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1988.
 Agricultural systems v. 28 (3): p. 161-177. ill; 1988. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Tamil nadu; Tanks; Irrigation systems; Cost
 benefit analysis; Simulation models; Water use efficiency;
 Water management   
 
 
 83                         NAL Call. No.: S544.3.C2C3
 Evaluating turfgrass sprinkler irrigation systems.
 Schwankl, L.J.; Shaw, D.A.; Harivandi, M.A.; Snyder, R.L.
 Berkeley, Calif. : The Service; 1992 Sep.
 Leaflet - University of California, Cooperative Extension
 Service
 (21503): 18
 p.; 1992 Sep.
 
 Language: 
 English  Descriptors: Lawns and turf; Sprinkler irrigation;
 Irrigation systems; Application rates; Irrigation water; Water
 use efficiency; Evaluation   
 
 
 84                          NAL Call. No.: S539.5.A77
 Evaluation of a subsurface "pop-up" sprinkler.
 Miller, W.W.; Mahannah, C.N.; Shane, R.L.; Jensen, E.H.;
 Finke, W.W. Jr
 New York, N.Y. : Springer; 1990.
 Applied agricultural research v. 5 (1): p. 56-62. ill; 1990.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nevada; Irrigation equipment; Sprinkler
 irrigation; Design; Automation; Water use efficiency; Labor
 costs; Operating costs  
 
 Abstract:  Most agricultural sprinkler irrigated acreage today
 is under hand-move or motor driven systems. The present trend
 is toward alternatives that are less labor intensive.
 Permanent highly automated systems in which all components are
 deeply buried are attractive because of the low labor use and
 in the retraction mode the entire system is removed from
 potential damage during tillage, harvesting, grazing of
 livestock, or from vandalism. One unique system, AGRI-POP, in
 which the riser and rotating sprinklers are completely
 retractable and extensible was recently developed. Initial
 field experience in this study exposed several design
 problems. Correcting design flaws resulted in a fully
 functional system. However, at an investment cost of about
 $5,601/ha ($2,268/A) greater than the closest solid-set
 alternative and about $7,000/ha ($2,835/A) greater than the
 least expensive hand-line system, AGRI-POP presently is not an
 economically viable alternative for most commercial
 agricultural applications. Improved economics would result if
 the system were mass produced and if relative costs of labor
 increase. In addition, the system could be particularly useful
 where strict environmental and water management controls are
 desired. Several unique recreational and horticultural
 applications are noted.   
 
 
 85                           NAL Call. No.: TC801.I66
 Evaluation of irrigation systems in the irrigated area of
 Chanza
 (Huelva).
 Rodrigo, J.; Gonzalez, J.F.; Borrachero, L.M.
 Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1992 Feb.
 Irrigation and drainage systems : an international journal v.
 6
 (1): p. 37-53; 1992 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Spain; Irrigation systems; Irrigated farming;
 Trickle irrigation; Fragaria ananassa; Performance appraisals;
 Surveys; Farms; Water use efficiency; Crop yield; Problem
 analysis; Problem solving   
 
 
 86                     NAL Call. No.: S612.2.N38 1990
 Evaluation of LEPA on center pivot machines.
 Buchleiter, G.W.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1990.
 Visions of the future : proceedings of the Third National
 Irrigation Symposium
 held in conjunction with the 11th Annual International
 Irrigation
 Exposition, October 28-November 1, 1990, Phoenix Civic Plaza,
 Phoenix, Arizona.
 p.
 720-724; 1990. (ASAE publication ; 04-90).  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Colorado; Center pivot irrigation; Energy
 conservation; Water management   
 
 
 87                             NAL Call. No.: 10 EX72
 Evapotranspiration, water use efficiency, moisture extraction
 pattern and
 plant water relations of rape (Brassica campestris) genotypes
 in
 relation to
 root development under varying irrigation schedules.
 Raja, V.; Bishnoi, K.C.
 Cambridge : Cambridge University Press; 1990 Apr.
 Experimental agriculture v. 26 (2): p. 227-233; 1990 Apr. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Haryana; Brassica campestris; Evapotranspiration;
 Irrigation scheduling; Plant development; Plant water
 relations; Rooting; Water uptake; Water use efficiency   
 
 
 88                             NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Evapotransportation, crop coefficients, and leaching fractions
 of
 irrigated
 desert turfgrass systems.
 Devitt, D.A.; Morris, R.L.; Bowman, D.C.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Jul.
 Agronomy Journal v. 84 (4): p. 717-723; 1992 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nevada; Cynodon dactylon; Lolium perenne; Lawns
 and turf; Irrigation scheduling; Arid climate; Irrigated
 conditions; Evapotranspiration; Leaching; Soil water content;
 Soil water balance; Water conservation; Water management  
 
 Abstract:  Reducing irrigation volumes on turfgrass in an arid
 environment requires close attention to environmental demand.
 The objective of this research was to quantify the water
 balances of three turfgrass sites controlled by an
 evapotranspiration (ET) feedback system and local management.
 Additional objectives included calculating leaching fractions
 (LF), crop coefficients (Kc), water savings, and quantifying
 the variability in potential evapotranspiration (ETo). A 2-yr
 study was conducted on three turfgrass sites in southern
 Nevada growing common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.)
 Pers.] overseeded with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.).
 Two vacuum-drained lysimeters and one automated weather
 station were placed at each location. One lysimeter was
 irrigated by input from an ET feedback system while the other
 was left to local management. The daily Penman combination
 equation was used to calculate ETo. Hydrologic water balances
 were maintained on each lysimeter on a weekly basis. A neutron
 probe was used to measure changes in soil water content in the
 lysimeters. Actual ET (ETa.) varied according to management,
 with the two golf courses having an average ETa 29% higher
 than the park site. Differences in ETa between the park site
 and golf course sites were attributed to cultural management,
 in particular fertilizer input. Crop coefficients varied on a
 monthly basis and between high management vs low management
 turf. A 4 to 6% error was observed in estimating ETo among the
 three sites.   
 
 
 89                         NAL Call. No.: QK938.D4P73
 Experience in developing arid lands of Saudi Arabia.
 Skaini, M.
 New York, N.Y. : Allerton Press; 1988.
 Problems of desert development (4): p. 57-61; 1988. 
 Translated
 from Problemy
 Osvoeniya Pustyn, (4), 1988, p. 57-61. (QK938.D4P7).  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Saudi arabia; Arid lands; Land development;
 Irrigation; Saline water; Runoff water; Wells; Agricultural
 development; Water use efficiency; Program evaluation; Water
 resource management   
 
 
 90                    NAL Call. No.: 1 Ag84Te no.1765
 Factor demand in irrigated agriculture under conditions of
 restricted water
 supplies.
 Bernardo, Daniel J.; Whittlesey, Norman K.
 United States, Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service
 Washington, D.C. : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic
 Research
 Service,; 1989.
 iv, 13 p. : ill. ; 28 cm. (Technical bulletin (United States.
 Dept.
 of
 Agriculture) ; no. 1765.).  Cover title.  "July 1989."--P.
 iii.
 Includes bibliographical references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation efficiency; Northwest, Pacific;
 Irrigation scheduling; Northwest, Pacific; Irrigation farming;
 Economic aspects; Northwest, Pacific   
 
 
 91                           NAL Call. No.: TC801.I66
 Farm-level and district efforts to improve water management
 during
 drought.
 Wichelns, D.; Cone, D.
 Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1992.
 Irrigation and drainage systems : an international journal v.
 6
 (3): p.
 189-199; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Drought; Irrigation scheduling; Water
 distribution; Water use efficiency   
 
 
 92                           NAL Call. No.: TD201.I56
 Feasibility of irrigation canal linings in Bangladesh.
 Mandal, M.A.S.; Dutta, S.C.; Khair, A.; Biswas, M.R.
 Surrey : Butterworth Scientific Ltd; 1988 Sep.
 International journal of water resources development v. 4 (3):
 p.
 169-175; 1988 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Bangladesh; Canals; Linings; Irrigation; Water
 conservation; Cost benefit analysis   
 
 
 93                       NAL Call. No.: SB319.2.N6G84
 Flood irrigation for pecan trees.
 Hohn, C.
 Las Cruces, NM : The Service; 1988 Mar.
 Guide H - New Mexico State University, Cooperative Extension
 Service (610): 1
 p.; 1988 Mar.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New Mexico; Carya illinoensis; Orchards; Flood
 irrigation; Efficiency   
 
 
 94                          NAL Call. No.: 100 C12CAG
 Furrow torpedoes improve irrigation water advance.
 Schwanki, L.J.; Hanson, B.R.; Panoras, A.
 Oakland, Calif. : Division of Agriculture and Natural
 Resources, University of
 California; 1992 Nov.
 California agriculture v. 46 (6): p. 15-17; 1992 Nov.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Irrigation systems; Furrow
 irrigation; Infiltration; Water advance; Drainage water; Water
 conservation   
 
 
 95                            NAL Call. No.: S671.A66
 Furrow traffic and ripping for control of irrigation intake.
 Allen, R.R.; Musick, J.T.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1992 Mar.
 Applied engineering in agriculture v. 8 (2): p. 243-248; 1992
 Mar.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sorghum; Water conservation; Irrigation water;
 Irrigation requirements; Soil management; Furrows; Soil
 compaction; Infiltration; Permeability; Ripping; Clay loam
 soils  
 
 Abstract:  Graded furrow applications of 100 to 200 mm (4 to 8
 in.), which often exceed profile storage capacity, are common
 in the Southern High Plains for the first irrigation after
 primary tillage. This study evaluated furrow compaction by
 wheel traffic as a potentially low cost method of reducing
 excessive intake and conserving irrigation water. A two-year
 field study was conducted with irrigated grain sorghum on a
 slowly permeable Pullman clay loam (Torrertic Paleustoll). The
 objective was to determine the effects of furrow compaction by
 controlled wheel traffic on irrigation intake during the
 preplant irrigation following primary tillage. In addition,
 the effects of furrow ripping, before the second irrigation,
 were compared with the non-traffic control furrows as a means
 of restoring normal late-season intake. On relatively wide 1.5
 m (5 ft) spaced furrows with a 0.15% slope, one traffic pass
 with a 6000 kg (13,200 lb) tractor increased average bulk
 density from 1.1 to 1.27 Mg/m3 at the 50 mm (2 in.) depth.
 Furrow traffic reduced irrigation water advance time up to 45%
 to reach 400 m (1320 ft), and reduced total intake by about
 17% during the first irrigation after tillage. Ripping traffic
 furrows before the second irrigation increased growing season
 irrigation intake by 10% compared with the non-traffic
 furrows. Controlled furrow traffic reduced average growing
 season irrigation water intake by 12%. Furrow traffic and
 furrow ripping treatments did not significantly affect grain
 sorghum yield.   
 
 
 96                           NAL Call. No.: TC903.F88
 Future directions for Indian irrigation research and policy
 issues.
 Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Svendsen, Mark, International Food
 Policy Research Institute
 Washington, D.C. : International Food Policy Research
 Institute,; 1991.
 xiv, 333 p. : ill., maps ; 23 cm.  January 1991.  Includes
 bibliographical
 references (p. [313-331).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation; Irrigation efficiency; Water,
 Underground   
 
 
 97                          NAL Call. No.: SB379.A9A9
 A global view.
 Engle, M.
 Carpinteria, Calif. : Rincon Information Management
 Corporation; 1992 Nov.
 California grower v. 16 (11): p. 34; 1992 Nov.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation; Water management; Agricultural
 production; Drought; Conferences; Water conservation;
 International cooperation   
 
 
 98                           NAL Call. No.: 1.98 AG84
 Grasp at straws, irrigators are advised.
 Corliss, J.
 Washington, D.C. : The Service; 1991 Aug.
 Agricultural research - U.S. Department of Agriculture,
 Agricultural Research
 Service v. 39 (8): p. 25; 1991 Aug.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Furrow irrigation; Straw; Erosion; Erosion
 control; Water conservation   
 
 
 99                       NAL Call. No.: SB475.83.K687
 Gray water use in the landscape how to use gray water to save
 your
 landscape
 during droughts ; illustrations, design, & layout by Heidi
 Schmidt.
 Kourik, Robert; Schmidt, Heidi
 Santa Rosa, CA : Metamorphic Press,; 1988.
 27 p. : ill. ; 21 cm.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Landscape architecture in water conservation;
 California; Water conservation; California; Landscape   
 
 
 100                        NAL Call. No.: S544.3.N7A4
 Growing greenhouse crops with zero run-off technology.
 Weiler, T.C.
 Middletown, N.Y. : Cornell Cooperative Ext.--Orange County
 Agriculture
 Program, Education Center; 1993 Aug.
 Agfocus : publication of Cornell Cooperative Extension--Orange
 County. p. 16; 1993 Aug.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Greenhouse culture; Irrigation; Irrigation
 systems; Water conservation   
 
 
 101                           NAL Call. No.: 23 AU792
 Growth and yield of rice cultivars under sprinkler irrigation
 in
 south-eastern
 Queensland. 1. Effects of sowing time.
 Fukai, S.; Inthapan, P.
 Melbourne : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research
 Organization; 1988.
 Australian journal of experimental agriculture v. 28 (2): p.
 237-242; 1988.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Queensland; Oryza sativa; Cultivars; Yields;
 Growth; Sprinkler irrigation; Sowing date; Water use
 efficiency   
 
 
 102                          NAL Call. No.: S612.I756
 Growth and yield of soybeans under wet soil culture and
 conventional furrow
 irrigation in south-eastern Australia.
 Wright, G.C.; Smith, C.J.; Wilson, I.B.
 Berlin, W. Ger. : Springer International; 1988.
 Irrigation science v. 9 (2): p. 127-142; 1988.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Victoria; Glycine max; Cultivars; Plant
 production; Cultural methods; Furrow irrigation; Plant water
 relations; Water uptake; Water use efficiency; Plant
 development; Growth habit; Yield factors   
 
 
 103                            NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Growth, water-use efficiency, and digestibility of crested,
 intermediate, and
 western wheatgrass.
 Frank, A.B.; Karn, J.F.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1988 Jul.
 Agronomy journal v. 80 (4): p. 677-680; 1988 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Agropyron; Growth rate; Water use efficiency;
 Leaves; Stems; Digestibility; Quality   
 
 
 104                          NAL Call. No.: TD930.A32
 Guayule biomass production under irrigation.
 Nakayama, F.S.; Bucks, D.A.; Roth, R.L.; Gardner, B.R.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1991.
 Bioresource technology v. 35 (2): p. 173-178; 1991.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Parthenium argentatum; Irrigated
 conditions; Biomass production; Rubber; Resins; Yields;
 Nitrogen fertilizers; Yield response functions;
 Evapotranspiration; Water use efficiency; Water requirements  
 
 
 
 105                         NAL Call. No.: SB387.V572
 A guide to irrigating the Florida grape with micro irrigation.
 Surrowitz, S.D.
 Tallahassee, Fla. : Florida A&M University, Center for
 Viticultural
 Science
 and Small Farm; 1991.
 Proceedings of the Florida Grape Conference. p. 1-6; 1991. 
 Meeting
 held
 October 25-26, 1991, Ocala, Florida.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Irrigation systems; Application methods;
 Application rates; Frequency; Pressure; Water conservation;
 Energy conservation   
 
 
 106                         NAL Call. No.: SB299.J6J6
 Historic 4-year test shows jojoba response to water.
 Lucas, K.
 Phoenix, Ariz. : Jojoba Growers Association; 1989 Mar.
 Jojoba happenings v. 17 (2): p. 1, 3. ill; 1989 Mar.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Simmondsia chinensis; Water use
 efficiency; Water harvesting; Soil moisture; Catchment
 planning; Frost; Growth   
 
 
 107                         NAL Call. No.: SB379.A9A9
 How efficient is your irrigation?.
 Haynes, M.
 Carpinteria, Calif. : Rincon Information Management
 Corporation; 1993 May.
 California grower v. 17 (5): p. 25-26; 1993 May.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Orchards; Irrigation systems; Water
 use efficiency; Maintenance   
 
 
 108                         NAL Call. No.: 100 C12CAG
 How to reduce water use and maximize yields in greenhouse
 roses.
 Tjosvold, S.A.; Schulbach, K.F.
 Oakland, Calif. : Division of Agriculture and Natural
 Resources, University of
 California; 1991 May.
 California agriculture v. 45 (3): p. 31-32; 1991 May.  Third
 article in
 issue's 'Surviving the drought' series.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rosa; Irrigation scheduling; Water conservation;
 Yields; Evaporation   
 
 
 109                        NAL Call. No.: SB317.5.H68
 Impact of microirrigation on Florida horticulture.
 Hochmuth, G.J.; Locascio, S.J.; Crocker, T.E.; Stanley, C.D.;
 Clark, G.A.; Parsons, L.R.
 Alexandria, VA : American Society for Horticultural Science,
 c1991-; 1993 Apr.
 HortTechnology v. 3 (2): p. 223-229; 1993 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Cabt; Citrus; Ornamental plants;
 Vegetables; Fruit crops; Horticultural crops; Microirrigation;
 Water conservation   
 
 
 110                         NAL Call. No.: 100 C12CAG
 Implementing CIMIS at the farm level: a grower's experience in
 walnuts.
 Fulton, A.E.; Beede, R.H.; Phene, R.C.
 Oakland, Calif. : Division of Agriculture and Natural
 Resources, University of
 California; 1991 Sep.
 California agriculture v. 45 (5): p. 38-40; 1991 Sep.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Water requirements; Water
 conservation; Irrigation; Crop production; Profits; Yields   
 
 
 111                            NAL Call. No.: 80 P382
 The importance of reducing water use and runoff.
 Grumbine, A.
 Ambler, Pa. : Pennsylvania Flower Growers; 1990 Mar.
 Bulletin - Pennsylvania flower growers (398): p. 3-4; 1990
 Mar.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Water pollution; Irrigation water; Water use;
 Leaching; Runoff; Pollution by agriculture; Water conservation 
  
 
 
 112                            NAL Call. No.: 80 G85W
 Improve water penetration.
 Stockwin, W.
 Willoughby, Ohio : Meister Pub. Co; 1988 Apr.
 Western fruit grower v. 108 (4): p. 36A-36B. ill; 1988 Apr.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Prunus amygdalus; Plant production;
 Cultural methods; Irrigation; Irrigated conditions; Soil
 compaction; Water use efficiency; Discing; Water absorption   
 
 
 113                 NAL Call. No.: TD428.A37T695 1989
 An increasing block-rate pricing program to motivate water
 conservation and
 drain water reduction.
 Wichelns, D.; Cone, D.
 Denver, Colo. : U.S. Committee on Irrigation and Drainage;
 1989.
 Toxic substances in agricultural water supply and drainage :
 an int
 environ
 perspective : papers from the Second Pan-American Regional
 Conf of
 the Int
 Commission on Irrigation and Drainage, Ottawa, Canada, June
 8-9, 1989. p.
 137-147; 1989.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Subsurface drainage; Drainage water;
 Water pollution; Pollution by agriculture; Salt; Selenium;
 Concentration; Water conservation; Irrigation; Water; Prices;
 Irrigation requirements; Crops   
 
 
 114                         NAL Call. No.: 292.9 AM34
 An index for measuring the performance of irrigation
 management
 systems with
 an application.
 Seckler, D.; Sampath, R.K.; Raheja, S.K.
 Minneapolis, Minn. : American Water Resources Association;
 1988
 Aug.
 Water resources bulletin v. 24 (4): p. 855-860; 1988 Aug. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: India; Water management; Irrigation systems;
 Performance; Efficiency; Evaluation; Measurement; Performance
 indexes; Management by objectives   
 
 
 115                            NAL Call. No.: 80 J825
 Influence of daily intermittent drip irrigation on avocado
 (cv.
 Fuerte) fruit
 yield and trunk growth.
 Adato, I.; Levinson, B.
 Ashford : Headley Brothers Ltd; 1988 Oct.
 The Journal of horticultural science v. 63 (4): p. 675-685;
 1988
 Oct.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Israel; Persea Americana; Fruit; Yields; Trunks;
 Growth; Trickle irrigation; Irrigation scheduling; Yield
 response functions; Evaporation; Water use efficiency; Water
 balance   
 
 
 116                          NAL Call. No.: SB218.J67
 Influence of seasonal irrigation amount on sugarbeet yield and
 quality.
 Winter, S.R.
 Fort Collins, Colo. : American Society of Sugar Beet
 Technologists, Office of
 the Secretary; 1988.
 Journal of sugar beet research v. 25 (1): p. 1-10; 1988. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Beta vulgaris; Irrigation requirements;
 Irrigation scheduling; Seasonal variation; Water use
 efficiency; Evapotranspiration; Soil water content; Nitrogen
 fertilizers; Clay loam soils; Crop yield; Roots; Plant
 composition; Chemical composition; Sucrose; Purity; Crop
 quality; Sugar extraction quality; Molasses   
 
 
 117                             NAL Call. No.: SB1.H6
 Innovative irrigation techniques in nursery production to
 reduce
 water usage.
 Kabashima, J.N.
 Alexandria, Va. : The American Society for Horticultural
 Science; 1993 Apr.
 HortScience : a publication of the American Society for
 Horticultural Science
 v. 28 (4): p. 291-293; 1993 Apr.  Paper presented at the
 colloquium
 "Politics
 of water use and its effects on water research of
 horticultural
 crops," held
 at the 87th ASHS Annual Meeting, Nov. 8, 1990, Tucson,
 Arizona.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Cabt; Nurseries; Crop production;
 Irrigation; Techniques; Innovations; Water use; Water
 conservation; Case studies   
 
 
 118                         NAL Call. No.: 286.8 N47M
 Investment in water saving technology on horticultural farms.
 Mallawaarachchi, T.; Hall, N.; Phillips, B.
 Armidale : Australian Agricultural Economics Society, Inc;
 1992
 Aug.
 Review of marketing and agricultural economics v. 60 (2,pt.1):
 p.
 191-204; 1992 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New South Wales; Citrus; Grapes; Crop
 enterprises; Irrigated farming; Investment; Water
 conservation; Technology   
 
 
 119                           NAL Call. No.: 100 UT1F
 Irrigate to conserve water.
 Logan, Utah : The Station; 1990.
 Utah Science - Utah Agricultural Experiment Station v. 50 (4):
 p.
 154-155.
 ill; 1990.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation scheduling; Irrigation water; Water
 conservation; Guidelines   
 
 
 120                            NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Irrigation and plant spacing effects on seed production of
 buffalo
 and coyote
 gourds.
 Nelson, J.M.; Scheerens, J.C.; McGriff, T.L.; Gathman, A.C.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1988 Jan.
 Agronomy journal v. 80 (1): p. 60-65; 1988 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cucurbita foetidissima; Cucurbita; Oilseeds; Seed
 production; Row spacing; Irrigation requirements; Water use
 efficiency; Xerophytes; Crop yield; Yield response functions  
 
 Abstract:  Buffalo gourd (Cucurbita foetidissima HBK) and
 coyote gourd (Cucurbita digitata Gray) are xerophytic
 perennial cucurbits with potential as oilseed or starch crops
 for arid and semiarid lands. This study investigated
 irrigation and plant spacing effects on growth, water
 requirements, and oilseed production of these species.
 Irrigation of first-season buffalo gourds planted in 1981 at a
 610-m elevation site on Pima clay loam [fine-silty, mixed
 (calcareous) thermic typic Torrifluvent], and irrigation and
 plant spacing were evaluated on first-season buffalo and
 coyote gourds at a 360-m site in 1983 on Casa Grande sandy
 loam (fine-loamy, mixed, hyperthermic Typic Natrargid) and
 Trix clay-clay loam [fine-loamy, mixed (calcareous),
 hyperthermic Typic Torrifluvent], respectively. Irrigation and
 plant spacing were evaluated on second-season buffalo gourds
 planted in 1983. Irrigation did not affect first-season
 buffalo gourd yields. Second-season yields were reduced by
 irrigating when the available soil water was 75% depleted (I2)
 compared to irrigating when soil water was 50% depleted (I1).
 Coyote gourd yields were reduced by the I2 treatment in 1983
 but not in 1984. Consumptive water use for first season
 buffalo gourds in the I1 treatment at the 610- and 360-m sites
 was 870 and 645 mm, respectively. Consumptive water use was
 similar for coyote and buffalo gourds at the 360-m site. In
 the first season, these species derived up to 50% of water
 used from the top 0.4 m of soil, and extracted water to a
 depth of at least 2.6 m. Irrigation did not affect water-use
 efficiency (WUE) of either species. Buffalo gourds had higher
 WUE in the second season (0.09 kg seed m.3 water) than the
 first season (0.04 kg m.3). Plant spacings of 0.25 to 2 m in
 1-m spaced rows had no effect on first-season yield in 1983
 but in 1984 a quadratic relationship indicated that the
 closest and widest spacings reduced yields. Coyote gourd
 cosistently out-yielded buffalo gourd at the 360-m site.
 Although   
 
 
 121                       NAL Call. No.: SB435.5.A645
 Irrigation benefits from new technology.
 Hartin, J.; Pittenger, D.
 Van Nuys, Calif. : Gold Trade Publications; 1992 Jun.
 Arbor age v. 12 (6): p. 27-28; 1992 Jun.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Trees; Irrigation; Landscape gardening; Urban
 areas; Irrigation scheduling; Water use efficiency   
 
 
 122                           NAL Call. No.: S671.A38
 Irrigation costs for tomato production in Florida.
 Pitts, D.J.; Smajstrla, A.G.; Haman, D.Z.; Clark, G.A.
 Gainesville, Fla. : The Service; 1990.
 Agricultural engineering fact sheet - Florida Cooperative
 Extension
 Service
 (74): 4 p.; 1990.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Lycopersicon esculentum; Irrigation;
 Costs; Water use efficiency; Irrigation systems; Subsurface
 irrigation; Irrigation channels; Trickle irrigation; Cost
 benefit analysis   
 
 
 123                            NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Irrigation effects on water use, and production of tap roots
 and
 starch of
 buffalo gourd.
 Nelson, J.M.; Scheerens, J.C.; Bucks, D.A.; Berry, J.W.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1989 May.
 Agronomy journal v. 81 (3): p. 439-442; 1989 May.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Cucurbita foetidissima; Starch crops;
 Root crops; Water use efficiency; Semiarid climates;
 Irrigation requirements; Irrigation scheduling; Water stress;
 Crop yield; Crop quality; Starch; Root systems; Growth rate  
 
 Abstract:  The buffalo gourd (Cucurbita foetidissima HBK) is a
 possible new root starch crop for semiarid regions.
 Information on water use relationships of this species is
 needed to determine its suitability for arid lands
 agriculture. The objective of this study was to assess the
 influence of water management on buffalo gourd tap root
 production and water use. Five irrigation levels were
 evaluated for an annual buffalo gourd crop in 1985 and 1986 at
 a 360-m elevation field site on Casa Grande sandy loam (fine-
 loamy, mixed, hyperthermic Typic Natrargid) using plant
 populations of 400 000 to 450 000 plants ha-1. Irrigating at
 50% available soil water (ASW) content (I1) gave higher fresh
 tap root yields than irrigating at 75% ASW (I2) (27.8 vs. 24.1
 Mg ha-1) in 1985 with identical starch yields. In 1986 the I2
 treatment was higher than the I1 treatment in starch yield
 (3.1 vs. 2.1 Mg ha-1) and tap root starch concentration (47.5
 vs. 38.1%). Vines of water stressed plants (I2) grew rapidly
 when irrigated. Consumptive water use was 649 and 487 mm in I1
 and I2, respectively. Peak consumptive use rates were less
 than 6.5 mm d-1. As much as 48% of seasonal water use was from
 the 0 to 0.4 m soil depth. Water was extracted to a depth of
 2.6m. The I2 treatment had the highest water-use efficiency
 (WUE), 4.9 kg m-3, for fresh root production. The WUE for
 starch production was higher for the I2 treatment (0.62KG m-3)
 than the I1 treatment (0.42 kg m-3). Irrigation scheduling to
 provide moderate stress reduces buffalo gourd water use
 without reducing starch yield, increasing its potential as a
 semiarid starch crop.   
 
 
 124                        NAL Call. No.: aS619.E34A9
 Irrigation efficiency and regional subsurface drain flow on
 the
 west side of
 the San Joaquin Valley final report on contract B56488.
 Ayars, James E.; Schrale, Gerrit
 California, Office of Water Conservation, Panoche Water and
 Drainage District
 (Calif.),Water Management Research Laboratory (U.S.)
 Fresno, CA : Water Management Research Laboratory, USDA/ARS,
 [1990?]; 1990.
 ix, 120 leaves : ill., maps ; 28 cm.  Includes bibliographical
 references
 (leaves 118-119).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation efficiency; Subsurface drainage;
 Water, Underground   
 
 
 125                           NAL Call. No.: 100 UT1F
 Irrigation for highest profits.
 Logan, Utah : The Station; 1990.
 Utah Science - Utah Agricultural Experiment Station v. 50 (4):
 p.
 171-172; 1990.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Utah; Irrigation scheduling; Irrigation water;
 Water conservation; Cost benefit analysis; Yield response
 functions; Medicago sativa   
 
 
 126                   NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM3PS (IR)
 Irrigation in Midwest: lessons from Illinois.
 Bowman, J.A.; Simmons, F.W.; Kimpel, B.C.
 New York, N.Y. : American Society of Civil Engineers; 1991
 Sep.
 Journal of irrigation and drainage engineering v. 117 (5): p.
 700-715; 1991
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Illinois; Irrigation; Irrigation water; Water
 use; Water use efficiency; Irrigation scheduling; Zea mays;
 Glycine max; Evapotranspiration; Rhizosphere; Field capacity;
 Soil types; Climatic factors   
 
 
 127                           NAL Call. No.: 23 AU783
 Irrigation management of soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merrill]
 in a
 semi-arid
 tropical environment. II. Effect of irrigation frequency on
 soil
 and plant
 water status and crop water use.
 Garside, A.L.; Lawn, R.J.; Muchow, R.C.; Byth, D.E.
 Melbourne : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research
 Organization; 1992.
 Australian journal of agricultural research v. 43 (5): p.
 1019-1032; 1992.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Western australia; Glycine max; Irrigation;
 Frequency; Plant water relations; Semiarid zones; Soil water;
 Tropics; Water use efficiency   
 
 
 128                    NAL Call. No.: S612.2.N38 1990
 Irrigation management service's role in improving irrigation
 water
 use in
 Arizona.
 Haynes, C.A.; Ekholt, B.A.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1990.
 Visions of the future : proceedings of the Third National
 Irrigation Symposium
 held in conjunction with the 11th Annual International
 Irrigation
 Exposition, October 28-November 1, 1990, Phoenix Civic Plaza,
 Phoenix, Arizona.
 p. 61-63; 1990. (ASAE publication ; 04-90).  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Irrigation; Water management; Water use
 efficiency   
 
 
 129                       NAL Call. No.: S544.3.N6N62
 Irrigation management strategies to improve water- & energy-
 use
 efficiencies.
 Evans, R.O.; Sneed, R.E.; Hunt, J.H.
 Raleigh, N.C. : The Service; 1991 Jun.
 AG - North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service, North
 Carolina
 State
 University (452-5): 8 p.; 1991 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Carolina; Irrigation systems; Efficiency;
 Statistics; Water management; Water conservation; Energy
 conservation   
 
 
 130                          NAL Call. No.: S612.I756
 Irrigation of seed carrots on a sandy loam soil.
 Ayars, J.E.; Hutmacher, R.B.; Steiner, J.J.; Mantel, A.B.;
 Vail, S.S.
 Berlin, W. Ger. : Springer International; 1991.
 Irrigation science v. 12 (4): p. 193-198; 1991.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Daucus carota; Seed production;
 Trickle irrigation; Irrigation scheduling; Water requirements;
 Water use; Soil water content; Crop yield; Seeds; Water use
 efficiency  
 
 Abstract:  Little research has been reported which quantifies
 the response of a carrot (Daucus carrota L. var sativa DC.)
 seed crop to water management. While the area of seed
 production of this crop in the United States is less than 3
 000 ha, the return ranges from US $2 000 to $10 000 ha-1.
 Because of the need to mature and dry the seed on the plant,
 carrot seed is generally grown in areas with negligible summer
 rain and thus depends on irrigation to supply the crop water
 requirement. A study was conducted to determine the effect of
 irrigation water management on seed production and crop water
 use of carrots grown by the root-to-seed method. Two carrot
 types (Nantes and Imperator) were evaluated in 9 irrigation
 treatments over a three year study period. Irrigation
 treatments which replaced a percentage of the calculated crop
 evapotranspiration on either a daily basis or when a soil
 water depletion reached 30 mm were used. A trickle irrigation
 system with the laterals placed on the carrot bed was used to
 apply a uniform and accurate amount of water. There was a
 marked difference in the crop response to the water management
 of the two carrot types used. The Nantes type exhibited a
 positive response to moderate water deficits in terms of
 improved pure live seed (PLS) yield while the Imperator
 achieved its maximum yield when it was not stressed. Higher
 irrigation applications in the Nantes type resulted in reduced
 yields while the Imperator was not affected after its non-
 stress water requirement was met. Soil water data indicated
 that the most active zone of extraction of water was to a
 depth of 1.5 m in the soil profile. As the depth of applied
 water approached the crop water requirement, the depth of
 extraction was reduced. Increasing the frequency of irrigation
 also tended to reduce the depth of extraction of soil water. A
 total crop water use of approximately 550 to 620 mm was needed
 to achieve the best PLS yield which is roughly equal to
 potential evapotranspiration in th   
 
 
 131                    NAL Call. No.: S612.2.N38 1990
 Irrigation policy by non-agriculturalists.
 Moore, R.E.; Downing, J.D.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1990.
 Visions of the future : proceedings of the Third National
 Irrigation Symposium
 held in conjunction with the 11th Annual International
 Irrigation
 Exposition, October 28-November 1, 1990, Phoenix Civic Plaza,
 Phoenix, Arizona.
 p.
 322-329; 1990. (ASAE publication ; 04-90).  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; California; Irrigation; Land ownership;
 Water conservation   
 
 
 132                           NAL Call. No.: 100 T31M
 Irrigation pumping plant efficiences--High Plains and Trans-
 Pecos
 areas of
 Texas.
 New, L.; Schneider, A.D.
 College Station, Tex. : The Station; 1988 Mar.
 Miscellaneous publication MP - Texas Agricultural Experiment
 Station (1643): 6
 p.; 1988 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Irrigation equipment; Thermal efficiency;
 Energy requirements; Pumps   
 
 
 133                           NAL Call. No.: S671.A66
 Irrigation pumpset efficiency in developing countries: field
 measurements in
 Pakistan.
 Reinemann, D.J.; Khalid, M.; Kah, G.F.; Saqib, G.S.
 St. Joseph, MI : American Society of Agricultural Engineers,
 1985-; 1993 Jan.
 Applied engineering in agriculture v. 9 (1): p. 141-145; 1993
 Jan.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pakistan; Cabt; Irrigation systems; Pumps;
 Efficiency; Energy consumption  
 
 Abstract:  The mechanical efficiency of 132 privately owned
 irrigation pumpsets in Pakistan was measured The average
 overall efficiency was 54 and 48% of the Nebraska Pumping
 Plant Performance Criteria (NPPPC) for electric and diesel
 powered centrifugal pumpsets, respectively. Forty-four
 pumpsets were improved using local technology. This article
 presents details and results of this project.   
 
 
 134                   NAL Call. No.: S619.S33I77 1989
 Irrigation scheduling a guide for efficient on-farm water
 management.
 Goldhamer, David Alan; Snyder, Richard L.
 University of California (System), Division of Agriculture and
 Natural
 Resources
 Oakland : Calif. : University of California, Division of
 Agriculture and
 Natural Resources,; 1989.
 iv, 67 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm. (Publication (University of
 California
 (System). Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources) ;
 21454.).
 Includes bibliographical references. (p. 65-67).
 
 Language: 
 English  Descriptors: Irrigation water; Irrigation efficiency;
 Irrigation scheduling   
 
 
 135                             NAL Call. No.: HD1.A3
 Irrigation scheduling of rice with a crop growth simulation
 model.
 Rao, N.H.; Rees, D.H.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1992.
 Agricultural systems v. 39 (2): p. 115-132; 1992.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sri lanka; Oryza sativa; Irrigation scheduling;
 Growth models; Simulation models; Crop production; Rain;
 Utilization; Water conservation; Water supply; Seasonal
 variation; Soil water balance; Crop yield; Validity; Double
 cropping; Wet season; Dry season   
 
 
 136                        NAL Call. No.: SB317.5.H68
 Irrigation scheduling programs for cabbage and zucchini
 squash.
 Ells, J.E.; McSay, A.E.; Kruse, E.G.
 Alexandria, VA : American Society for Horticultural Science,
 c1991-; 1993 Oct.
 HortTechnology v. 3 (4): p. 448-453; 1993 Oct.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cucurbita pepo; Brassica oleracea var. capitata;
 Irrigation scheduling; Water use efficiency; Computer
 software; Computer analysis   
 
 
 137                       NAL Call. No.: S544.3.N6N62
 Irrigation scheduling to improve water- and energy-use
 efficiencies.
 Evans, R.O.; Sneed, R.E.; Cassel, D.K.
 Raleigh, N.C. : The Service; 1991 Jun.
 AG - North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service, North
 Carolina
 State
 University (452-4): 10 p.; 1991 Jun.  In subseries: Water &
 Energy
 Efficiency
 in Irrigation.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Carolina; Irrigation scheduling; Energy
 conservation; Water conservation; Soil water content; Plant
 effects; Rain; Tensiometers   
 
 
 138                          NAL Call. No.: SB469.G76
 Irrigation: strategies to minimize water use.
 Burger, D.W.
 Novato, CA : Cooperative Extension; 1992 Aug.
 Growing points - University of California Cooperative
 Extension v.
 29 (1): p.
 2-3; 1992 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation; Water conservation; Irrigation
 systems   
 
 
 139              NAL Call. No.: Videocassette no.1373
 Irrigation the key to effective water management..  Key to
 effective water
 management No water... no future
 Irrigation Association
 Arlington, Va. : The Association ; Fairfax, Va. : Media
 Communications Corp., [1988?]; 1988.
 1 videocassette (16 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in.  Title from
 cassette label.
 Title on container: No water... no future.  3M0490.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation; Water conservation  
 
 Abstract:  Provides a basic understanding of the vital role
 irrigation plays in our lives. Teaches how to use new
 technologies to aid us in utilizing water conservatively.   
 
 
 140                   NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM3PS (IR)
 Irrigation uniformity relationships for irrigation system
 management.
 Clemmens, A.J.
 New York, N.Y. : American Society of Civil Engineers; 1991
 Sep.
 Journal of irrigation and drainage engineering v. 117 (5): p.
 682-699; 1991
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Surface irrigation; Trickle irrigation; Sprinkler
 irrigation; Irrigation water; Application to land;
 Infiltration; Depth; Irrigation requirements; Water use
 efficiency; Decision making; Distribution; Variance   
 
 
 141                           NAL Call. No.: 81 C1293
 Irrigation uniformity saves water.
 Engle, M.M.
 San Francisco, Calif. : Pacific Horticultural Foundation;
 1988.
 Pacific horticulture v. 49 (3): p. 19-21. ill; 1988.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Water conservation; Irrigation systems   
 
 
 142                            NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Irrigation water management for guar seed production.
 Alexander, W.L.; Bucks, D.A.; Backhaus, R.A.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1988 May.
 Agronomy journal v. 80 (3): p. 447-453; 1988 May.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cyamopsis tetragonoloba; Irrigation water; Water
 management; Seed production; Irrigation scheduling; Water use
 efficiency; Cultivars; Sandy loam soils; Evapotranspiration;
 Plant density; Crop yield   
 
 
 143                        NAL Call. No.: HC59.7.A1W6
 Issues in irrigation pricing in developing countries.
 Sampath, R.K.
 Tarrytown, N.Y. : Pergamon Press, Inc; 1992 Jul.
 World development v. 20 (7): p. 967-977; 1992 Jul.  Literature
 review.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Developing countries; Asia; Irrigation water;
 Water costs; Use efficiency; Recovery; Cost analysis; Marginal
 analysis; Development projects; Government; Role perception   
 
 
 144                       NAL Call. No.: 100 T31S (1)
 Landscape water conservation--Xeriscape.
 Welsh, D.F.; Welch, W.C.; Duble, R.L.
 College Station, Tex. : The Station; 1990 Aug.
 B - Texas Agricultural Experiment Station v.): 12 p.; 1990
 Aug.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Landscape gardening; Irrigation; Water
 conservation   
 
 
 145                       NAL Call. No.: 100 T31S (1)
 LEPA conversion and management.
 New, L.; Fipps, G.
 College Station, Tex. : The Station; 1990 Oct.
 B - Texas Agricultural Experiment Station (1691): 8 p.; 1990
 Oct.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Center pivot irrigation; Irrigation
 equipment   
 
 
 146                   NAL Call. No.: KF27.I5474 1988c
 Lining the All-American Canal oversight hearing before the
 Subcommittee on
 Water and Power Resources of the Committee on Interior and
 Insular
 Affairs, House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress,
 second session
 ... hearing
 held in Washington, DC, February 23, 1988..  Lining the All
 American Canal
 United States. Congress. House. Committee on Interior and
 Insular
 Affairs.
 Subcommittee on Water and Power Resources
 Washington, [D.C.] : U.S. G.P.O. : For sale by the Supt. of
 Docs., Congressional Sales Office, U.S. G.P.O.,; 1989; Y 4.In
 8/14:100-55.
 vii, 370 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm.  Distributed to some
 depository
 libraries in
 microfiche.  Serial no. 100-55.  Includes bibliographical
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation canals and flumes; United States;
 Linings; Water conservation; United States   
 
 
 147                             NAL Call. No.: SB1.H6
 Long Island vegetable production: research and implementation
 programs to
 reduce water usage.
 Wilcox, D.
 Alexandria, Va. : The American Society for Horticultural
 Science; 1993 Apr.
 HortScience : a publication of the American Society for
 Horticultural Science
 v. 28 (4): p. 293-294; 1993 Apr.  Paper presented at the
 colloquium
 "Politics
 of water use and its effects on water research of
 horticultural
 crops," held
 at the 87th ASHS Annual Meeting, Nov. 8, 1990, Tucson,
 Arizona.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New York; Cabt; Vegetables; Crop production;
 Water use efficiency; Irrigation water; Water conservation;
 Irrigation scheduling; Trickle irrigation   
 
 
 148                             NAL Call. No.: S1.T49
 Low energy precision application irrigation for cotton
 production
 in the Texas
 Southern High Plains.
 Hill, K.; Segarra, E.; Ervin, R.T.; Lyle, W.M.
 Canyon, Tex. : The Consortium; 1990.
 Texas journal of agriculture and natural resources : a
 publication
 of the
 Agricultural Consortium of Texas v. 4: p. 40-42; 1990. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Gossypium hirsutum; Irrigation systems;
 Water use efficiency; Energy conservation; Water management;
 Sprinkler irrigation; Water conservation; Labor costs;
 Maintenance; Cost benefit analysis   
 
 
 149                          NAL Call. No.: SB245.B42
 Low energy precision application (LEPA) and multifunction
 irrigation systems.
 Lyle, W.M.
 Memphis, Tenn. : National Cotton Council; 1988.
 Proceedings of the...Beltwide Cotton Production Conference. p.
 32-36; 1988.
 Meeting held January 3-8, 1988, New Orleans, Louisiana. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Gossypium; Irrigation systems; Sprinkler
 irrigation; Application methods; Accuracy; Crop yield;
 Pesticide application   
 
 
 150                         NAL Call. No.: SF85.A1R32
 Low volume spring developments.
 Northup, B.K.; Goerend, D.T.; Hays, D.M.; Nicholson, R.A.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1989 Feb.
 Rangelands v. 11 (1): p. 39-41. ill; 1989 Feb.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kansas; Livestock; Rangelands; Range management;
 Water troughs; Appropriate technology; Water use efficiency;
 Cost analysis   
 
 
 151                          NAL Call. No.: 1.98 AG84
 Lower water pressure, less water waste.
 Comis, D.
 Washington, D.C. : The Service; 1992 May.
 Agricultural research - U.S. Department of Agriculture,
 Agricultural Research
 Service v. 40 (5): p. 23; 1992 May.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Irrigation systems; Lysimeters; Nozzles;
 Calibration; Water conservation   
 
 
 152                         NAL Call. No.: S451.P4P45
 Make every drop count.
 Pruyne, R.
 University Park, Pa. : Pennsylvania State University; 1992.
 PennState agriculture. p. 14-19; 1992.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Greenhouses; Irrigation systems; Water use; Water
 conservation   
 
 
 153                        NAL Call. No.: HC59.7.A1W6
 The management of irrigation systems: How to evoke trust and
 avoid
 prisoners'
 dilemma.
 Wade, R.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1988 Apr.
 World development v. 16 (4): p. 489-500; 1988 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: India; East asia; Irrigation scheduling; Water
 use efficiency; Farmers' attitudes; Authority; Law
 enforcement; Climatic factors; Canals   
 
 
 154                           NAL Call. No.: SB249.N6
 Management strategies for maximum cotton production on the
 southern
 High
 Plains of Texas. III. Water use and water use efficiency
 considerations.
 Gertsis, A.C.; Krieg, D.R.; Hatfield, J.L.
 Memphis, Tenn. : National Cotton Council and The Cotton
 Foundation; 1988.
 Proceedings - Beltwide Cotton Production Research Conferences.
 p.
 73-75; 1988.
  Conference held on January 3-8, 1988, New Orleans, Louisiana.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Loam soils; Sandy soils; Clay soils;
 Gossypium; Row spacing; Irrigated conditions; Water use
 efficiency; Evapotranspiration; Crop yield; Lint; Simulation
 models   
 
 
 155                           NAL Call. No.: SB249.N6
 Management strategies for maximum cotton production on the
 southern
 High
 Plains of Texas. IV. Canopy gas exchange.
 Peng, S.; Krieg, D.R.; Gertsis, A.C.; Hopkins, H.J.; Hatfield,
 J.L.
 Memphis, Tenn. : National Cotton Council and The Cotton
 Foundation; 1988.
 Proceedings - Beltwide Cotton Production Research Conferences.
 p.
 76-77; 1988.
  Conference held on January 3-8, 1988, New Orleans, Louisiana.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Clay soils; Loam soils; Gossypium; Canopy;
 Gas exchange; Photosynthesis; Irrigated conditions; Water use
 efficiency; Row spacing; Evapotranspiration; Irrigation
 scheduling   
 
 
 156                          NAL Call. No.: TC801.I66
 Managing the water balance of The Fayoum Depression, Egypt.
 Wolters, W.; Ghobrial, N.S.; Leeuwen, H.M. van; Bos, M.G.
 Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1989.
 Irrigation and drainage systems : an international journal v.
 3
 (2): p.
 103-123. maps; 1989.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Egypt; Irrigated sites; Irrigation systems; Water
 balance; Irrigation water; Water use efficiency; Lakes; Water
 management   
 
 
 157                           NAL Call. No.: HD101.S6
 A microcomputer model for irrigation system evaluation.
 Williams, J.R.; Buller, O.H.; Dvorak, G.J.; Manges, H.L.
 Experiment, Ga. : The Association; 1988 Jul.
 Southern journal of agricultural economics - Southern
 Agricultural
 Economics
 Association v. 20 (1): p. 145-151; 1988 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Irrigation systems; Computer software;
 Water use efficiency; Microcomputers; Operating costs; Pumps;
 Water table   
 
 
 158                        NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32P
 The Missouri extension approach to irrigation scheduling.
 Pfost, D.L.; Thompson, A.L.; Honeycutt, S.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1990.
 Paper - American Society of Agricultural Engineers (90-7015):
 11
 p.; 1990.
 Paper presented at The 1990 International Summer Meeting
 sponsored
 by the
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, June 24-27, 1990,
 Columbus Ohio.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Missouri; Irrigation; Water conservation   
 
 
 159                           NAL Call. No.: aS622.S6
 Mobile labs help farmers conserve water.
 Greenberg, A.
 Washington, D.C. : The Service; 1992 Jul.
 Soil & water conservation news - U.S. Deptartment of
 Agriculture, Soil
 Conservation Service v. 13 (2): p. 9-10; 1992 Jul.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Irrigation; Irrigation water; Water
 conservation; Water use efficiency; Improvement; Crop
 production   
 
 
 160                        NAL Call. No.: SB317.5.H68
 Monitoring irrigation at container nurseries.
 Fare, D.C.; Gilliam, C.H.; Keever, G.J.
 Alexandria, VA : American Society for Horticultural Science;
 1992
 Jan.
 HortTechnology v. 2 (1): p. 75-78; 1992 Jan.  Proceedings of
 the
 Short Course
 " Drip Irrigation of Vegetable Crops" held at the 88th ASHS
 Annual
 Meeting, July 25, 1991, Pennsylvania State University,
 University Park.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nurseries; Container grown plants; Irrigation
 systems; Overhead irrigation; Spatial distribution; Water use
 efficiency   
 
 
 161                         NAL Call. No.: S624.C2S64
 New irrigation strategies help wine-grape growers cope with
 limited
 water
 supplies.
 Prichard, T.L.; Verdegaal, P.; Smith, R.
 Oakland, Calif. : Cooperative Extension, University of
 California; 1991.
 Soil and water (80): p. 1, 4; 1991.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Vitis; Irrigation; Yields; Water use efficiency;
 Water stress   
 
 
 162                            NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Nonionic surfactant and supplemental irrigation of soybean on
 crusting soils.
 McCauley, G.N.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1993 Jan.
 Agronomy journal v. 85 (1): p. 17-21; 1993 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Glycine max; Crop yield; Seeds; Nonionic
 surfactants; Sprinkler irrigation; Phosphorus fertilizers;
 Potassium fertilizers; Use efficiency; Application rates;
 Adjuvants; Crusts; Hydrophobicity  
 
 Abstract:  Agricultural land use in much of the Texas Coastal
 Prairie consists of 1 yr of rice (Oryza sativa L.) followed by
 2 to 4 yr of native pasture. Replacing some of the native
 pasture with a cultivated rotational crop could benefit the
 area's agricultural base by reducing fixed costs and aiding
 pest management. Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] fits the
 crop rotation system well but yields are highly variable and
 marginally economical. Research was initiated in 1985 near
 Eagle Lake, TX, to evaluate the potential of a nonionic
 surfactant and supplemental irrigation to increase and
 stabilize soybean yields on the Nada soil (fine loamy,
 silicous, hyperthermic Typic Albaqualf). In addition the
 effect of the surfactant and irrigation on P and K fertilizer
 efficiency was evaluated. The nonionic surfactant (Amway ASPA
 80, Amway Corp., Ada, MI) was injected through a lateral-move
 irrigation system at 0.00, 0.36, 0.71, and 1.42 L ha-1 during
 a 7 mm irrigation. Adjuvant rate, repeated adjuvant
 applications within 1 yr and over 3 yr, and P and K at the
 recommended and half the recommended rates were evaluated.
 Supplemental irrigation was applied so irrigation plus
 rainfall equalled 19 mm wk-1. No measurable yield differences
 between P and K rates were detected. The adjuvant at 0.36 L
 ha-1 increased soybean yields 37% above the check. Adjuvant at
 the 0.71 and 1.42 L ha-1 rate decreased yield from the 0.36 L
 ha-1 rate. No phytotoxicity was observed. Multiple adjuvant
 applications during 1 yr, and repeated applications to the
 same area over years, had no additional beneficial yield
 effect.   
 
 
 163                           NAL Call. No.: SB249.N6
 On the econmics of cotton conservation tillage with low energy
 precision
 application irrigation.
 Triplett, C.M.; Pegarra, E.; Lyle, W.M.
 Memphis, Tenn. : National Cotton Council of America; 1992.
 Proceedings - Beltwide Cotton Production Research Conferences
 v. 1:
 p.
 431-435; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Gossypium; Conservation tillage; Irrigation   
 
 
 164                          NAL Call. No.: TC401.W27
 On the rationalization of water management for food
 production.
 Jermar, M.K.
 Hingham, Mass. : Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1990.
 Water resources management v. 4 (3): p. 205-217; 1990. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Water management; Irrigated farming;
 Optimization; Irrigation systems; Food crops; Crop yield;
 Cropping systems; Crop production; Irrigation requirements;
 Water use efficiency; Irrigation scheduling; Equations   
 
 
 165                   NAL Call. No.: S619.E34O66 1988
 Opportunities for drainage water reduction.
 University of California (System), Committee of Consultants on
 Drainage Water
 Reduction, University of California (System),
 Salinity/Drainage
 Task Force, California Water Resources Center
 Davis, Calif.? : The Task Force : The Center,; 1988.
 28 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm. (Drainage, salinity, and toxic
 constituents ; no.
 1).  Cover title.  January 1988.  Includes bibliographical
 references (leaves
 27-28).
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation efficiency; Irrigation water;
 Drainage; Agricultural pollution
 
 
 166                         NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Optimal deficit irrigation management.
 Severin, M.A.; Martin, D.L.; Supalla, R.J.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1988.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche
 collection)
 (fiche no.
 88-2512): 29 p. ill; 1988.  Paper presented at the 1988 Winter
 Meeting of the
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Available for
 purchase
 from: The
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950
 Niles
 Road, St.
 Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order Dept. at (616)
 429-0300
 for
 information and prices.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation scheduling; Water stress; Water
 conservation; Dynamic programming; Water use efficiency; Water
 allocation; Decision making; Models   
 
 
 167                        NAL Call. No.: 275.29 W27P
 Optimal irrigation management under conditions of limited
 water
 supply.
 Bernardo, D.J.; Whittlesey, N.K.; Saxton, K.E.; Bassett, D.L.
 Pullman, Wash. : The Service; 1988 May.
 Extension bulletin - Washington State University, Cooperative
 Extension
 Service (1498): 28 p.; 1988 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Washington; Irrigation systems; Water
 conservation; Irrigation scheduling; Water allocation;
 Computer analysis; Models   
 
 
 168                         NAL Call. No.: 292.8 W295
 Optimal reservoir operation for irrigation of multiple crops.
 Vedula, S.; Mujumdar, P.P.
 Washington, D.C. : American Geophysical Union; 1992 Jan.
 Water resources research v. 28 (1): p. 1-9; 1992 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Karnataka; Multiple cropping; Water reservoirs;
 Irrigation requirements; Irrigation scheduling; Water
 availability; Water allocation; Crop growth stage; Water use
 efficiency; Decision making; Mathematical models  
 
 Abstract:  A model for the optimal operating policy of a
 reservoir for irrigation under a multiple crops scenario using
 stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) is developed.
 Intraseasonal periods smaller than the crop growth stage
 durations form the decision intervals of the model to
 facilitate irrigation decisions in real situations. Reservoir
 storage, inflow to the reservoir, and the soil moisture in the
 irrigated area are treated as state variables. An optimal
 allocation process is incorporated in the model to determine
 the allocations to individual crops when a competition for
 water exists among them. The model also serves as an
 irrigation scheduling model in that at any given intraseason
 period it specifies whether irrigation is needed and, if it
 is, the amount of irrigation to be applied to each crop. The
 impact on crop yield due to water deficit and the effect of
 soil moisture dynamics on crop water requirements are taken
 into account. A linear root growth of the crop is assumed
 until the end of the vegetative stage, beyond which the root
 depth is assumed to be constant. The applicability of the
 model is demonstrated through a case study of an existing
 reservoir in India.   
 
 
 169                         NAL Call. No.: HC79.P55J6
 Optimization of inputs in a spatially variable natural
 resource:
 unconditional
 vs. conditional analysis.
 Feinerman, E.; Bresler, E.; Dagan, G.
 Orlando, Fla. : Academic Press; 1989 Sep.
 Journal of environmental economics and management v. 17 (2):
 p.
 140-154; 1989
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation water; Fields; Spatial variation; Use
 efficiency; Information; Stochastic models; Optimization;
 Risk; Decision making; Yields  
 
 Abstract:  Stochastic optimization of inputs in a spatially
 variable natural resource is studied, with special emphasis
 placed on the problem faced by a risk-averse decision maker
 (DM): how to use, in the best possible way, the given body of
 information, which is embodied in one realization of the
 relevant measurements. Two approaches, unconditional and
 conditional, are investigated and compared. The unconditional
 and the conditional stochastic optimization problems are
 defined and an illustrative numerical example is given. The
 principal conclusion drawn is that the conditional analysis
 has the potential to increase the DM's welfare substantially,
 as compared with the unconditional one.   
 
 
 170                      NAL Call. No.: SB319.2.F6F56
 Ornamental plant growth responses to different application
 rates of
 reclaimed
 water.
 Parnell, J.R.
 S.l. : The Society; 1990 May.
 Proceedings of the ... annual meeting of the Florida State
 Horticulture
 Society v. 102: p. 89-92; 1990 May.  Proceedings held October
 31-November 2, 1989, Tampa, Florida.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Ornamental plants; Responses; Irrigation
 requirements; Irrigation water; Application rates; Water
 conservation   
 
 
 171                         NAL Call. No.: 292.9 AM34
 Patterns and trends in irrigation efficiency.
 Thompson, S.A.
 Minneapolis, Minn. : American Water Resources Association;
 1988
 Feb.
 Water resources bulletin v. 24 (1): p. 57-63. maps; 1988 Feb.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Water use efficiency; Irrigation;
 Agricultural land; Project appraisal; Crops; Water
 requirements; Surveys   
 
 
 172                           NAL Call. No.: S671.A66
 Performance of LEPA equipment on center pivot machines.
 Buchleiter, G.W.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1992 Sep.
 Applied engineering in agriculture v. 8 (5): p. 631-637; 1992
 Sep.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Center pivot irrigation; Self propelled
 irrigation systems; Application methods; Performance testing  
 
 Abstract:  The performance of LEPA equipment on a center pivot
 machine was evaluated at three different radii at three
 different slopes. Application uniformity was best at the outer
 end and poorest at the middle of the pivot mainline pipe. No
 runoff occurred on 1% slope but excessive runoff occurred on
 the 3% and 8% slopes. Simulations indicated performance could
 be improved by constructing microbasins in the furrows.   
 
 
 173                         NAL Call. No.: GB705.A6H9
 Perils of progress--hydrogeological hazards in Las Vegas
 Valley, Clark County, Nevada.
 Katzer, T.; Brothers, K.
 Tucson, Ariz. : American Water Resources Association; 1989.
 Hydrology and water resources in Arizona and the Southwest v.
 19:
 p. 7-18.
 ill., maps; 1989.  Paper presented at the "Meetings of the
 Arizona
 Section
 American Water Resources Association and the Hydrology Section
 Arizona-Nevada
 Academy of Science on Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona
 and
 the
 Southwest," April 15, 1989, Las Vegas, Nevada.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nevada; Water resources; Water use; Irrigation
 water; Water requirements; Water deficit; Aquifers;
 Groundwater level; Historical records; Water conservation   
 
 
 174                           NAL Call. No.: S671.A66
 Photovoltaic-powered water pumping for small irrigation
 systems.
 Whiffen, H.J.H.; Haman, D.Z.; Baird, C.D.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1992 Sep.
 Applied engineering in agriculture v. 8 (5): p. 625-629; 1992
 Sep.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Centrifugal pumps; Photovoltaic cells;
 Solar energy; Microirrigation; Performance testing;
 Efficiency; Economic viability  
 
 Abstract:  A 374-peak watt(p,SOC) photovoltaic (pv) array was
 connected through a 0.4 kW (0.5 hp) DC permanent magnet motor
 to a single-stage centrifugal pump to demonstrate the water
 pumping capacity of this system and to analyze the economic
 competitiveness of pv power for micro-irrigation in Florida.
 During the eight-month time period in which it operated, a
 datalogger monitored the system's efficiencies under a variety
 of climatic conditions. These data points were used to create
 an irradiance dependent, empirical mathematical model of the
 pv system. Ten years of solar irradiance data were applied to
 this model to generate a 12-month performance curve for the
 system. These daily values of water pumped were compared to
 the daily potential evapotranspiration (ETp) calculated from
 the same weather data using the Penman equation. Under assumed
 soil conditions, the land area on which the pv system could
 replace the ET, with a reliability of 0.84 was 1.06 ha (2.62
 ac) for the Florida vegetable growing season (September-May).  
 
 
 
 175                           NAL Call. No.: 23 AU783
 Physiological analysis of peanut cultivar response to timing
 and
 duration of
 drought stress.
 Wright, G.C.; Hubick, K.T.; Farquhar, G.D.
 Melbourne : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research
 Organization; 1991.
 Australian journal of agricultural research v. 42 (3): p.
 453-470; 1991.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Queensland; Arachis hypogaea; Cultivars; Crop
 growth stage; Growth rate; Harvest index; Irrigation; Pods;
 Rain; Transpiration; Water deficit; Water stress; Water use
 efficiency; Yield components; Soil types; Drought resistance  
 
 
 
 176                        NAL Call. No.: QK938.D4P73
 Phytomass of perko and rape on sandy soils of the arid zone
 irrigated with
 drainage waters.
 Lalymenko, L.A.; Lalymenko, N.K.
 New York, N.Y. : Allerton Press; 1988.
 Problems of desert development (1): p. 89-96; 1988. 
 Translated
 from Problemy
 Osvoeniya Pustyn, 1988, No. 1, p. 83-88, (QK938.D4P7). 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Turkmen ssr; Brassica campestris; Hybrids;
 Forage; Sandy soils; Dry matter; Agricultural land; Irrigated
 soils; Deserts; Arid zones; Rotations; Waste water disposal;
 Drainage water; Water use efficiency   
 
 
 177                            NAL Call. No.: 80 J825
 Plant water relations, canopy temperature, yield and water-use
 efficiency of
 watermelon Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum et Nakai under
 drip
 and furrow
 irrigation.
 Srinivas, K.; Hedge, D.M.; Havanagi, G.N.
 Ashford : Headley Brothers Ltd; 1989 Jan.
 The Journal of horticultural science v. 64 (1): p. 115-124;
 1989
 Jan.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Citrullus lanatus; Trickle irrigation; Furrow
 irrigation; Plants; Water content; Yield response functions;
 Water use efficiency; Canopy; Temperature   
 
 
 178                             NAL Call. No.: 81 L95
 Plant water relations: effect on the growth of woody
 ornamental
 plants.
 Davies, F.T. Jr
 Weslaco, Tex. : The Society; 1988.
 Journal of the Rio Grande Valley Horticultural Society v. 41:
 p.
 29-31; 1988.
 This publication is not owned by the National Agricultural
 Library.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ornamental plants; Woody plants; Plant water
 relations; Growth; Water composition and quality; Nursery
 management; Overhead irrigation; Drought resistance; Water use
 efficiency   
 
 
 179                        NAL Call. No.: 290.9 Am32T
 Planting date, water management, and maturity length relations
 for
 irrigated
 grain sorghum.
 Allen, R.R.; Musick, J.T.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers
 1958-; 1993
 Jul.
 Transactions of the ASAE v. 36 (4): p. 1123-1129; 1993 Jul.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Cabt; Sorghum bicolor; Irrigation;
 Hybrids; Planting date; Water management; Water use
 efficiency; Evapotranspiration  
 
 Abstract:  Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench] is
 produced under widely varying planting dates and irrigation
 management in the Southern High Plains. This study was
 conducted to determine optimum planting date and maturity
 length hybrid under varying irrigation levels. The effects of
 medium and medium-late maturity sorghum hybrids on yield,
 water use, and water use efficiency (WUE) were investigated
 for three irrigation regimes; no post-plant irrigation,
 limited irrigation (one or two growing season applications),
 and adequate irrigation (three or four growing season
 applications). Planting dates were from early May through late
 June of 1989, 1990, and 1991 at Bushland, Texas. Grain yields
 averaged highest (about 8.9 Mg/ha) for both hybrids under
 adequate irrigation when planted near 23 May. When planting
 very early (near 5 May) with adequate irrigation, the medium-
 late hybrid was slightly more productive than the medium
 hybrid, but when planting in June, the medium hybrid was
 slightly more productive. With limited irrigation, the medium
 hybrid was slightly more productive (yield of 7.2 Mg/ha and
 WUE of 1.3 kg/m3) than the medium-late hybrid (yield of 6.9
 Mg/ha and WUE of 1.2 kg/m3). Under a major soil-water deficit
 without any post-plant irrigations, the medium hybrid was more
 productive. With planting dates in May and adequate
 irrigation, either maturity-length hybrid would give
 acceptable performance. When planting in June, a medium hybrid
 would be acceptable for both limited and adequate irrigation
 management.   
 
 
 180                             NAL Call. No.: SB1.H6
 Poinsettia irrigation based on evaporative demand and plant
 growth
 characteristics.
 Stanley, C.D.; Harbaugh, B.K.
 Alexandria, Va. : American Society for Horticultural Science;
 1989
 Dec.
 HortScience v. 24 (6): p. 937-939; 1989 Dec.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Euphorbia pulcherrima; Irrigation requirements;
 Irrigation scheduling; Evapotranspiration; Water conservation;
 Capillary irrigation; Mathematical models; Prediction   
 
 
 181                         NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Potential benefits of controlled-subdrainage in humid regions
 of
 the U.S.
 Fouss, J.L.; Rogers, J.S.; Carter, C.E.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1988.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche
 collection)
 (fiche no.
 88-2105): 15 p. ill; 1988.  Paper presented at the 1988 Summer
 Meeting of the
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Available for
 purchase
 from: The
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950
 Niles
 Road, St.
 Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order Dept. at (616)
 429-0300
 for
 information and prices.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Subsurface drainage; Rain; Water use;
 Efficiency; Water table; Water management; Subsurface
 irrigation; Computer simulation   
 
 
 182                           NAL Call. No.: 21.5 Z15
 Proucevanje ucinkovitosti delovanja drenaznih filtrov z modeli 
 [A
 model study
 of the efficiency of drainage permeable backfill].
 Petrac, M.; Maticic, B.
 Ljubljana : Fakulteta; 1988.
 Zbornik Biotehniske fakultete univerze Edvarda Kardelja v
 Ljubljani
 :
 Kmetijstvo; Research reports, Biotechnical Faculty, University
 Edvarda Kardelj
 of Ljubljana : Agricultural issue (51): p. 89-93. ill; 1988.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  Slovene
 
 Descriptors: Yugoslavia; Drainage; Filters; Backfilling;
 Efficiency; Permeability; Simulation models   
 
 
 183                       NAL Call. No.: S544.3.N6N62
 Pumping plant performance evaluation.
 Evans, R.O.; Hunt, J.H.; Sneed, R.E.
 Raleigh, N.C. : The Service; 1991 Jun.
 AG - North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service, North
 Carolina
 State
 University (452-6): 8 p.; 1991 Jun.  In subseries: Water &
 Energy
 Efficiency
 in Irrigation.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Carolina; Irrigation equipment; Pumps;
 Efficiency; Electric motors; Internal combustion engines;
 Performance testing   
 
 
 184                             NAL Call. No.: 10 OU8
 Rainfed agriculture: water harvesting and soil water
 conservation.
 Laryea, K.B.
 Oxon : C.A.B. International; 1992 Dec.
 Outlook on agriculture v. 21 (4): p. 271-277. ill; 1992 Dec.
 Special issue:
 Focus on water.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Soil water; Water conservation; Water harvesting;
 Water requirements; Irrigation; Semiarid zones; Tropics   
 
 
 185                         NAL Call. No.: 100 C12CAG
 Reducing drainwater: furrow vs. subsurface drip irrigation.
 Fulton, A.E.; Oster, J.D.; Hanson, B.R.; Phene, C.J.;
 Goldhamer, D.A.
 Oakland, Calif. : Division of Agriculture and Natural
 Resources, University of
 California; 1991 Mar.
 California agriculture v. 45 (2): p. 4-8. ill; 1991 Mar.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Water conservation; Furrow
 irrigation; Subsurface irrigation; Drainage water; Gossypium
 hirsutum; Crop yield; Profits; Costs   
 
 
 186                      NAL Call. No.: S13.R6 nr.107
 Regulowanie uwilgotnienia gleby za pomoca nawodnien wglebnych
 [Soil moisture
 control by subsurface irrigation]., Wyd. 1..
 Pierzgalski, Edward
 Warszawa : Wydawn. SGGW-AR,; 1990.
 111 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. (Rosprawy naukowe i monografie ; 107.).
 Summary in
 English.  Includes bibliographical references (p. [100]-109).
 
 Language:  Polish
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation efficiency; Soil moisture; Soils,
 Irrigated   
 
 
 187                          NAL Call. No.: TC801.I66
 The rehabilitation of an irrigation system along the Yellow
 River.
 Lou, P.; Hou, L.
 Dordrecht : Martinus Nijhoff Publishers; 1988.
 Irrigation and drainage systems : an international journal v.
 2
 (1): p. 9-19; 1988.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: China; Irrigation systems; Surface water; Tube
 wells; Problem analysis; Salinity; Waterlogging; Water use
 efficiency; Water costs; Rivers   
 
 
 188                          NAL Call. No.: HT401.J68
 Reliance on sources of information for water-saving practices
 by
 irrigators in
 the High Plains of the U.S.A.
 Kromm, D.E.; White, S.E.
 Elmsford, N.Y. : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Journal of rural studies v. 7 (4): p. 411-421; 1991.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Southern plains states of U.S.A.; Nebraska;
 Colorado; Kansas; New Mexico; Groundwater; Irrigation;
 Information services; Usage; Beliefs; Farmers' attitudes;
 Water conservation; Innovation adoption; Water management;
 Regional surveys; Farmers; Geographical distribution; Plains;
 Consultants; Universities; Experimental stations; Trade
 publications  
 
 Abstract:  Who do farmers trust? Irrigators in the High Plains
 are confronted with a wide range of information source's with
 respect to water-saving practices. From a survey of 709
 irrigators in 10 countries the most widely accepted sources
 are identified, regional variability or information is
 examined, the role of irrigator characteristics on source
 selection is determined, and the level of association between
 adoption and source preference is analyzed. Differences in
 irrigators' reliance on specific sources are more associated
 with location than irrigator characteristics. Information
 sources viewed as important by many irrigators frequently
 influence adoption decisions less than sources having a wide
 range of preference among irrigators. Mass media and advisor-
 oriented sources are much more significantly linked to
 adoption than inter-personal sources such as friends and
 neighbors. The three sources that best discriminate adoption
 behavior are private agricultural consulting firms, university
 research stations, and trade magazines.   
 
 
 189                             NAL Call. No.: SB1.H6
 Research of turfgrass water use in Arizona.
 Mancino, C.F.
 Alexandria, Va. : The American Society for Horticultural
 Science; 1993 Apr.
 HortScience : a publication of the American Society for
 Horticultural Science
 v. 28 (4): p. 290-291; 1993 Apr.  Paper presented at the
 colloquium
 "Politics
 of water use and its effects on water research of
 horticultural
 crops," held
 at the 87th ASHS Annual Meeting, Nov. 8, 1990, Tucson,
 Arizona.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Cabt; Lawns and turf; Irrigation water;
 Water use; Water conservation; Water requirements; Waste
 water; Application   
 
 
 190                    NAL Call. No.: S612.2.N38 1990
 Reservoir-tillage and controlled-traffic practices on
 irrigated
 crops in humid
 regions.
 Hackwell, S.G.; Rochester, E.W.; Yoo, K.H.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1990.
 Visions of the future : proceedings of the Third National
 Irrigation Symposium
 held in conjunction with the 11th Annual International
 Irrigation
 Exposition, October 28-November 1, 1990, Phoenix Civic Plaza,
 Phoenix, Arizona.
 p. 47-53; 1990. (ASAE publication ; 04-90).  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alabama; Irrigation systems; Tillage; Water
 conservation   
 
 
 191                            NAL Call. No.: 450 C16
 Response of winter wheat to N and water: growth, water use,
 yield
 and grain
 protein.
 Entz, M.H.; Fowler, D.B.
 Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada; 1989 Oct.
 Canadian journal of plant science; Revue canadienne de
 phytotechnie
 v. 69 (4):
 p. 1135-1147; 1989 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Saskatchewan; Triticum aestivum; Nitrogen
 fertilizers; Irrigation requirements; Interactions; Cultivars;
 Crop yield; Yield response functions; Grain; Protein content;
 Growth rate; Varietal effects; Water use efficiency; Dry
 matter accumulation   
 
 
 192                            NAL Call. No.: 10 EX72
 Responses of tea (Camellia sinensis) to irrigation and
 fertilizer.
 II. Water
 use.
 Stephens, W.; Carr, M.K.V.
 Cambridge : Cambridge University Press; 1991 Apr.
 Experimental agriculture v. 27 (2): p. 193-210; 1991 Apr. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Tanzania; Camellia sinensis; Evapotranspiration;
 Highlands; Irrigation; Nitrogen fertilizers; Soil water; Water
 deficit; Water use efficiency; Yield response functions;
 Experimental design   
 
 
 193                          NAL Call. No.: TC801.I66
 Review of irrigation system performance with respect to
 initial
 objectives.
 Plusquellec, H.L.; McPhail, K.; Polti, C.
 Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1990 Nov.
 Irrigation and drainage systems : an international journal v.
 4
 (4): p.
 313-327; 1990 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mexico; Morocco; Philippines; Thailand; Colombia;
 Sudan; Gravity; Irrigation systems; Performance appraisals;
 Water availability; Water use efficiency; Water distribution;
 Cropping systems; Intensification; Crop yield; Returns   
 
 
 194                            NAL Call. No.: S79 .E3
 Rice levee construction and seepage losses on Sharkey clay.
 Pringle, H.C. III; Street, J.E.
 State College, Miss. : Mississippi State University,
 Agricultural
 and Forestry
 Experiment Station, 1970-; 1992 Dec.
 Bulletin (991): 10 p.; 1992 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mississippi; Cabt; Flooded rice; Dikes; Clay
 soils; Construction; Seepage; Water conservation   
 
 
 195                         NAL Call. No.: 286.8 N47M
 Salinity mitigation in the Murray River system.
 Quiggin, J.
 Armidale : Australian Agricultural Economics Society, Inc;
 1991
 Apr.
 Review of marketing and agricultural economics v. 59 (1): p.
 53-65; 1991 Apr.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Australia; Rivers; Salinity; Farm management;
 Irrigation water; Water use efficiency; Decision making;
 Production functions   
 
 
 196                         NAL Call. No.: 60.18 UN33
 Save water--automatically!.
 Moore, J.F.
 Far Hills, N.J. : United States Golf Association; 1991 Mar.
 USGA Green Section record v. 29 (2): p. 20-21; 1991 Mar.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation water; Water conservation; Automatic
 irrigation systems; Innovations   
 
 
 197                             NAL Call. No.: SB1.H6
 Scheduling irrigations for carrots.
 Kruse, E.G.; Ells, J.E.; McSay, A.E.
 Alexandria, Va. : American Society for Horticultural Science;
 1990
 Jun.
 HortScience v. 25 (6): p. 641-644; 1990 Jun.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Colorado; Daucus carota; Irrigation scheduling;
 Water use efficiency; Irrigation requirements; Crop yield;
 Growth models; Computer applications   
 
 
 198                             NAL Call. No.: SB1.H6
 Scheduling irrigations for cucumbers.
 Ells, J.E.; Kruse, E.G.; McSay, A.E.
 Alexandria, Va. : American Society for Horticultural Science;
 1989
 Jun.
 HortScience v. 24 (3): p. 448-452; 1989 Jun.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Colorado; Cucumis sativus; Irrigation scheduling;
 Crop yield; Water use efficiency; Tensiometers   
 
 
 199                             NAL Call. No.: 6 AR44
 The second management plan: What's proposed for agricultural
 irrigation.
 Ayer, H.
 Tempe, Ariz. : Arizona Farmer-Stockman; 1988 May.
 Arizona farmer-stockman v. 67 (5): p. 14-16; 1988 May.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Groundwater; Irrigated farming; Law;
 Water conservation; Cooperation; Water resource management;
 Water allocation   
 
 
 200                            NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Seed yield and water-use efficiency of white lupin as
 influenced by
 irrigation, row spacing, and weeds.
 Putnam, D.H.; Wright, J.; Field, L.A.; Ayisi, K.K.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Jul.
 Agronomy Journal v. 84 (4): p. 557-563; 1992 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Minnesota; Lupinus albus; Irrigation scheduling;
 Spring; Sprinkler irrigation; Row spacing; Weeds; Crop yield;
 Seeds; Protein content; Yield components; Water use
 efficiency; Crude protein; Seed weight  
 
 Abstract:  When grown on sandy soil, spring-seeded sweet white
 lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is usually subject to moisture
 stress. Late-germinating broadleaf weeds also compete with the
 crop and reduce yields. The objectives of this study were to
 determine the effects of five irrigation levels, two row
 spacings (15 and 76 cm), and late-germinating weeds on lupin
 seed yield, seed protein content, and water-use efficiency.
 The cultivar Ultra was grown on a loamy sand (Udotrantic
 Haploborolls) and irrigated with a line-source sprinkler
 system. Full irrigation increased seed yield an average of
 553% over non-irrigated controls in 1988, 229% in 1989, and
 52% in 1990, but seed protein concentration was reduced 2.5 to
 7.9 percentage points. Applied water-use efficiency and crude
 protein applied water-use efficiency were maximized at 300 to
 400 mm or less of total effective water depending upon year.
 Irrigation increased lupin seed yield primarily by increasing
 numbers of fertile branches and mainstem pods. Irrigation also
 increased number of seeds per pod and seed weight. Lack of
 late season weed control reduced yields by an average of 17%
 in 1988 and 1989, and 28% in 1990. Yields from narrow rows
 were 23 to 50% higher than those from wide rows. Generally,
 weed count was reduced in narrow rows. Substantial benefits of
 irrigation to white lupin productivity were observed on these
 soils, but it is unlikely that applications of more than 350
 to 400 mm of irrigation water plus rainfall would increase
 seed yield or water-use efficiency for spring-sown white
 lupin.   
 
 
 201                        NAL Call. No.: 275.29 F66C
 Selection of centrifugal pumping equipment.
 Haman, D.Z.; Zazueta, F.S.; Izuno, F.T.
 Gainesville, Fla. : The Service; 1992 May.
 Circular - Florida Cooperative Extension Service (1048): 11
 p.; 1992 May.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Centrifugal pumps; Irrigation systems; Capacity;
 Efficiency   
 
 
 202                          NAL Call. No.: S612.I756
 Short staple cotton under micro and level-basin irrigation
 methods.
 Bucks, D.A.; Allen, S.G.; Roth, R.L.; Gardner, B.R.
 Berlin, W. Ger. : Springer International; 1988.
 Irrigation science v. 9 (3): p. 161-176; 1988.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Gossypium hirsutum; Cultivars; Irrigation
 systems; Trickle irrigation; Surface irrigation; Water
 management; Yield increases; Row spacing; Water use
 efficiency; Irrigation scheduling; Evapotranspiration   
 
 
 203                    NAL Call. No.: S612.2.N38 1990
 Six years of LEPA in Texas--less water, higher yields.
 Fipps, G.; New, L.L.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1990.
 Visions of the future : proceedings of the Third National
 Irrigation Symposium
 held in conjunction with the 11th Annual International
 Irrigation
 Exposition, October 28-November 1, 1990, Phoenix Civic Plaza,
 Phoenix, Arizona.
 p.
 115-120. ill; 1990. (ASAE publication ; 04-90).  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Center pivot irrigation; Water
 conservation; Yield increases   
 
 
 204                    NAL Call. No.: S612.2.N38 1990
 Software for turfgrass water audits.
 Snyder, R.L.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1990.
 Visions of the future : proceedings of the Third National
 Irrigation Symposium
 held in conjunction with the 11th Annual International
 Irrigation
 Exposition, October 28-November 1, 1990, Phoenix Civic Plaza,
 Phoenix, Arizona.
 p. 96-100; 1990. (ASAE publication ; 04-90).  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Sprinkler irrigation; Water use
 efficiency; Computer software   
 
 
 205                          NAL Call. No.: TD201.W92
 Soil watch shows sugar-cane response.
 Kirby, C.
 London : T. Telford Ltd; 1988 Oct.
 World water v. 11 (9): p. 31, 33, 35. ill; 1988 Oct.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mauritius; Saccharum; Trickle irrigation;
 Irrigation systems; Tensiometers; Soil water balance; Yield
 response functions; Soil water movement; Water use efficiency  
 
 
 
 206                         NAL Call. No.: 100 C12CAG
 Soluble calcium compounds may aid low-volume water
 application.
 Wildman, W.E.; Peacock, W.L.; Wildman, A.M.; Goble, G.G.;
 Pehrson, J.E.; O'Connell, N.V.
 Berkeley, Calif. : The Station; 1988 Nov.
 California agriculture - California Agricultural Experiment
 Station
 v. 42 (6):
 p. 7-9. ill; 1988 Nov.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Citrus; Orchards; Vineyards; Trickle
 irrigation; Calcium; Water soluble compounds; Water use
 efficiency; Infiltration; Sandy loam soils; Soil treatments   
 
 
 207                         NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Spatial distribution of irrigation water application in
 sprinkler
 irrigation.
 Wahdan, A.A.; El-Gayer, A.M.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1988.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche
 collection)
 (fiche no.
 88-2620): 7 p.; 1988.  Paper presented at the 1988 Winter
 Meeting
 of the
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Available for
 purchase
 from: The
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950
 Niles
 Road, St.
 Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order Dept. at (616)
 429-0300
 for
 information and prices.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sprinkler irrigation; Irrigation water;
 Distribution; Patterns; Application; Efficiency   
 
 
 208        NAL Call. No.: ViBlbVLD5655.V855 1992.L352
 Spray stake irrigation of container-grown plants.
 Lamack, William F., 1992; 1992.
 viii, 36 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.  Vita.  Abstract.  Includes
 bibliographical
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Plants, Effect of water levels on; Container
 gardening; Irrigation efficiency   
 
 
 209                    NAL Call. No.: S612.2.N38 1990
 Sprinkler efficiency measurement with large weighing
 lysimeters.
 Schneider, A.D.; Howell, T.A.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1990.
 Visions of the future : proceedings of the Third National
 Irrigation Symposium
 held in conjunction with the 11th Annual International
 Irrigation
 Exposition, October 28-November 1, 1990, Phoenix Civic Plaza,
 Phoenix, Arizona.
 p. 69-76; 1990. (ASAE publication ; 04-90).  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Sprinkler irrigation; Efficiency;
 Lysimeters   
 
 
 210                         NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Sprinkler irrigation management for corn--southern great
 plains.
 Howell, T.A.; Copeland, K.S.; Schneider, A.D.; Dusek, D.A.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1988.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche
 collection)
 (fiche no.
 88-2098): 21 p. ill; 1988.  Paper presented at the 1988 Summer
 Meeting of the
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Available for
 purchase
 from: The
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950
 Niles
 Road, St.
 Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order Dept. at (616)
 429-0300
 for
 information and prices.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Zea mays; Sprinkler irrigation;
 Evapotranspiration; Water use efficiency; Yield response
 functions; Simulation models   
 
 
 211                         NAL Call. No.: 100 C12CAG
 Subsurface drip produced highest net return in Westlands area
 study.
 Smith, R.B.; Oster, J.D.; Phene, C.
 Oakland, Calif. : Division of Agriculture and Natural
 Resources, University of
 California; 1991 Mar.
 California agriculture v. 45 (2): p. 8-10. ill; 1991 Mar. 
 Second
 part of
 three-part article: "Can farmers use water more effectively?".
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Water conservation; Subsurface
 irrigation; Gossypium hirsutum; Yields; Profits; Irrigation
 scheduling; Costs   
 
 
 212                        NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Sugarcane, yield, biomass, and water-use efficiency.
 Shih, S.F.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1988 Jan.
 Transactions of the ASAE - American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers v. 31
 (1): p. 142-148. ill; 1988 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Saccharum officinarum; Biomass;
 Lysimeters; Subsurface irrigation; Yields; Evapotranspiration;
 Water use efficiency   
 
 
 213                      NAL Call. No.: S494.5.D3C652
 Techniques for computerized irrigation management.
 Phene, C.J.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1989 Mar.
 Computers and electronics in agriculture v. 3 (3): p. 189-208.
 ill; 1989 Mar.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Automatic irrigation; Irrigation requirements;
 Irrigation scheduling; Water use efficiency; Computer
 applications; Simulation models; Decision making   
 
 
 214                         NAL Call. No.: 292.9 AM34
 Trends in Western United States agriculture: irrigation
 organizations.
 Franklin, D.R.; Narayanan, R.
 Minneapolis, Minn. : American Water Resources Association;
 1988
 Dec.
 Water resources bulletin v. 24 (6): p. 1289-1294; 1988 Dec. 
 Paper
 presented
 at the 24th Annual American Water Resources Association
 Conference, "Water for
 the Years Ahead--Quality and Quantity: 1990 and Beyond,"
 November
 6-11, 1988, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Western states of U.S.A.; Agriculture; Trends;
 Irrigation; Organizations; Efficiency; Structure; Water
 resource management; History; Water policy   
 
 
 215                            NAL Call. No.: S51.E22
 Trickle irrigated wetted area for peach trees.
 Chesness, J.; Rieger, M.; Myers, S.
 Athens, Ga. : The Stations; 1992 Jun.
 Research report - University of Georgia, College of
 Agriculture, Agricultural
 Experiment Stations (607): 11 p.; 1992 Jun.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Prunus persica; Fruit trees; Trickle irrigation;
 Water use efficiency; Areas; Soil water; Crop yield   
 
 
 216                        NAL Call. No.: SB317.5.L65
 Trickle irrigation.
 Riverhead, N.Y. : Cornell Cooperative Extension; 1988 Sep.
 Long Island horticulture news. p. 3; 1988 Sep.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Trickle irrigation; Soil moisture; Fruit trees;
 Water conservation; Labor costs   
 
 
 217                    NAL Call. No.: S612.2.N38 1990
 Turfgrass water conservation in the arid southwest.
 Morris, R.L.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1990.
 Visions of the future : proceedings of the Third National
 Irrigation Symposium
 held in conjunction with the 11th Annual International
 Irrigation
 Exposition, October 28-November 1, 1990, Phoenix Civic Plaza,
 Phoenix, Arizona.
 p. 107.
 ill; 1990. (ASAE publication ; 04-90).  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Lawns and turf; Irrigation systems; Water
 conservation   
 
 
 218                        NAL Call. No.: SB317.5.H68
 Two hundred tons per hectare of processing tomatoes--Can we
 reach
 it?.
 Phene, C.J.; Hutmacher, R.B.; Davis, K.R.
 Alexandria, VA : American Society for Horticultural Science;
 1992
 Jan.
 HortTechnology v. 2 (1): p. 16-22; 1992 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Lycopersicon esculentum; Trickle
 irrigation; Subsurface irrigation; Evapotranspiration; Water
 use efficiency; Fertigation; Crop yield   
 
 
 219                           NAL Call. No.: 80 AM371
 Underground irrigation: more than meets the eye.
 Statham, M.L. Sr
 Chicago, Ill. : American Nurseryman Publishing Company; 1989
 Jul15.
 American nurseryman v. 170 (2): p. 53-57; 1989 Jul15.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Tennessee; Subsurface irrigation; Trickle
 irrigation; Nurseries; Water use efficiency; Fertirrigation   
 
 
 220                         NAL Call. No.: 100 C12CAG
 Uniformity in pressurized irrigation systems depends on
 design, installation.
 Little, G.E.; Hills, D.J.; Hanson, B.R.
 Oakland, Calif. : Division of Agriculture and Natural
 Resources, University of
 California; 1993 May.
 California agriculture v. 47 (3): p. 18-21; 1993 May.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Irrigation systems; Water
 distribution; Variation; Pressure; Water use efficiency   
 
 
 221                        NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Uniformity of infiltrated water under a low energy precision
 application
 (LEPA) irrigation system.
 Hanson, B.R.; Schwankl, L.; Fulton, A.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1988 Oct.
 Transactions of the ASAE v. 31 (5): p. 1463-1468; 1988 Oct.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Furrow irrigation; Infiltration; Water absorption
 
 
 222                        NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Uniformity of LEPA irrigation systems with furrow drops.
 Fangmeier, D.D.; Vlotman, W.F.; Eftekharzadeh, S.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1990 Nov.
 Transactions of the ASAE v. 33 (6): p. 1907-1912; 1990 Nov.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sprinkler irrigation; Computer simulation; Energy
 conservation; Furrow irrigation; Irrigation water; Water
 distribution
 
 Abstract:  Computer models for the movement and water delivery
 of low pressure center pivot and linear-move systems with
 furrow drops were used to compute water distribution
 uniformities. The models for small, 3-span, 170-m systems
 compared satisfactorily with field results. The computed
 results for 396 m systems had lower uniformities than for the
 170 m systems. Uniformities were lowest for furrow-check
 spacings of 0.5 m or less. As system speed increased,
 uniformities with short check spacings increased. At check
 spacings of 3 m or greater, speed had no effect with the
 center pivot but varied over a 10% range for the linear move.
 To obtain a uniformity coefficient of 0.8, check spacings
 needed to be at least 2 m. Uniformities were greatly improved
 if the alignment angles between spans, which controlled tower
 movements, were reduced from 0.7 degrees to 0.4 degrees or
 0.25 degrees. However, this caused more frequent movement of
 the center towers which requires more expensive equipment.
 
 
 223                         NAL Call. No.: 100 C12CAG
 Uniformity of low-energy precise-application (LEPA) irrigation
 machines.
 Hanson, B.R.; Schwanki, L.J.; Fulton, A.
 Berkeley, Calif. : The Station; 1988 Sep.
 California agriculture - California Agricultural Experiment
 Station
 v. 42 (5): p. 12-14. ill; 1988 Sep.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Irrigation systems; Irrigation
 equipment; Energy conservation; Drainage; Soil water movement
 
 
 224                         NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Use of rainfall and irrigation for sorghum production.
 Allen, R.R.; Musick, J.T.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1988.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche
 collection) (fiche no. 88-2513): 17 p. ill; 1988.  Paper
 presented at the 1988 Winter Meeting of the American Society
 of Agricultural Engineers. Available for purchase from: The
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950
 Niles Road, St. Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order
 Dept. at (616) 429-0300 for information and prices.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Sorghum bicolor; Grain; Bedding; Furrow
 irrigation; Water uptake; Water use efficiency; Water
 requirements; Tillage; Soil water; Storage; Yield response
 functions
 
 
 225                          NAL Call. No.: HC79.E5N3
 The use of water pricing as a means for enhancing water use
 efficiency in
 irrigation: case studies in Mexico and the United States.
 Cummings, R.G.; Nercissiantz, V.
 Albuquerque, N.M. : University of New Mexico School of Law;
 1992.
 Natural resources journal v. 32 (4): p. 731-755; 1992. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mexico; U.S.A.; Irrigation water; Water costs;
 Water use efficiency; Case studies; Water policy
 
 
 226                           NAL Call. No.: SB476.G7
 Using gray water.
 Coder, K.D.
 Overland Park, Kan. : Intertec Publishing Corporation; 1991
 Mar.
 Grounds maintenance v. 26 (3): p. 16, 20, 22, 25; 1991 Mar.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Water conservation; Waste water; Irrigation
 water; Waste utilization
 
 
 227                         NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Using satellite imagery in soil and water conservation
 classes.
 Papritan, J.C.; Ward, A.D.; Lyon, J.G.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1988.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche
 collection) (fiche no. 88-5504): 18 p. ill., maps; 1988. 
 Paper presented at the 1988 Winter Meeting of the American
 Society of Agricultural Engineers. Available for purchase
 from: The American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order
 Dept., 2950 Niles Road, St. Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone
 the Order Dept. at (616) 429-0300 for information and prices. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Soil; Drainage; Soil water content; Agricultural
 engineering; Soil conservation; Water conservation; Teaching
 materials; Satellite imagery; Remote sensing
 
 
 228                            NAL Call. No.: 80 G85W
 Walnut irrigation: The underground story.
 Stockwin, W.
 Willoughby, Ohio : Meister Pub. Co; 1988 May.
 Western fruit grower v. 108 (5): p. 46-47. ill; 1988 May.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Juglans; Cultivars; Plant production;
 Trickle irrigation; Equipment; Techniques; Efficiency;
 Performance; Water management
 
 
 229                         NAL Call. No.: SB379.A9A9
 Water agencies: an inside view.
 Engle, M.
 Carpinteria, Calif. : Rincon Information Management
 Corporation; 1991 Aug.
 California grower v. 15 (8): p. 36; 1991 Aug.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Water management; Local government;
 Water conservation; Irrigation; State government; Urban areas;
 Rural areas
 
 
 230                    NAL Call. No.: S612.2.N38 1990
 Water and energy conservation by improving irrigation
 practices in Colorado.
 Broner, I.; Leibrock, F.R.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1990.
 Visions of the future : proceedings of the Third National
 Irrigation Symposium held in conjunction with the 11th Annual
 International Irrigation Exposition, October 28-November 1,
 1990, Phoenix Civic Plaza, Phoenix, Arizona. p. 410-415; 1990.
 (ASAE publication ; 04-90).  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Colorado; Surface irrigation; Trickle irrigation;
 Water conservation; Energy conservation
 
 
 231                          NAL Call. No.: TC801.I66
 Water charges and irrigation efficiencies.
 Bos, M.G.; Wolters, W.
 Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1990 Aug.
 Irrigation and drainage systems : an international journal v.
 4 (3): p. 267-278; 1990 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation water; Farmers; Charges; Costs; Water
 use efficiency; Surveys; Questionnaires
 
 
 232                         NAL Call. No.: SB379.A9A9
 Water conservation approaches for commercial nurseries.
 Engle, M.
 Carpinteria, Calif. : Rincon Information Management
 Corporation; 1992 Feb.
 California grower v. 16 (2): p. 33-34; 1992 Feb.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Nurseries; Water conservation;
 Irrigation systems; Trickle irrigation; Water reuse; Water use
 efficiency; Public relations
 
 
 233                       NAL Call. No.: HD1690.5.E53
 Water conservation in irrigated agriculture.
 Smerdon, E.T.
 New York, N.Y. : American Society of Civil Engineers; 1988.
 The role of social and behavioral sciences in water resources
 planning and management : proc of an Engineering Foundation
 Conf in conjunction with the Univ Council on Water Resources,
 Santa Barbara, Calif, May 3-8, 1987. p. 160-173; 1988. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Irrigated farming; Water conservation;
 Water supplies; Structural change; Economic sociology; Right
 of access; Water law
 
 
 234                         NAL Call. No.: 292.8 W295
 Water conservation in irrigated agriculture: a stochastic
 production frontier model.
 McGuckin, J.T.; Gollehon, N.; Ghosh, S.
 Washington, D.C. : American Geophysical Union; 1992 Feb.
 Water resources research v. 28 (2): p. 305-312; 1992 Feb. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alaska; Zea mays; Irrigation; Water conservation;
 Water use efficiency; Production functions; Stochastic models;
 Surveys  
 
 Abstract:  A stochastic production frontier model of
 irrigation is used to analyze sources of economic inefficiency
 in irrigation practices of Nebraska corn producers and the
 extent that field information from soil moisture monitoring,
 commercial scheduling and/or weather reports increases
 economic efficiency. The results indicate that farm irrigation
 practices have an average technical efficiency of 81% (defined
 as the ratio of actualized production to maximum potential
 production for a level of inputs). Field information from
 moisture sensors can improve technical efficiency by 3.9%. The
 value of information provided by moisture sensors depends on
 the technical efficiency of the farmer and ranges from $58.23
 per hectare for an efficient farmer to $40.29 for an
 inefficient producer. The elasticity of derived demand for
 water is estimated to be -1.095.
 
 
 235                          NAL Call. No.: HD1750.W4
 Water conservation potential from irrigation technology
 transitions in the Pacific Northwest.
 Schaible, G.D.; Kim, C.S.; Whittlesey, N.K
 Lincoln, Neb. : Western Agricultural Economics Association;
 1991
 Dec. Western journal of agricultural economics v. 16 (2): p.
 194-206; 1991 Dec. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Idaho; Oregon; Washington; Irrigation water;
 Water conservation; Technology; Decision making; Econometric
 models; Agricultural prices; Water policy; Innovation adoption
 
 
 236                    NAL Call. No.: 1 Ag84Ab no.576
 Water conservation through irrigation technology.
 Negri, Donald H.; Hanchar, John J.
 United States, Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service
 Washington, DC : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research
 Service, [1989?]; 1989. 9 p. : ill. ; 28 cm. (Agriculture
 information bulletin ; 576). Caption title.  "November 1989"--
 P. 1.  Includes bibliographical references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation farming; Water conservation;
 Irrigation efficiency
 
 
 237                            NAL Call. No.: 80 AC82
 Water consumptive use of greenhouse tomatoes as related to
 various levels of soil water potential under drip irrigation.
 Michelakis, N.G.; Chartzoulakis, K.S.
 Wageningen : International Society for Horticultural Science;
 1988
 Sep.
 Acta horticulturae (228): p. 127-136; 1988 Sep.  Paper
 presented at the Fourth International Symposium on Water
 Supply and Irrigation in the Open and Under Protected
 Cultivation, August 26-28, 1985, Padova, Italy.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Lycopersicon esculentum; Greenhouse
 experimentation; Trickle irrigation; Irrigation scheduling;
 Tensiometers; Gypsum blocks; Soil water potential; Yield
 response functions; Water use efficiency
 
 
 238                         NAL Call. No.: 100 C12CAG
 Water efficient clover fixes soil nitrogen, provides winter
 forage crop.
 Williams, W.A.; Graves, W.L.; Cassman, K.G.; Miller, P.R.;
 Thomsen, C.D.
 Oakland, Calif. : Division of Agriculture and Natural
 Resources, University of California; 1991 Jul. California
 agriculture v. 45 (4): p. 30-32; 1991 Jul.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Trifolium alexandrinum; Lolium multiflorum;
 Nitrogen fixation; Water use efficiency
 
 
 239                             NAL Call. No.: 10 OU8
 Water management.
 Carr, M.K.V.; Leeds-Harrison, P.B.; Carter, R.C.
 Oxon : C.A.B. International; 1990 Dec.
 Outlook on agriculture v. 19 (4): p. 229-235. ill; 1990 Dec.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Water management; Water supply; Water
 conservation; Drainage; Irrigation; Reclamation; International
 comparisons
 
 
 240                             NAL Call. No.: 10 OU8
 Water management in relation to crop production: case study on
 rice.
 Bhuiyan, S.I.
 Oxon : C.A.B. International; 1992 Dec.
 Outlook on agriculture v. 21 (4): p. 293-299. ill; 1992 Dec.
 Special issue: Focus on water.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Philippines; Oryza sativa; Irrigation; Water
 management; Water requirements; Water use efficiency; Crop
 production
 
 
 241                         NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Water management of alfalfa through individual harvest
 production functions.
 Myer, G.L.; Miller, W.W.; Narayanan, R.; Jensen, E.H.; Zheng,
 Y.B.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Oct.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 4 (4): p. 505-508; 1991
 Oct.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nevada; Medicago sativa; Water allocation;
 Irrigation; Application to land; Water use efficiency;
 Irrigation water; Evapotranspiration; Production functions;
 Mathematics; Seasonal growth; Crop yield; Harvesting;
 Application rates; Precipitation; Soil water content; Seasonal
 variation; Irrigation scheduling
 
 
 242                   NAL Call. No.: S543.T4T43 no.15
 Water management with conservation tillage.
 Unger, P.W.; Gerard, C.J.; Matocha, J.E.; Hons, F.M.;
 Bordovsky, D.G.; Wendt, C.W. College Station, Tex. : Texas
 Agricultural Experiment Station, Texas A&M Univ System; 1988.
 Conservation tillage in Texas / edited by F.M. Hons. p. 10-15;
 1988. (Research monograph / Texas Agricultural Experiment
 Station ; 15). Literature review. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Gossypium; Zea mays; Sorghum; Triticum;
 Fallow; Irrigation; Semiarid soils; Soil and water
 conservation; Minimum tillage
 systems; Crop yield
 
 
 243                         NAL Call. No.: 280.8 J822
 Water markets and water quality.
 Weinberg, M.; Kling, C.L.; Wilen, J.E.
 Ames, Iowa : American Agricultural Economics Association; 1993
 May.
 American journal of agricultural economics v. 75 (2): p.
 278-291; 1993 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Water quality; Irrigation water; Markets;
 Water use efficiency; Water allocation; Farm management;
 Decision making; Drainage; Simulation models; Water policy
 
 Abstract:  In addition to improving the allocative efficiency
 of water use, water markets may reduce irrigation-related
 water quality problems. This potential benefit is examined
 with a nonlinear programming model developed to simulate
 agricultural decision-making in a drainage problem area in
 California's San Joaquin Valley. Results indicate that a 30%
 drainage goal is achievable through improvements in irrigation
 practices and changes in cropping patterns induced by a water
 market. Although water markets will not generally achieve a
 least-cost solution, they may be a practical alternative to
 economically efficient, but informationally intensive,
 environmental policies such as Pigouvian taxes.
 
 
 244                           NAL Call. No.: TC401.A5
 Water quality and the conservation reserve program:
 implications of targeting saline croplands.
 Aillery, M.P.
 Bethesda, Md. : The Association; 1988 Nov.
 American Water Resources Association technical publication
 series TPS (88-4): p. 261-270. maps; 1988 Nov.  In the series
 analytic: Nonpoint pollution: 1988--policy, economy,
 management, and appropriate technology / edited by V. Novotny. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Water conservation; Programs; Water
 composition and quality; Salinity; Irrigation; Water
 management; Pastures
 
 
 245                 NAL Call. No.: S494.5.W3W376 1992
 Water saving techniques for plant growth.
 Verplancke, H. J. W.; Strooper, E. B. A. de; Boodt, M. de NATO
 Advanced Research Workshop on Water Saving Techniques for
 Plant Growth 1990 : Ghent, Belgium. Dordrecht ; Boston :
 Kluwer Academic Publishers,; 1992. x, 241 p. : ill., maps ; 25
 cm. (NATO ASI series. Series E, Applied sciences ; no. 217.). 
 Published in cooperation with NATO Scientific Affairs
 Division. "Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop
 on Water Saving Techniques for Plant Growth, Ghent, Belgium,
 September 17-19, 1990"--T.p. verso. Includes bibliographical
 references and indexes.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Crops and water; Water conservation; Irrigation
 farming; Irrigation efficiency; Conservation tillage
 
 
 246                          NAL Call. No.: 64.8 C883
 Water uptake by cotton roots during fruit filling in relation
 to irrigation frequency.
 Radin, J.W.; Mauney, J.R.; Kerridge, P.C.
 Madison, Wis. : Crop Science Society of America; 1989 Jul.
 Crop science v. 29 (4): p. 1000-1005; 1989 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Gossypium hirsutum; Fruiting; Water use
 efficiency; Trickle irrigation; Irrigation scheduling; Arid
 climate; Leaf water potential; Water uptake; Root hydraulic
 conductivity; Stomatal resistance; Transpiration  
 
 Abstract:  Yield of irrigated cotton (gossypium hirsutum L.)
 increases as the interval between water applications is
 decreased, even if the total amount of water applied is
 unchanged. Experiments were undertaken to compare season-long
 water relations of high-frequency drip-irrigated cotton (1- to
 2-d intervals) to cotton irrigated at approximately 2-wk
 intervals. The crop was grown at two locations in central
 Arizona on a Mohall sandy loam (fine-loamy, mixed,
 hyperthermic Typic Haplargid) and an Avondale clay loam (fine-
 loamy, mixed, hyperthermic Typic Torrifluvent) soils. In 2-yr
 trials at each location, irrigation frequency had inconsistent
 effects on midday leaf water potential during vegetative
 growth. When the crop developed a heavy fruit load, however,
 leaf water potential of plants on the longer cycles was much
 lower than that of drip-irrigated plants, even after
 irrigation when ample soil moisture should have been
 available. Plant hydraulic conductances, estimated from
 regressions of single-leaf transpiration rate against leaf
 water potential, were high in both treatments early in the
 season. Hydraulic conductance decreased greatly during
 fruiting in plants on long irrigation cycles but less so in
 drip-irrigated plants. Late in the season, after fruit
 maturation and during plant regrowth, conductances were again
 high and similar in the two treatments. The results imply that
 during heavy fruiting, mild water stress associated with long
 irrigation cycles triggers deterioration of the root system
 that is very slow to be reversed. High-frequency drip
 irrigation, by preventing cyclical stress, apparently
 minimized this deterioration during fruit filling.
 
 
 247                           NAL Call. No.: 56.9 So3
 Water use characterization of wide-spaced furrow irrigation.
 Tsegaye, T.; Stone, J.F.; Reeves, H.E.
 Madison, Wis. : Soil Science Society of America; 1993 Jan.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 57 (1): p. 240-245;
 1993
 Jan.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oklahoma; Cabt; Sorghum bicolor; Furrow
 irrigation; Comparisons; Water requirements; Crop yield; Water
 uptake; Water use efficiency; Soil water movement; Soil depth;
 Evaporation; Soil water; Losses from soil
 
 Abstract:  Water extraction, depletion, and sufficiency of
 wide-spaced furrow irrigation (WSFI) are not well understood.
 In addition, there is little work showing the response of WSFI
 where the same seasonal amount of water was applied to both
 WSFI and every-furrow irrigation (EFI). Treatments in this
 study included two seasonal amounts of water applied to both
 the WSFI and EFI plots. We determined the yield of grain
 sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], water uptake (surface
 evaporation, extraction, and seasonal depletion), water
 penetration depth, and water use efficiency (WUE) during a 2-
 yr study in the Oklahoma Panhandle. A given amount of water
 produced about a 10% higher yield of grain sorghum when
 applied as WSFI than as EFI. The WUE of plants was found to be
 24% higher for WSFI than for EFI. Evaporation from the soil
 surface was 30 mm greater for EFI than WSFI. The EFI resulted
 in 30 mm more water extraction from the soil, evidently to
 meet the demand of surface evaporation. Seasonal depletion was
 related to wetness of the treatment; depletion was 20 mm
 higher for the drier of the two treatments. Following any
 periods where water was not available, WSFI showed less water
 penetration depth than EFI. The WSFI appears to have benefit
 for irrigation of this crop.
 
 
 248               NAL Call. No.: NBUS619 E34 W28 1992
 Water use efficiency in agriculture proceedings of the
 binational China-Israel
 workshop : April 22-26, 1991, Beijing, China.
 Shalhevet, Joseph; Liu, Ch'ang-ming; Xu, Yuexian; Priel,
 Vivian R. Rehovot, Israel : Priel Publishers,; 1990. 297 p. :
 ill., maps ; 24 cm.  Includes bibliographical references.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation efficiency
 
 
 249                           NAL Call. No.: 23 AU792
 Water use efficiency, nutrient uptake and productivity of
 micro-irrigated citrus.
 Grieve, A.M.
 East Melbourne : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial
 Research Organization; 1989. Australian journal of
 experimental agriculture v. 29 (1): p. 111-118; 1989. Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New South Wales; Citrus sinensis; Irrigation
 systems; Nutrient uptake; Water uptake; Water use efficiency;
 Crop yield
 
 
 250                      NAL Call. No.: SB319.2.F6F56
 Water use efficiency of four species of woody ornamentals
 under north Florida winter conditions.
 Knox, G.W.; Zimet, D.
 S.l. : The Society; 1988.
 Proceedings of the ... annual meeting of the Florida State
 Horticulture Society v. 101: p. 331-333; 1988.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Ilex crenata; Ilex vomitoria; Myrica
 cerifera; Photinia fraseri; Plant water relations; Water use
 efficiency; Irrigation systems
 
 
 251                        NAL Call. No.: 280.28 AL62
 Water watchers.
 Whitcomb, C.
 Sacramento, Calif. : California Almond Growers Exchange; 1988
 Sep.
 Almond facts v. 53 (5): p. 16-17. ill., maps; 1988 Sep.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Irrigation; Management; Information
 systems; Water use efficiency; Land use; Weather data
 
 
 252                         NAL Call. No.: SB401.A1D5
 Water wisdom.
 Fulton, A.; Beede, R.
 Pleasanton, Calif. : Sun-Diamond Growers of California; 1989.
 Sun-diamond grower v. 8 (1): p. 27, 36-38; 1989.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Juglans; Orchards; Irrigation; Water
 management; Water use efficiency; Soil water balance; Soil
 texture; Soil water content
 
 
 253                          NAL Call. No.: aZ5071.N3
 Water-conserving irrigation January 1986-August 1988.
 Maclean, J.T.
 Beltsville, Md. : The Library; 1989 Feb. Quick bibliography
 series - U.S. Department of Agriculure, National Agricultural
 Library (U.S.). (89-35): 38 p.; 1989 Feb.  Updates QB 87-68.
 Bibliography.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation; Irrigation water; Water use
 efficiency; Water conservation
 
 
 254                            NAL Call. No.: 80 AC82
 Water-fertilizer management of processing tomatoes.
 Phene, C.J.; Hutmacher, R.B.; Davis, K.R.; McCormick, R.L.
 Wageningen : International Society for Horticultural Science;
 1990 Aug. Acta horticulturae (277): p. 137-143; 1990 Aug. 
 Paper presented at the "Third International Symposium on
 Processing Tomatoes," November 29-December 2, 1989, Avignon,
 France.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Lycopersicon esculentum; Trickle
 irrigation; Evapotranspiration; Nitrogen fertilizers;
 Phosphorus fertilizers; Potassium fertilizers; Water use
 efficiency; Crop yield
 
 Abstract:  Water and fertility management of processing
 tomatoes were studied with high frequency subsurface drip
 (SSD), high frequency surface drip (HFSD) and low frequency
 surface drip (LFSD). In 1984 and 1985, N, and N + P were
 injected uniformly through the drip systems, respectively. In
 1987 N + K were injected uniformly through the drip systems,
 and the subtreatments were 0, 15, and 30 mg/l P injected daily
 in the irrigation water. The yields for all main treatments
 increased with injected P (1985) and K 1987. The SDS out-
 yielded the HFSD and LFSD in 1985 and 1987 when P was injected
 with the irrigation water but was not different in 1984 when
 only N was injected.
 
 
 255                         NAL Call. No.: SB379.A9A9
 Water-saving equipment.
 White, B.
 Fallbrook, Calif. : The Tanis Group, Inc; 1990 Mar.
 California grower v. 14 (3): p. 30-33. ill; 1990 Mar.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation equipment; Water use efficiency
 
 
 256                          NAL Call. No.: 64.8 C883
 Water-use efficiency and yield of sainfoin and alfalfa.
 Bolger, T.P.; Matches, A.G.
 Madison, Wis. : Crop Science Society of America; 1990 Jan.
 Crop science v. 30 (1): p. 143-148; 1990 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Medicago sativa; Onobrychis viciifolia;
 Water use efficiency; Evapotranspiration; Crop yield; Seasonal
 fluctuations; Irrigation requirements; Sprinkler irrigation;
 Maximum yield; Dry farming
 
 Abstract:  Water is often the primary limiting resource for
 forage production in semiarid and arid regions. Our objective
 was to determine yield and water-use efficiency (WUE) of
 sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) and alfalfa (Medicago
 sativa L.) as related to evapotranspiration (ET). Species were
 grown in rows under an irrigation gradient. Total seasonal
 yields were a linear function (r2 = 0.87-0.97) of ET for both
 species. Maximum sainfoin yields were 85% of alfalfa (20.7 Mg
 ha-1). Sainfoin produced 58 to 63% of its total yield in the
 first two harvests as compared to 41 to 46% for alfalfa. When
 soil water was adequate for spring growth, sainfoin was ready
 to harvest 2 wk earlier than alfalfa. Total ET of both species
 was similar. Season-long WUE of alfalfa (18.3 kg ha-1 mm-1)
 was greater than sainfoin (10.7 kg ha-1 mm-1) in 1986 due to a
 lack of water in spring when sainfoin yield potential and WUE
 is highest. In 1987, seasonal WUE of sainfoin and alfalfa was
 similar (18.2 vs. 16.7 kg ha-1 mm-1), but alfalfa had a
 smaller evaporation (E) component giving it greater overall
 WUE and yield. Sainfoin WUE was high in spring and declined in
 summer. Alfalfa WUE remained high throughout the spring and
 summer. Both species had low WUE in the fall due to dormancy
 responses. Differences in leaf area index (LAI) account for
 differences in E between sainfoin and alfalfa. Sudden death of
 sainfoin plants in summer was observed under low irrigation;
 therefore, moderate levels of summer irrigation may be
 necessary to prevent stand loss. In dryland areas, sainfoin's
 greatest utility is for early season irrigated pasture or hay.
 
 
 257                         NAL Call. No.: 100 C12CAG
 Weed control by subsurface drip irrigation.
 Grattan, S.R.; Schwankl, L.J.; Lanini, W.T.
 Berkeley, Calif. : The Station; 1988 May.
 California agriculture - California Agricultural Experiment
 Station v. 42 (3): p. 22-24. ill; 1988 May.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Weed control; Water management;
 Subsurface irrigation; Trickle irrigation; Efficiency
 
 
 258                          NAL Call. No.: 56.8 J822
 Wellton-Mohawk farmers deliver water conservation.
 Hedlund, J.D.
 Ankeny, Iowa : Soil Conservation Society of America; 1988 Nov.
 Journal of soil and water conservation v. 43 (6): p. 462-464.
 ill; 1988 Nov.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Irrigation water; Water resource
 management; Salinization; Water pollution; Water conservation;
 Project appraisal; Law
 
 
 259                         NAL Call. No.: S619.E34R5
 Winning with water soil-moisture monitoring for efficient
 irrigation.
 Richardson, Gail; Mueller-Beilschmidt, Peter
 New York, NY : INFORM Inc.,; 1988.
 xvi, 173 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm. (An INFORM report).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation efficiency; Soil moisture;
 Measurement; Irrigation efficiency; West (U.S.); Soil
 moisture; West (U.S.); Measurement
 
 
 260                            NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Winter wheat response to nitrogen and irrigation.
 Eck, H.V.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1988 Nov.
 Agronomy journal v. 80 (6): p. 902-908; 1988 Nov.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Triticum aestivum; Winter wheat;
 Fertilizer application; Nitrogen fertilizers; Irrigation
 requirements; Timing; Irrigation scheduling; Soil moisture;
 Crop yield; Grain; Yield components; Water stress; Water use
 efficiency; Heading; Crop growth stage; Tillering; Irrigated
 farming
 
 Abstract:  Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is grown on the
 Southern Great Plains under dryland conditions and under
 varying irrigation regimes. Relationships between water and
 fertilizer needs are not well defined. Field studies were
 conducted to determine: (i) the interacting effects of N
 fertilization and irrigation on N and P needs, wheat yields,
 and yield components; and (ii) the effects of timing of water
 deficit periods on N and P needs, wheat yields, and yield
 components. Studies were conducted on a Pullman clay loam
 (fine, mixed, thermic Torrertic Paleustoll). Respective N and
 P rates ranged from 0 to 210 kg ha-1 and 0 to 40 kg ha-1.
 Irrigations were applied or withheld to allow the crop to be
 nonstressed (I-1), stressed during heading and grain filling
 (I-2), stressed during tillering and jointing (I-3), and
 stressed throughout spring (I-4). Two-year average data showed
 that 140 kg N ha-1 was sufficient for maximum grain yields on
 treatment I-1, while 70 kg N ha-1 was sufficient on treatments
 on I-2 and I-3, and no N response occurred on treatment I-4.
 Compared to treatment I-1, grain yields were 27, 32, and 52%
 less on treatments I-3, I-2, and I-4, respectively. Water use
 efficiency (WUE) increased with increments of N through 140 kg
 ha-1 on treatment I-1, and through 70 kg ha-1 on treatments
 I-2, and I-3 but applied N did not affect WUE on treatment
 I-4. In 1981, WUE was highest on treatment I-1 and lowest on
 treatment I-4; in 1982, however, WUE was highest on treatment
 I-4 and lowest on treatments I-1 and I-3. For limited
 irrigation, irrigating during tillering and jointing would be
 preferable to allowing stress then, and irrigating during
 heading and grain filling, because there is still potential
 for high yields if precipitation occurs during heading and
 grain filing.
 
 
 261                    NAL Call. No.: S612.2.N38 1990
 Xeriscape: fad, fiction or state-of-the-art.
 Welsh, D.F.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1990.
 Visions of the future : proceedings of the Third National
 Irrigation Symposium held in conjunction with the 11th Annual
 International Irrigation Exposition, October 28-November 1,
 1990, Phoenix Civic Plaza, Phoenix, Arizona. p. 186; 1990.
 (ASAE publication ; 04-90).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Irrigation; Landscaping; Water use
 efficiency
 
 
 262                           NAL Call. No.: 80 AM371
 Xeriscapes wilt without teamwork: a California water official
 calls for industry cooperation in producing efficient
 landscapes.
 Baetz, R.L.
 Chicago, Ill. : American Nurseryman Publishing Co; 1988 Jun01.
 American nurseryman v. 167 (11): p. 46-48, 50, 52. ill; 1988
 Jun01.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Landscape architecture; Xeric
 regimes; Water conservation; Irrigation systems; Water budget
 
 
 263                            NAL Call. No.: 81 SO12
 Yield and quality of processing tomatoes in response to
 irrigation rate and schedule.
 Sanders, D.C.; Howell, T.A.; Hile, M.M.S.; Hodges, L.; Meek,
 D.; Phene, C.J.
 Alexandria, Va. : The Society; 1989 Nov.
 Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science v.
 114 (6): p. 904-908; 1989 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Lycopersicon esculentum; Processing;
 Cultivars; Trickle irrigation; Irrigation scheduling; Yield
 response functions; Fruit; Quality; Characteristics; Water use
 efficiency; Furrow irrigation
 
 Abstract:  Field studies were conducted on a Typic Xerorthents
 Entiosols soil (Hanford sandy loam) to determine the response
 of two cultivars of processing tomatoes (Lycopersicon
 esculentum Mill.) to trickle irrigation applied at three
 percentages of evapotranspiration (ET) to either the top of
 the plant row or between the beds using a traveling irrigation
 system. Irrigation was terminated when fruits were either 30%
 or 70% red 14 or 7 days before harvest). Yields of red
 tomatoes and total tomatoes increased with increasing trickle
 irrigation water. The concentrations of soluble solids (SSC)
 and total solids (TS) and pH decreased with increasing trickle
 irrigation rates, while color, fruit size, and acidity
 increased, as did the yield of SSC and TS per hectare.
 Placement of trickle irrigation on the plant row was more
 favorable than placement in the furrow between the beds for
 yield and quality characteristics. Trickle irrigation to 70%
 ET terminated 7 days before harvest produced responses similar
 to conventional furrow irrigation. Although statistically
 these treatments could not he compared directly to
 conventional furrow, all traveling trickle irrigation rates
 were superior in water use efficiency to that of the
 conventional furrow irrigation. Trickle irrigation rates of
 35% ET, 70% ET, and 105% ET did not differ in water use
 efficiency. Chemical names used: 2(a-naphthoxy)- N,N-diethyl
 propionamide (napropamide); S-propyl butylethiocarbamate
 pebulate). 
 
 264                            NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Yield enhancement in cotton by frequent irrigations during
 fruiting.
 Radin, J.W.; Reaves, L.L.; Mauney, J.R.; French, O.F.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Jul.
 Agronomy Journal v. 84 (4): p. 551-557; 1992 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Gossypium hirsutum; Trickle irrigation;
 Irrigation scheduling; Crop growth stage; Fruiting; Water use
 efficiency; Water uptake; Root systems; Crop yield; Yield
 increases; Bolls; Leaf water potential
 
 Abstract:  Daily drip irrigation often increases yield and
 water-use efficiency of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)
 compared to conventional irrigations applied at long
 intervals. A 2 yr experiment was designed to test whether
 these benefits could be achieved without using an expensive
 drip system. Cotton was irrigated every 10 d in the first year
 and every 14 days in the second year (control treatment). A
 supplemental irrigation was applied during either one or two
 long irrigation cycles coinciding with peak fruiting. The
 total amount of water applied was minimally changed from the
 control because other irrigations were reduced to compensate
 for the supplementation. Another treatment was drip-irrigated
 daily throughout most of the season. One supplement increased
 seedcotton yield 15% over the control, and two supplements
 increased it 25%, compared to a 40% yield increase with drip
 irrigation. These three treatments increased crop water-use
 efficiency (yield per unit applied water plus rainfall) by 12,
 22 and 50%, respectively. Yield increases were associated with
 a lengthened period of profuse flowering and a delay in the
 onset of cutout. Both drip irrigation and mid-cycle
 supplements increased midday leaf water potential and apparent
 hydraulic conductance of the plants for an extended period
 during fruiting, indicating enhanced water uptake and
 transport capacity compared to plants on long cycles. The
 results show that a drip system is not necessary for
 substantial improvements of yield and water-use efficiency.
 Doubling the number of irrigations for a short period during
 peak fruiting achieved much of the benefits of drip
 irrigation.
 
 
 
 
 
                          Author Index
 
 Abdulmumin, S.  36
 Adato, I.  115
 Aillery, M.P.  244
 Al-Ghamdi, A.S.  55
 Al-Noaim, A.A.  55
 Alexander, W.L.  142
 Allen, R.R.  95, 179, 224
 Allen, S.G.  202
 Andreoni, V.  3
 Ayars, J.E.  130
 Ayars, James E.  124
 Ayer, H.  199
 Ayisi, K.K.  200
 Backhaus, R.A.  142
 Baetz, R.L.  262
 Baird, C.D.  174
 Bassett, D.L.  167
 Beard, J.B.  20
 Beattie, D.  72
 Beede, R.  252
 Beede, R.H.  110
 Beeson, R.C. Jr  4
 Bender, G.S.  11
 Benoit, L.F.  66
 Benzioni, A.  56
 Bernardo, D.J.  59, 167
 Bernardo, Daniel J.  90
 Berry, J.W.  123
 Bhuiyan, S.I.  240
 Bishnoi, K.C.  87
 Biswas, M.R.  92
 Bogle, C.R.  26
 Bolger, T.P.  256
 Bonfanti, P.  3
 Boodt, M. de  245
 Bordovsky, D.G.  242
 Bordovsky, J.P.  33, 35
 Borrachero, L.M.  85
 Bos, M.G.  156, 231
 Bosch, D.J.  14
 Bowman, D.C.  88
 Bowman, J.A.  126
 Braden, J.B.  12
 Braunworth, W.S. Jr  38
 Bresler, E.  37, 53, 169
 Britton, C.M.  79
 Broner, I.  230
 Brooks, D.H.  40
 Brothers, K.  173
 Buchleiter, G.W.  86, 172
 Bucks, D.A.  104, 123, 142, 202
 Buller, O.H.  157
 Burger, D.W.  138
 Burt, C.M.  1
 Byth, D.E.  127
 California, Office of Water Conservation, Panoche Water and
 Drainage District
 (Calif.),Water Management Research Laboratory (U.S.)  124
 Carbonell, X.  64
 Carr, M.K.V.  5, 192, 239
 Carter, C.E.  181
 Carter, R.C.  239
 Cassel, D.K.  137
 Cassman, K.G.  238
 Caswell, M.  67
 Cevik, B.  25
 Chakravorty, U.  74
 Chartzoulakis, K.S.  237
 Chaudhry, N.  62
 Chesness, J.  215
 Chu, S.T.  31
 Clark, G.A.  24, 109, 122
 Clemmens, A.J.  140
 Clyma, W.  70
 Coder, K.D.  226
 Comis, D. 151
 Cone, D.  91, 113
 Copeland, K.S.  210
 Corbett, E.G.  16
 Corliss, J.  98
 Cotner, S.  76
 Cramer, C.  48
 Craw, G.  71
 Crocker, T.E.  109
 Crosswhite, William M.  49
 Cummings, R.G.  225
 Daffonchio, D.  3
 Dagan, G.  169
 Davies, F.T. Jr  178
 Davis, K.R.  218, 254
 Devitt, D.A.  15, 88
 Devries, J.J.  30
 Dickason, Clifford  49
 Dijkhuis, F.J.  57
 Dinar, A.  52
 Doty, C.W.  41
 Downing, J.D.  131
 Duble, R.L.  144
 Dusek, D.A.  51, 210
 Dutta, S.C.  92
 Dvorak, G.J.  157
 Dwelle, R.B.  6
 Dysko, J.  54
 Eck, H.V.  260
 Eftekharzadeh, S.  222
 Eheart, J.W.  12
 Ekholt, B.A.  128
 El-Gayer, A.M.  207
 Elliott, G.C.  72
 Ells, J.E.  136, 197, 198
 Engle, M.  97, 229, 232
 Engle, M.M.  11, 73, 141
 Entz, M.H.  191
 Ervin, R.T.  50, 148
 Evans, R.O.  129, 137, 183
 Fangmeier, D.D.  222
 Fare, D.C.  160
 Faroda, A.S.  62
 Farquhar, G.D.  175
 Feinerman, E.  53, 169
 Field, L.A.  200
 Finch, C.  76
 Finke, W.W. Jr  84
 Fipps, G.  22, 145, 203
 Forti, M.  56
 Fouss, J.L.  181
 Fowler, D.B.  191
 Frank, A.B.  103
 Franklin, D.R.  214
 French, O.F.  264
 Fukai, S.  101
 Fulton, A.  221, 223, 252
 Fulton, A.E.  110, 185
 Futter, H.  69
 Gamez, S.  72
 Gardner, B.R.  104, 202
 Garside, A.L.  127
 Gathman, A.C.  120
 Gerard, C.J.  242
 Gertsis, A.C.  154, 155
 Ghobrial, N.S.  156
 Ghosh, S.  234
 Gilliam, C.H.  160
 Glover, T.F.  77
 Goble, G.G.  206
 Goell, A.  23
 Goerend, D.T.  150
 Goldhamer, D.A.  185
 Goldhamer, David Alan  134
 Gollehon, N.  234
 Gollehon, Noel R.  21
 Gonzalez, J.F.  85
 Goto, A.  39
 Grassi, C.J.  81
 Grattan, S.R.  257
 Graves, J.W.  50
 Graves, W.L.  238
 Greenberg, A.  159
 Grieve, A.M.  249
 Grimes, D.W.  2
 Grismer, M.E.  42
 Grumbine, A.  111
 Hackwell, S.G.  190
 Hall, N.  118
 Haman, D.Z.  122, 174, 201
 Hanchar, John J.  236
 Hanson, B.R.  13, 94, 185, 220, 221, 223
 Harbaugh, B.K.  180
 Harivandi, M.A.  83
 Harman, W.L.  51
 Hartin, J.  121
 Hartz, T.K.  26, 46
 Hatfield, J.L.  154, 155
 Havanagi, G.N.  177
 Hawkins, T.  1
 Haynes, C.A.  128
 Haynes, M.  107
 Hays, D.M.  150
 Hedge, D.M.  177
 Hedlund, J.D.  258
 Hefner, S.G.  65
 Henderson, D.W.  30
 Henggeler, J.C.  45
 Hile, M.M.S.  263
 Hill, K.  148
 Hills, D.J. 220
 Hobson, J.  69
 Hochmuth, G.J.  109
 Hodges, L.  263
 Hohn, C.  44, 93
 Holcomb, E.J.  72
 Honeycutt, S.  158
 Hons, F.M.  242
 Hopkins, H.J.  155
 Hornbaker, R.H.  47
 Hou, L.  187
 Howell, T.A.  209, 210, 263
 Hubick, K.T.  175
 Hunt, J.H.  129, 183
 Hussain, G.  55
 Hutmacher, R.B.  130, 218, 254
 Hutton, J.D.  50
 International Food Policy Research Institute  96
 Inthapan, P.  101
 Irrigation Association  139
 Israeli, I.  27
 Izuno, F.T.  201
 Jensen, E.H.  63, 84, 241
 Jermar, M.K.  164
 Johnson, R.C.  17
 Kabashima, J.N.  117
 Kah, G.  75
 Kah, G.F.  133
 Kakudo, H.  18
 Kaniszewski, S.  54
 Karn, J.F.  103
 Kaska, N.  25
 Katzer, T.  173
 Keever, G.J.  160
 Keith, J.E.  77
 Kerridge, P.C.  246
 Khair, A.  92
 Khalid, M.  133
 Kim, C.S.  235
 Kimbell, M.K.  63
 Kimpel, B.C.  126
 Kirby, C.  205
 Kling, C.L.  243
 Knapp, K.C.  52
 Knox, G.W.  4, 250
 Knutson, A.  22
 Koo, R.C.J.  68
 Kourik, Robert  99
 Krieg, D.R.  34, 154, 155
 Kromm, D.E.  188
 Kruse, E.G.  136, 197, 198
 Laker, M.C.  58
 Lalymenko, L.A.  176
 Lalymenko, N.K.  176
 Lamack, W.F.  7
 Lamack, William F.,  208
 Lanini, W.T.  257
 Laryea, K.B.  184
 Lascano, R.J.  33
 Lawn, R.J.  127
 Leeds-Harrison, P.B.  239
 Leeuwen, H.M. van  156
 Leibrock, F.R.  230
 Letey, J.  52
 Levinson, B. 115
 Lichtenberg, E.  67
 Little, G.E.  220
 Liu, Ch'ang-ming  248
 Locascio, S.J.  109
 Lou, P.  187
 Lucas, K.  106
 Lyle, W.M.  33, 35, 148, 149, 163
 Lyon, J.G.  227
 Mack, H.J.  38
 MacLean, J.T.  43
 Maclean, J.T.  253
 Mahannah, C.N.  63, 84
 Malano, H.M.  10
 Mallawaarachchi, T.  118
 Mancino, C.F.  189
 Mandal, M.A.S.  92
 Manges, H.L.  157
 Mantel, A.B.  130
 Mapp, H.P.  47
 Marfa, O.  64
 Martin, D.L.  166
 Martinez Gerstl, G.A.  77
 Masters, R.A.  79
 Matches, A.G.  256
 Maticic, B.  182
 Matocha, J.E.  242
 Mauney, J.R.  246, 264
 McCauley, G.N.  162
 McCormick, R.L.  254
 McGriff, T.L.  120
 McGuckin, J.T.  234
 McPhail, K.  193
 McSay, A.E.  136, 197, 198
 Meek, D.  263
 Mehta, B.K.  39
 Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela  96
 Michelakis, N.G.  237
 Miller, P.R.  238
 Miller, W.W.  63, 84, 241
 Mills, D.  56
 Moore, J.F.  196
 Moore, R.E.  131
 Morgan, D.D.V.  5
 Morris, R.L.  88, 217
 Morrow, M.R. 34
 Muchow, R.C.  127
 Mueller-Beilschmidt, Peter  259
 Mujumdar, P.P.  168
 Musick, J.T.  51, 95, 179, 224
 Myer, G.L.  241
 Myers, S.  215
 Nakayama, F.S.  104
 Narayanan, R.  214, 241
 Natarajan, B.  32
 Negri, D.H.  40
 Negri, Donald H.  236
 Nel, A.A.  57
 Nelson, J.M.  120, 123
 Nercissiantz, V.  225
 New, L.  22, 132, 145
 New, L.L.  203
 Nicholson, R.A.  150
 Niemiera, A.X.  7
 Northup, B.K.  150
 Nunez, C.  26
 O'Brien, R.  19
 O'Connell, N.V.  206
 Oster, J.D.  185, 211
 Palanisami, K.  82
 Panoras, A.  94
 Papritan, J.C.  227
 Parnell, J.R.  170
 Parsons, J.  76
 Parsons, J.E.  41
 Parsons, L.R.  109
 Patto, M.  10
 Paydas, S.  25
 Peacock, W.L.  206
 Peavy, L.  29
 Pegarra, E.  163
 Pehrson, J.E.  206
 Pekmezci, M.  25
 Peng, S.  155
 Penuelas, J.  64
 Perry, R.  69
 Petrac, M.  182
 Pfeiffer, Robert  49
 Pfost, D.L.  158
 Phene, C.  211
 Phene, C.J.  185, 213, 218, 254, 263
 Phene, R.C. 110
 Phillips, B.  118
 Pierzgalski, Edward  186
 Pittenger, D.  121
 Pitts, D.J.  122
 Plusquellec, H.L.  193
 Polti, C.  193
 Prevatt, J.W.  24
 Prichard, T.L.  161
 Priel, Vivian R.  248
 Pringle, H.C. III  194
 Pruyne, R.  152
 Putnam, D.H.  200
 Quiggin, J.  195
 Radin, J.W.  246, 264
 Raheja, S.K.  114
 Raja, V.  87
 Rao, N.H.  135
 Read, J.J.  63
 Reaves, L.L.  264
 Rees, D.H.  135
 Reeves, H.E.  247
 Regier, C.  61
 Reinemann, D.J.  133
 Richardson, Gail  259
 Rieger, M.  215
 Roberts, R.  76
 Rochester, E.W.  190
 Rodrigo, J. 85
 Rogers, J.S.  181
 Roth, R.L.  104, 202
 Roumasset, J.  74
 Sadaphal, P.M.  32
 Saleth, R.M.  12
 Sampath, R.K.  114, 143
 Sanders, D.C.  263
 Saqib, G.S.  133
 Save, R.  64
 Saxena, M.C.  60
 Saxton, K.E.  167
 Schaible, G.D.  235
 Scheerens, J.C.  120, 123
 Schmidt, Heidi  99
 Schneider, A.D.  132, 209, 210
 Schrale, Gerrit  124
 Schulbach, K.F.  108
 Schwanki, L.J.  94, 223
 Schwankl, L.  221
 Schwankl, L.J.  83, 257
 Seckler, D.  114
 Segarra, E.  50, 148
 Senga, Y.  18
 Serrano, L.  64
 Severin, M.A.  166
 Shainberg, I.  58
 Shalhevet, Joseph  248
 Shane, R.L.  84
 Shani, Y.  53
 Sharma, S.  78
 Shaw, D.A.  83
 Sheesley, W.R.  2
 Shih, S.F.  212
 Shock, C.  69
 Silim, S.N.  60
 Simmons, F.W.  126
 Singh, H.  62
 Singh, K.B.  60
 Singh, T.  62
 Skaggs, R.W.  41
 Skaini, M.  89
 Smajstrla, A.G.  122
 Smerdon, E.T.  233
 Smith, C.J.  102
 Smith, R.  161
 Smith, R.B.  211
 Sneed, R.E. 129, 137, 183
 Snyder, D.L.  77
 Snyder, R.L.  83, 204
 Snyder, Richard L.  134
 Solorzano, G.I.R. de  81
 Sorlini, C.  3
 Srinivas, K.  177
 Sritharan, S.I.  70
 Stanley, C.D.  24, 109, 180
 Stark, J.C.  6
 Statham, M.L. Sr  219
 Steiner, J.J.  130
 Stephens, W.  192
 Stern, R.  58
 Stewart, B.A.  51
 Stockwin, W.  112, 228
 Stone, J.F.  247
 Street, J.E.  194
 Strooper, E. B. A. de  245
 Supalla, R.J.  166
 Surrowitz, S.D.  105
 Svendsen, Mark,  96
 Swisher, J.  69
 Tardieu, H.  9
 Tekinel, O.  25
 Temple, P.J.  66
 Thompson, A.L.  158
 Thompson, S.A.  171
 Thomsen, C.D.  238
 Tjosvold, S.A.  108
 Tod, I.C.  30, 42
 Tracy, P.W.  65
 Trimmer, W.L.  8, 80
 Triplett, C.M.  163
 Tsegaye, T.  247
 Undersander, D.J.  61
 Unger, P.W.  242
 United States, Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service 
 21, 90, 236
 United States, Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research
 Service, Resources and
 Technology Division  49
 United States-Israel Binational Agricultural Research and
 Development
 Fund  37
 United States. Congress. House. Committee on Interior and
 Insular
 Affairs.
 Subcommittee on Water and Power Resources  146
 University of California (System), Committee of Consultants on
 Drainage Water
 Reduction, University of California (System),
 Salinity/Drainage
 Task Force, California Water Resources Center  165
 University of California (System), Division of Agriculture and
 Natural
 Resources  134
 Upchurch, D.R.  33
 Vail, S.S.  130
 Van Der Merwe, A.J.  58
 Vedula, S.  168
 Verdegaal, P.  161
 Verplancke, H. J. W.  245
 Villa, M.  3
 Vlotman, W.F.  222
 Wade, R.  153
 Wahdan, A.A.  207
 Wallender, W.W.  30p
 Ward, A.D.  227
 Weiler, T.C.  100
 Weinberg, M.  243
 Welch, W.C.  144
 Welsh, D.  76
 Welsh, D.F.  144, 261
 Wendt, C.W.  242
 Whiffen, H.J.H.  174
 Whitcomb, C.  251
 White, B.  255
 White, S.E.  188
 Whittlesey, N.K  235
 Whittlesey, N.K.  167
 Whittlesey, Norman K.  90
 Wichelns, D.  91, 113
 Wilcox, D.  147
 Wildman, A.M.  206
 Wildman, W.E.  206
 Wilen, J.E.  243
 Wiley, P.L.  2
 Williams, J.R.  157
 Williams, W.A.  238
 Wilson, I.B.  102
 Winter, S.R.  116
 Wolters, W.  156, 231
 Wright, G.C.  102, 175
 Wright, J.  200
 Xu, Yuexian  248
 Yaylali, N.  25
 Yoo, K.H.  190
 Zazueta, F.S.  201
 Zekri, M.  68
 Zheng, Y.B.  241
 Zilberman, D.  67
 Zimet, D.  250
 Zoldoske, D.  28
 
 
 
 
                          Subject Index
 
 Accuracy  149
 Adjuvants  162
 Agricultural chemicals  21
 Agricultural development  89
 Agricultural engineering  227
 Agricultural land  171, 176
 Agricultural pollution  165
 Agricultural prices  235
 Agricultural production  97
 Agricultural sector  32
 Agriculture  214
 Agropyron  103
 Alabama  190
 Alaska  234
 Ammonium nitrogen  65
 Ammonium sulfate  65
 Anaerobic digestion  3
 Analysis of covariance  5
 Antitranspirants  6
 Application  10, 21, 57, 189, 207
 Application date  65, 70
 Application depth  59, 70
 Application methods  7, 105, 149, 172
 Application rates  7, 72, 83, 105, 162, 170, 241
 Application to land  140, 241
 Appropriate technology  150
 Aquifers  29, 173
 Arachis hypogaea  175
 Areas  215
 Arid climate  2, 88, 246
 Arid lands  89
 Arid zones  62, 176
 Arizona  70, 104, 106, 123, 128, 131, 189, 199, 246, 258, 264
 Asia  143
 Australia  10, 195
 Authority  153
 Automatic irrigation  213
 Automatic irrigation systems  10, 196
 Automation  84
 Available water capacity  38
 Backfilling  182
 Bangladesh  92
 Basin irrigation  25
 Bedding  224
 Beliefs  188
 Beta vulgaris  116
 Bibliographies  43
 Biomass  79, 212
 Biomass production  104
 Boll  34
 Bolls  264
 Border irrigation  10d
 Brassica campestris  87, 176
 Brassica juncea  62
 Brassica oleracea var. capitata  136
 Cabt  39, 109, 117, 133, 147, 179, 189, 194, 247
 Calcium  206
 Calibration  151
 California  1, 2, 11, 42, 46, 52, 67, 73, 75, 91, 94, 99, 99,
 107, 110, 112, 113, 117, 130, 131, 185, 204, 206, 211, 218,
 220, 223, 228, 229, 232, 251, 252, 254, 257, 262, 263
 Camellia sinensis  192
 Canals  9, 92, 153
 Canopy  4, 66, 155, 177
 Capacity  201
 Capillary irrigation  180
 Carbon  17
 Carya illinoensis  44, 93
 Case studies  18, 117, 225
 Catchment planning  106
 Cell differentiation  65
 Center pivot irrigation  22, 50, 86, 145, 172, 203
 Centrifugal pumps  19, 174, 201
 Characteristics  40, 263
 Charges  231
 Chemical composition  25, 116
 China  187
 Cicer arietinum  60
 Citrullus lanatus  177
 Citrus  23, 68, 109, 118, 206
 Citrus sinensis  249
 Clay loam soils  58, 95, 116
 Clay soils  15, 42, 154, 155, 194
 Climate  40
 Climatic factors  126, 153
 Coefficient of determination  36
 Coefficient of relationship  53
 Colombia  193
 Colorado  27, 29, 86, 188, 197, 198, 230
 Comparisons  247
 Computer analysis  136, 167
 Computer applications  28, 197, 213
 Computer simulation  47, 181, 222
 Computer software  1, 28, 136, 157, 204
 Concentration  113
 Conferences  97
 Conservation tillage  163, 245
 Constraints  32
 Construction  194
 Consultants  188
 Container gardening  208
 Container grown plants  4, 7, 160
 Containers  4
 Cooperation  199
 Cost analysis  24, 143, 150
 Cost benefit analysis  8, 13, 82, 92, 122, 125, 148
 Cost control  75
 Costs  30, 45, 50, 122, 185, 211, 231
 Cotton  67
 Coverage  5, 71
 Cracking  42
 Crop enterprises  118
 Crop growth stage  168, 175, 260, 264
 Crop management  6
 Crop production  24, 50, 110, 117, 135, 147, 159, 164, 240
 Crop quality  6, 25, 68, 79, 116, 123
 Crop yield  2, 6, 8, 12, 26, 34, 35, 38, 45, 46, 50, 55, 57,
 58, 59, 64, 65, 78, 79, 85, 116, 120, 123, 130, 135, 142, 149,
 154, 162, 164, 185, 191, 193, 197, 198, 200, 215, 218, 241,
 242, 247, 249, 254, 256, 260, 264
 Crop yields  37
 Cropping systems  164, 193
 Crops  113, 171
 Crops and water  37, 245
 Crude protein  79, 200
 Crusts  162
 Cucumis sativus  198
 Cucurbita  120
 Cucurbita foetidissima  120, 123
 Cucurbita pepo  136
 Cultivars  2, 60, 101, 102, 142, 175, 191, 202, 228, 263
 Cultural methods  102, 112
 Cyamopsis tetragonoloba  142
 Cynodon dactylon  15, 88
 Dams  9
 Daucus carota  130, 197
 Decision making  40, 47, 53, 140, 166, 168, 169, 195, 213,
 235, 243
 
 Deep percolation  42
 Demand functions  74
 Denitrification  65
 Density  4
 Depth  140
 Deserts  176
 Design  30, 84
 Design criteria  19
 Developing countries  70, 143
 Development projects  143
 Dicyandiamide  65
 Digestibility  103
 Dikes  58, 194
 Discing  112
 Dispersion  5
 Distribution  71, 73, 140, 207
 Diurnal variation  39
 Double cropping  135
 Drain pipes  42
 Drainage  41, 67, 165, 182, 223, 227, 239, 243
 Drainage water  52, 94, 113, 176, 185
 Drought  18, 77, 91, 97
 Drought resistance  6, 175, 178
 Dry conditions  62
 Dry farming  34, 51, 256
 Dry matter  176
 Dry matter accumulation  79, 191
 Dry season  135
 Dynamic programming  166
 East asia  153
 Econometric models  53, 235
 Economic aspects  49, 90
 Economic evaluation  53
 Economic factors  52
 Economic impact  51
 Economic sociology  233
 Economic viability  50, 174
 Efficiency  3, 4, 10, 12, 13, 19, 30, 32, 42, 44, 71, 73, 78,
 93, 114, 129, 133, 174, 181, 182, 183, 201, 207, 209, 214,
 228, 257
 Egypt  70, 156
 Electric motors  183
 Electricity  32
 Energy conservation  13, 27, 48, 86, 105, 129, 137, 148, 222,
 223, 230
 Energy consumption  32, 78, 133
 Energy cost of production  77
 Energy requirements  132
 Energy resources  77
 Environmental policy  67
 Equations  18, 164
 Equipment  228
 Eragrostis curvula  79
 Erosion  98
 Erosion control  69, 98
 Estimation  80
 Euphorbia pulcherrima  180
 Evaluation  73, 83, 114
 Evaporation  108, 115, 247
 Evapotranspiration  2, 6, 28, 38, 66, 87, 88, 104, 116, 126,
 142, 154, 155, 179, 180, 192, 202, 210, 212, 218, 241, 254,
 256
 Experimental design  192
 Experimental stations  188
 Fallow  242
 Farm inputs  67
 Farm management  67, 195, 243
 Farm size  12
 Farm storage  39
 Farmers  188, 231
 Farmers' attitudes  53, 153, 188
 Farmland  67
 Farms  30, 85
 Feasibility studies  50
 Fees  52
 Fertigation  22, 64, 72, 218
 Fertilizer application  260
 Fertilizer-pesticide mixtures  21
 Fertilizers  21, 57
 Fertirrigation  219
 Festuca arundinacea  17
 Field capacity  38, 126
 Fields  169
 Filters  182
 Fixed costs  24
 Flood irrigation  93
 Flooded rice  65, 194
 Florida  4, 24, 68, 105, 109, 122, 159, 170, 174, 212, 250
 Foliar diagnosis  68
 Food crops  164
 Forage  176
 Fragaria ananassa  64, 85
 France  9
 Frequency  105, 127
 Frost a106
 Fruit  25, 115, 263
 Fruit crops  109
 Fruit trees  73, 215, 216
 Fruiting  246, 264
 Fruits  46, 64
 Furrow irrigation  26, 48, 51, 61, 65, 69, 81, 94, 98, 102,
 177, 185, 221, 222, 224, 247, 263
 Furrows  95
 Game theory  12
 Gardening  76
 Gas exchange  17, 155
 Genotypes  17, 62
 Geographical distribution  188
 Glycine max  48, 102, 126, 127, 162
 Gossypium  33, 45, 149, 154, 155, 163, 242
 Gossypium hirsutum  34, 35, 148, 185, 202, 211, 246, 264
 Government  143
 Government policy  21
 Grain  58, 65, 191, 224, 260
 Grapes  118
 Gravity  193
 Greenhouse culture  72, 100
 Greenhouse experimentation  54, 237
 Greenhouses  152
 Groundwater  40, 188, 199
 Groundwater level  173
 Groundwater pollution  16
 Growth  56, 72, 101, 106, 115, 178
 Growth habit  102
 Growth models  47, 135, 197
 Growth rate  57, 58, 79, 103, 123, 175, 191
 Guidelines  119
 Gypsum blocks  29, 237
 Harvest index  175
 Harvesting  241
 Haryana  62, 87
 Heading  65, 260
 Heat sums  34
 Hedera helix  72
 Helianthus annuus  55
 Herbage  79
 High water tables  24
 Highlands  192
 Historical records  173
 History  214
 Horticultural crops  109
 Hybrids  176, 179
 Hydraulic systems  19, 36
 Hydraulics  10, 41, 70
 Hydrophobicity  162
 Idaho  6, 235
 Ilex crenata  250
 Ilex vomitoria  250
 Illinois  12, 126
 Improvement  159
 Incentives  52
 India  32, 78, 114, 153
 Infiltration  58, 94, 95, 140, 206, 221
 Information  169
 Information services  188
 Information systems  251
 Innovation adoption  23, 47, 67, 188, 235
 Innovations  117, 196
 Input output analysis  78
 Insecticides  22
 Installations  45
 Intensification  193
 Interactions  34, 191
 Internal combustion engines  183
 International comparisons  239
 International cooperation  97
 Investment  118
 Irrigated conditions  17, 20, 46, 62, 88, 104, 112, 154, 155
 Irrigated farming  10, 34, 38, 40, 67, 78, 85, 118, 164, 199,
 233, 260
 Irrigated sites  156
 Irrigated soils  176
 Irrigation  1, 4, 9, 14, 23, 29, 36, 42, 49, 60, 66, 68, 72,
 77, 80, 89, 92, 96, 97, 100, 110, 112, 113, 117, 121, 122,
 126, 127, 128, 131, 138, 139, 144, 158, 159, 161, 163, 171,
 175, 179, 184, 188, 192, 214, 229, 234, 239, 240, 241, 242,
 244, 251, 252, 253, 261
 Irrigation canals and flumes  146
 Irrigation channels  122
 Irrigation efficiency  21, 37, 90, 96, 124, 134, 165, 186,
 208, 236, 245, 248, 259, 259
 Irrigation equipment  10, 19, 32, 84, 132, 145, 183, 223, 255
 Irrigation farming  90, 236, 245
 Irrigation requirements  63, 95, 113, 116, 120, 123, 140, 164,
 168, 170, 180, 191, 197, 213, 256, 260
 Irrigation scheduling  2, 7, 11, 23, 28, 33, 46, 47, 55, 58,
 59, 61, 64, 79, 87, 88, 90, 91, 108, 115, 116, 119, 121, 123,
 125, 126, 130, 134, 135, 136, 137, 142, 147, 153, 155, 164,
 166, 167, 168, 180, 197, 198, 200, 202, 211, 213, 237, 241,
 246, 260, 263, 264
 Irrigation systems  6, 8, 11, 13, 24, 27, 30, 33, 35, 51, 52,
 54, 56, 71, 72, 73, 75, 82, 83, 85, 94, 100, 105, 107, 114,
 122, 129, 133, 138, 141, 148, 149, 151, 152, 156, 157, 160,
 164, 167, 187, 190, 193, 201, 202, 205, 217, 220, 223, 232,
 249, 250, 262
 Irrigation water  12, 14, 15, 18, 30, 39, 52, 53, 58, 74, 76,
 83, 95, 111, 119, 125, 126, 134, 140, 142, 143, 147, 156, 159,
 165, 169, 170, 173, 189, 195, 196, 207, 222, 225, 226, 231,
 235, 241, 243, 253, 258
 Isotopes  17
 Israel  23, 56, 115
 Japan  18
 Juglans  228, 252
 Kansas  48, 150, 188
 Karnataka  168
 Labor costs  40, 84, 148, 216
 Lakes  156
 Land development  89
 Land ownership  131
 Land use  251
 Landscape  76, 99
 Landscape architecture  262
 Landscape architecture in water conservation  99
 Landscape gardening  121, 144
 Landscaping  261
 Law  199, 258
 Law enforcement  153
 Lawns and turf  20, 75, 83, 88, 189, 217
 Leaching  15, 88, 111
 Leaf area  4
 Leaf water potential  60, 246, 264
 Leaves  103
 Lilium  72
 Linings  92, 146
 Lint  34, 154
 Livestock  150
 Loam soils  15, 154, 155
 Local government  229
 Location theory  74
 Lolium multiflorum  238
 Lolium perenne  88
 Losses from soil  247
 Losses from soil systems  65
 Lupinus albus  200
 Lycopersicon esculentum  26, 46, 54, 122, 218, 237, 254, 263
 Lysimeters  36, 151, 209, 212
 Maintenance  107, 148
 Maize  12, 53
 Management  251
 Management by objectives  114
 Marginal analysis  74, 143
 Markets  12, 243
 Mathematical models  38, 168, 180
 Mathematics  241
 Mauritius  205
 Maximum yield  38, 256
 Measurement  114, 259, 259
 Medicago sativa  2, 63, 66, 125, 241, 256
 Methane production  3
 Methodology  80
 Mexico  193, 225
 Microcomputers  157
 Microirrigation  109, 174
 Millets  78
 Mineral nutrition  68
 Minimum tillage systems  48, 242
 Minnesota  200
 Mississippi  194
 Missouri  65, 158
 Mite control  22
 Models  30, 166, 167
 Molasses  116
 Morocco  193
 Mulching  26
 Multiple cropping  78, 168
 Musa  25
 Myrica cerifera  250
 Nebraska  188
 Nevada  84, 88, 173, 241
 New Mexico  93, 188
 New South Wales  118, 249
 New York  147
 Nigeria  36
 Nitrate nitrogen  65
 Nitrification  65
 Nitrogen  57
 Nitrogen fertilizers  34, 104, 116, 191, 192, 254, 260
 Nitrogen fixation  238
 Nitrogen metabolism  65
 Nitrogen uptake  34
 Nonionic surfactants  162
 North Carolina  41, 129, 137, 183
 Northwest, Pacific  90, 90, 90
 Nozzles  71, 151
 Npk fertilizers  72, 79
 Numerical analysis  42
 Nurseries  117, 160, 219, 232
 Nursery management  178
 Nutrient content  65
 Nutrient deficiencies  65
 Nutrient requirements  72
 Nutrient sources  65
 Nutrient uptake  249
 Oilseeds  120
 Oklahoma  59, 247
 Onobrychis viciifolia  256
 Operating costs  84, 157
 Operation  18
 Operation on slopes  69
 Optimization  8, 164, 169
 Optimization methods  53
 Orchards  23, 25, 44, 93, 107, 206, 252
 Oregon  38, 69, 80, 235
 Organizations  214
 Ornamental plants  109, 170, 178
 Oryza sativa  65, 101, 135, 240
 Overhead irrigation  160, 178
 Overhead sprayers  4
 Ozone  66
 Pakistan  8, 133
 Panicles  65
 Parthenium argentatum  56, 104
 Pastures  244
 Patterns  71, 207
 Performance  10, 13, 114, 228
 Performance appraisals  85, 193
 Performance indexes  114
 Performance testing3 5, 172, 174, 183
 Performance traits  19
 Permeability  95, 182
 Persea Americana  11, 115
 Pesticide application  149
 Philippines  193, 240
 Phosphogypsum  58
 Phosphorus fertilizers  162, 254
 Photinia fraseri  250
 Photosynthesis  17, 155
 Photovoltaic cells  174
 Physical planning  53
 Pine bark  7
 Pittosporum tobira  4
 Plains  188
 Planning  18
 Plant analysis  65
 Plant composition  116
 Plant density  57, 142
 Plant development  87, 102
 Plant effects  137
 Plant height  79
 Plant production  61, 102, 112, 228
 Plant water relations  87, 102, 127, 178, 250
 Planting date  179
 Planting stock  16
 Plants  177
 Plants, Effect of water levels on  208
 Plastic cladding  54
 Plastic mulches  26
 Pods  175
 Pollution  67
 Pollution by agriculture  111, 113
 Polyacrylamide  58
 Ponding  39
 Potassium fertilizers  162, 254
 Precipitation  241
 Prediction  180
 Preplanting treatment  61
 Pressure  71, 105, 220
 Price policy  52, 67
 Prices  113
 Probabilistic models  77
 Probability analysis  40
 Problem analysis  85, 187
 Problem solving  85
 Processing  263
 Production functions  53, 195, 234, 241
 Profit functions  40
 Profitability  67
 Profits  110, 185, 211
 Program evaluation  89
 Programs  244
 Project appraisal  171, 258
 Projects  36
 Protein content  191, 200
 Prunus amygdalus  112
 Prunus persica  215
 Public relations  232
 Pumps  13, 32, 132, 133, 157, 183
 Purity  116
 Pyrolysis  3
 Quality  103, 263
 Queensland  101, 175
 Questionnaires  231
 Rain  78, 135, 137, 175, 181
 Range management  150
 Rangelands  150
 Rate of wetting  5
 Reclamation  239
 Recovery  143
 Recursive programming  47
 Regional surveys  188
 Regrowth  79
 Remote sensing  227
 Removal  3
 Reproductive physiology  60
 Reservoirs  18
 Residues  3
 Resins  104
 Responses  170
 Returns  50, 193
 Rhizosphere  126
 Rhododendron  4
 Rice  78
 Right of access  12, 233
 Ripping  95
 Risk  169
 Risks  53, 59
 River water  14
 Rivers  9, 187, 195
 Role perception  143
 Root crops  123
 Root distribution  15
 Root hydraulic conductivity  246
 Root systems  79, 123, 264
 Rooting  87
 Roots  116
 Rosa  108
 Rotations  176
 Row spacing  120, 154, 155, 200, 202
 Rubber  56, 104
 Runoff  58, 111
 Runoff irrigation  40
 Runoff water  69, 89
 Rural areas  229
 Saccharum  205
 Saccharum officinarum  212
 Saline water  15, 89
 Salinity  187, 195, 244
 Salinization  258
 Salt  113
 Sandy loam soils  15, 142, 206
 Sandy soils  24, 154, 176
 Saskatchewan  191
 Satellite imagery  227
 Saudi arabia  55, 89
 Savannas  36
 Seasonal fluctuations  256
 Seasonal growth  241
 Seasonal variation  116, 135, 241
 Seed production  60, 62, 120, 130, 142
 Seed weight  200
 Seeding  57
 Seeds  130, 162, 200
 Seepage  194
 Selection criteria  19
 Selenium  113
 Self propelled irrigation systems  172
 Semiarid climate  2
 Semiarid climates  123
 Semiarid soils  242
 Semiarid zones  127, 184
 Shadow prices  77
 Shoot pruning  79
 Silt  15
 Simmondsia chinensis  106
 Simulation  18
 Simulation models  12, 14, 39, 41, 47, 59, 67, 74, 82, 135,
 154, 182, 210, 213, 243
 Size  4, 46
 Soil  40, 227
 Soil analysis  65
 Soil and water conservation  48, 69, 242
 Soil chemistry  65
 Soil compaction  95, 112
 Soil conservation  227
 Soil depth  247
 Soil management  95
 Soil moisture  28, 62, 106, 186, 216, 259, 259, 260
 Soil structure  58
 Soil texture  252
 Soil treatment  58
 Soil treatments 206
 Soil types  126, 175
 Soil water  33, 68, 127, 184, 192, 215, 224, 247
 Soil water balance  88, 135, 205, 252
 Soil water content  56, 58, 88, 116, 130, 137, 227, 241, 252
 Soil water deficit  66
 Soil water movement  42, 205, 223, 247
 Soil water potential  64, 237
 Soils, Irrigated  186
 Solanum tuberosum  6, 69
 Solar energy  174
 Sorghum  47, 51, 59, 95, 242
 Sorghum bicolor  61, 179, 224, 247
 Southern plains states of U.S.A.  188
 Sowing date  60, 101
 Soybeans  78
 Spacing  4, 42, 59, 71
 Spain  64, 85
 Spatial distribution  160
 Spatial variation  74, 169
 Spraylines  5
 Spring  200
 Sprinkler irrigation  2, 4, 5, 31, 40, 47, 50, 53, 57, 83, 84,
 101, 140, 148, 149, 162, 200, 204, 207, 209, 210, 222, 256
 Sri lanka  135
 Starch  123
 Starch crops  123
 State government  229
 Statistics  80, 129
 Stems  103
 Stochastic models  169, 234
 Stochastic processes  53, 59
 Stomatal resistance  246
 Storage  224
 Straw  98
 Straw mulches  69
 Stream flow  14
 Structural change  233
 Structure  214
 Subsurface drainage  42, 113, 124, 181
 Subsurface irrigation  24, 26, 122, 181, 185, 211, 212, 218,
 219, 257
 Sucrose  116
 Sudan  193
 Sugar extraction quality  116
 Sulfur coated urea  65
 Surface irrigation  70, 140, 202, 230
 Surface treatment  58
 Surface water  187
 Surveys  85, 171, 231, 234
 Syria  60
 Systems  30
 Tagetes erecta  7
 Tamil nadu  82
 Tanks  82
 Tanzania  192
 Taxes  74
 Teaching materials  227
 Techniques  117, 228
 Technology  23, 40, 47, 118, 235
 Temperature  177
 Temperature relations  66
 Tennessee  219
 Tensiometers  137, 198, 205, 237
 Tests  35
 Texas  22, 33, 34, 35, 45, 50, 51, 61, 76, 116, 132, 144, 145,
 148, 151, 154, 155, 162, 179, 203, 209, 210, 224, 242, 256,
 260
 Thailand  39, 193
 Thermal efficiency  132
 Thermometers  66
 Tillage  61, 190, 224
 Tillering  65, 260
 Timing  34, 57, 260
 Topography  40
 Trade publications  188
 Transpiration  175, 246
 Trees  121
 Trends  214
 Trickle irrigation  7, 16, 24, 25, 26, 43, 44, 45, 46, 56, 67,
 85, 115, 122, 130, 140, 147, 177, 202, 205, 206, 215, 216,
 218, 219, 228, 230, 232, 237, 246, 254, 257, 263, 264
 Trifolium alexandrinum  238
 Triticum  242
 Triticum aestivum  36, 57, 58, 191, 260
 Tropics  127, 184
 Trunks  115
 Tube wells  187
 Tubes  31
 Turkey  25
 Turkmen ssr  176
 U.S.A.  40, 157, 171, 181, 225, 233, 243, 244, 261
 United States  21, 21, 21, 21, 49, 49, 49, 146, 146
 Universities  188
 Urban areas  121, 229
 Urea  65
 Urea ammonium nitrate  65
 Usage  188
 Use efficiency  143, 162, 169
 Utah  77, 125
 Utilization  135
 Validity  135
 Variable costs  24
 Variance  140
 Variation  220
 Varietal effects  191
 Varietal reactions  2
 Vegetables  76, 109, 147
 Venezuela  81
 Victoria  102
 Vineyards  206
 Virginia  14
 Vitis  161
 Volatilization  65
 Washington  17, 167, 235
 Waste treatment  3
 Waste utilization  226
 Waste water  68, 189, 226
 Waste water disposal  176
 Water  73, 113
 Water absorption  112, 221
 Water advance  94
 Water allocation  14, 74, 77, 166, 167, 168, 199, 241, 243
 Water availability  77, 168, 193
 Water balance  115, 156
 Water budget  262
 Water composition and quality  178, 244
 Water conservation  8, 16, 18, 20, 23, 27, 29, 31, 40, 41, 43,
 49, 65, 67, 68, 71, 72, 73, 80, 88, 92, 94, 95, 97, 98, 99,
 100, 105, 108, 109, 110, 111, 113, 117, 118, 119, 125, 129,
 131, 135, 137, 138, 139, 141, 144, 146, 147, 148, 151, 152,
 158, 159, 166, 167, 170, 173, 180, 184, 185, 188, 189, 190,
 194, 196, 199, 203, 211, 216, 217, 226, 227, 229, 230, 232,
 233, 234, 235, 236, 239, 244, 245, 253, 258, 262
 Water content  177
 Water costs  40, 52, 53, 67, 74, 143, 187, 225
 Water deficit  7, 60, 64, 173, 175, 192
 Water distribution  30, 91, 193, 220, 222
 Water flow  70, 80
 Water harvesting  106, 184
 Water law  233
 Water management  8, 9, 29, 41, 52, 65, 81, 82, 86, 88, 97,
 114, 128, 129, 142, 148, 156, 164, 179, 181, 188, 202, 228,
 229, 239, 240, 244, 252, 257
 Water policy  214, 225, 235, 243
 Water pollution  111, 113, 258
 Water potential  2
 Water quality  243
 Water relations  17
 Water requirements  23, 30, 36, 38, 43, 44, 104, 110, 130,
 171, 173, 184, 189, 224, 240, 247
 Water reservoirs  14, 168
 Water resource management  51, 89, 199, 214, 258
 Water resources  173
 Water reuse  15, 232
 Water soluble compounds  206
 Water stress  2, 6, 23, 56, 66, 123, 161, 166, 175, 260
 Water supplies  34, 233
 Water supply  135, 239
 Water table  41, 157, 181
 Water troughs  150
 Water uptake  15, 87, 102, 224, 246, 247, 249, 264
 Water use  18, 30, 33, 62, 66, 111, 117, 126, 130, 152, 173,
 181, 189
 Water use efficiency  1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 14, 15, 17, 24,
 25, 26, 28, 34, 36, 38, 39, 45, 46, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55,
 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 66, 70, 72, 74, 75, 76,
 77, 79, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 87, 89, 91, 101, 102, 103, 104,
 106, 107, 112, 115, 116, 120, 121, 122, 123, 126, 127, 128,
 130, 136, 140, 142, 147, 148, 150, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157,
 159, 160, 161, 164, 166, 168, 171, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179,
 187, 191, 192, 193, 195, 197, 198, 200, 202, 204, 205, 206,
 210, 212, 213, 215, 218, 219, 220, 224, 225, 231, 232, 234,
 237, 238, 240, 241, 243, 246, 247, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253,
 254, 255, 256, 260, 261, 263, 264
 Water yield  70
 Water, Underground  49, 96, 124
 Waterlogging  187
 Watersheds  12, 14, 41
 Weather data  251
 Weed control  257
 Weeds  200
 Weight  64
 Wells  89
 West (U.S.)  259, 259
 Western australia  127
 Western states of U.S.A.  214
 Wet season  135
 Wheat  78
 Winter wheat  260
 Wood  3
 Woody plants  178
 Xeric regimes  262
 Xerophytes  120
 Yield components  34, 38, 175, 200, 260
 Yield factors  102
 Yield increases  60, 202, 203, 264
 Yield losses  2
 Yield response functions  25, 34, 38, 54, 64, 104, 115, 120,
 125, 177, 191, 192, 205, 210, 224, 237, 263
 Yields  14, 51, 56, 62, 101, 104, 108, 110, 115, 161, 169,
 211, 212
 Yugoslavia  182
 Zea mays  38, 48, 50, 126, 210, 234, 242
 
 

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https://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/AFSIC_pubs/qb94-35.htm, September 1994

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