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Alternative Farming Systems Information Center of the National Agricultural Library
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture


Wastewater Irrigation
January 1990 - June 1993

 TITLE: Wastewater Irrigation
 AUTHOR:  Karl Schneider
          Reference and User Services Branch
          National Agricultural Library
 PUBLICATION DATE:  July 1993
 SERIES:  QB 93-55
 NAL Call no.:   aZ5071.N3 no.93-55
 CONTACT:  Alternative Farming Systems Information Center
           National Agricultural Library
           Room 123, 10301 Baltimore Ave.
           Beltsville, MD  20705-2351
           Telephone:  (301) 504-6559
           http://afsic.nal.usda.gov


 ==============================================================
                                              ISSN:  1052-5378
 United States Department of Agriculture
 National Agricultural Library
 10301 Baltimore Blvd.
 Beltsville, Maryland  20705-2351
 
 Wastewater Irrigation
 January 1990 - June 1993
 
 Quick Bibliography Series:  QB 93-55
 
 158 citations from AGRICOLA
 
 Karl Schneider
 Reference and User Services Branch
 
 July 1993
 
 
National Agricultural Library Cataloging Record:
 
 Schneider, Karl
   Wastewater irrigation.
   1. Irrigation water--Bibliography. 2. Water-supply,
 Agricultural--Bibliography. 3. Land treatment of wastewater--
 Bibliography. I. Title.
 aZ5071.N3 no.93-55


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 SAMPLE CITATIONS
 
 Citations in this bibliography are from the National
 Agricultural Library's AGRICOLA database.  An explanation of
 sample journal article, book, and audiovisual citations
 appears below.
 
 JOURNAL ARTICLE:
 
   Citation #                                     NAL Call No.
   Article title.
   Author.  Place of publication:  Publisher.  Journal Title.
   Date.  Volume (Issue).  Pages.  (NAL Call Number).
 
 Example:
   1                             NAL Call No.:  DNAL 389.8.SCH6
   Morrison, S.B.  Denver, Colo.:  American School Food Service
   Association.  School foodservice journal.  Sept 1987. v. 41
   (8). p.48-50. ill.
 
 BOOK:
 
   Citation #                                   NAL Call Number
   Title.
   Author.  Place of publication:  Publisher, date. Information
   on pagination, indices, or bibliographies.
 
 Example:
 
   1                        NAL Call No.:  DNAL RM218.K36 1987
   Exploring careers in dietetics and nutrition.
   Kane, June Kozak.  New York:  Rosen Pub. Group, 1987.
   Includes index.  xii, 133 p.: ill.; 22 cm.  Bibliography:
   p. 126.
 
 AUDIOVISUAL:
 
   Citation #                                  NAL Call Number
   Title.
   Author.  Place of publication:  Publisher, date.
   Supplemental information such as funding.  Media format
   (i.e., videocassette):  Description (sound, color, size).
 
 Example:
   1                    NAL Call No.: DNAL FNCTX364.A425 F&N AV
   All aboard the nutri-train.
   Mayo, Cynthia.  Richmond, Va.:  Richmond Public Schools,
   1981.  NET funded.  Activity packet prepared by Cynthia
   Mayo.  1 videocassette (30 min.): sd., col.; 3/4 in. +
   activity packet.
   
   
 
                      Wastewater Irrigation
 
                         Search Strategy
 
 
        1. SS EFFLUENT? OR WASTEWATER? OR SLUDGE? OR            
           WATER?(S)(PROCESS? OR DISCHARG?) 
        2. SS IRRIGAT? OR CROP?(3N)WATER? OR RECHARG? 
        3. C14*8
        4. L15/1990:1993 
 
 
 
 WASTEWATER IRRIGATION
 
 
 1                                    NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Agricultural and munipal use of wastewater.
 Bouwer, H.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 26
 (7/8): p. 1583-1591; 1992.  In the series analytic: Water
 Quality International '92. Part 4 / edited by M. Suzuki, et
 al. Proceedings of the Sixtennth Biennial Conference of the
 International Association on Water Pollution Research and
 Control, held May 24-30, 1992, Washington, D.C.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Refuse; Waste water treatment; Water reuse;
 Irrigation water; Water quality; Quality standards
 
 
 2                                    NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Anaerobic/aerobic pretreatment of sugarcane mill wastewater
 for application of drip irrigation.
 Yang, P.Y.; Chang, L.J.; Whalen, S.A.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 24 (9):
 p. 243-250; 1991.  In the series analytic: Wastewater
 Reclamation and Reuse/edited by R. Mujeriego and T. Asano.
 Proceedings of the International Symposium of Wastewate
 Reclamation and Reuse, September 24-26, 1991, Costa Brava,
 Spain.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Hawaii; Sugarcane; Sugar factory waste; Waste
 water treatment; Aerobic treatment; Anaerobic treatment;
 Pretreatment; Water reuse; Irrigation water; Trickle
 irrigation; Organic compounds; Solid wastes; Removal;
 Hydraulics; Retention; Time; Aeration; Lagoons; Cost analysis
 
 
 3                                      NAL Call. No.: TD172.J6
 An animal model to assess the potential for viral disease
 transmission from lawns irrigated with wastewater.
 Deming, E.J.; Mote, C.R.; Von Bernuth, R.D.; Potgieter, L.N.D.
 New York, N.Y. : Marcel Dekker; 1992 Dec.
 Journal of environmental science and health : Part A :
 Environmental science and engineering v. 27 (8): p. 2199-2211;
 1992 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Lawns and turf; Irrigation; Waste water;
 Contamination; Porcine enterovirus; Pigs; Disease
 transmission; Animal models; Disease models; Human diseases;
 Infection; Risk
 
 
 4                                    NAL Call. No.: 292.8 W295
 Applicability of the steady state flow assumption for solute
 advection in field soils.
 Destouni, G.
 Washington, D.C. : American Geophysical Union; 1991 Aug.
 Water resources research v. 27 (8): p. 2129-2140; 1991 Aug. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Agricultural soils; Solutes; Transport processes;
 Transient flow; Soil water movement; Soil texture; Soil depth;
 Plant water relations; Simulation models
 
 Abstract:  A comparison between solute travel times predicted
 by a transient and a steady state flow model is made. Data for
 five different soil profiles with detailed measurements of
 their hydraulic properties and their variation with depth are
 used. Daily measurements of meteorological data are used as
 input parameters in the transient simulations that include
 snow and frost dynamics, interception of precipitation, and
 evapotranspiration. The parameters of the steady state flow
 model are related to the measured soil properties and the
 hydrological characteristics of each transient simulation.
 Furthermore, the influence of solute injection time on the
 predicted travel time is analyzed, and the effect of root
 water uptake on the applicability, of the steady state flow
 assumption for solute advection is investigated. The results
 indicate that the steady, state flow model may provide
 estimates of the mean solute advection that are compatible
 with those of the transient flow model. The constant rate of
 recharge in the steady state flow, model should then be
 interpreted as the average annual effective infiltration
 (i.e., infiltration minus actual evapotranspiration). When
 root water uptake is accounted for, an arithmetic depth-
 averaging of the soil parameters appears to yield steady state
 estimates of arrival time that are closest to the transient
 predictions. When root water uptake is neglected, a harmonic
 depth-averaging of the soil parameters provides the best
 steady state results. The discrepancy between the arrival
 times predicted with the two flow models decreases with the
 travel distance from the soil surface.
 
 
 5                                     NAL Call. No.: S612.I756
 Application of a hydraulic model for testing management
 decisions at distributary level.
 Bhutta, M.N.; Kijne, J.W.
 Berlin, W. Ger. : Springer International; 1992.
 Irrigation science v. 13 (1): p. 15-20; 1992.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pakistan punjab; Irrigation systems; Water
 allocation; Surface water; Water distribution; Simulation
 models; Canals; Channels; Discharge; Water use; Water policy
 
 Abstract:  This study was conducted on the Lagar Distributary
 of Gugera Branch of Lower Chenab Canal, Punjab, Pakistan. A
 computer model "MISTRAL" was adopted for evaluating management
 options. The study showed that the model can be used as a
 decision support tool for prioritizing management options. The
 model suggests that under current physical conditions of this
 distributary the combination of rotation between the
 distributaries and along the distributary canals can improve
 the equity of water discharge. For example, in case of Lagar
 Distributary the discharge of tail outlets can be increased
 threefold by introducing rotation between the tail of the
 distributary and an offtaking minor canal. A small decrease in
 the discharge of the minor would result from adopting this
 option. A combination of rotations between this and
 neighboring distributaries and along the Lagar itself can
 increase the discharge of tail outlets up to seven times. The
 results of the model indicate that operational changes can
 improve the discharge of tall outlets to some extent, but the
 improvement of physical conditions of the distributary is
 needed to achieve equity conditions, as specified in the
 design.
 
 
 6                                    NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Appropriate industrial waste management technologies: the New
 Zealand meat industry.
 Rao Bhamidimarri, S.M.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 24 (1):
 p. 89-95; 1991.  Paper presented at the "First IAWPRC East
 African Regional Conference on Industrial Wastewaters,"
 October 25-28, 1989, Nairobi, Kenya.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New Zealand; Meat and livestock industry;
 Industrial wastes; Waste treatment; Technology; Organic
 fertilizers; Organic farming; Water reuse; Irrigation water
 
 
 7                                    NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Appropriate wastewater treatment and reuse in Morocco-Boujad:
 a case study. Niedrum, S.B.; Karioun, A.; Mara, D.D.; Mills,
 S.W.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 24 (9):
 p. 205-213; 1991.  In the series analytic: Wastewater
 Reclamation and Reuse/edited by R. Mujeriego and T. Asano.
 Proceedings of the International Symposium of Wastewate
 Reclamation and Reuse, September 24-26, 1991, Costa Brava,
 Spain.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Morocco; Effluents; Waste water treatment;
 Stabilizing; Ponds; Water reuse; Irrigation water; Water
 quality; Microbial contamination; Public health; Health
 protection; Case studies; Algae; Organic fertilizers; Yield
 response functions
 
 
 8                                    NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 The Carini experimental station for wastewater reuse in
 agriculture--preliminary indications.
 Croce, F.; Pollara, J.R.; Oliveri, R.L.; Torregrossa, M.V.;
 Valentino, L. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 26
 (9/11): p. 2617-2620; 1992.  In the series analytic: Water
 Quality International '92. Part 5 / edited by M. Suzuki,
 et.al. Proceedings of the Sixteenth Biennial Conference of the
 International Association on Water Pollution Research and
 Control held May 24-30, 1992, Washington, D.C.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sicily; Waste water treatment; Water reuse;
 Irrigation water; Soil pollution; Human diseases; Pathogens
 
 
 9                                      NAL Call. No.: TD172.J6
 Characterization and control of domestic wastewater in
 Bahrain: assessment of possible applications.
 Akhter, M.S.; Madany, I.M.
 New York, N.Y. : Marcel Dekker; 1991.
 Journal of environmental science and health : Part A :
 Environmental science and engineering v. 26 (6): p. 971-979;
 1991.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Bahrain; Waste water; Water reuse; Treatment;
 Chemical analysis; Irrigation water; Groundwater recharge;
 Landscaping
 
 
 10                                    NAL Call. No.: 292.8 J82
 Checks on the measurement of potential evapotranspiration
 using water balance data and independent measures of
 groundwater recharge.
 Essery, C.I.; Wilcock, D.N.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Scientific Publishers, B.V.; 1990 Dec01.
 Journal of hydrology v. 120 (1/4): p. 51-64; 1990 Dec01. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Northern ireland; Evapotranspiration;
 Evaporation; Measurement; Water balance; Water table; Heat
 flow; Temperate climate
 
 Abstract:  A twelve-year record of daily evaporation and
 evapotranspiration measurements at the Coleraine campus of the
 University of Ulster in Northern Ireland is analysed.
 Potential evapotranspiration (PE) is independently derived
 from: (i) Penman PT estimates; (ii) irrigated grass lysimeters
 PE(L);, (iii) measurements of tank evaporation, PE(T). Both
 PE(T) and PE(L) are higher in winter than PT and have more
 prolonged summer peaks. Examination of soil moisture deficits
 during the period shows that actual evapotranspiration (AE)
 rarely falls below the potential rate and that PE and AE are
 therefore equal for most of the year. The availability of
 rainfall, stream discharge and groundwater data from an
 instrumented river catchment on the University campus enables
 water balances to be constructed for the period of study.
 Separate water balances using each of the PE estimates show
 that Penman PT most satisfactorily reflects catchment storage
 changes monitored independently. Penman PT is therefore
 confirmed as the most appropriate estimate of PE for the
 climatic, soil and vegetation conditions of the region. The
 use of Penman PT in water balance determinations, however,
 does not secure perfect agreement between estimated recharge
 and depletion of catchment storage on the one hand, and
 observed changes in water-table level on the other. The
 combined effects of error in surface water balance
 determinations are estimated at about 13%.
 
 
 11                                     NAL Call. No.: QH540.J6
 Chemical effects of saline irrigation water on a San Joaquin
 Valley soil. I. Column studies.
 Thellier, C.; Sposito, G.; Holtzclaw, K.M.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1990 Jan.
 Journal of environmental quality v. 19 (1): p. 50-55; 1990
 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Soil salinity; Irrigation water;
 Saline water; Soil depth; Leaching; Exchangeable sodium;
 Exchangeable cations; Saturation extract; Capillary rise;
 Laboratory tests
 
 Abstract:  A glasshouse soil column experiment was performed
 to characterize salinity and sodicity developed from waters of
 differing composition applied to a representative soil from
 the San Joaquin Valley of California. The soil column
 experiment was designed to simulate physicochemical conditions
 in a field experiment conducted in the western San Joaquin
 Valley, where an Entisol above a shallow, saline aquifer was
 irrigated with waters of varying quality. Columns 0.46 m long
 containing the Entisol were leached with "California Aqueduct
 water" (EC = 0.72 dS m-1, SAR = 4 mole(c) 1/2m-3/2 or with
 saline "well water" (EC = 8 ds m-1, SAR = 13 mole(c) 1/2m-3/2)
 for periods up to 1 yr. When a simulated "aquifer" was 0.43 m
 below the soil surface, leaching with aqueduct water produced
 a positive downward gradient of soluble salt concentrations
 and exchangeable Na, whereas leaching with well water produced
 a dramatic increase of sodicity at the soil surface and a zone
 of soluble bivalent cation accumulation about 0.2 m below.
 These effects reflected the combined influence of the applied
 water quality and evaporative capillary arise from the saline
 "aquifer." After the simulated "aquifer" was withdrawn, soil
 saturation extracts indicated equilibration with the applied
 waters after 0.5 to 1 yr, the rate being greater under
 leaching with aqueduct water. The saturation extract and
 drainage effluent for the soil receiving aqueduct water became
 more dilute, producing calcite dissolution and increasing
 exchangeable Ca, with a consequent decline in sodicity. The
 soil receiving well water showed an increase in exchangeable
 Na at the expense of exchangeable Ca, with little or no change
 in exchangeable K and Mg. At the completion of the experiment,
 the soil irrigated with well water had become more saline and
 sodic but, since EC was sufficiently high as compared to SAR,
 no major permeability problems with the soil were expected.
 Therefore, from the results of this study, the reuse of saline
 
 
 12                                    NAL Call. No.: 292.8 J82
 The chemical evolution of groundwater in a first-order
 catchment and the process of salt accumulation in the soil
 profile.
 Salama, R.B.; Farrington, P.; Bartle, G.A.; Watson, G.D.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Scientific Publishers, B.V.; 1993 Mar15.
 Journal of hydrology v. 143 (3/4): p. 233-258; 1993 Mar15. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Western australia; Watersheds; Groundwater;
 Salinity; Streams; Chemical composition; Surface water; Flow;
 Ions; Salts; Water quality; Weathering; Gibbsite; Kaolinite;
 Drainage water; Profiles; Rain; Geochemistry; Carbon dioxide;
 Transpiration; Leakage; Aquifers; Evaporation
 
 Abstract:  The chemical characteristics of surface water, base
 flow and groundwater in a first-order catchment in the
 wheatbelt of Western Australia were used to study the
 weathering process and its relationship to the development of
 groundwater and stream salinity. Meteoric water infiltrates
 through the unsaturated zone to the water table aquifer and
 through the aquifer outcrop in the case of a confined aquifer.
 The groundwater composition changes in space and time,
 becoming more saline with depth and distance away from the
 recharge zone. The concentration of salt in the system can be
 explained by four main mechanisms: withdrawal of water through
 uptake by plant roots for transpiration; loss of water during
 the weathering process and the formation of new minerals;
 leakage between aquifers; evaporation upstream of geological
 structures and near discharge zones. The groundwater is mainly
 of Na-Cl type, and is at saturation with respect to most of
 the carbonate minerals, chalcedony, talc and tremolite. The
 water changes in its chemical composition as rock-water
 interaction takes place. The weathering products are gibbsite
 and kaolinite, with the release of Na+ K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, HCO-3
 and H4SiO4. The preclearing weathering products are produced
 in a system open to CO2 (through the plant roots), with
 groundwater under this system having excess Na+. After
 clearing the system becomes depleted in CO2 and the
 groundwater becomes depleted in Na+ through exchange with Mg2+
 from the rock surface. Geochemical modelling showed that most
 of the constituents in groundwater can be accounted for by
 taking into consideration the constituents of rainfall, with
 minor additions from the weathering process.
 
 
 13                                NAL Call. No.: SB319.2.F6F56
 Citrus irrigation with reclaimed municipal wastewater.
 Koo, R.C.J.; Zekri, M.
 S.l. : The Society; 1990 May.
 Proceedings of the ... annual meeting of the Florida State
 Horticulture Society v. 102: p. 52-56; 1990 May.  Proceedings
 held October 31-November 2, 1989, Tampa, Florida.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Citrus sinensis; Irrigation; Irrigation
 water; Waste water; Water quality; Plant nutrition
 
 
 14                                   NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 The clogging capacity of reclaimed wastewater: a new quality
 criterion for drip irrigation.
 Teltsch, B.; Juanico, M.; Azov, Y.; Ben-Harim, I.; Shelef, G.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 24 (9):
 p. 123-131; 1991.  In the series analytic: Wastewater
 Reclamation and Reuse/edited by R. Mujeriego and T. Asano.
 Proceedings of the International Symposium of Wastewate
 Reclamation and Reuse, September 24-26, 1991, Costa Brava,
 Spain.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Israel; Waste water treatment; Water reuse;
 Irrigation water; Trickle irrigation; Water quality;
 Requirements; Filtration; Capacity; Water pollution;
 Particles; Control methods; Biological techniques; Freshwater
 fishes; Plankton; Concentration
 
 
 15                                     NAL Call. No.: TD172.J6
 Comparative survival of enteric viruses and coliphage on
 sewage irrigated grass.
 Badawy, A.S.; Rose, J.B.; Gerba, C.P.
 New York, N.Y. : Marcel Dekker; 1990.
 Journal of environmental science and health : Part A :
 Environmental science and engineering v. 25 (8): p. 937-952;
 1990.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Lawns and turf; Irrigation water; Activated
 sludge; Sewage effluent; Water pollution; Enterovirus;
 Survival; Health hazards
 
 
 16                                   NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Comparison between chlorine dioxide and chlorine for use as a
 disinfectant of wastewater effluents.
 Narkis, N.; Kott, Y.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 26
 (7/8): p. 1483-1492; 1992.  In the series analytic: Water
 Quality International '92. Part 4 / edited by M. Suzuki, et
 al. Proceedings of the Sixtennth Biennial Conference of the
 International Association on Water Pollution Research and
 Control, held May 24-30, 1992, Washington, D.C.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Israel; Refuse; Waste treatment; Effluents;
 Disinfection; Disinfectants; Comparisons; Water reuse;
 Irrigation water
 
 
 17                                     NAL Call. No.: S671.A66
 Considerations for tile drainage-water quality studies in
 temperature regions. Milburn, P.; MacLeod, J.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1991 Mar. Applied engineering in agriculture v. 7
 (2): p. 209-215; 1991 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Water quality; Drainage; Tile drainage; Temperate
 zones; Crop management; Discharge; Experimental design
 
 Abstract:  Experimental designs of 14 subsurface drainage-
 water quality studies conducted over the past 18 years are
 reviewed. To more accurately determine mass contaminant flux
 and processes, more intense monitoring of drain discharge rate
 and drainage water quality is needed than in most past
 studies. A recently installed field scale system of subsurface
 drainage-water quality plots and associated equipment, capable
 of intense, year round monitoring, is described and
 preliminary data showing performance of the system is
 presented. The material presented should be of interest to
 those planning and designing drainage-water quality studies,
 or refitting existing drainage installation for water quality
 investigations.
 
 
 18                                   NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Contamination of lettuces with nematode eggs by spray
 irrigation with treated and untreated wastewater.
 Ayres, R.M.; Stott, R.; Lee, D.L.; Mara, D.D.; Silva, S.A.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 26
 (7/8): p. 1615-1623; 1992.  In the series analytic: Water
 Quality International '92. Part 4 / edited by M. Suzuki, et
 al. Proceedings of the Sixtennth Biennial Conference of the
 International Association on Water Pollution Research and
 Control, held May 24-30, 1992, Washington, D.C.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Brazil; Waste water treatment; Infestation;
 Ascaridia galli; Ascaris lumbRicoides; Water reuse; Irrigation
 water; Sprinkler irrigation; Lactuca sativa
 
 
 19                                      NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Control of nutrient mixing and uptake by irrigation frequency
 and relative humidity.
 Kargbo, D.; Skopp, J.; Knudsen, D.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Nov.
 Agronomy journal v. 83 (6): p. 1023-1028; 1991 Nov.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Zea mays; Nutrient uptake; Irrigation scheduling;
 Soil water content; Water uptake; Water availability; Field
 capacity; Solutes; Soil solution; Transport processes;
 Diffusion; Potassium; Phosphorus; Diffusivity; Relative
 humidity; Soil pore system
 
 Abstract:  The distribution of nutrients and water between
 mobile and immobile pores should influence nutrient uptake.
 The distribution can be regulated through control of the
 water-filled pore space. This research was conducted to
 determine the effect of varying soil-water content and water
 uptake upon nutrient uptake. Corn (Zea mays L.) was grown in a
 growth chamber for 2 wk at 35 or 55% relative humidity (RH).
 Three soils [Boelus LS, 5% slope (sandy over loamy, mixed,
 mesic Udic Haplustoll); Boelus LS, 2% slope; and Plano Soil
 (fine-silty, mixed, thermic Typic Haplustolf)] were watered to
 field capacity. Plants on each soil were allowed to extract
 water to one of three minimal levels before rewatering. After
 harvest, P and K content and other root and leaf parameters
 were determined. The values of minimal levels were chosen so
 that, for each soil, the three values ensured no low-water
 stress. Effective diffusion coefficients were determined for
 the three soils. Increased minimal levels for a soil required
 for frequent watering, which led to greater mixing of solutes
 between pores. At 55% RH, no water treatment significantly
 affected P and K flux, despite significant differences in
 diffusion coefficients. At 35% RH, however, phosphate flux to
 roots increased as minimum levels increased. The significant
 increase of phosphate flux with more frequent watering at low
 RH suggests that plant uptake is affected by soil physical
 processes other than simple diffusion and convection to
 individual roots. More frequent watering results in greater
 mixing of solute between pores containing mobile and immobile
 water and, consequently, greater uptake.
 
 
 20                                    NAL Call. No.: QK867.J67
 Control of root size and root environment of fruit trees for
 optimal fruit production.
 Bravdo, B.A.; Levin, I.; Assaf, R.
 New York, N.Y. : Marcel Dekker; 1992.
 Journal of plant nutrition v. 15 (6/7): p. 699-712; 1992. 
 Paper presented at the "Workshop on Root Distribution, and
 Chemistry and Biology of the Root-Soil Interface", January
 9-11, 1990, Ithaca, New York.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Citrus; Malus pumila; Vitis vinifera; Root
 systems; Roots; Size; Biomass; Fruits; Crop yield; Water
 availability; Matric potential; Nutrient availability;
 Fertilizers; Fertigation; Application rates; Trickle
 irrigation; Irrigation requirements; Sensors; Automatic
 irrigation systems
 
 Abstract:  Recent development in technologies of irrigation
 and fertilization enable us to control root size and
 environment under field conditions. Low volume irrigation and
 fertilization affects root size and rate of rootlets
 production and consequently vegetative and reproductive
 processes of whole plants. The mechanisms involved seem to
 include growth regulators production at the root apexes and
 their translocation to the shoots. Field experiments in a few
 species of deciduous trees and citrus, showed that root
 systems are very flexible and can adjust to low volume
 irrigation irrespective of age or size of the trees or stage
 of development. Root restriction under field conditions was
 found to cause precocity, increase productivity and reduce the
 size of the trees. A greater number of trees per unit land can
 be grown without reducing light penetration which is the most
 important factor affecting physiological processes controlling
 fruit bud differentiation, such as assimilate translocation,
 photosynthetic efficiency fruit composition, size and
 coloration. Control of root environment in terms of soil
 matric potential, mineral concentration and aeration can also
 be achieved by irrigating and fertilizing at the rate of
 consumptive use. A non uniform distribution of water and
 minerals was found to exist when a point source irrigation
 such as drip was used. Nevertheless, a highly efficient uptake
 of water and minerals were found under conditions of an almost
 continuous supply of water and minerals by drip irrigation
 systems. Results of various studies show that this phenomenon
 may be attributed to transfer of water, minerals and air among
 individual roots of a root system subjected to gradients of
 water, minerals, and oxygen concentrations. A computer
 controlled automated irrigation and fertilization system which
 consists of soil matric potential sensors located in the main
 root zone was developed. This system provides means for
 controlling the size of the root system as well
 
 
 21                                   NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Dairy wastewater treatment and reuse.
 Hadjivassilis, I.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 24 (1):
 p. 83-87; 1991.  Paper presented at the "First IAWPRC East
 African Regional Conference on Industrial Wastewaters,"
 October 25-28, 1989, Nairobi, Kenya.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cyprus; Dairy industry; Industrial wastes; Waste
 water treatment; Water reuse; Activated sludge; Irrigation
 water
 
 
 22                                   NAL Call. No.: QH84.8.B46
 Denitrification activity in the root zone of a sludge-amended
 desert soil. Artiola, J.F.; Pepper, I.L.
 Berlin : Springer International; 1992 Aug.
 Biology and fertility of soils v. 13 (4): p. 200-205; 1992
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Gossypium hirsutum; Denitrification;
 Desert soils; Nitrates; Roots; Sludges; Soil amendments; Clay
 loam soils; Furrow irrigation
 
 
 23                                    NAL Call. No.: TD419.R47
 Denitrification by an expanded bed biofilm reactor.
 MacDonald, D.V.
 Alexandria, Va. : The Federation; 1990 Sep.
 Research journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation v.
 62 (6): p. 796-802. maps; 1990 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Waste water treatment;
 Denitrification; Biofilms; Bioreactors; Design; Performance;
 Installation; Effluents; Utilization; Irrigation water;
 Groundwater recharge; Projects; Costs
 
 
 24                                   NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Design methods for the development of wastewater land disposal
 systems. Thoma, K.; Baker, P.A.; Allender, E.B.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1993.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 27 (1):
 p. 77-86; 1993.  In the series analytic: Appropriate waste
 management technologies / edited by G. Ho and K. Mathew.
 Proceedings of the International Conference, held November
 27-28, 1991, Perth, Australia.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South australia; Waste water; Waste disposal
 sites; Application to land; Systems; Design; Industrial
 wastes; Irrigation; Eucalyptus; Forest plantations; Soil
 pollution
 
 
 25                       NAL Call. No.: GB701.W375 no.92-4024A
 Detailed study of irrigation drainage in and near wildlife
 management areas, west-central Nevada, 1987-90 Part A Water
 quality, sediment composition, and hydrogeochemical processes
 in Stillwater and Fernley Wildlife Management areas..  Water
 quality, sediment composition, and hydrogeochemical processes
 in Stillwater and Fernley Wildlife Management areas
 Lico, Michael S.
 Geological Survey (U.S.)
 Carson City, Nev. : U.S. Geological Survey ; Denver, CO :
 Books and Open-File Reports Section [distributor],; 1992.
 vii, 65 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm. (Water-resources
 investigations report ; 92-4024A).  U.S. Geological Survey ...
 [et al.].  Includes bibliographical references (p. 61-65).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation; Water quality; Water
 
 
 26                                    NAL Call. No.: S612.I756
 Determination of evapotranspiration from an alfalfa crop
 irrigated with saline waste water from an electrical power
 plant.
 Malek, E.; Bingham, G.E.; McCurdy, G.D.; Hanks, R.J.
 Berlin, W. Ger. : Springer International; 1992.
 Irrigation science v. 13 (2): p. 73-80; 1992.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Utah; Medicago sativa; Evapotranspiration;
 Irrigated stands; Irrigation water; Saline water; Waste water;
 Waste disposal
 
 Abstract:  Investigations were carried out in 1989 to
 determine the evapotranspiration (ET) of alfalfa when
 irrigated with saline waste water coming from the evaporation
 of fresh water in the cooling towers of Utah Power and Light
 Company Electrical Power Plant at Huntington in central Utah,
 U.S.A. The primary goal is to dispose of the waste water from
 the power plant by irrigation and to maximize salt deposition
 in the soil, maximize crop ET, minimize runoff from the soil
 surface, and minimize leaching to the ground water. Using the
 Bowen ratio-energy balance method, alfalfa evapotranspiration
 was measured at an experimental site for each 20-minute period
 during the 1989 irrigation season. Using a simplified seasonal
 water balance, the results showed that cumulative irrigation
 plus rain was less than evapotranspiration for the 1989
 irrigation season. This means that for the long term in
 addition to irrigation and precipitation some water was
 withdrawn from the soil for alfalfa crop water requirements
 (ET(a)). Short term evaluations showed that because of
 unforeseen heavy rain (thunder showers) in this mountainous
 area between irrigations, ET(a) was occasionally less than
 irrigation plus rain. This means the excess water was stored
 in the soil for later use. The average value for ET(a)/ET(p)
 (potential ET) for the 1989 irrigation season was 0.47 but
 occasionally the ratio was greater than unity. Short-term
 studies (Hanks et al. 1990a) indicate that yield and ET(a) are
 likely to decrease only slightly for the coming years if
 saline irrigation water is applied. This method of
 investigation can be applied to any industrial processes which
 produce waste water.
 
 
 27                                   NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 The development of health guidelines for wastewater
 reclamation. Shuval, H.I.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 24 (7):
 p. 149-155; 1991.  In the series analytic: Advanced Wastewater
 Treatment and Reclamation / edited by J. Kurbiel. Proceedings
 of the IAWPRC Conference, September 25-27, 1989, Cracow,
 Poland.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Israel; Developing countries; Waste water
 treatment; Water reuse; Water purification; Irrigation water;
 Health hazards; Guidelines; Microbial contamination;
 Helminths; Water quality; Quality standards; Stabilization;
 Ponds; Who; Public health; Health protection; Water pollution;
 Control methods
 
 
 28                                    NAL Call. No.: TC801.I66
 Discharge rates, salinities, and the performance of subsurface
 collector drains in Egypt.
 El Atfy, H.; El Gamaal, H.; Mourik, E. van
 Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1991 Nov.
 Irrigation and drainage systems : an international journal v.
 5 (4): p. 325-338; 1991 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Egypt; Subsurface drainage; Drain pipes;
 Hydraulics; Performance; Discharge; Drainage water; Salinity
 
 
 29                                    NAL Call. No.: TD419.R47
 Dissolved organic carbon in the unsaturated zone under land
 irrigated by wastewater effluent.
 Amiel, A.J.; Magaritz, M.; Ronen, D.; Lindstrand, O.
 Alexandria, Va. : The Federation; 1990 Nov.
 Research journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation v.
 62 (7): p. 861-866; 1990 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Israel; Waste water; Effluents; Irrigated soils;
 Soil pollution; Aquifers; Water pollution; Groundwater;
 Pollutants; Dissolving; Carbon; Biodegradation
 
 
 30                                    NAL Call. No.: TD426.J68
 Distribution of metals in a polluted aquifer: a comparison of
 aquifer suspended material to fine sediments of the adjacent
 environment. Magaritz, M.; Amiel, A.J.; Ronen, D.; Wells, M.C.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier; 1990 May.
 Journal of contaminant hydrology v. 5 (4): p. 333-347; 1990
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Israel; Groundwater; Contamination; Aquifers;
 Contaminants; Metals; Distribution; Fertigation; Sewage
 effluent
 
 
 31                                    NAL Call. No.: 292.8 J82
 Distribution of recharge and discharge areas in a first-order
 catchment as interpreted from water level patterns.
 Salama, R.B.; Farrington, P.; Bartle, G.A; Watson, G.D.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Scientific Publishers, B.V.; 1993 Mar15.
 Journal of hydrology v. 143 (3/4): p. 259-277; 1993 Mar15. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Western australia; Watersheds; Groundwater
 recharge; Discharge; Groundwater; Aquifers; Groundwater flow;
 Groundwater level; Spatial distribution; Geomorphology; Land
 management; Watershed management; Water quality; Streams;
 Dams; Salinity; Upland areas
 
 Abstract:  A major problem in managing and reclaiming saline
 land is identifying areas of recharge and discharge in a
 catchment. In a first-order catchment in the wheatbelt of
 Western Australia, four trends of water level changes have
 been observed: monotonically rising water levels; continuously
 rising water levels with seasonal fluctuations; continuously
 falling water levels; seasonally fluctuating water levels.
 Each pattern is associated with a specific hydrologic
 mechanism--recharge, recharge-discharge and discharge. The
 spatial distribution of the aquifer systems in the catchment
 follows a configuration which is controlled by the basin
 morphology. Recharge takes place in confined aquifers at the
 watershed and in the uplands; recharge-discharge occurs in the
 unconfined to semiconfined aquifer of the midslopes, and
 discharge becomes dominant along the unconfined aquifers of
 the drainage lines. The main areas of discharge of higher-
 salinity groundwater occur just upstream of geological
 structures along the drainage line. Surface water dams were
 found to contribute to the establishment of new discharge
 areas. They cause increased pressure in the deep aquifers,
 resulting in a rise in water levels and groundwater discharge
 below the dams.
 
 
 32                                    NAL Call. No.: 292.8 J82
 Ecological impact of groundwater extraction on wetlands (Douro
 Basin, Spain). Bernaldez, F.G.; Rey Benayas, J.M.; Martinez,
 A.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Scientific Publishers, B.V.; 1993 Jan.
 Journal of hydrology v. 141 (1/4): p. 219-238; 1993 Jan. 
 Special Issue: Hydrogeology of Wetlands.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Spain; Wetlands; Groundwater extraction;
 Depletion; Water table; Environmental impact; Landscape;
 Groundwater recharge; Discharge; Hydrological factors
 
 Abstract:  Declining water table levels in the Douro River
 basin, Central Spain, are caused by the extraction of
 groundwater from a relatively homogeneous aquifer, and results
 in several types of impact on local wetlands which vary
 according to their characteristics. These wetlands are local,
 intermediate and regional groundwater discharge sites,
 seepages from post-tertiary deposits, and non-linked ponds to
 groundwater dynamics. The following important factors
 influence the type of impact: the recharge or discharge nature
 of the affected sector of landscape; the type of connection
 with the regional aquifer; flow lengths and residence time of
 the water; the interaction between the water and the surface
 material, particularly clay. A wide range of wetland values
 and functions are affected according to the type of impact.
 These include productivity, amenity, recreational, scientific,
 educational and conservation values.
 
 
 33                                   NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Effect of effluent quality and application method on
 agricultural productivity and environmental control.
 Oron, G.; DeMalach, Y.; Hoffman, Z.; Manor, Y.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 26
 (7/8): p. 1593-1601; 1992.  In the series analytic: Water
 Quality International '92. Part 4 / edited by M. Suzuki, et
 al. Proceedings of the Sixtennth Biennial Conference of the
 International Association on Water Pollution Research and
 Control, held May 24-30, 1992, Washington, D.C.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Israel; Households; Waste water treatment;
 Effluents; Water quality; Water reuse; Irrigation water;
 Trickle irrigation; Sprinkler irrigation; Food crops
 
 
 34                                    NAL Call. No.: TD760.S65
 Effect of irrigation with brackish and sewage effluent waters
 on potassium reactions in soils.
 Sparks, Donald L.; Feigenbaum, Sala
 United States-Israel Binational Agricultural Research and
 Development Fund Bet Dagan, Israel : BARD,; 1990.
 169 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.  Final report.  Project no. US-971-85. 
 Includes bibliographical references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sewage irrigation; Soils; Potassium content
 
 
 35                                       NAL Call. No.: QE1.E5
 Effect of paper mill effluents on accumulation of heavy metals
 in coconut trees near Nanjangud, Mysore District, Karnataka,
 India.
 Fazeli, M.S.; Sathyanarayan, S.; Satish, P.N.; Muthanna, L.
 New York, N.Y. : Springer; 1991 Jan.
 Environmental geology and water sciences v. 17 (1): p. 47-50;
 1991 Jan. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Karnataka; Paper mill sludge; Waste water
 treatment; Irrigation; Cocos nucifera; Uptake; Heavy metals;
 Plant composition; Metal tolerance
 
 
 36                                      NAL Call. No.: 18 J825
 Effect of pulp and paper mill effluent irrigation on carbon-
 di-oxide evolution in soils.
 Kannan, K.; Oblisami, G.
 Berlin, W. Ger. : Paul Parey; 1990.
 Zeitschrift fur Acker- und Pflanzenbau v. 164 (2): p. 116-119;
 1990.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Tamil nadu; Pulp mill effluent; Waste water
 disposal; Carbon dioxide; Decomposition; Fertirrigation;
 Microbial activities; Soil biology; Soil fertility
 
 
 37                        NAL Call. No.: GB701.W375 no.88-4174
 Effect of spray irrigation of treated wastewater on water
 quality of the surficial aquifer system, Reedy Creek
 Improvement District, central Florida. German, E. R.
 Reedy Creek Improvement District (Fla.),Geological Survey
 (U.S.) Tallahassee, Fla. : U.S. Geological Survey ; Denver,
 Colo. : Books and Open-File Reports [distributor],; 1990.
 vi, 43 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm. (Water-resources
 investigations report ; 88-4174).  Includes bibliographical
 references (p. 42-43).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Aquifers; Sprinkler irrigation; Water quality;
 Water reuse; Plants, Effect of pollution on
 
 
 38                                    NAL Call. No.: QK867.J67
 Effects of different management practices on surface water
 quality from rice fields in south Louisiana.
 Feagley, S.E.; Sigua, G.C.; Bengtson, R.L.; Bollich, P.K.;
 Linscombe, S.D. New York, N.Y. : Marcel Dekker; 1992.
 Journal of plant nutrition v. 15 (8): p. 1305-1321; 1992. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Louisiana; Flooded rice; Fields; Water quality;
 Mineral content; Nutrient content; Pesticide residues; Surface
 water; Water management; Cultivation; Flood irrigation;
 Sediment
 
 Abstract:  Water samples collected in the Mermentau River
 Basin over several years at Louisiana Department of
 Environmental Quality monitoring sites contained high levels
 of total solids and nutrients during the spring that were
 highly correlated to pre- and post-plant discharges from rice
 fields. This study was developed to evaluate the potential of
 selected management practices (MP's) for reducing total
 solids, nutrients and pesticides from discharge water in order
 to improve the surface water quality in southwest Louisiana.
 Five rice plots located on the Rice Research Station in
 Crowley, LA represented the different MP's to be evaluated.
 The five water seeding MP's were: a.1-no till; a.2-water
 cultivation with 30-day settling, a.3-dry cultivation with
 clear water planting; a.4-mudding-in with vegetated filter,
 and b-mudding-in (control). Quality of discharged water from
 rice fields in the Mermentau River Basin was clearly affected
 by the different MP's. From the first year of data, all the
 MPa's were better than the mudding-in (MPb). The
 concentrations of the total solids (kg/ha) in the discharged
 water (initial + final drain) for the different MP's were in
 the order: MPb(4860) > MPa.3(3906) > MPa.4(3412) > MPa.2(3068)
 > MPa.1(1807). The Mpa.3, Mpa.4 and MPb had no detectable
 amounts of pesticides being released. The 30-day holding
 period (Mpa.2), clear water planting (MPa.3) and the mudding-
 in with vegetated filter (MPa.4) were similar as far as TDS,
 TSS and TS with the no-till (MPa.1) being the least. The 30-
 day holding period (Mpa.2) and the no-till (MPa.1) had less
 nutrients, but more pesticides released. Depending on the
 priority of the stream problems, different MP's may be more
 advantageous than others. All of the selected MP's were better
 than the control (MPb), and therefore, should help to improve
 water quality.
 
 
 39                                    NAL Call. No.: 292.8 J82
 The effects of irrigation waste-water disposal in a former
 discharge zone of the Murray Basin, Australia.
 Chambers, L.A.; Williams, B.G.; Barnes, C.J.; Wasson, R.J.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Scientific Publishers, B.V.; 1992 Aug01.
 Journal of hydrology v. 136 (1/4): p. 303-323; 1992 Aug01. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Australia; Irrigation water; Waste water;
 Disposal; Saline water; Groundwater; Aquifers; Salinity;
 Differentiation; Monitoring; Analytical methods
 
 Abstract:  In the Murray Basin in southeastern Australia,
 saline waste irrigation waters are often discharged to natural
 depressions and saline lakes as a salinity and land management
 strategy. At the Noora disposal basin in South Australia the
 waste irrigation water (EC = 17-19 dS m(-1)) has formed a lens
 in the top of the highly saline (50-80 dS m(-1)) regional
 groundwater (Parilla Sands) aquifer. Using salinity and
 environmental isotopes of water (deuterium and oxygen-18) the
 lens has been shown to extend about 500 m in a northwesterly
 direction from the disposal pond. The major effects of this
 lens have been: (1) to cause upwards displacement of the
 regional ground water over an area of about 285 km(2),
 implying increased evaporation from areas surrounding the
 lens; (2) to reduce evaporation of regional ground water from
 the central low-lying area. Electromagnetic induction
 techniques for detecting preferred flowpaths away from the
 basin were rendered ineffective in this environment because of
 lithologic variations within the dune system. However,
 examination of bore-logs and groundwater gradients indicated
 that there was little evidence of stratigraphic control of
 mound development. Salinity in the Parilla Sands aquifer was
 closely related to the depth of the water table from the soil
 surface. Shallow (2-4 m) water tables were affected by
 recharge and evaporation to a much greater extent than ground
 water located below the higher dunes. There was, however, an
 almost instantaneous pressure response throughout the whole
 groundwater system to changes induced in the low-lying areas.
 Analyses of piezometric data showed that there was a seasonal
 variation imposed on the groundwater mound development.
 Corrected mean annual water-table increments and estimates of
 the mound volume and area were derived from a Theis response
 curve of the water table rise associated with the mound alone.
 Calculations using fitted parameters from the Theis analyses
 also suggested high transmissivit
 
 
 40                                      NAL Call. No.: 80 AC82
 Effects of olive oil waste water irrigation on young olive
 plants. Briccoli-Bati, C.; Lombardo, N.
 Wageningen : International Society for Horticultural Science;
 1990 Dec. Acta horticulturae (286): p. 489-491; 1990 Dec. 
 Paper presented at the "International Symposium on Olive
 Growing," Sept. 26-29, 1989, Cordoba, Spain.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Olea europaea; Olive oil; Processing; Waste
 water; Irrigation water; Crop production; Fertilizers
 
 
 41                                   NAL Call. No.: 280.8 J822
 The effects of pricing policies on water conservation and
 drainage. Caswell, M.; Lichtenberg, E.; Zilberman, D.
 Ames, Iowa : American Agricultural Economics Association; 1990
 Nov. American journal of agricultural economics v. 72 (4): p.
 883-890; 1990 Nov. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Cotton; Irrigated farming; Trickle
 irrigation; Drainage; Innovation adoption; Water conservation;
 Farm management; Farmland; Farm inputs; Water costs; Price
 policy; Environmental policy; Pollution; Profitability;
 Simulation models
 
 Abstract:  A general model of adoption of input-conserving
 technologies by competitive firms is introduced using drip
 irrigation as an example. An environmental regulation such as
 a drainage effluent charge is shown to influence adoption.
 Early adopters are likely to be producers with less efficient
 fixed assets (land of low quality or antiquated capital),
 higher input costs (higher water prices or greater depth to
 groundwater), and in more environmentally sensitive regions.
 Simulations show that drainage regulations can be expected to
 play a major role in adoption of more efficient irrigation
 technologies in California. Thus, conservation may be a key to
 solving resource scarcity problems and reducing external
 environmental costs.
 
 
 42                                NAL Call. No.: SB319.2.F6F56
 Effects of reclaimed wastewater on leaf and soil mineral
 composition and fruit quality of citrus.
 Zekri, M.; Koo, R.C.J.
 S.l. : The Society; 1991 Jun.
 Proceedings of the ... annual meeting of the Florida State
 Horticulture Society v. 103: p. 38-41; 1991 Jun.  Meeting held
 December 17-19, 1990, Lake Buena Vista, Florida.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Citrus; Irrigation; Waste water; Water
 conservation; Crop quality; Foliar diagnosis; Mineral
 nutrition; Soil water
 
 
 43                                    NAL Call. No.: 292.8 J82
 Effects of sludge disposal on groundwater nitrate
 concentrations. Spalding, R.F.; Exner, M.E.; Martin, G.E.;
 Snow, D.D.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Scientific Publishers, B.V.; 1993 Feb.
 Journal of hydrology v. 142 (1/4): p. 213-228; 1993 Feb. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nebraska; Groundwater; Nitrate nitrogen;
 Nitrogen; Stable isotopes; Sewage sludge; Soil injection;
 Agricultural land; Denitrification; Persistence; Carbon;
 Chloride; Water pollution; Drinking water; Groundwater
 recharge
 
 Abstract:  More than 100 groundwater samples were collected
 and analyzed for nitrate-nitrogen, delta 15N of the nitrate,
 dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and chloride. Multilevel
 samplers and nested monitoring wells were located beneath and
 down-gradient from an irrigated cornfield on which human waste
 sludge was injected. The sampling delineated a 1.3 km X 0.3 km
 plume of nitrate contamination. Both the nitrate-nitrogen
 concentrations and the delta 15N values within the plume's
 centroid were homogeneous. The levels were 34 +/- 3 mg l-1 and
 +13.4 +/- 1.2%, respectively. A retarding zone of clayey silt
 split the plume and separated the oxic water from the deeper
 anoxic water. Nitrate levels were lower in the anoxic water
 and declined rapidly with depth. The significant association
 (r = -0.91) between increasing delta 15N values and decreasing
 nitrate concentrations indicated that the nitrate was
 denitrified. High chloride concentrations in the anoxic zone
 beneath the retarding layer are thought to originate from the
 sludge storage lagoon and/or the sludge compost piles. Tritium
 and atrazine levels confirm that this is recent recharge
 water. Denitrification has utilized most of the original
 nitrate and DOC in the plume.
 
 
 44                                   NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Effects on crops of irrigation with facultative pond effluent.
 Monte, H.M. do; Sousa, M.S.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 26
 (7/8): p. 1603-1613; 1992.  In the series analytic: Water
 Quality International '92. Part 4 / edited by M. Suzuki, et
 al. Proceedings of the Sixtennth Biennial Conference of the
 International Association on Water Pollution Research and
 Control, held May 24-30, 1992, Washington, D.C.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Portugal; Refuse; Waste water treatment; Lagoons;
 Effluents; Water reuse; Irrigation; Water; Crop yield; Crop
 quality
 
 
 45                                   NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Effluent reuse by trickle irrigation.
 Oron, G.; DeMalach, Y.; Hoffman, Z.; Manor, Y.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 24 (9):
 p. 103-108; 1991.  In the series analytic: Wastewater
 Reclamation and Reuse/edited by R. Mujeriego and T. Asano.
 Proceedings of the International Symposium of Wastewate
 Reclamation and Reuse, September 24-26, 1991, Costa Brava,
 Spain.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Israel; Effluents; Waste disposal; Waste
 treatment; Fertigation; Trickle irrigation; Water reuse;
 Irrigation water; Sprinkler irrigation; Soil; Crops;
 Contamination; Zea mays; Sweetcorn; Bacteria; Viruses;
 Counting
 
 
 46                                  NAL Call. No.: S544.3.C2C3
 Effluent water for turfgrass irrigation.
 Harivandi, A.
 Berkeley, Calif. : The Service; 1991.
 Leaflet - University of California, Cooperative Extension
 Service (21500): 11 p.; 1991.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Effluents; Irrigation; Lawns and turf; Landscape;
 Waste water treatment; Health hazards; Water quality
 
 
 47                                   NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Effluents quality along a multiple-stage wastewater
 reclamation system for agricultural reuse.
 Azov, Y.; Shelef, G.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 23
 (10/12): p. 2119-2126; 1991.  Paper presented at the
 "Fifteenth Biennial Conference of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control," July 29-
 August 3, 1990, Kyoto, Japan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Israel; Waste water treatment; Effluents;
 Quality; Irrigation water; Gossypium
 
 
 48                                   NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Evaluation of the California wastewater reclamation criteria
 using enteric virus monitoring data.
 Asano, T.; Leong, L.Y.C.; Rigby, M.G.; Sakaji, R.H.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 26
 (7/8): p. 1513-1524; 1992.  In the series analytic: Water
 Quality International '92. Part 4 / edited by M. Suzuki, et
 al. Proceedings of the Sixtennth Biennial Conference of the
 International Association on Water Pollution Research and
 Control, held May 24-30, 1992, Washington, D.C.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Regulations; Refuse; Evaluation;
 Reclamation; Indicators; Enterovirus; Water reuse; Irrigation
 water
 
 
 49                                   NAL Call. No.: TP963.A1F4
 Fertilization under drip irrigation.
 Bar-Yosef, B.
 New York, N.Y. : Marcel Dekker; 1991.
 Fertilizer science and technology series v. 7: p. 285-329;
 1991.  In the series analytic: Fluid fertilizer science and
 technology / edited by D.A. Palgrave.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Fertigation; Liquid fertilizers; Fluids; Trickle
 irrigation; Fertilizer requirement determination; Irrigation
 water; Ph; Salinity; Plant nutrition; Nutrient requirements;
 Nutrient uptake; Temporal variation; Nitrogen; Movement in
 soil; Transport processes; Spatial distribution; Root systems;
 Soil water content; Soil solution; Mathematical models;
 Monitoring; Fertilizer technology; Management; Crop production
 
 
 50                                     NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Field study of bromacil transport under continuous-flood
 irrigation. Jaynes, D.B.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1991 May.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 55 (3): p. 658-664;
 1991 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Bromacil; Flood irrigation; Herbicide residues;
 Leaching; Movement in soil; Transport processes; Agricultural
 soils; Mathematical models
 
 Abstract:  The transport processes of sorbing chemicals in
 field soils are poorly understood. This study characterized
 the leaching behavior of the weakly sorbing herbicide bromacil
 (5-bromo-3-sec-butyl-6-methyluracil) in comparison to Br-
 during continuous-flood irrigation of a small field plot.
 Twenty-four solution samplers were used to periodically
 collect in situ samples from seven depths within four 1.83 by
 1.83 m subplots. Estimates of the pore water velocity (vs) and
 dispersion coefficient (D) were made by fitting an analytical
 solution of the convection-dispersion (CD) equation to the Br-
 data. Estimates of retardation (R) were made by fitting the CD
 equation to the bromacil data using the vs and D estimates
 from the Br- data and letting R be a fitting parameter.
 Estimates of R were also made from the results of batch
 equilibration studies using soil from seven depths. Best-fit
 vs and D values exhibited considerable variability from
 sampler to sampler (CV = 1.25 and 1.30, respectively) and
 showed no significant trends with depth. Retardation values
 estimated from the CD equation averaged 1.88, but varied from
 1.21 to 3.35 and also showed no significant trend with depth.
 In contrast, batch equilibration studies showed the absorption
 properties of the surface 0.6 m of soil to be significantly
 different than the 0.6- to 3-m depth, with R values decreasing
 from 1.62 for the surface 0.6 m to 1.31 at 3 m. Although the
 two methods gave the same estimate of R in the surface soil
 neither the lower R values at deeper depths nor the tendency
 to decrease with depth as predicted from the batch studies was
 apparent in the transport data. Using D as an additional
 fitting parameter to the bromacil data resulted in an average
 increase of 1.96 for this parameter, indicating more
 dispersion for the sorbing solute. Increased dispersion and
 increased tailing of the sorbed solute may be attributed to
 spatially variable adsorption and to a negative correlation
 between vs and R (r = -0.524)
 
 
 51                                      NAL Call. No.: 80 AC82
 First observations on the disposal effects of olive oil mills
 vegetation waters on cultivated soil.
 Marsilio, V.; Di Giovacchino, L.; Solinas, M.; Lombardo, N.;
 Briccoli-Bati, C. Wageningen : International Society for
 Horticultural Science; 1990 Dec. Acta horticulturae (286): p.
 493-496; 1990 Dec.  Paper presented at the "International
 Symposium on Olive Growing," Sept. 26-29, 1989, Cordoba,
 Spain.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Italy; Olea europaea; Olive oil; Processing;
 Waste water; Irrigation water; Soil amendments; Soil fertility
 
 
 52                                     NAL Call. No.: QH540.J6
 A functional model of solute transport that accounts for
 bypass. Corwin, D.L.; Waggoner, B.L.; Rhoades, J.D.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Jul.
 Journal of environmental quality v. 20 (3): p. 647-658; 1991
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Groundwater; Water quality; Transport processes;
 Solutes; Water management; Mathematical models
 
 Abstract:  Public awareness of groundwater contamination has
 created renewed interest in solute transport models that can
 be practically applied as groundwater quality management
 tools. Because of their simplicity with regard to input
 requirements, functional models of solute transport are
 excellent groundwater quality management tools. A functional
 model of one-dimensional solute transport that accounts for
 hydraulic bypass is presented. The transport model TETrans,
 simulates the vertical movement of nonvolatile solutes (i.e.,
 trace elements and nonvolatile organic chemicals) through the
 vadose zone. Plant water uptake is taken into account assuming
 no solute uptake by the plant. TETrans requires minimal input
 data for its operation. Since TETrans uses a mass-balance
 approach to solute transport, it offers the speed of an
 analytical solution and the versatility of a numerical
 approach without the need for input parameters, which are
 difficult to measure. TETrans is able to account for bypass
 with a single term, the mobility coefficient. The mobility
 coefficient, gamma, represents the fraction of the soil liquid
 phase, which is subject to piston-type displacement;
 therefore, 1 - gamma represents the fraction of the liquid
 phase that is bypassed. The mobility coefficient is a
 temporally and spatially variable parameter (within a range of
 0 to l) which is calculated from the deviation of the measured
 chloride concentration from the predicted concentration
 assuming piston displacement and assuming complete mixing of
 the resident soil solution and incoming water for a given
 irrigation and volume of soil. A constant mobility coefficient
 for a given depth or entire profile can be determined by
 averaging temporally varying mobility coefficients or
 averaging spatially and temporally varying mobility
 coefficients, respectively. In essence, the mobility
 coefficient simplistically accounts for three physical
 transport phenomena in a single term. On a microscopic level
 there is flow thr
 
 
 53                                  NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Furrow infiltration and design with cannery wastewater.
 Xanthoulis, D.; Wallender, W.W.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1991 Nov. Transactions of the ASAE v. 34 (6): p.
 2390-2396. ill; 1991 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Sorghum; Surface irrigation; Waste
 water; Design; Furrows; Infiltration; Cannery wastes;
 Tomatoes; Waste disposal
 
 Abstract:  Surface irrigation is used to apply food processing
 wastewater. A newly developed flow-through infiltrometer was
 developed to measure the influence of wastewater quality on
 infiltration and irrigation performance. Steady infiltration
 rate decreased with increased loading of BOD and TS of tomato
 processing wastewater. Using a hydraulic model to simulate
 irrigation performance, it was shown that ignoring the decline
 in infiltration with increased loading and using the
 unadjusted infiltration function reduced predicted application
 efficiency 23%. Surface irrigation system design should
 therefore include the effect of wastewater quality.
 
 
 54                                   NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Golf course irrigation with reclaimed wastewater.
 Mujeriego, R.; Sala, L.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 24 (9):
 p. 161-171; 1991.  In the series analytic: Wastewater
 Reclamation and Reuse/edited by R. Mujeriego and T. Asano.
 Proceedings of the International Symposium of Wastewate
 Reclamation and Reuse, September 24-26, 1991, Costa Brava,
 Spain.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Spain; Waste water treatment; Water reuse;
 Irrigation water; Requirements; Golf courses; Public health;
 Health protection; Microbial contamination; Water resources;
 Water quality; Physicochemical properties; Operation;
 Maintenance; Costs
 
 
 55                                   NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Ground water recharge with sewage effluent.
 Bouwer, H.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 23
 (10/12): p. 2099-2108; 1991.  Paper presented at the
 "Fifteenth Biennial Conference of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control," July 29-
 August 3, 1990, Kyoto, Japan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Sewage effluent; Treatment; Water reuse;
 Irrigation water; Health protection; Groundwater recharge
 
 
 56                                   NAL Call. No.: 292.8 W295
 Groundwater flow and solute movement to drain laterals,
 western San Joaquin Valley, California. 1. Geochemical
 assessment.
 Deverel, S.J.; Fio, J.L.
 Washington, D.C. : American Geophysical Union; 1991 Sep.
 Water resources research v. 27 (9): p. 2233-2246; 1991 Sep. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Drainage water; Groundwater;
 Groundwater flow; Flow to drains; Solutes; Agricultural soils;
 Irrigated conditions; Selenium; Salinity; Water quality;
 Geochemistry; Hydrology; Quantitative analysis
 
 Abstract:  A study was undertaken to quantitatively evaluate
 the hydrologic processes affecting the chemical and isotopic
 composition of drain lateral water in a drained agricultural
 field in the western San Joaquin Valley, California. The
 results elucidate the process of mixing of deep and shallow
 groundwater (below and within 6 m from land surface) entering
 the drain laterals. The deep groundwater was subject to
 evapoconcentration prior to drainage system installation and
 has been displaced downward (to depths greater than 6 m) in
 the groundwater system. The proportions of deep and shallow
 groundwater entering the drain laterals was calculated from
 the end-member oxygen 18 compositions determined in
 groundwater samples. The percentage of total drain lateral
 flow which is deep groundwater flow is about 30% for the
 shallow drain lateral (1.8 m below land surface) (drain
 lateral 1)) and 60% for the deep drain lateral (2.7 m below
 land surface (drain lateral 2)). During irrigation, the
 percentages of deep groundwater flow decrease to 0 and 30% for
 the shallow and deep drain laterals, respectively. Selenium
 concentrations in drain lateral waters decrease during
 irrigation but selenium loads increase. Total estimated annual
 loads were 1.1 and 5.4 kg of selenium for drain laterals 1 and
 2, respectively. Substantial percentages of the annual load
 occurred during 8 days of irrigation, 23 and 9% for drain
 laterals 1 and 2, respectively.
 
 
 57                                      NAL Call. No.: QD1.A45
 Groundwater-sampling network to study agrochemical effects on
 water quality in the unconfined aquifer: southeastern
 Delaware.
 Denver, J.M.
 Washington, D.C. : The Society; 1991.
 ACS Symposium series - American Chemical Society (465): p.
 139-149; 1991.  In the series analytic: Groundwater residue
 sampling design / edited by R.G. Nash and A.R. Leslie. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Delaware; Groundwater; Agricultural chemicals;
 Water quality; Sampling
 
 Abstract:  Understanding local and regional groundwater-flow
 patterns was necessary to design a sampling network to study
 the movement and distribution of agrochemicals in the
 unconfined aquifer in southeastern Delaware. Clusters of wells
 completed at various depths were installed in the expected
 direction of local groundwater flow along a transect from the
 center of a 100-ha cultivated field toward a nearby stream.
 Contrary to expectations, groundwater flow in the study area
 is almost parallel to the stream, in the direction of regional
 flow. Consequently, agrochemicals from the site migrate along
 flow paths from source (recharge) areas to distant regional
 discharge areas and do not significantly influence the water
 quality in the stream. The sampling network was expanded
 upgradient and downgradient from the original site during a
 second phase of the study. The expanded network provided
 better understanding of agrochemical distribution relative to
 regional groundwater-flow patterns.
 
 
 58                                   NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Health guidelines and standards for wastewater reuse in
 agriculture: historical perspectives.
 Shuval, H.I.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 23
 (10/12): p. 2073-2080; 1991.  Paper presented at the
 "Fifteenth Biennial Conference of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control," July 29-
 August 3, 1990, Kyoto, Japan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Waste water; Water reuse; Irrigation
 water; Health protection; Regulations; Historical records
 
 
 59                                   NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Human waste use: health protection practices and scheme
 monitoring. Strauss, M.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 24 (9):
 p. 67-79; 1991.  In the series analytic: Wastewater
 Reclamation and Reuse/edited by R. Mujeriego and T. Asano.
 Proceedings of the International Symposium of Wastewate
 Reclamation and Reuse, September 24-26, 1991, Costa Brava,
 Spain.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Man; Wastes; Waste utilization; Agricultural
 production; Aquaculture; Public health; Health protection;
 Waste water; Water reuse; Guidelines; Waste water treatment;
 Irrigation water
 
 
 60                                      NAL Call. No.: 81 SO12
 The impact of phytophthora root rot on water extraction from
 soil by roots of field-grown processing tomatoes.
 Ristaino, J.B.; Duniway, J.M.
 Alexandria, Va. : The Society; 1991 Jul.
 Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science v.
 116 (4): p. 603-608; 1991 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Lycopersicon esculentum; Root rots;
 Soil fungi; Phytophthora nicotianae var. parasitica; Furrow
 irrigation; Water uptake; Soil depth; Profiles
 
 Abstract:  Processing tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)
 grown in field plots with soil infested with or free of
 Phytophthora parasitica Dastur. were furrow-irrigated for 4 to
 8 hours every 14 days (normal irrigation), for 4 to 8 hours
 every 28 days (less frequent irrigation), or for 4 to 8 and 24
 hours on alternate irrigations every 14 days (prolonged
 irrigation). Disease developed more rapidly and symptom
 severity was greater in inoculated plants that received
 prolonged irrigation, whereas disease onset was delayed in
 inoculated plants that were irrigated less frequently. Water
 extraction by tomato roots from well-irrigated and noninfested
 soil was usually greatest at shallow depths and decreased with
 depth. When disease was increasing and soil moisture was high,
 diseased plants extracted less total water from all depths and
 significantly less water at shallow depths. Plants in the
 drier soil profiles extracted the greatest amounts of water at
 depths below 90 cm, and diseased plants irrigated less
 frequently showed reductions in water extraction at shallow
 depths later in the season. Tomato root systems appeared to
 compensate for moderate levels of root disease at shallow
 depths by extracting more water from deeper in the profile.
 
 
 61                                 NAL Call. No.: RA1270.P35A1
 Impact of sewage disposal on the hematological and biochemical
 parameters of dairy cows.
 Varadarajan, K.; Paliwal, K.; Rajamanickam, C.; Manickavel,
 K.; Jeyapaul, G.; Logasundari, S.
 New York, N.Y. : Springer-Verlag; 1991 Nov.
 Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology v. 47
 (5): p. 653-659; 1991 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Tamil nadu; Dairy cows; Sewage; Sewage effluent
 disposal; Irrigated pastures; Toxicity; Blood picture;
 Hematology
 
 
 62                                   NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Infiltration percolation for reclaimimg stabilization pond
 effluents. Brissaud, F.; Restrepo-Bardon, M.; Soulie, M.;
 Joseph, C. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 24 (9):
 p. 185-193; 1991.  In the series analytic: Wastewater
 Reclamation and Reuse/edited by R. Mujeriego and T. Asano.
 Proceedings of the International Symposium of Wastewate
 Reclamation and Reuse, September 24-26, 1991, Costa Brava,
 Spain.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: France; Waste water treatment; Stabilizing;
 Ponds; Infiltration; Percolation; Construction; Water reuse;
 Irrigation water; Lawns and turf; Landscape gardening
 
 
 63                                   NAL Call. No.: QH84.8.B46
 Influence of irrigation with pulp and paper mill effluent on
 soil chemical and microbiological properties.
 Kannan, K.; Oblisami, G.
 Berlin : Springer International; 1990.
 Biology and fertility of soils v. 10 (3): p. 197-201; 1990. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Tamil nadu; Kraft mill effluent; Microbiology;
 Rhizobiaceae; Soil amendments; Soil biology; Soil chemistry;
 Soil fungi
 
 
 64                                  NAL Call. No.: S592.7.A1S6
 Influence of paper mill effluent irrigation on soil enzyme
 activities. Kannan, K.; Oblisami, G.
 Exeter : Pergamon Press; 1990.
 Soil biology and biochemistry v. 22 (7): p. 923-926; 1990. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Paper mill sludge; Irrigation; Agricultural land;
 Enzyme activity; Cellulase; Beta-fructofuranosidase
 
 
 65                                     NAL Call. No.: 382 SO12
 The influence of saline irrigation and organic waste
 fertilisation on the mineral content (N, P, K, Na, Ca and Mg)
 of tomatoes.
 Gomez, I.; Navarro-Pedreno, J.; Mataix, J.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science; 1992.
 Journal of the science of food and agriculture v. 59 (4): p.
 483-487; 1992. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Tomatoes; Saline water; Irrigation; Calcareous
 soils; Fertilizers; Almonds; Byproducts; Sewage sludge; Food
 composition; Nitrogen; Phosphorus; Potassium; Sodium; Calcium;
 Magnesium
 
 Abstract:  Tomato plants were grown in a calcareous soil
 supplemented with two organic wastes (sewage sludge and
 epicarp-mesocarp of the almond tree fruit). They were
 irrigated at three levels of salinity caused by the addition
 of sodium chloride, N, P, K, Na, Ca and Mg were determined in
 the soil and tomato fruits. The treatments had a significant
 incidence on mineral content in fruit and soil.
 
 
 66                                    NAL Call. No.: 292.8 J82
 The interaction of two major old water bodies and its
 implication for the exploitation of groundwater in the
 multiple aquifer system of the central and northern Negev,
 Israel.
 Kronfeld, J.; Rosenthal, E.; Weinberger, G.; Flexer, A.;
 Berkowitz, B. Amsterdam : Elsevier Scientific Publishers,
 B.V.; 1993 Mar15. Journal of hydrology v. 143 (3/4): p.
 169-190; 1993 Mar15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Israel; Aquifers; Groundwater; Groundwater
 recharge; Groundwater level; Salt water intrusion; Wells;
 Groundwater flow; Ph; Temperature; Ions; Chemical composition;
 Stable isotopes; Radiocarbon dating; Triticum
 
 Abstract:  In the Beer Sheva region of the Negev desert, the
 only significant fresh groundwater is contained within the
 Judea Group carbonate aquifer. It is found that this aquifer
 holds two distinctly different old water bodies. One such
 groundwater body has evolved in equilibrium with the carbonate
 aquifer rocks after being recharged during the Holocene in the
 Hebron Mountains north of the study area. At present, modern
 recharge, as denoted by the tritium and radiocarbon contents,
 is very minor. A subtle 'piston effect' generated by
 contemporary replenishment is discussed in representative
 hydrographs in Beer Sheva wells. Another groundwater body
 identified in the Judea Group aquifer derives from the
 underlying Kurnub Group aquifer. The regional artesian Kurnub
 Group aquifer (Nubian Sandstone) contains an older and
 brackish groundwater body which has been recharged in Sinai
 during Pleistocene pluvials. Faulting in the Beer Sheva region
 facilitated hydrologic contact between the two aquifers.
 Exploitation of the Judea Group has released confining
 pressures and resulted in the intrusion of Kurnub Group water
 into the overlying Judea Group carbonate aquifer. This process
 is most significant in those wells drilled close to major
 faults where salinity increases with pumping. The intruding
 water originating from the Kurnub Group sandstone aquifer has
 not yet equilibrated chemically with the carbonate host. The
 low pH and high temperatures that have been encountered
 indicate continuing and very recent intrusion. In the Beer
 Sheva area, in the absence of direct significant modern
 recharge (as determined from tritium and 14C values), all
 waters should be considered as paleowaters that are being
 mined. A complete revision of the hydrologic concept by which
 the multiple aquifer system can be exploited is required, to
 take into account the fact that the fresh Judea Group
 groundwater is actually an old (Holocene) water body intruded
 by brackish and older (Pleistocene) water along fault
 
 
 67                                   NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 International perspective on water resources management and
 wastewater reuse--appropriate technologies.
 Bartone, C.R.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 23
 (10/12): p. 2039-2047; 1991.  Paper presented at the
 "Fifteenth Biennial Conference of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control," July 29-
 August 3, 1990, Kyoto, Japan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Waste water; Water reuse; Irrigation water;
 Aquaculture
 
 
 68                                   NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Investigating land based disposal of Bolivar reclaimed water,
 South Australia. Schrale, G.; Boardman, R.; Blaskett, M.J.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1993.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 27 (1):
 p. 87-96; 1993.  In the series analytic: Appropriate waste
 management technologies / edited by G. Ho and K. Mathew.
 Proceedings of the International Conference, held November
 27-28, 1991, Perth, Australia.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South australia; Sewage effluent disposal; Waste
 water treatment; Application to land; Irrigated soils
 
 
 69                                     NAL Call. No.: SB476.G7
 Irrigating with effluent.
 Howard, H.F.
 Overland Park, Kan. : Intertec Publishing Corporation; 1992
 Mar. Grounds maintenance v. 27 (3): p. 52, 54, 58; 1992 Mar.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation; Effluents; Ponds; Aeration; Pumps;
 Filters; Water filters; Protozoa; Aquatic weeds; Algae; Weed
 control; Pathogens; Waterfowl; Botulism; Sodium
 
 
 70                                      NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Irrigation of turfgrass with secondary sewage effluent. I.
 Soil and leachate water quality.
 Hayes, A.R.; Mancino, C.F.; Pepper, I.L.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1990 Sep.
 Agronomy journal v. 82 (5): p. 939-943; 1990 Sep.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Lawns and turf; Sewage effluent;
 Application to land; Waste utilization; Irrigation water; Soil
 ph; Electrical conductivity; Exchangeable sodium; Arid
 regions; Leachates; Water quality
 
 Abstract:  In arid climates water is a limited resource, and
 turfgrass is often irrigated with municipal effluent. However,
 the effects of continuous turfgrass irrigation with sewage
 effluent on soil and leachate water quality needs to be
 evaluated. The objective of this field experiment was to
 evaluate the effect of secondary treated municipal effluent
 irrigation on soil and leachate properties under a turf
 groundcover during the first 16 mo of irrigation. Research
 plots were irrigated identically with either effluent or
 potable water using a leaching fraction of approximately 20%.
 Effluent irrigation resulted in significant changes in soil
 properties after a relatively short period of time. After 16
 mo of use, when compared with potable irrigation, effluent was
 found to increase electrical conductivity (EC) by 0.5 dS m-1,
 NO3-N by 7.8 mg kg-1, P by 31.7 mg kg-1, K by 134 mg kg-1, Na
 by 6.0 mmol L-1 and the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP)
 by 6.8. Soil Ca + Mg concentrations were greater under
 effluent irrigation by 0.5 mmol L-1 but decreased during the
 study period. Soil pH was not significantly different from
 potable irrigation. Leachates collected at 0.61-m depth
 indicated that effluent soil leachates were higher than
 potable leachates primarily in EC by 0.2 dS m-1 and Na content
 by 0.8 mmol L-1. The increase did not exceed current
 recommended limits for drinking water quality.
 
 
 71                                      NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Irrigation of turfgrass with secondary sewage effluent. II.
 Turf quality. Hayes, A.R.; Mancino, C.F.; Forden, W.Y.; Kopec,
 D.M.; Pepper, I.L. Madison, Wis. : American Society of
 Agronomy; 1990 Sep.
 Agronomy journal v. 82 (5): p. 943-946; 1990 Sep.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Cynodon dactylon; Lolium perenne; Sewage
 effluent; Irrigation water; Application to land; Crop
 establishment; Seedling emergence; Nitrogen fertilizers;
 Application rates; Crop quality; Nutrient excesses; Waste
 utilization
 
 Abstract:  Due to limited water resources, golf course
 irrigation with municipal sewage effluent is a common
 practice, and, in some areas of the USA Desert Southwest
 mandatory. However, effluent irrigation changes soil
 properties and therefore different management practices are
 needed for good quality turfgrass. This field experiment
 evaluated the continuous use of secondary treated municipal
 sewage effluent on turfgrass quality over a 64-wk period. In
 April 1987, common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. Pers.)
 was seeded to a Sonoita gravelly sandy loam (coarse-loamy,
 mixed, thermic Typic Haplargid) and maintained under fairway
 conditions. In October of that year, perennial ryegrass
 (Lolium perenne L.) was overseeded to maintain an actively
 growing turf. Plots were irrigated identically with either
 effluent or potable water. Effluent irrigation led to
 significantly lower seed emergence but improved seed
 establishment. Turf quality was assessed under each irrigation
 with four N fertilization rates of 0, 16.1, 32.3 and 48.4 kg N
 ha-1 (4 wk)-1. Established effluent irrigated turf did not
 show signs of osmotic stress with the leaching fraction
 employed. Effluent provided significant amounts of nutrients
 at high application rates. No single fertilization rate or
 irrigation regime consistently produced a superior turf
 quality over the course of the whole study. Effluent irrigated
 turf showed signs of overfertilization, greater heat stress
 and chlorosis of overseeded ryegrass stands during the summer
 months on plots receiving N fertilizer amendments. Municipal
 effluent did produce a high quality turf, but, the greater
 soluble salt and nutrient content of the water necessitate
 special management strategies.
 
 
 72                                      NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Irrigation of turfgrass with secondary sewage effluent: soil
 quality. Mancino, C.F.; Pepper, I.L.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Jul.
 Agronomy Journal v. 84 (4): p. 650-654; 1992 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Cynodon dactylon; Lawns and turf;
 Irrigation water; Sewage effluent; Waste utilization; Waste
 water; Soil chemistry; Electrical conductivity; Potassium;
 Soil ph; Sodium; Phosphorus; Soil fertility; Zinc; Iron;
 Manganese; Copper; Soil organic matter; Soil bacteria
 
 Abstract:  Effluent and other secondary waters have become
 important sources of irrigation water in the U.S. Southwest.
 Information is inadequate relative to potential long-term
 effluent irrigation effects on turfgrass and soil chemical
 quality. The objective of this field research was to determine
 the influence of secondarily treated municipal wastewater
 irrigation on the chemical quality of bermudagrass (Cynodon
 dactylon L.) turf soil (Sonoita gravelly sandy loam: coarse-
 loamy, mixed, thermic Typic Haplargid) when compared to
 similarly irrigated potable water plots. Research plots were
 irrigated using a 20% leaching fraction. After 3.2 yr of use,
 effluent water increased soil electrical conductivity by 0.2
 ds m-1, Na by 155 mg kg-1, P by 26 mg kg-1, and K by 50 mg
 kg-1 in comparison to potable irrigated plots. Soil pH was not
 significantly affected by effluent irrigation. The
 concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn were found to be within
 the range considered normal for agricultural soil. Effluent
 irrigation increased soil total organic carbon and nitrogen
 during the first 1.3 yr of irrigation only. Total aerobic
 bacteria populations were similar in all irrigated plots
 indicating these microbes were not promoted or inhibited by
 the use of this wastewater. In summary, the irrigation of this
 turf soil for 3.3 yr with the secondarily treated wastewater
 used in this study had no serious detrimental effects on soil
 quality.
 
 
 73                                NAL Call. No.: S405.A34 v.17
 Irrigation with treated sewage effluent management for
 environmental protection.
 Feigin, A.; Ravina, I.; Shalhevet, Joseph
 Berlin ; New York : Springer-Verlag,; 1991.
 x, 224 p. : ill. ; 25 cm. (Advanced series in agricultural
 sciences ; 17). Includes bibliographical references (p.
 [201]-216) and index.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sewage irrigation
 
 
 74                                       NAL Call. No.: QE1.E5
 Land application: its effectiveness in purification of urban
 and industrial wastewaters in La Mancha, Spain.
 Bustamante, I. de
 New York, N.Y. : Springer; 1990 Nov.
 Environmental geology and water sciences v. 16 (3): p.
 179-185. ill., maps; 1990 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Spain; Waste water treatment; Application to
 land; Fertigation; Potassium; Sodium; Cations; Populus
 canadensis; Water purification
 
 
 75                                   NAL Call. No.: 292.8 W295
 The Las Cruces Trench site: characterization, experimental
 results, and one-dimensional flow predictions.
 Wierenga, P.J.; Hills, R.G.; Hudson, D.B.
 Washington, D.C. : American Geophysical Union; 1991 Oct.
 Water resources research v. 27 (10): p. 2695-2705; 1991 Oct. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New Mexico; Soil water; Water flow; Solutes;
 Transport processes; Infiltration; Semiarid soils; Soil
 variability; Wetting front; Saturated hydraulic conductivity;
 Deterministic models; Prediction
 
 Abstract:  A comprehensive field trench study was conducted in
 a semiarid area of southern New Mexico to provide data to test
 deterministic and stochastic models of vadose zone flow and
 transport. A 4 m by 9 m area was irrigated with water
 containing a tracer using a carefully controlled drip
 irrigation system. The area was heavily instrumented with
 tensiometers and neutron probe access tubes to monitor water
 movement and with suction tubes to monitor solute transport.
 Approximately 600 disturbed and 600 core samples of soil were
 taken to support deterministic and stochastic characterization
 of the soil water hydraulic parameters. The core sample-based
 saturated hydraulic conductivities ranged from 1.4 to 6731
 cm/d with a mean of 533 cm/d and a standard deviation of 647
 cm/d, indicating significant spatial variability. However,
 visual observation of the wetting front on the trench wall
 shows no indication of preferential flow or water flow through
 visible root channels and cracks. The tensiometer readings and
 the neutron probe measurements also suggest that the wetting
 front moves in a fairly homogeneous fashion despite the
 significant spatial variability of the saturated hydraulic
 conductivity. In addition to the description of the experiment
 and the presentation of the experimental results, predictions
 of simple one-dimensional uniform and layered soil
 deterministic models for infiltration are presented and
 compared to field observations. These models are presented
 here to provide a base case against which more sophisticated
 deterministic and stochastic models can be compared in the
 future. The results indicate that the simple models give
 adequate predictions of the overall movement of the wetting
 front through the soil during infiltration. However, the
 models give poor predictions of point values for water content
 due to the spatial variability of the soil. Comparisons
 between the one-dimensional infiltration model predictions and
 field observations show that the use of t
 
 
 76                                     NAL Call. No.: S601.A34
 Livestock waste treatment in a double channel oxidation ditch.
 Ushikubo, A.; Yoshimura, M.; Kato, M.; Oyama, G.; D'Itri, F.M.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier; 1991 Jun14.
 Agriculture, ecosystems and environment v. 36 (1/2): p. 59-74;
 1991 Jun14. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Japan; Animal wastes; Biological treatment;
 Oxidation ditches; Aeration; Anaerobic conditions; Waste
 water; Effluents; Waste utilization; Application to land;
 Irrigation; Biological oxygen demand; Chemical oxygen demand;
 Nitrogen; Nitrites; Nitrate nitrogen; Denitrification;
 Ammonium nitrogen; Ammonia; Phosphorus; Dissolved oxygen;
 Temperature; Regulations; Water quality
 
 
 77                                   NAL Call. No.: QH84.8.B46
 Longterm influence of liquid sewage sludge on the organic
 carbon andnitrogen content of a furrow-irrigated desert soil.
 Artiola, J.F.; Pepper, I.L.
 Berlin : Springer International; 1992.
 Biology and fertility of soils v. 14 (1): p. 30-36; 1992. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Desert soils; Liquid wastes; Sewage
 sludge; Application rates; Carbon; Mineralization; Nitrogen;
 Soil organic matter; Furrow irrigation; Leaching; Waste
 disposal; Water pollution
 
 
 78                                     NAL Call. No.: QH540.J6
 Maize production impacts on groundwater quality.
 Schepers, J.S.; Moravek, M.G.; Alberts, E.E.; Frank, K.D.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Jan.
 Journal of environmental quality v. 20 (1): p. 12-16; 1991
 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nebraska; Zea mays; Crop production;
 Environmental impact; Groundwater; Irrigated conditions;
 Leaching; Nitrate nitrogen; Nitrogen fertilizers; Water
 management; Water quality; Yield targets
 
 Abstract:  The cumulative effects of management practices on
 nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) leaching and groundwater quality are
 frequently difficult to document because of the time required
 for expression and the diversity of interacting processes
 involved. This work reports results of a N and water
 management program initiated by the Central Platte Natural
 Resource District (CPNRD) in Nebraska. Cultural practices
 recommended by the CPNRD and reported by producers for the
 1988 growing season, representing approximately 3900 fields
 covering 84 210 ha of irrigated corn (Zea mays L.) indicated
 NO3-N contamination of groundwater was influenced by yield
 goals and fertilizer N application rates. Groundwater NO3-N
 concentrations were positively correlated with residual N in
 the surface 0.9 m of soil prior to the growing season,
 reflecting the effects of past N and water management
 practices. Yield goals in 1988 averaged 9% higher than the
 average 10.0 Mg ha-1 corn yield attained, which accounts for
 an average of about 20 kg N ha-1 in excess of the average N
 recommendation. By comparison, in a 1980 to 1984 study from an
 area within the CPNRD, yield goals averaged 28% greater than
 actual yields. Overly optimistic yield goals in 1988 accounted
 for 42% of the average excess N application rate of 48 kg ha-1
 (based on University of Nebraska recommendations). A large
 portion of average excess N application is attributed to
 producers in 14% of the area who applied > 100 kg N ha-1 more
 than the recommended rates. Fertilizer N applied showed little
 relationship to fertilizer N recommended. Better education and
 more stringent measures may be required to address the select
 group of producers who fail to follow CPNRD recommendations.
 
 
 79                                   NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Management of sugarcane mill wastewater in Hawaii.
 Chang, L.J.; Yang, P.Y.; Whalen, S.A.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1990.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 22 (9):
 p. 131-140; 1990.  Paper presented at the "International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control Symposium
 on Waste Management Problems in Agro-Industries," September
 25-27, 1989, Istanbul, Turkey.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Hawaii; Sugarcane; Sugar industry; Waste water
 treatment; Installations; Performance; Design; Anaerobic
 conditions; Pretreatment; Aerobic treatment; Removal;
 Efficiency; Water reuse; Trickle irrigation; Washing; Cost
 analysis
 
 
 80                              NAL Call. No.: S612.2.N38 1990
 Managing wastewater/land application by computerized remote
 monitor control. Howard, H.D.; Poppe, R.E.; Unruh< R.R.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1990. Visions of the future : proceedings of the
 Third National Irrigation Symposium held in conjunction with
 the 11th Annual International Irrigation Exposition, October
 28-November 1, 1990, Phoenix Civic Plaza, Phoenix, Arizona. p.
 114; 1990. (ASAE publication ; 04-90).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oklahoma; Waste water; Irrigation; Computer
 programming; Remote control
 
 
 81                             NAL Call. No.: GC302.3.M36 1990
 Manual for water level gauging and discharge measurements.
 Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit,
 International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage, Deutscher
 Verband fur Wasserwirschaft und Kulturbau
 Hamburg : P. Parey,; 1990.
 xvi, 258 p. (4 folded) : ill. ; 30 cm. (Guidelines for water
 management ; 301).  "Deutscher Verband fur Wasserwirtschaft
 und Kulturbau"--P. [2] of cover.  English version of
 "Pegelvorschrift.".
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Hydrography; Gaging; Tides
 
 
 82                                   NAL Call. No.: 292.8 W295
 A mathematical model of hillslope and watershed discharge.
 Stagnitti, F.; Parlange, J.Y.; Steenhuis, T.S.; Parlange,
 M.B.; Rose, C.W. Washington, D.C. : American Geophysical
 Union; 1992 Aug.
 Water resources research v. 28 (8): p. 2111-2122; 1992 Aug. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Connecticut; Watersheds; Water flow; Soil water;
 Slopes; Soil water balance; Soil physical properties; Soil
 depth; Runoff; Seepage; Evaporation; Water yield; Water
 holding capacity; Saturated hydraulic conductivity; Catchment
 hydrology; Mathematical models; Prediction
 
 Abstract:  A mathematical water balance model describing major
 hydrological processes operating within wet forested
 watersheds is proposed. The model is capable of predicting
 hillslope and watershed discharge, evapotranspiration demands,
 hillslope moisture status, and surface and subsurface flow
 rates. It is based on soil physical principles and requires
 the following input variables: average hillslope angle and
 width, average soil depth, precipitation, average daily
 evaporation rates, effective saturated hydraulic conductivity,
 soil moisture holding capacity and initial moisture content.
 These variables are often easily measured from field studies.
 However, in some cases, the absence of field data may require
 that some of the variables in the model, e.g., saturated
 hydraulic conductivity, be estimated or calibrated from
 hillslope hydrograph records. The watershed model is composed
 of two submodels: a storage model and a hillslope model. The
 storage model describes the dynamic variation in water table
 elevation in recharge zones and the hillslope model is used to
 predict runoff and seepage through flow from surrounding
 hillsides. Application of the model is illustrated on a small
 watershed located in North Madison, Connecticut.
 
 
 83                                   NAL Call. No.: 107.6 SA23
 Method for determining design discharge of main drainage
 canal. Design and management of large scale irrigation system.
 II.
 Ogino, Y.; Yabe, K.; Murashima, K.; Tanigawa, T.
 Sakai, Osaka : The University; 1992.
 Bulletin of the University of Osaka Prefecture : Series B :
 Agriculture and biology v. 44: p. 49-54; 1992.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Japan; Irrigation systems; Drainage channels;
 Discharge; Design; Management; Agricultural land; Watersheds;
 Calculation
 
 
 84                                    NAL Call. No.: QK867.J67
 Mineral nutrient concentration and uptake by tomato irrigated
 with recirculating aquaculture water as influenced by quantity
 of fish waste products supplied.
 McMurtry, M.R.; Sanders, D.C.; Nelson, P.V.; Nash, A.
 New York, N.Y. : Marcel Dekker; 1993.
 Journal of plant nutrition v. 16 (3): p. 407-409; 1993. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Lycopersicon esculentum; Nutrient availability;
 Nutrient uptake; Nitrogen; Potassium; Phosphorus; Magnesium;
 Calcium; Sulfur; Trace elements; Irrigation; Effluents; Fish
 culture; Oreochromis mossambicus
 
 Abstract:  Fish and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)
 production were linked in a recirculating water system. Fish
 (tilapia) were fed a commercial diet with 32% protein. Tomato
 cultivars 'Laura' and 'Kewalo' were grown during summer 1988
 and spring 1989, respectively, in a Raleigh, NC greenhouse.
 Plants were grown in biofilters at 4 plants/m2 and surface
 irrigated 8 times daily with water pumped from an associated
 fish tank. Four tank-to-biofilter ratios were established by
 varying the filter size. Each system received identical
 nutrient inputs and an equal quantity of water was applied per
 plant. Biofilter drainage returned to the tanks. Biological
 filtration, aeration, and mineral assimilation by plants
 maintained water quality within limits for tilapia. All
 nutrients were assimilated above deficiency levels. Tissue
 concentrations of N, P, K and Mg were not limiting. Calcium
 was low and S high when their sole nutrient source was fish
 waste. Micronutrients were assimilated in excess of
 sufficiency, but toxicity was not seen. Irrespective of fruit
 yield, metabolic products of each kilogram increase in fish
 biomass provided sufficient nutrient for two tomato plants for
 a period of three months. Under reduced growth rates of mature
 fish, K became limiting. Alterations in fish feed mineral
 nutrient content are suggested which better meet plant
 requirements and still remain within the range of fish needs.
 
 
 85                                   NAL Call. No.: 292.8 W295
 Modeling long-term solute transport in drained unsaturated
 zones. Kandil, H.; Miller, C.T.; Skaggs, R.W.
 Washington, D.C. : American Geophysical Union; 1992 Oct.
 Water resources research v. 28 (10): p. 2799-2809; 1992 Oct. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Unsaturated flow; Transport processes; Solutes;
 Drained conditions; Soil water balance; Water table; Water
 quality; Prediction; Simulation; Mathematical models;
 Algorithms
 
 Abstract:  Long-term assessment of solute transport in the
 unsaturated zone is an important consideration for irrigation
 management, pesticide management, and subsurface contaminant
 restoration analysis and design. Mathematical models are often
 used to perform such analyses. Modeling fluid flow and solute
 transport in the unsaturated zone typically requires solution
 of the nonlinear Richards equation and an advective-dispersive
 equation for contaminant transport as a function of time. Such
 solutions are possible but computationally expensive. A
 simplified water balance approach to solve fluid flow in
 shallow, drained unsaturated zones has been developed and
 refined over the last 15 years. The objectives of this study
 were to use results from a water balance model to obtain
 solutions for solute transport in drained, shallow water table
 soils, and to compare the results with solutions based upon
 Richards' equation. Transient soil water flux rates computed
 with a water balance model were used as input to a Petrov-
 Galerkin advective-dispersive transport model to simulate
 solute transport in unsaturated soils. The transport model was
 checked for consistency by comparison with an analytical
 solution. Sample simulations showed good agreement between a
 Richards' equation-based transport model and a water balance-
 based transport model. Simulations were performed to show
 predicted trends in water quality over 1-year periods.
 
 
 86                                   NAL Call. No.: 292.8 W295
 Modeling of carbon dioxide transport and production in soil.
 1. Model development.
 Simunek, J.; Suarez, D.L.
 Washington, D.C. : American Geophysical Union; 1993 Feb.
 Water resources research v. 29 (2): p. 487-497; 1993 Feb. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Carbon dioxide; Production; Transport processes;
 Spatial distribution; Water flow; Heat flow; Respiration; Soil
 biology; Soil chemistry; Prediction; Simulation models;
 Mathematical models
 
 Abstract:  Knowledge of the CO2 concentration in the
 unsaturated zone is essential for prediction of solution
 chemistry in the vadose zone and groundwater recharge as well
 as for quantifying carbon source/sink terms as part of the
 global CO2 mass balance. In this paper we present a predictive
 simulation model, SOILCO2, based on process-oriented
 relationships. The model includes one-dimensional water flow
 and multiphase transport of CO2 utilizing the Richards and the
 convection-dispersion equations, respectively, as well as heat
 flow and a CO2 production model. The transport of CO2 in the
 unsaturated zone can occur in both the liquid and gas phases.
 The gas transport equation accounts for production of CO2 and
 uptake of CO2 by plant roots associated with root water
 uptake. The CO2 production model considers both microbial and
 root respiration which is dependent on water content,
 temperature, growth, salinity and plant and soil
 characteristics. Heat flow is included, since some gas
 transport parameters, partitioning coefficients and production
 parameters are strongly temperature dependent. The resulting
 set of partial differential equations is solved numerically
 using the finite element and finite difference methods.
 
 
 87                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.8 J823
 Modelling water and solute transport in macroporous soil. II.
 Chloride breakthrough under non-steady flow.
 Jarvis, N.J.; Bergstrom, L.; Dik, P.E.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1991 Mar.
 The Journal of soil science v. 42 (1): p. 71-81; 1991 Mar. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Soil physics; Macropore flow; Solutes; Chlorides;
 Leaching; Prediction; Topsoil; Hydraulic conductivity;
 Porosity; Clay soils; Mathematical models; Diffusion models
 
 Abstract:  A model of water and solute transport in
 macroporous soils (Jarvis et al., 1991) has been evaluated in
 column breakthrough experiments under field conditions.
 Hydraulic properties were first measured in replicate soil
 monolith lysimeters sampled from grass ley and continuous
 barley treatments in a clay soil. A pulse input of 0.05 M KCl
 was then supplied by drip irrigation and measurements made of
 the water discharge and chloride leaching resulting from the
 natural rainfall over a 1-month period. The results showed
 that the macropores constituted the dominant flow pathway
 (accounting for 80% of the total water outflow) and that
 diffusive exchange of chloride between the two flow domains
 was the main factor causing variability in leaching. Larger
 hydraulic conductivities and macroporosities in the lower
 topsoil and at plough depth in the grass ley monoliths were
 taken as evidence of structural amelioration. Less of the
 applied chloride was leached in the grass monoliths than in
 the barley (means of 20% and 31% respectively). This was
 mainly due to a smaller effective aggregate size and thus a
 more efficient diffusion-controlled retention.
 
 
 88                                      NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Modification of infiltration rates in an organic-amended
 irrigated soil. Martens, D.A.; Frankenberger, W.T. Jr
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Jul.
 Agronomy Journal v. 84 (4): p. 707-717; 1992 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Soil treatment; Organic amendments;
 Poultry manure; Sewage sludge; Barley straw; Alfalfa; Soil
 organic matter; Soil physical properties; Aggregates;
 Stability; Soil water; Infiltration; Soil chemistry; Soil
 water content; Polysaccharides; Irrigated conditions; Soil
 density; Bulk density; Microbial activities; Respiration rate
 
 Abstract:  Slow water infiltration in some California soils
 results in considerable irrigation water loss through
 increased runoff and evaporation. This 25-mo study was
 conducted to evaluate the effects of different organic
 amendments on soil physical parameters and water infiltration
 rates on an irrigated soil. Incorporation of three loadings
 (25 Mg ha-1 each) of poultry manure, sewage sludge, barley
 straw (Hordeum vulgare L.), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)
 to an Arlington soil (coarse-loamy, mixed, thermic Haplic
 Durixeralf) for 2 yr increased soil respiration rates
 (139-290%), soil aggreate stability (22-59%), organic C
 content (13-84%), soil saccharide content (25-41%), soil
 moisture content (3-25%), and decreased soil bulk density
 (7-11%). The change in soil physical properties resulted in
 significantly increased cumulative water infiltration rates
 (18-25%) in the organic-amended plots as compared with the
 unamended plots. Although additions of poultry manure and
 sewage sludge contributed to higher soil organic matter
 compared with straw and alfalfa, the straw amendment was
 statistically more effective in increasing soil aggregate
 stability, total saccharide content, infiltration rates, and
 soil respiration rates and in decreasing bulk density in the
 tillage zone. The increase in cumulative infiltration rates
 measured with the first organic addition (April 1987-January
 1988) were significantly correlated with increased soil
 aggregation (P less than or equal to 0.01). Cumulative
 infiltration rates during the second (February 1988-September
 1988) and third (October 1988-May 1989) organic incorporation
 were significantly correlated with decreased bulk density (P
 less than or equal to 0.01), but not with aggregate stability.
 Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that water
 infiltration rates in the organic-amended soils were initially
 increased by stimulation of microbial activity, which
 increased the stability of soil aggregates. Cumulative
 infiltration rates we
 
 
 89                                   NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Monitoring large scale wastewater reclamation systems--policy
 and experience. Azov, Y.; Juanico, M.; Shelef, G.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 26
 (7/8): p. 1545-1553; 1992.  In the series analytic: Water
 Quality International '92. Part 4 / edited by M. Suzuki, et
 al. Proceedings of the Sixtennth Biennial Conference of the
 International Association on Water Pollution Research and
 Control, held May 24-30, 1992, Washington, D.C.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Israel; Waste water treatment; Effluents; Quality
 controls; Monitoring; Programs; Water reuse; Irrigation water
 
 
 90                                   NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Monitoring the quality of secondary effluents reused for
 unrestricted irrigation after underground storage.
 Azov, Y.; Juanico, M.; Shelef, G.; Kanarek, A.; Priel, M.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 24 (9):
 p. 267-275; 1991.  In the series analytic: Wastewater
 Reclamation and Reuse/edited by R. Mujeriego and T. Asano.
 Proceedings of the International Symposium of Wastewate
 Reclamation and Reuse, September 24-26, 1991, Costa Brava,
 Spain.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Israel; Waste water treatment; Reclamation;
 Systems; Effluents; Water reuse; Irrigation water; Water
 quality; Monitoring; Underground storage; Microbial
 contamination
 
 
 91                                  NAL Call. No.: 292.9 C1282
 The Montebello Forebay groundwater recharge project: the
 promise of wastewater reclamation.
 Hartling, E.C.
 Riverside, Calif. : The Center; 1990 May.
 Report - California Water Resources Center, University of
 California (72): p. 165-174; 1990 May.  Proceedings: Coping
 with Water Scarcity: The Role of Ground Water. Paper presented
 at the "Seventeenth Biennial Conference on Ground Water,
 September 25-26, 1989, San Diego, California.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Groundwater; Waste water treatment;
 Water reuse
 
 
 92                                    NAL Call. No.: TD419.R47
 Monterey wastewater reclamation study for agriculture.
 Sheikh, B.; Cort, R.P.; Kirkpatrick, W.R.; Jaques, R.S.;
 Asano, T. Alexandria, Va. : The Federation; 1990 May.
 Research journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation v.
 62 (3): p. 216-226. ill., maps; 1990 May.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Refuse; Waste water treatment;
 Irrigation water; Heavy metals; Chlorine; Pathogens; Viruses;
 Bacteria; Food contamination; Soil pollution; Yield response
 functions
 
 
 93                                   NAL Call. No.: 99.8 F7623
 Municipal effluent irrigation of fast-growing hybrid popular
 plantations near Vernon, British Columbia.
 Carlson, M.
 Ottawa : Canadian Institute of Forestry; 1992 Apr.
 The Forestry chronicle v. 68 (2): p. 206-208; 1992 Apr.  Paper
 presented at "Contribution of Salicaceae Family to
 Ameliorating our Environment." Joint Popular Council of
 Canada/US Popular Council Annual Meeting held Sept. 26-29,
 1991, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: British Columbia; Populus deltoides; Populus
 trichocarpa; Populus nigra; Hybrids; Clones; Forest
 plantations; Irrigation; Sewage effluent; Waste water; Growth;
 Plant height; Volume
 
 
 94                                    NAL Call. No.: 64.8 C883
 Nitrogen, potassium, and irrigation effects on water relations
 of Kentucky bluegrass leaves.
 Carroll, M.J.; Petrovic, A.M.
 Madison, Wis. : Crop Science Society of America; 1991 Mar.
 Crop science v. 31 (2): p. 449-453; 1991 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Poa pratensis; Stomatal resistance; Leaves;
 Turgor; Leaf water potential; Osmotic pressure; Nutrient
 availability; Nitrogen; Potassium; Irrigation; Water
 availability; Equations
 
 Abstract:  Transpiration and expansive growth in leaves are
 turgor-dependent processes. Solute concentration and osmotic
 potential are inextricably linked to turgor maintenance. An
 empirical equation predicting stomatal resistance (Rs) from
 bulk leaf turgor would be useful in developing computer
 simulations for turfgrass management. A growth-chamber study
 was conducted to quantify the relationship between Rs and bulk
 leaf turgor in Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L. cv. A-34).
 The effects of N, K, and irrigation frequency on balk leaf
 osmotic potential at full turgor and apoplastic water fraction
 (AWF) also were examined, using psychrometric techniques.
 Treatments consisted of two rates of N and K and two
 irrigation frequencies. An exponential model was used to
 describe the relationship between Rs and bulk leaf turgor. The
 least squares prediction equation was Rs = 581 + 2500
 exp(-6.99 bulk leaf turgor), r2 = 0.69, where bulk leaf turgor
 and Rs are expressed in units of MPa and s m-1, respectively.
 Increasing the time between rewatering containers to -0.02 MPa
 from 1 to 5 d did not influence bulk leaf osmotic potential at
 full turgor. For plants watered daily, increasing the amount
 of N supplied every 30 d from 35 to 175 kg ha-1 increased bulk
 leaf osmotic potential at full turgor 0.22 MPa, while
 increasing K from 17.5 to 175 kg ha-1 for the same application
 interval caused bulk leaf osmotic potential at full turgor to
 decline 0.20 MPa. Altering the supply of N or K did not affect
 bulk leaf osmotic potential at full turgor when the containers
 were watered every 5 d. Increasing the irrigation interval
 from 1 to 5 d caused AWF to decline from 22 to 12%, however,
 AWF estimates were highly variable. Results indicate the
 combined influences of N and K fertility practices can have a
 significant impact on the concentration of osmotically active
 solutes within Kentucky bluegrass bulk leaf tissue.
 
 
 95                                      NAL Call. No.: QR1.L47
 Nitrogen-fixing heterotrophic bacteria and presumptive
 coliforms in sewage treatment plants and irrigation reservoirs
 in Libya.
 Betaieb, M.; Jones, K.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1992 Jul.
 Letters in applied microbiology v. 15 (1): p. 32-33; 1992 Jul. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Libya; Coliform bacteria; Enterobacteriaceae;
 Nitrogen fixing bacteria; Microbial contamination; Irrigation
 water; Water reservoirs; Sewage effluent; Sewage effluent
 disposal; Waste water treatment
 
 
 96                                     NAL Call. No.: S590.C63
 Nonuniform leaching of nitrate and other solutes in a furrow-
 irrigated, sludge amended field.
 Artiola, J.F.
 New York, N.Y. : Marcel Dekker; 1991.
 Communications in soil science and plant analysis v. 22
 (9/10): p. 1013-1030; 1991.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Gossypium; Nitrate nitrogen; Sewage
 sludge; Soil amendments; Solutes; Leaching; Losses from soil
 systems; Particle size; Soil water; Furrow irrigation
 
 
 97                                  NAL Call. No.: QH545.A1E52
 Nutrient accumulation in trees and soil following irrigation
 with municipal effluent in Australia.
 Stewart, H.T.L.; Hopmans, P.; Flinn, D.W.; Hillman, T.J.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science; 1990.
 Environmental pollution v. 63 (2): p. 155-177. ill; 1990. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Australia; Sewage effluent; Waste disposal;
 Application to land; Irrigation; Forest trees; Soils;
 Nutrients; Biomass accumulation
 
 
 98                                    NAL Call. No.: 292.8 J82
 On the origin of saline soils at Blackspring Ridge, Alberta,
 Canada. Stein, R.; Schwartz, F.W.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Scientific Publishers, B.V.; 1990 Sep.
 Journal of hydrology v. 117 (1/4): p. 99-131; 1990 Sep. 
 Literature review. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alberta; Soil salinity; Saline soils; Salts in
 soil; Salinization; Geology; Physiographic features;
 Groundwater flow; High water tables; Hydraulic conductivity;
 Stable isotopes; Chemistry; Electrical conductivity;
 Evaporation; Transport processes; Surface water; Literature
 reviews
 
 Abstract:  Problems of soil salinity occur at Blackspring
 Ridge, Alberta, in four different settings. The most seriously
 affected area is at the base of the ridge where salinity
 appears as severe salt crusting on the surface, salt-tolerant
 vegetation, and areas of poor or no crop production.
 Blackspring Ridge is a structural bedrock high that is
 underlain by Upper Cretaceous sediment of the Horseshoe Canyon
 Formation. Bedrock is overlain by fluvial, glacial,
 lacustrine, and aeolian sediment. Piezometric data indicate
 that groundwater is recharged on and along the upper flanks of
 Blackspring Ridge and discharges in southern parts of a
 lacustrine plain that surrounds the ridge. Hydraulic
 conductivity data, water-level fluctuations, stable isotopes,
 and hydrochemical data indicate that the fractured near-
 surface bedrock and overlying thin-drift sediment constitute a
 zone of active groundwater flow within which salts are
 generated and transported. Water discharging from this shallow
 system evaporates and forms saline areas at the base of the
 ridge. The most seriously affected areas on the lacustrine
 plain coincide with places where the water table is less than
 1.5 m from the ground surface. A high water table occurs
 locally because of the changing topology of geologic units,
 and lows in the topographic surface that focus groundwater and
 surface water flows. Some proportion of the shallow
 groundwater salinized by evaporation is also transported down
 the flow system where it mixes with unevaporated water.
 Surface water, from snowmelt and precipitation events,
 dissolves salt that was deposited at the surface by
 evaporating groundwater and redistributes the salt to areas of
 lower elevation.
 
 
 99                                   NAL Call. No.: 292.8 W295
 Optimal reservoir operation for irrigation of multiple crops.
 Vedula, S.; Mujumdar, P.P.
 Washington, D.C. : American Geophysical Union; 1992 Jan.
 Water resources research v. 28 (1): p. 1-9; 1992 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Karnataka; Multiple cropping; Water reservoirs;
 Irrigation requirements; Irrigation scheduling; Water
 availability; Water allocation; Crop growth stage; Water use
 efficiency; Decision making; Mathematical models
 
 Abstract:  A model for the optimal operating policy of a
 reservoir for irrigation under a multiple crops scenario using
 stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) is developed.
 Intraseasonal periods smaller than the crop growth stage
 durations form the decision intervals of the model to
 facilitate irrigation decisions in real situations. Reservoir
 storage, inflow to the reservoir, and the soil moisture in the
 irrigated area are treated as state variables. An optimal
 allocation process is incorporated in the model to determine
 the allocations to individual crops when a competition for
 water exists among them. The model also serves as an
 irrigation scheduling model in that at any given intraseason
 period it specifies whether irrigation is needed and, if it
 is, the amount of irrigation to be applied to each crop. The
 impact on crop yield due to water deficit and the effect of
 soil moisture dynamics on crop water requirements are taken
 into account. A linear root growth of the crop is assumed
 until the end of the vegetative stage, beyond which the root
 depth is assumed to be constant. The applicability of the
 model is demonstrated through a case study of an existing
 reservoir in India.
 
 
 100                                   NAL Call. No.: TC801.I66
 Performance evaluation and control in water delivery decision-
 making processes: Who cares?.
 Nijman, C.M.
 Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1992.
 Irrigation and drainage systems : an international journal v.
 6 (2): p. 85-112; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sri lanka; Irrigation systems; Decision making;
 Performance appraisals
 
 
 101                                  NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Physicochemical treatment of tropical wastewaters: production
 of microbiologically safe effluents for unrestricted crop
 irrigation. Gambrill, M.P.; Mara, D.D.; Silva, S.A.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 26
 (7/8): p. 1449-1458; 1992.  In the series analytic: Water
 Quality International '92. Part 4 / edited by M. Suzuki, et
 al. Proceedings of the Sixtennth Biennial Conference of the
 International Association on Water Pollution Research and
 Control, held May 24-30, 1992, Washington, D.C.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Brazil; Households; Waste water; Stabilizing;
 Ponds; Waste water treatment; Technology; Effluents;
 Microbiology; Health; Safety; Water reuse; Irrigation water
 
 
 102                                  NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Planning and implementation of water reuse projects.
 Asano, T.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 24 (9):
 p. 1-10; 1991.  In the series analytic: Wastewater Reclamation
 and Reuse/edited by R. Mujeriego and T. Asano. Proceedings of
 the International Symposium of Wastewate Reclamation and
 Reuse, September 24-26, 1991, Costa Brava, Spain.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Waste water treatment; Costs; Water reuse;
 Irrigation water; Planning; Constraints; Water; Resources;
 Water supply; Groundwater recharge; Urban areas
 
 
 103                                  NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Planning for reuse. Developing a strategy for the Northern
 Territory, Australia.
 Burgess, M.D.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 24 (9):
 p. 31-43; 1991.  In the series analytic: Wastewater
 Reclamation and Reuse/edited by R. Mujeriego and T. Asano.
 Proceedings of the International Symposium of Wastewate
 Reclamation and Reuse, September 24-26, 1991, Costa Brava,
 Spain.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Australian northern territory; Waste water
 treatment; Water reuse; Irrigation water; Economic analysis;
 Environmental impact; Planning; Waste disposal; Drinking
 water; Water resources
 
 
 104                                   NAL Call. No.: 292.8 J82
 Preliminary analysis of water and solute movement beneath a
 coniferous hillslope in Mid-Wales, U.K.
 Chappell, N.A.; Ternan, J.L.; Williams, A.G.; Reynolds, B.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Scientific Publishers, B.V.; 1990 Aug.
 Journal of hydrology v. 116 (1/4): p. 201-215. maps; 1990 Aug. 
 Special issue: Transfer of elements through the hydrological
 cycle / C. Neal and M. Hornung, guest editors.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Wales; Soil water; Streams; Hill land; Coniferous
 forests; Solutes; Sulfates; Nitrate; Aluminum; Hydrogen ions;
 Recharge; Ion transport; Water quality; Storms; Runoff;
 Movement in soil
 
 Abstract:  Streams draining coniferous forests are often
 loaded with solutes such as hydrogen ion, sulphate, nitrate
 and aluminium. As a result, fish populations can be reduced
 and water quality may fall below recommended potable
 standards. The transport of ions into water-courses is
 governed by the movement of water. Within most temperate and
 tropical areas the stream discharge and chemistry, during
 periods of rapid runoff, is dominated by the exfiltration of
 water and solutes from stream-side soils. The movement of
 water to stream-side or 'riparian' areas remains, however, an
 enigma. This paper attempts to explain how the riparian area
 might be rapidly recharged during storm events. Two analytical
 techniques, the free-surface method and tangent-continuity
 method, are applied to hydrological properties monitored on a
 steep coniferous hillslope, during a selected storm event.
 Comparison of the ionic concentrations of waters within each
 component of the hydrological system, is used to verify the
 hydrological analysis. Perched water-tables developed within
 the basal zones of the O/Ah and Eag soil horizons of the steep
 podzolic hillslope, during all major storm events. Most of the
 rapid response within the riparian zone could be explained by
 lateral flow in these near-surface soil horizons, particularly
 in the saturated basal zones. This pathway is corroborated by
 the similarity of riparian zone and near-surface (or topsoil)
 chemistries. Relatively low concentrations of monomeric
 aluminium and relatively high concentrations of chloride,
 sodium and hydrogen ion were observed within these zones,
 compared with the subsoil (Bsl and B/C) horizons.
 
 
 105                                    NAL Call. No.: 420 F662
 Preliminary population assessment of Psychoda alternata
 (Diptera: Psychodidae) in soil irrigated with wastewater for
 turf cultivation.
 Ali, A.; Kok-Yokomi, M.L.
 Winter Haven, Fla. : Florida Entomological Society; 1991 Dec.
 Florida entomologist v. 74 (4): p. 591-596; 1991 Dec. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Psychoda alternata; Population density;
 Sewage; Soil insects; Waste water; Irrigated conditions; Lawns
 and turf; Farm workers; Insect pests
 
 
 106                                   NAL Call. No.: 292.8 J82
 Principles of evaluation of soil water residence time using
 queueing disciplines with water budget data (Theoretical
 background--I). Gamble, B.F.; Eckstein, Y.; Edwards, W.M.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Scientific Publishers, B.V.; 1990 Feb.
 Journal of hydrology v. 113 (1/4): p. 1-25; 1990 Feb. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ohio; Soil water; Soil water movement; Water
 budget; Catchment hydrology; Reservoirs; Recharge; Discharge;
 Storage; Models; Computer software
 
 Abstract:  Soil water residence time is an important aspect of
 soil hydrology. It is an important factor affecting the
 chemical composition of water in the soil. Water that makes up
 recharge and discharge to and from a hydrologic reservoir can
 be considered to consist of individual increments of water
 called fluid elements. Queueing disciplines can be used to
 describe the order in which the fluid elements move through
 the reservoir. Possible queueing disciplines that can be
 related to soil water movement are last-in-first-out (LIFO),
 first-in-first-out (FIFO), and a combination of LIFO and FIFO.
 When water budget records are available, the queueing
 disciplines can be used as models to allow the calculation of
 residence time estimates. Computer algorithms have been
 written for the purpose of making estimates of soil water
 residence times in a weighable monolith lysimeter.
 
 
 107                                  NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Public health concerns in wastewater reuse.
 Cooper, R.C.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 24 (9):
 p. 55-65; 1991.  In the series analytic: Wastewater
 Reclamation and Reuse/edited by R. Mujeriego and T. Asano.
 Proceedings of the International Symposium of Wastewate
 Reclamation and Reuse, September 24-26, 1991, Costa Brava,
 Spain.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Waste water; Water use; Water resources;
 Irrigation water; Groundwater; Recharge; Drinking water;
 Public health; Health protection; Water pollution
 
 
 108                                  NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Quality criteria for reclaimed water.
 Crook, J.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 24 (9):
 p. 109-121; 1991.  In the series analytic: Wastewater
 Reclamation and Reuse/edited by R. Mujeriego and T. Asano.
 Proceedings of the International Symposium of Wastewate
 Reclamation and Reuse, September 24-26, 1991, Costa Brava,
 Spain.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Waste water treatment; Water reuse;
 Irrigation water; Water quality; Quality standards;
 Microbiology; Chemicals; Public health; Health protection;
 Guidelines; Who
 
 
 109                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Quantification of postsettlement deposition in a northwestern
 Illinois sediment basin.
 Kreznor, W.R.; Olson, K.R.; Johnson, D.L.; Jones, R.L.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1990 Sep.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 54 (5): p.
 1393-1401. maps; 1990 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Geological sedimentation; Quantitative
 techniques; Soil; Aggregates; Particle size distribution;
 Slopes; Erosion; Basin irrigation
 
 Abstract:  The purpose of this study was to quantify the
 postsettlement deposition in a 24 900-m2 (2.49-ha) sediment
 basin with a single outlet in a 105 4O0-m2 (10.54-ha)
 watershed and estimate the sediment delivery to a first-order
 stream in northwestern Illinois. Methods included direct
 measurements of the eroded sediment deposited in the sediment
 basin. Buried A horizons (dated using fly ash as a time
 marker) identify the presettlement (approximately 1854)
 surface, which was overlain by as much as 116 cm of sediment.
 Volume of the sediment within the basin was calculated at 11
 394 m3 with a weight of 16 480 Mg. The modern soils of the
 sediment basin were characterized, classified, and the spatial
 variability of the sedimentation process was examined. Based
 on representative measurements of postsettlement sediment
 delivery obtained from research of drainage basins having
 similar size or soil characteristics, it was inferred that 20
 975 Mg of sediment was delivered to the stream with a total of
 37 455 Mg of soil being removed from the watershed hillslopes
 as a result of accelerated soil erosion. The measured rate of
 postsettlement sediment accumulation has been approximately
 0.34 cm yr-1. Based on the tightly packed deposits,
 redeposition probably occurred as over land flow during storm
 events, rather than as overland flow occurring after a
 rainfall or as rain-splash transport. However, machinery
 traffic and cultivation could have contributed to the high
 soil bulk density. Intensive cultivation, biotic activity, and
 freeze-thaw are probably responsible for destroying any
 evidence of stratification.
 
 
 110                             NAL Call. No.: KF26.E559 1990d
 Reclamation Wastewater and Groundwater Study Act and
 Reclamation Projects Authorization and Adjustment Act of 1990
 hearing before the Subcommittee on Water and Power of the
 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States
 Senate, One Hundred First Congress, second session, on S. 2657
 ... H.R. 2567 ... September 27, 1990.
 United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Energy and
 Natural Resources. Subcommittee on Water and Power
 Washington [D.C.] : U.S. G.P.O. : For sale by the Supt. of
 Docs., Congressional Sales Office, U.S. G.P.O.,; 1991; Y 4.En
 2:S.hrg.101-1181. iii, 72 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm. (S. hrg. ;
 101-1181).  Distributed to some depository libraries in
 microfiche.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Water resources development; Water reuse;
 Irrigation laws
 
 
 111                                  NAL Call. No.: 292.8 W295
 Redistribution of water and solute following infiltration from
 a surface drip source.
 Clothier, B.; Sauer, T.; Scotter, D.
 Washington, D.C. : American Geophysical Union; 1991 Aug.
 Water resources research v. 27 (8): p. 2091-2097; 1991 Aug. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Trickle irrigation; Soil water movement;
 Redistribution; Infiltration; Solutes; Transport processes;
 Sandy soils; Silt loam soils
 
 Abstract:  Laboratory, observations of the redistribution of
 water and solute, following one-dimensional and three-
 dimensional constant flux infiltration, reveal distinctly
 different paterns of water and chemical transport. The
 geometry-induced enhancement of capillarity, over gravity in
 three dimensions is thought responsible for the rapid
 attainment during redistribution of a near-constant water
 content, some radial distance r around the dripper. This
 renders simple the prediction of the maximum radial extent of
 convective solute redistribution, r . Nevertheless, molecular
 diffusion about r is the dominant mode of solute transport
 during the weak convective redistribution in three dimensions.
 
 
 112                                   NAL Call. No.: 464.8 P56
 Relationship between amount of Phytophthora parasitica added
 to field soil and the development of root rot in processing
 tomatoes.
 Neher, D.; Duniway, J.M.
 St. Paul, Minn. : American Phytopathological Society; 1991
 Oct. Phytopathology v. 81 (10): p. 1124-1129; 1991 Oct. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Lycopersicon esculentum; Phytophthora nicotianae
 var. parasitica; Root rots; Epidemiology; Inoculum density;
 Pathogenicity; Crop yield; Yield losses; Agricultural soils;
 Roots; Crop growth stage; Seasonal variation
 
 Abstract:  Field plots in which Phytophthora parasitica was
 not detected initially were planted to processing tomatoes,
 and the soil was infested 35 or 45 days after planting in 1987
 and 1988, respectively, to give average maximum levels of 1-2,
 3-4, 7-28, and 29-65 colony-forming units of P. parasitica per
 gram of soil. Inoculum levels in the four treatments were
 significantly different when averaged across time between
 infestation and crop maturity, and disease incidence and
 severity increased significantly with increasing inoculum
 levels. For example, final incidences of plants with shoot
 symptoms were 1.5, 6.4, 14.0, and 24.4% and 0.4, 15.4, 30.2,
 and 52.3% for the zero, low, intermediate, and high inoculum
 treatments in 1987 and 1988, respectively. Yield was reduced
 significantly (20%) only at the highest inoculum level in
 1987. However, moderately severe symptoms frequently developed
 on roots and shoots with low to high levels of inoculum
 without causing yield losses in both years. Extending furrow
 irriations from 4 to 24 h in duration did not significantly
 affect disease incidence or severity. Crop growth, phenology,
 and leaf water potentials were not affected significantly by
 the inoculum or irrigation treatments. The results suggest
 that development of Phytophthora root rot symptoms on
 processing tomatoes depended on the inoculum level applied to
 soil early in the cropping season.
 
 
 113                                   NAL Call. No.: 292.8 J82
 Relationships between groundwater contamination and major-ion
 chemistry in a Karst Aquifer.
 Scanlon, B.R.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Scientific Publishers, B.V.; 1990 Nov.
 Journal of hydrology v. 119 (1/4): p. 271-291; 1990 Nov. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kentucky; Aquifers; Groundwater pollution;
 Microbial contamination; Nitrates; Land use; Soil organic
 matter; Fertilizers; Septic tank effluent; Rural areas; Wells;
 Springs; Water quality; Chemical analysis; Calcium; Magnesium;
 Sodium carbonate; Sodium chloride; Temporal variation;
 Seasonal fluctuations
 
 Abstract:  Groundwater contamination was examined within a
 rural setting of the Inner Bluegrass Karst Region of central
 Kentucky where potential contaminant sources include soil-
 organic matter, organic and inorganic fertilizer, and septic-
 tank effluent. To evaluate controls on groundwater
 contamination, data on nitrate concentrations and indicator
 bacteria in water from wells and springs were compared with
 physical and chemical attributes of the groundwater system.
 Bacterial densities greater than the recommended limit were
 found in all springs and approximately half of the wells,
 whereas nitrate concentrations > 45 mg 1-1 were restricted to
 20% of the springs and 10% of the wells. Nitrate
 concentrations varied markedly in closely spaced wells and
 springs, which indicates that land use is not the primary
 control on groundwater contamination. Groundwater
 contamination is related to the distribution of chemical water
 types in the study area. All Ca subtype water was contaminated
 with nitrate and bacteria. Ca subtype water occurs in the
 shallow, rapidly circulating groundwater zone, which is most
 susceptible to contamination. The similarity in nitrate
 concentrations between local springs, major springs, and wells
 that contain Ca subtype water indicates that the occurrence of
 large conduits is not the main control on nitrate and
 bacterial contamination of groundwater. Temporal fluctuations
 in nitrate concentrations of Ca subtype water are attributed
 to seasonal fluctuations in recharge and in plant growth. Ca-
 Mg water subtype was generally not contaminated, and Na-HCO3
 and Na-Cl water types were not contaminated. Ca-Mg water
 subtype, and Na-HCO3 and Na-Cl water types are associated with
 longer residence times and reducing conditions, which allow
 bacterial die-off and denitrification, respectively.
 Differences in residence time and reducing conditions among
 the chemical water types and subtypes are attributed to
 variations in rock permeability and to the occurrence of
 horizontal
 
 
 114                                  NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Residual faecal contamination on effluent-irrigated lettuces.
 Vaz da Costa-Vargas, S.M.; Mara, D.D.; Vargas-Lopez, C.E.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 24 (9):
 p. 89-94; 1991.  In the series analytic: Wastewater
 Reclamation and Reuse/edited by R. Mujeriego and T. Asano.
 Proceedings of the International Symposium of Wastewate
 Reclamation and Reuse, September 24-26, 1991, Costa Brava,
 Spain.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Portugal; Lactuca sativa; Irrigated stands;
 Septic tank effluent; Sprinkler irrigation; Crops;
 Contamination; Fecal flora; Decontamination; Irrigation water;
 Waste water treatment; Water reuse; Public health; Health
 protection; Quality standards
 
 
 115                                  NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Reuse of wastewater from meat processing plants for
 agricultural and forestry irrigation.
 Russell, J.M.; Cooper, R.N.; Lindsey, S.B.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 24 (9):
 p. 277-286; 1991.  In the series analytic: Wastewater
 Reclamation and Reuse/edited by R. Mujeriego and T. Asano.
 Proceedings of the International Symposium of Wastewate
 Reclamation and Reuse, September 24-26, 1991, Costa Brava,
 Spain.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New Zealand; Meat and livestock industry;
 Industrial wastes; Chemical composition; Water reuse;
 Irrigation water; Irrigated pastures; Forestry; Groundwater
 pollution; Nitrates
 
 
 116                                 NAL Call. No.: S592.7.A1S6
 Review of some case studies on the abundance and on the
 hydraulic efficiency of earthworm channels in Czechoslovak
 soils, with reference to the subsurface pipe drainage.
 Urbanek, J.; Dolezal, F.
 Exeter : Pergamon Press; 1992 Dec.
 Soil biology and biochemistry v. 24 (12): p. 1563-1571; 1992
 Dec.  In the special issue ISEE 4. Proceedings of the "4th
 International Symposium on Earthworm Ecology," June 11-15,
 1990, Avignon, France / edited by A. Kretzschmar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Czechoslovakia; Earthworms; Earthworm channels;
 Agricultural soils; Hydraulic conductivity; Permeability;
 Macropores; Drainage; Infiltration; Case studies; Reviews
 
 Abstract:  During the last 22 yr, 16 case studies were
 performed on different agricultural soils, both arable and
 grasslands, in different zones of Czechoslovakia, in order to
 evaluate the hydrological role of soil macropores, including
 earthworm channels. The abundance and hydraulic efficiency of
 the channels are presented, related to the site, depth and
 size of the channels. The positive influence of earthworms
 upon the preservation of high permeability in drain trench
 backfills was demonstrated quantitatively, both by
 infiltration experiments and by casting the channels with
 gypsum. Additional semiquantitative estimates of the variance
 of channel abundance, water retention capability and discharge
 of water through the channels are also presented.
 
 
 117                                  NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Role of groundwater recharge in treatment and storage of
 wastewater for reuse. Bouwer, H.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 24 (9):
 p. 295-302; 1991.  In the series analytic: Wastewater
 Reclamation and Reuse/edited by R. Mujeriego and T. Asano.
 Proceedings of the International Symposium of Wastewate
 Reclamation and Reuse, September 24-26, 1991, Costa Brava,
 Spain.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Waste water treatment; Water storage; Water
 quality; Requirements; Water reuse; Irrigation water;
 Irrigated stands; Vegetables; Microbial contamination;
 Pathogens; Groundwater recharge; Application to land;
 Aquifers; Public health; Health protection; Drinking water
 
 
 118                                  NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 The role of wastewater reclamation and reuse in the USA.
 Asano, T.; Tchobanoglous, G.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 23
 (10/12): p. 2049-2059; 1991.  Paper presented at the
 "Fifteenth Biennial Conference of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control," July 29-
 August 3, 1990, Kyoto, Japan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Waste water treatment; Water reuse; Irrigation
 water; Health protection; Water resources; Water management
 
 
 119                                    NAL Call. No.: QH540.J6
 Salinity, nitrate, and water in rangeland and terraced
 wheatland above saline seeps.
 Berg, W.A.; Naney, J.W.; Smith, S.J.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Jan.
 Journal of environmental quality v. 20 (1): p. 8-11; 1991 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oklahoma; Triticum aestivum; Nitrates;
 Percolation; Slopes; Soil salinity; Soil water; Solubility;
 Water table; Water erosion; Erosion control; Farmland; Plains;
 Rangelands
 
 Abstract:  Saline seeps have emerged over the past 20 yr in
 some Southern Plains soils cropped annually to winter wheat
 (Triticum aestivum L). Saline seep development is a cumulative
 process associated with percolation of small increments of
 water over many years through saline strata in recharge areas
 to build up water tables over less-permeable strata in lower
 slope positions. In this study soluble salt, nitrate, and
 water content were determined in Woodward soils (coarse silty,
 mixed, thermic Typic Ustochrepts) to a depth of 3 m in
 terraced farmland and in adjacent native rangeland upslope
 from saline seeps. Significantly (P<0.05) more soluble salt
 was present in the surface 3 m of rangeland than in adjacent
 farmland. No difference (P>.05) was found in soluble salt
 content in farmland between terraces as compared to soluble
 salt in terrace channels. Greater amounts (P<0.05) of nitrate
 and water were in the 3-m profiles under farmland than under
 native range. The soluble salt profiles indicate more water
 has percolated through the farmland than the rangeland. The
 implication is cultivated land, both in terrace channels and
 between terraces, is contributing salt and water to saline
 seep. An alternative explanation is terrace channels are the
 major recharge areas and lateral flow of this water leaches
 salt from farmland between the terraces.
 
 
 120                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Salt distribution and hardpans at dryland saline seeps in
 southern Alberta. Sommerfeldt, T.G.; Chang, C.; Lamond, B.J.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1990 Jan.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 54 (1): p. 136-138;
 1990 Jan. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alberta; Saline soils; Salts in soil; Pans;
 Calcium sulfate; Calcium carbonate; Brown chernozemic soils;
 Soil depth
 
 Abstract:  Hardpans at 30- to 60-cm depth were found at three
 dryland saline-seep sites in southern Alberta. The soils were
 sampled for analyses at 0.3-m depth intervals to 1.2 m along
 two parallel transects across the sites. Of the acid-
 extractable salts, CaCO3 was the most abundant. Shallow
 hardpans were found only in the saline, waterlogged, CO3-rich
 soil in the discharge areas, generally at the depth where the
 1:25 acid-extractable Ca and CO3 contents exceeded 0.6 mol
 kg-1 of soil. Similar contents were also found in the recharge
 areas, where there was no detectable hardpan. Conditions in
 the discharge areas apparently were suitable for the
 precipitation and cementation necessary to form the hardpans.
 Further research is needed to characterize the hardpans and to
 study conditions, mechanisms, and causes for their formation
 and their relationships with saline seeps.
 
 
 121                                     NAL Call. No.: QD1.A45
 Sampling groundwater in a northeastern U.S. watershed.
 Pionke, H.B.; Urban, J.B.; Gburek, W.J.; Rogowski, A.S.;
 Schnabel, R.R. Washington, D.C. : The Society; 1991.
 ACS Symposium series - American Chemical Society (465): p.
 222-241; 1991.  In the series analytic: Groundwater residue
 sampling design / edited by R.G. Nash and A.R. Leslie. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Northeastern states of U.S.A.; Groundwater;
 Agricultural chemicals; Nitrates; Water pollution; Sampling;
 Watersheds
 
 Abstract:  The sampling of groundwater, particularly for
 nitrates, is examined in a flow system and watershed context.
 A groundwater flow dominated watershed located in east-central
 Pennsylvania provides an example and basis for this analysis.
 Groundwater sampling is also viewed from a groundwater
 recharge (percolate) and discharge (streamflow) perspective.
 Some spatial and timing controls are described and examined in
 terms of where and when to sample.
 
 
 122                                  NAL Call. No.: S539.5.A77
 Sand culture of vegetables using recirculated aquacultural
 effluents. McMurtry, M.R.; Nelson, P.V.; Sanders, D.C.;
 Hodges, L.
 New York, N.Y. : Springer; 1990.
 Applied agricultural research v. 5 (4): p. 280-284. ill; 1990. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Phaseolus vulgaris; Cucumis sativus; Lycopersicon
 esculentum; Tilapia aurea; Sandy loam soils; Culture media;
 Vegetables; Aquaculture; Effluents; Greenhouse culture;
 Drainage; Fish ponds
 
 Abstract:  Fish production and biofiltration provided by sand-
 cultured vegetable crops were linked in a closed system of
 recirculating water. Blue tilapia (Sarotherodon aureus L.)
 were stocked as mixed-sex fingerlings at a density of 1.68
 kg.m-3 (0.105 lb.ft-3). Fish were fed a commercial chow.
 Greenhouse-grown bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), cucumber
 (Cucumis sativus L.), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum
 Mill.) were irrigated with water drawn from the bottom of the
 tilapia tank for 30 minutes every three hours during the
 daylight hours. Drainage from the 0.5 m (1.64 ft) deep sand
 beds was returned to the fish tank. Each crop was also grown
 in a sandy loam soil. Feeding 1 kg (2.20 lb) of fish food
 produced an increase of 0.76 kg (1.68 lb) fish and 1.66 kg
 (3.66 lb) of vegetables. Both water quality and nutrient
 content were adequate for tilapia and plant growth in sand
 culture with no supplemental fertilization. The feasibility of
 an integrated, recirculatory system for concurrent production
 of vegetables and fish with no additional fertilizer
 application was demonstrated.
 
 
 123                                    NAL Call. No.: TD478.D4
 Satellite wastewater reclamation plants: how to get what you
 bargin for. McHaney, S.X.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1992 Oct.
 Desalination v. 88 (1/3): p. 215-223; 1992 Oct.  Proceedings
 of the NWSIA 1992 Biennial Conference on "Desalting and
 Recycling: Meeting Today's Water Challenges," August 23-27,
 1992, Newport Beach, California. Volume 2.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Urban areas; Waste water;
 Reclamation; Utilization; Irrigation water; Lawns and turf;
 Landscape; Public parks; Golf courses
 
 
 124                                  NAL Call. No.: 292.8 W295
 The second Las Cruces Trench experiment: experimental results
 and two-dimensional flow predictions.
 Hills, R.G.; Wierenga, P.J.; Hudson, D.B.; Kirkland, M.R.
 Washington, D.C. : American Geophysical Union; 1991 Oct.
 Water resources research v. 27 (10): p. 2707-2718; 1991 Oct. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New Mexico; Soil water; Water flow; Tritium;
 Bromide; Solutes; Transport processes; Infiltration;
 Redistribution; Semiarid soils; Soil variability; Measurement;
 Deterministic models; Prediction
 
 Abstract:  As part of a comprehensive field study designed to
 provide data to test stochastic and deterministic models of
 water flow and contaminant transport in the vadose zone,
 several trench experiments were performed in the semiarid
 region of southern New Mexico. The first trench experiment is
 discussed by Wierenga et al. (this issue). During the second
 trench experiment, a 1.2 m wide by 12 m long area on the north
 side of and parallel to a 26.4 m long by 4.8 m wide by 6 m
 deep trench was irrigated with water containing tracers using
 a carefully controlled drip irrigation system. The irrigated
 area was heavily instrumented with tensiometers and neutron
 probe access tubes to monitor water movement, and with suction
 samplers to monitor solute transport. Water containing tritium
 and bromide was applied during the first 11.5 days of the
 study. Thereafter, water was applied without tracers for an
 additional 64 days. Both water movement and tracer movement
 were monitored in the subsoil during infiltration and
 redistribution. The experimental results indicate that water
 and bromide moved fairly uniformly during infiltration and the
 bromide moved ahead of the tritium due to anion exclusion
 during redistribution. Comparisons between measurements and
 predictions made with a two-dimensional model show qualitative
 agreement for two of the three water content measurement
 planes. Model predictions of tritium and bromide transport
 were not as satisfactory. Measurements of both tritium and
 bromide show localized areas of high relative concentrations
 and a large downward motion of bromide relative to tritium
 during redistribution. While the simple deterministic model
 does show larger downward motions for bromide than for tritium
 during redistribution, it does not predict the high
 concentrations of solute observed during infiltration, nor can
 it predict the heterogeneous behavior observed for tritium
 during infiltration and for bromide during redistribution.
 
 
 125                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Selenate reduction in an alluvial soil.
 Sposito, G.; Yang, A.; Neal, R.H.; Mackzum, A.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1991 Nov.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 55 (6): p.
 1597-1602; 1991 Nov. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Alluvial soils; Agricultural soils;
 Selenium; Movement in soil; Water pollution; Drainage water;
 Contamination; Transformation; Reduction; Redox reactions;
 Solubility; Adsorption; Transport processes; Thermodynamics;
 Kinetics; Redox potential; Soil ph; Soil water regimes;
 Nitrate; Nitrites; Manganese; Oxygen; Physicochemical
 properties; Biological activity in soil; Soil bacteria
 
 Abstract:  Recent studies of the mobility and solubility of Se
 in western San Joaquin Valley soils suggest that this
 potentially hazardous element can be managed by controlling
 its oxidation-reduction reactions. The soluble species, SeO4,
 which is highly mobile and toxic, can, in principle, be
 reduced to SeO3, which is strongly adsorbed, or to
 organoselenium species, which may volatilize under suitable
 conditions. Chemical thermodynamics predicts that the
 reduction sequence in soils should be: NO3 leads to SeO4 leads
 to MnO2 at pH > 5. The objective of this study was to
 establish the position of SeO4 in the kinetic reduction
 sequence for a representative western San Joaquin Valley soil
 incubated in suspension with its own saturation extract. In a
 series of replications of an incubation experiment, it was
 observed that native NO3 (plus NO2) concentrations became
 undetectable after 100 h in the soil suspension without O2
 supply. Soluble Se, either added as Na2SeO4 or indigenous to
 the soil disappeared after 50 to 200 h. Native soluble Mn
 began to rise after 50 h and showed a sharp increase after 100
 h of incubation. Retardation of SeO4 reduction in the presence
 of added NO3 was noted. The results indicated that, at native
 levels of NO3, effective microbial catalysis of SeO4 reduction
 occurred in the soil under the conditions of the experiments,
 in agreement with the recent isolation of bacterial species
 that can respire SeO4 while oxidizing organic acids typical of
 suboxic soil environments.
 
 
 126                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Selenium mobility and distribution in irrigated and
 nonirrigated alluvial soils.
 Fio, J.L.; Fujii, R.; Deverel, S.J.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1991 Sep.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 55 (5): p.
 1313-1320; 1991 Sep. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Selenium; Salts in soil; Movement in
 soil; Alluvial soils; Irrigated soils; Alkaline soils;
 Solutes; Transport processes; Adsorption; Desorption;
 Irrigation; Drainage; Irrigation water; Drainage water;
 Dispersion; Mathematical models; Dissolving; Leaching;
 Groundwater; Oxidation; Saturated conditions; Spatial
 distribution; Soil depth; Gypsum; Hysteresis; Time lag;
 Physicochemical properties
 
 Abstract:  Dissolution and leaching of soil salts by
 irrigation water is a primary source of Se to shallow
 groundwater in the western San Joaquin Valley, California. In
 this study, the mobility and distribution of selenite and
 selenate in soils with different irrigation and drainage
 histories was evaluated using sorption experiments and an
 advection-dispersion model. The sorption studies showed that
 selenate (15-12 400 micrograms Se L-1) is not adsorbed to soil
 whereas selenite (10-5000 micrograms Se L-1) is rapidly
 adsorbed. The time lag between adsorption and desorption of
 selenite is considerable, indicating a dependence of reaction
 rate on reaction direction (hysteresis). Selenite adsorption
 and desorption isotherms were different, and both were
 described with the Freundlich equation. Model results and
 chemical analyses of extracts from the soil samples showed
 that selenite is resistant to leaching and therefore can
 represent a potential long-term source of Se to groundwater.
 In contrast, selenate behaves as a conservative constituent
 under alkaline and oxidized conditions and is easily leached
 from soil.
 
 
 127                                  NAL Call. No.: 292.8 W295
 A semidiscrete model for water and solute movement in tile-
 drained soils. 2. Field validation and applications.
 Kamra, S.K.; Singh, S.R.; Rao, K.V.G.K.; Van Genuchten, M.T.
 Washington, D.C. : American Geophysical Union; 1991 Sep.
 Water resources research v. 27 (9): p. 2449-2456; 1991 Sep. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: India; Drainage water; Solutes; Movement in soil;
 Tile drainage; Subsurface drainage; Depth; Spacing; Soil
 salinity; Water table; Effluents; Water quality; Aquifers;
 Simulation; Prediction; Mathematical models
 
 Abstract:  An exact-in-time two-dimensional finite element
 model for simulating convective-dispersive solute transport in
 a tile-drained field is validated against observed data from a
 subsurface drainage experiment. The model is capable of
 predicting the long-term effects of different irrigation and
 drainage practices on the salt distribution in an artificially
 drained soil-aquifer system. The model was used to predict
 transient changes in the salinity of the soil, the shallow
 groundwater table, and the drain effluent. Results are also
 presented on the effects of imposing alternative drain
 spacing-depth combinations, initial groundwater salinities,
 solute distribution coefficients, and different types of
 layering of the aquifer, on the computed salinity
 distributions in the unsaturated zone, the groundwater, and
 the drain effluent.
 
 
 128                                  NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Sequential batch-fed effluent storage reservoirs: a new
 concept of wastewater treatment prior to unrestricted crop
 irrigation.
 Mara, D.D.; Pearson, H.W.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 26
 (7/8): p. 1459-1464; 1992.  In the series analytic: Water
 Quality International '92. Part 4 / edited by M. Suzuki, et
 al. Proceedings of the Sixtennth Biennial Conference of the
 International Association on Water Pollution Research and
 Control, held May 24-30, 1992, Washington, D.C.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Israel; Waste water treatment; Effluents;
 Storage; Reservoirs; Water reuse; Irrigation water
 
 
 129                                  NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Significance and current status of wastewater reuse in Sicily.
 Croce, F.; Dardanoni, L.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 24 (9):
 p. 45-54; 1991.  In the series analytic: Wastewater
 Reclamation and Reuse/edited by R. Mujeriego and T. Asano.
 Proceedings of the International Symposium of Wastewate
 Reclamation and Reuse, September 24-26, 1991, Costa Brava,
 Spain.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sicily; Waste water; Water reuse; Irrigation
 water; Water resources; Water pollution; Water conservation;
 Fresh water; Deficiency; Saline water; Desalinization; Public
 health; Health protection; Drinking water
 
 
 130                                    NAL Call. No.: S671.J68
 Simplified methods for estimation of mean daily discharge at
 confluences and regulators in tidal rivers for adequate water
 management. Development of flow estimation method for tidal
 river basin using mean daily water stage in the delta area of
 the Chao Phraya River, Thailand. II.
 Shioda, K.; Iwasaki, K.; Khao-Uppatum, V.
 Tokyo : Japanese Society of Irrigation, Drainage, and
 Reclamation Engineering; 1992 Aug.
 Journal of irrigation engineering and rural planning (23): p.
 6-22; 1992 Aug. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Thailand; Water management; Rivers; Stream flow;
 Irrigation systems; Simulation models; Estimation;
 Methodology; Deltas
 
 
 131                                  NAL Call. No.: 292.8 W295
 Simulating physical processes and economic behavior in saline,
 irrigated agriculture: model development.
 Lefkoff, L.J.; Gorelick, S.M.
 Washington, D.C. : American Geophysical Union; 1990 Jul.
 Water resources research v. 26 (7): p. 1359-1369. maps; 1990
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Colorado; Irrigation water; Saline water;
 Streams; Aquifers; Water use; Profits; Costs; Decision making;
 Crop mixtures; Zea mays; Medicago sativa; Crop yield;
 Simulation models; Regressions
 
 Abstract:  A model of an irrigated, saline stream-aquifer
 system is constructed to simulate economic, agronomic, and
 hydrologic processes. The model is applied to a section of the
 Arkansas Valley in southeastern Colorado and is used to
 examine the effect of crop-mixing strategies on long-term
 profits. Mixing in excess of crop rotation requirements
 provides an index of farmers' willingness to exchange some
 profit for a reduction in the risk of short-term loss. The
 model contains three components. The economic component
 simulates water use decisions that maximize annual profit for
 each farm, The hydrologic component simulates salt transport
 by employing regression equations that predict changes in
 groundwater salinity as a function of hydrologic conditions
 and water use decisions. The agronomic component approximates
 changes in corn and alfalfa production in response to the
 depth and salinity of irrigation applications. Results from
 the entire economic-hydrologic-agronomic model are consistent
 with the few historical observations available for the site.
 
 
 132                                   NAL Call. No.: 56.8 C162
 Soil and sweet cherry responses to irrigation with wastewater.
 Neilsen, G.H.; Stevenson, D.S.; Fitzpatrick, J.J.; Brownlee,
 C.H. Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada; 1991 Feb.
 Canadian journal of soil science v. 71 (1): p. 31-41; 1991
 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Prunus avium; Sandy soils; Irrigation water;
 Waste water; Waste utilization; Nitrogen fertilizers; Soil ph;
 Electrical conductivity; Foliar nutrition; Nutrient uptake
 
 
 133                                   NAL Call. No.: TD930.A32
 Soil denitrification rates at wastewater irrigation sites
 receiving primary-treated and anaerobically treated meat-
 processing effluent. Russel, J.M.; Cooper, R.N.; Lindsey, S.B.
 Essex : Elsevier Science Publishers; 1993.
 Bioresource technology v. 43 (1): p. 41-46; 1993.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Meat and livestock industry; Effluents; Anaerobic
 treatment; Waste water; Irrigation; Soil; Denitrification
 
 
 134                                   NAL Call. No.: 292.8 J82
 Solute and heat transport experiments for estimating recharge
 rate. Taniguchi, M.; Sharma, M.L.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Scientific Publishers, B.V.; 1990 Nov.
 Journal of hydrology v. 119 (1/4): p. 57-69; 1990 Nov. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Soil water content; Sand; Loam soils; Water flow;
 Infiltration; Transport processes; Solutes; Tracers; Heat;
 Recharge; Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity; Saturation;
 Saturated conditions; Soil temperature; Soil depth; Specific
 heat
 
 Abstract:  In order to examine the relationship between mobile
 water content and water flux during infiltration, laboratory
 experiments were conducted for simultaneous transport of
 solute (bromide) and heat using columns of two soils,
 Bassendean sand and Collie loam. Within a limited water flux
 range, for the same flux the mobile water fraction was lower
 for the sand than for the loam. The mobile fraction of soil
 water increased with increasing water flux for sand but was
 relatively constant for loam. These results have significant
 implications in field estimations of deep drainage (recharge
 rate) using tracer techniques, and also in the development of
 empirical expressions for the relationship between unsaturated
 hydraulic conductivity and the effective saturation of
 specific soils. Estimates of water flux based on the analysis
 of soil temperature changes agreed well with those based on
 the solute tracer. This agreement was closest when water flux
 using solute was calculated using the mobile water content,
 and the heat capacity for the temperature method was
 calculated using the total water content.
 
 
 135                                    NAL Call. No.: TD172.J6
 Some changes in nitrate, calcium, and other ions in water as
 they penetrate soil layers.
 Itoyama, T.; Yokose, H.
 New York, N.Y. : Marcel Dekker; 1993.
 Journal of environmental science and health : Part A :
 Environmental science and engineering v. A28 (1): p. 235-255;
 1993.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Japan; Waste water; Water quality; Forest soils;
 Sloping land; Nitrates; Calcium; Silica; Sprinkler irrigation;
 Irrigation scheduling; Drainage water; Recovery; Water flow;
 Soil chemistry; Soil physical properties; Surface layers;
 Subsurface layers
 
 
 136                                   NAL Call. No.: 57.8 C734
 Source reduction for wastewater.
 Kourik, R.
 Emmaus, Pa. : J.G. Press; 1990 Jan.
 BioCycle v. 31 (1): p. 35; 1990 Jan.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Waste waters; Waste utilization;
 Subsurface irrigation
 
 
 137                       NAL Call. No.: GB701.W375 no.90-4006
 Sources and distribution of nitrate in ground water at a
 farmed field irrigated with sewage treatment-plant effluent,
 Tallahassee, Florida. Berndt, Marian P.
 Tallahassee (Fla.),Geological Survey (U.S.)
 Tallahassee, Fla. : Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological
 Survey ; Denver, Colo. : U.S. Geological Survey, Books and
 Open-File Reports [distributor],; 1990; I 19.42/4:90-4006.
 v, 33 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm. (Water-resources investigations
 report ; 90-4006).  Includes bibliographical references (p.
 31-33).
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Water, Underground; Florida; Tallahassee;
 Quality; Sewage sludge as fertilizer; Environmental aspects;
 Florida; Tallahassee; Nitrates
 
 
 138                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Spatial scale dependence of in situ solute transport.
 Van Wesenbeeck, I.J.; Kachanoski, R.G.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1991 Jan.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 55 (1): p. 3-7;
 1991 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ontario; Soil water movement; Soil water;
 Potassium chloride; Solutes; Tracers; Soil solution; Transport
 processes; Spatial variation; Horizons; Methodology; Field
 experimentation; Agricultural soils; Forest soils
 
 Abstract:  In field solute-transport experiments, two spatial
 scales of the continuum of the dispersion process have been
 measured: local scale and field scale. The objective of this
 experiment was to develop a method for measuring in situ the
 transition from the local scale to the field scale during
 unsaturated flow conditions. The spatial variability of in
 situ solute dispersion was examined in two field sites. Soil-
 solution samplers were installed in a transect at a 0.4-m
 depth and 0.2-m spacing in both a cultivated and never-
 cultivated (forested) site. A pulse of KCl was applied to both
 sites under conditions of constant surface flux density of
 water, which was applied using a trickle irrigation system.
 The variance of solute travel time, V2(t), at different
 spatial scales was calculated from moment analysis of
 breakthrough curves (BTC) obtained by averaging local BTC
 across different spatial scales. The scale dependence of V2(t)
 indicated scales of at least 2.8 and 3.8 m were needed to
 reach an effective far field variance for the forested and
 cultivated sites, respectively. The larger scale in the
 cultivated site was due to an increase in horizontal
 correlation length scales of soil properties caused by tillage
 mixing. The scale dependence of V2(t) can be used to determine
 the minimum plot size necessary to include all major
 horizontal variations in solute travel time, which can then be
 compared with spatial distributions of soil properties
 affecting transport.
 
 
 139                                   NAL Call. No.: TC801.I66
 A study of water distribution from a branch to distributary
 canals: A case study of Gugera Branch, Punjab, Pakistan.
 Bhutta, M.N.; Latif, M.; Kijne, J.W.
 Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1991 Aug.
 Irrigation and drainage systems : an international journal v.
 5 (3): p. 229-247; 1991 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pakistan punjab; Irrigation systems; Management;
 Water distribution; Canals; Design; Discharge; Regulation;
 Gates; Site selection
 
 
 140                            NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM3PS (IR)
 Subsurface microirrigation with effluent.
 Oron, G.; DeMalach, J.; Hoffman, Z.; Cibotaru, R.
 New York, N.Y. : American Society of Civil Engineers; 1991
 Jan. Journal of irrigation and drainage engineering v. 117
 (1): p. 25-36; 1991 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Israel; Gossypium hirsutum; Zea mays; Triticum
 aestivum; Pisum sativum; Trickle irrigation; Subsurface
 irrigation; Emitters; Sewage effluent; Waste water; Nutrient
 content; Crop yield; Productivity; Semiarid zones; Arid zones
 
 
 141                                   NAL Call. No.: TC801.I66
 Testing and statistical analysis of the performance of a pipe
 drainage system: a case study in North-eastern Italy.
 Borin, M.; Berti, A.
 Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1991 May.
 Irrigation and drainage systems : an international journal v.
 5 (2): p. 165-182; 1991 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Italy; Pipe drainage; Systems; Discharge; Water
 table; Depth; Samples; Size; Case studies
 
 
 142                                     NAL Call. No.: QR1.L47
 Thermophilic campylobacters in two sewage treatment plants in
 Libya. Betaieb, M.; Jones, K.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1990 Aug.
 Letters in applied microbiology v. 11 (2): p. 93-95; 1990 Aug. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Libya; Campylobacter; Thermophilic bacteria;
 Sewage effluent; Irrigation water; Waste water treatment;
 Chlorine; Disinfection; Sewage sludge; Drying; Anaerobic
 digesters; Disease control; Waterborne diseases
 
 
 143                                     NAL Call. No.: 81 SO12
 Tomato fruit yields and quality under water deficit and
 salinity. Mitchell, J.P.; Shennan, C.; Grattan, S.R.; May,
 D.M.
 Alexandria, Va. : The Society; 1991 Mar.
 Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science v.
 116 (2): p. 215-221; 1991 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Lycopersicon esculentum; Irrigated
 conditions; Water deficit; Saline water; Yield response
 functions; Crop quality
 
 Abstract:  Effects of deficit irrigation and irrigation with
 saline drainage water on processing tomato (Lycopersicon
 esculentum Mill, cv. UC82B) yields, fruit quality, and fruit
 tissue constituents were investigated in two field
 experiments. Deficit irrigation reduced fruit water
 accumulation and fresh fruit yield, but increased fruit
 soluble solids levels and led to higher concentrations of
 hexoses, citric acid, and potassium. Irrigation with saline
 water had no effect on total fresh fruit yield or hexose
 concentration, but slightly reduced fruit water content, which
 contributed to increased inorganic ion concentrations. Fruit
 set and marketable soluble solids (marketable red fruit yield
 X percent soluble solids) were generally unaffected by either
 irrigation practice. Water deficit and salinity increased
 starch concentration during early fruit development, but, at
 maturity, concentrations were reduced to < 1%, regardless of
 treatment. Higher fruit acid concentrations resulted from
 water deficit irrigation and from irrigation with saline water
 relative to the control in one year out of two. These results
 support the contention that deficit irrigation and irrigation
 with saline drainage water may be feasible crop water
 management options for producing high quality field-grown
 processing tomatoes without major yield reductions.
 Appropriate long-term strategies are needed to deal with the
 potential hazards of periodic increases in soil salinity
 associated with use of saline drainage water for irrigation.
 
 
 144                                    NAL Call. No.: QH540.J6
 Transport and prediction of sulfate in agricultural runoff.
 Sharpley, A.N.; Smith, S.J.; Jones, O.R.; Berg, W.A.; Coleman,
 G.A. Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Apr.
 Journal of environmental quality v. 20 (2): p. 415-420; 1991
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oklahoma; Texas; Watersheds; Sulfates; Runoff;
 Transport processes; Leaching; Ground cover; Kinetics;
 Desorption; Ph; Land management
 
 Abstract:  The measurement and simulation of sulfate-S (SO4-S)
 mobility in agricultural watersheds is necessary to evaluate
 the effect of management practices on associated crop S
 deficiencies, enhanced leaching loss of nutrient cations, and
 acidification of percolation waters. The concentrations and
 amounts of SO4-S in runoff from six grassed and 13 cropped
 watersheds in the Southern Plains were, thus, measured over a
 4-yr period. Sulfate-S transport in runoff was predicted using
 an equation describing the kinetics of SO4-S desorption from
 soil and compared with measured values. No SO4-S was added to
 any of the watersheds directly as S fertilizer or indirectly
 in N or P fertilizer material. No difference (at 5% level) in
 SO4-S concentration in runoff from grassed (mean annual value
 of 12.6 mg L-1) and cropped (mean annual value of 11.0 mg L-1)
 watersheds was observed. Differences in amounts (0.2-18.9 kg
 ha-1 yr-1) were a function of runoff volume as influenced by
 land management. A general trend of increasing SO4-S
 concentration in runoff with decreasing pH was observed, which
 may be a function of S dry deposition and soil and crop
 conditions. Measured and predicted SO4-S concentrations in
 runoff for individual events were not significantly different
 (at 5% level), with an average predictive standard error of
 1.6 mg L-1 for all watersheds, representing 17% of the
 measured concentration. The equation may, thus, provide a
 predictive tool in agronomic and environmental studies of SO4-
 S movement in agricultural watersheds.
 
 
 145                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Transport comparison of technical grade and starch-
 encapsulated atrazine. Gish, T.J.; Schoppet, M.J.; Helling,
 C.S.; Shirmohammadi, A.; Schreiber, M.M.; Wing, R.E.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1991 Jul. Transactions of the ASAE v. 34 (4): p.
 1738-1744; 1991 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Atrazine; Encapsulation; Groundwater; Leaching;
 Movement in soil; Starch; Trickle irrigation; Water pollution
 
 Abstract:  The feasibility of using starch-encapsulated
 atrazine to minimize convective transport under conditions
 favoring preferential flow was evaluated. Forty small,
 undisturbed, soil columns (45 cm2 X 3 cm) were removed from an
 established no-tillage management site and randomly grouped
 into one of five atrazine treatments: 1) technical grade; 2)
 borate process, starch-encapsulated; 3) jet-cooked, pearl
 starch-encapsulated; 4) jet-cooked, waxy starch-encapsulated;
 and 5) untreated control. Columns were drip-irrigated at the
 rate of 2.5 cm every three days. Highest atrazine levels, 1.30
 mg L-1, were observed in the effluent from columns receiving
 technical-grade atrazine after the first irrigation (2.3 pore
 volumes), even though piston flow theory indicated that
 atrazine should not have appeared before 21.9 pore volumes.
 Computer simulations using the general convection-dispersion
 equation with first-order dissipation and linear adsorption
 also significantly underpredicted atrazine mobility. All
 encapsulated formulations, relative to technical-grade,
 revealed significantly lower initial atrazine levels in the
 effluent. Cumulative effluent concentrations indicate that
 after 16.1 pore volumes, 35, 10, 3, and < 1% of the available
 atrazine had been leached from the technical-grade, borate,
 pearl, and waxy starch formulations, respectively.
 
 
 146                                    NAL Call. No.: QH540.J6
 The transport of bioavailable phosphorus in agricultural
 runoff. Sharpley, A.N.; Smith, S.J.; Jones, O.R.; Berg, W.A.;
 Coleman, G.A. Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy;
 1992 Jan.
 Journal of environmental quality v. 21 (1): p. 30-35; 1992
 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oklahoma; Texas; Phosphorus; Runoff; Watersheds;
 Farmland; Bioavailability; Phosphorus fertilizers; Tillage;
 Minimum tillage; No-tillage; Rotations; Fallow; Stubble
 mulching; Triticum aestivum; Grasses; Arachis hypogaea;
 Sorghum bicolor; Losses from soil systems
 
 Abstract:  Bioavailable P (BAP) in agricultural runoff
 represents P potentially available for algal uptake and
 consists of soluble P (SP) and a variable portion of
 particulate P (PP). Evaluation of the impact of agricultural
 management on BAP in runoff will aid assessment of the
 resultant biological productivity of receiving water bodies.
 Soluble P, PP, and bioavailable PP (BPP) (estimated by NaOH
 extraction) were determined over a 5-yr period in runoff from
 20 unfertilized and fertilized, grassed, and cropped
 watersheds in the Southern Plains. Soluble P, BPP, and BAP
 loss in runoff was reduced by practices minimizing erosion and
 runoff, with respective mean annual amounts ranging from 237
 to 122, 1559 to 54, and 1796 to 176 g P ha-1 yr-1 (for peanut-
 sorghum [Arachis hypogaea L.-Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] and
 native grass watersheds, respectively). However, as vegetative
 cover improved, BAP (SP plus BPP) comprised a larger portion
 of total P (TP) loss (29% for peanut-sorghum and 88% for
 native grass). This results from an increasing contribution to
 BAP of SP (13% for peanut-sorghum and 69% for native grass
 watersheds) and BPP to PP (26% for peanut-sorghum and 69% for
 native grass watersheds). Clearly, P bioavailability is a
 dynamic function of physiochemical processes controlling
 erosion, particle size enrichment, P desorption-dissolution
 reactions, and plant residue breakdown, in addition to soil
 and fertilizer P management. Hence, the change in trophic
 state of a water body may not be adequately reflected by TP
 inputs only. To more reliably evaluate the biological response
 of a water body to agricultural P inputs, particularly from
 conservation tillage practices, it may be necessary to
 determine BAP in runoff.
 
 
 147                                    NAL Call. No.: QK71.P83
 Treated sewage effluent for irrigation.
 Tarbox, G.L. Jr
 Wayne, Pa. : The Association; 1990 Jul.
 The Public garden : journal of the American Association of
 Botanical Gardens and Arboreta v. 5 (3): p. 19. ill; 1990 Jul.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South Carolina; Public gardens; Water reuse;
 Sewage effluent; Waste water treatment; Irrigation water; Case
 studies
 
 
 148                                  NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Treatment of wastewater from the textile industry.
 Nicolaou, M.; Hadjivassilis, I.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 25 (1):
 p. 31-35; 1992.  Paper presented at the "International
 Specialized Conference," November 20-22, 1990, Nicosia,
 Cyprus.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cyprus; Textile industry; Waste water treatment;
 Chemical treatment; Coagulation; Chemical precipitation;
 Activated sludge; Irrigation water; Water reuse
 
 
 149                                      NAL Call. No.: 10 OU8
 The urban water cycle, including wastewater use in
 agriculture. Pescod, M.B.
 Oxon : C.A.B. International; 1992 Dec.
 Outlook on agriculture v. 21 (4): p. 263-270. ill; 1992 Dec. 
 Special issue: Focus on water.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Waste water; Water resources; Health hazards;
 Irrigation; Rural areas; Urban areas
 
 
 150                                  NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Wastewater disposal by sub-surface trickle irrigation.
 Oron, G.; DeMalach, Y.; Hoffman, Z.; Keren, Y.; Hartman, H.;
 Plazner, N. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 23
 (10/12): p. 2149-2158; 1991.  Paper presented at the
 "Fifteenth Biennial Conference of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control," July 29-
 August 3, 1990, Kyoto, Japan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Israel; Waste water treatment; Water reuse;
 Disposal; Irrigation water; Zea mays; Sweetcorn; Trickle
 irrigation; Crop yield
 
 
 151                                   NAL Call. No.: aZ5071.N3
 Wastewater irrigation, January 1987 - April 1990.
 Schneider, K.
 Beltsville, Md. : The Library; 1990 Aug.
 Quick bibliography series - U.S. Department of Agriculure,
 National Agricultural Library (U.S.). (90-64): 16 p.; 1990
 Aug.  Updates QB 88-55. Bibliography.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Waste water; Irrigation; Bibliographies
 
 
 152                                  NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Wastewater reclamation and water resources management.
 Shelef, G.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 24 (9):
 p. 251-265; 1991.  In the series analytic: Wastewater
 Reclamation and Reuse/edited by R. Mujeriego and T. Asano.
 Proceedings of the International Symposium of Wastewate
 Reclamation and Reuse, September 24-26, 1991, Costa Brava,
 Spain.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Israel; Waste water treatment; Water reuse;
 Irrigation water; Water resources; Water quality;
 Requirements; Economic evaluation
 
 
 153                                  NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Wastewater reuse case studies in the Middle East.
 Banks, P.A.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 23
 (10/12): p. 2141-2148; 1991.  Paper presented at the
 "Fifteenth Biennial Conference of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control," July 29-
 August 3, 1990, Kyoto, Japan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Middle east; Waste water; Water reuse; Irrigation
 water; Water quality; Quality standards; Waste water
 treatment; Case studies
 
 
 154                                  NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Wastewater reuse for irrigation in the Near East Region.
 Arar, A.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 23
 (10/12): p. 2127-2134; 1991.  Paper presented at the
 "Fifteenth Biennial Conference of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control," July 29-
 August 3, 1990, Kyoto, Japan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Middle east; Waste water treatment; Water reuse;
 Irrigation water; Public health; Health protection
 
 
 155                                  NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Wastewater treatment and reuse aspects of Lake Valencia,
 Venezuela. Lansdell, M.; Carbonell, L.M.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 24 (9):
 p. 19-30; 1991.  In the series analytic: Wastewater
 Reclamation and Reuse/edited by R. Mujeriego and T. Asano.
 Proceedings of the International Symposium of Wastewate
 Reclamation and Reuse, September 24-26, 1991, Costa Brava,
 Spain.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Venezuela; Waste water treatment; Water reuse;
 Lakes; Irrigation water; Drinking water; Water resources;
 Water quality
 
 
 156                                     NAL Call. No.: 80 AC82
 Water requirement and crop coefficient for processing
 tomatoes. Andre, R.G.B.; Churataa-Masca, M.G.C.
 Wageningen : International Society for Horticultural Science;
 1992 Jan. Acta horticulturae (301): p. 165-169; 1992 Jan. 
 Paper presented at the "Fourth International Symposium on
 Processin g Tomatoes," February 18-21, 1991, Mendoza,
 Argentina.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Lycopersicon esculentum; Water requirements
 
 
 157                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Water table management practice effects on water quality.
 Wright, J.A.; Shirmohammadi, A.; Magette, W.L.; Fouss, J.L.;
 Bengtson, R.L.; Parsons, J.E.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1992 May. Transactions of the ASAE v. 35 (3): p.
 823-831; 1992 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Water management; Water quality; Water table;
 Drainage; Hydrology; Simulation models; Subsurface irrigation
 
 Abstract:  Impacts of water table management (WTM) practices
 on water quality were modeled using a linked version of CREAMS
 and DRAINMOD (Parsons and Skaggs, 1988). The CREAMS
 denitrification component and the linked DRAINMOD-CREAMS model
 were modified to simulate daily hydrology (runoff,
 infiltration, evaporation, and soil moisture content),
 erosion, and nutrient processes for different WTM conditions.
 Measured data from Baton Rouge, Louisiana, were used to
 validate the linked model, and then controlled drainage-
 subirrigation (CD-SI) was simulated to investigate the effects
 of different WTM systems on runoff, erosion, and nitrogen
 losses. Results of the study indicated that the linked models
 performed better than the original CREAMS model in predicting
 runoff, infiltration, soil moisture content, and erosion, and
 that the modified linked model performed better than both
 CREAMS and the original linked model in predicting nitrogen
 losses from the study site. Results also showed that the CD-SI
 system simulated by the modified DRAINMOD-CREAMS model
 predicted increased denitrification and lowered nitrate
 leaching, unlike the original version. This study concluded
 that the CD-SI system may be used as a BMP to reduce nitrogen
 leaching to shallow groundwater systems for areas with high
 water table conditions.
 
 
 158                                     NAL Call. No.: 80 AC82
 Water-fertilizer management of processing tomatoes.
 Phene, C.J.; Hutmacher, R.B.; Davis, K.R.; McCormick, R.L.
 Wageningen : International Society for Horticultural Science;
 1990 Aug. Acta horticulturae (277): p. 137-143; 1990 Aug. 
 Paper presented at the "Third International Symposium on
 Processing Tomatoes," November 29-December 2, 1989, Avignon,
 France.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Lycopersicon esculentum; Trickle
 irrigation; Evapotranspiration; Nitrogen fertilizers;
 Phosphorus fertilizers; Potassium fertilizers; Water use
 efficiency; Crop yield
 
 Abstract:  Water and fertility management of processing
 tomatoes were studied with high frequency subsurface drip
 (SSD), high frequency surface drip (HFSD) and low frequency
 surface drip (LFSD). In 1984 and 1985, N, and N + P were
 injected uniformly through the drip systems, respectively. In
 1987 N + K were injected uniformly through the drip systems,
 and the subtreatments were 0, 15, and 30 mg/l P injected daily
 in the irrigation water. The yields for all main treatments
 increased with injected P (1985) and K 1987. The SDS out-
 yielded the HFSD and LFSD in 1985 and 1987 when P was injected
 with the irrigation water but was not different in 1984 when
 only N was injected.
 
 
 
 
 
                          AUTHOR INDEX
 
 Akhter, M.S.  9
 Alberts, E.E.  78
 Ali, A.  105
 Allender, E.B.  24
 Amiel, A.J.  29, 30
 Andre, R.G.B.  156
 Arar, A.  154
 Artiola, J.F.  22, 77, 96
 Asano, T.  48, 92, 102, 118
 Assaf, R.  20
 Ayres, R.M.  18
 Azov, Y.  14, 47, 89, 90
 Badawy, A.S.  15
 Baker, P.A.  24
 Banks, P.A.  153
 Bar-Yosef, B.  49
 Barnes, C.J.  39
 Bartle, G.A  31
 Bartle, G.A.  12
 Bartone, C.R.  67
 Ben-Harim, I.  14
 Bengtson, R.L.  38, 157
 Berg, W.A.  119, 144, 146
 Bergstrom, L.  87
 Berkowitz, B.  66
 Bernaldez, F.G.  32
 Berndt, Marian P.  137
 Berti, A.  141
 Betaieb, M.  95, 142
 Bhutta, M.N.  5, 139
 Bingham, G.E.  26
 Blaskett, M.J.  68
 Boardman, R.  68
 Bollich, P.K.  38
 Borin, M.  141
 Bouwer, H.  1, 55, 117
 Bravdo, B.A.  20
 Briccoli-Bati, C.  40, 51
 Brissaud, F.  62
 Brownlee, C.H.  132
 Burgess, M.D.  103
 Bustamante, I. de  74
 Carbonell, L.M.  155
 Carlson, M.  93
 Carroll, M.J.  94
 Caswell, M.  41
 Chambers, L.A.  39
 Chang, C.  120
 Chang, L.J.  2, 79
 Chappell, N.A.  104
 Churataa-Masca, M.G.C.  156
 Cibotaru, R.  140
 Clothier, B.  111
 Coleman, G.A.  144, 146
 Cooper, R.C.  107
 Cooper, R.N.  115, 133
 Cort, R.P.  92
 Corwin, D.L.  52
 Croce, F.  8, 129
 Crook, J.  108
 D'Itri, F.M.  76
 Dardanoni, L.  129
 Davis, K.R.  158
 DeMalach, J.  140
 DeMalach, Y.  33, 45, 150
 Deming, E.J.  3
 Denver, J.M.  57
 Destouni, G.  4
 Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit,
 International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage, Deutscher
 Verband fur Wasserwirschaft und Kulturbau  81
 Deverel, S.J.  56, 126
 Di Giovacchino, L.  51
 Dik, P.E.  87
 Dolezal, F.  116
 Duniway, J.M.  60, 112
 Eckstein, Y.  106
 Edwards, W.M.  106
 El Atfy, H.  28
 El Gamaal, H.  28
 Essery, C.I.  10
 Exner, M.E.  43
 Farrington, P.  12, 31
 Fazeli, M.S.  35
 Feagley, S.E.  38
 Feigenbaum, Sala  34
 Feigin, A.  73
 Fio, J.L.  56, 126
 Fitzpatrick, J.J.  132
 Flexer, A.  66
 Flinn, D.W.  97
 Forden, W.Y.  71
 Fouss, J.L.  157
 Frank, K.D.  78
 Frankenberger, W.T. Jr  88
 Fujii, R.  126
 Gamble, B.F.  106
 Gambrill, M.P.  101
 Gburek, W.J.  121
 Geological Survey (U.S.)  25
 Gerba, C.P.  15
 German, E. R.  37d
 Gish, T.J.  145
 Gomez, I.  65
 Gorelick, S.M.  131
 Grattan, S.R.  143
 Hadjivassilis, I.  21, 148
 Hanks, R.J.  26
 Harivandi, A.  46
 Hartling, E.C.  91
 Hartman, H.  150
 Hayes, A.R.  70, 71
 Helling, C.S.  145
 Hillman, T.J.  97
 Hills, R.G.  75, 124
 Hodges, L.  122
 Hoffman, Z.  33, 45, 140, 150
 Holtzclaw, K.M.  11
 Hopmans, P.  97
 Howard, H.D.  80
 Howard, H.F.  69
 Hudson, D.B.  75, 124
 Hutmacher, R.B.  158
 Itoyama, T.  135
 Iwasaki, K.  130
 Jaques, R.S.  92
 Jarvis, N.J.  87
 Jaynes, D.B.  50
 Jeyapaul, G.  61
 Johnson, D.L.  109
 Jones, K.  95, 142
 Jones, O.R.  144, 146
 Jones, R.L.  109
 Joseph, C.  62
 Juanico, M.  14, 89, 90
 Kachanoski, R.G.  138
 Kamra, S.K.  127
 Kanarek, A.  90
 Kandil, H.  85p
 Kannan, K.  36, 63, 64
 Kargbo, D.  19
 Karioun, A.  7
 Kato, M.  76
 Keren, Y.  150
 Khao-Uppatum, V.  130
 Kijne, J.W.  5, 139
 Kirkland, M.R.  124
 Kirkpatrick, W.R.  92
 Knudsen, D.  19
 Kok-Yokomi, M.L.  105
 Koo, R.C.J.  13, 42
 Kopec, D.M.  71
 Kott, Y.  16
 Kourik, R.  136
 Kreznor, W.R.  109
 Kronfeld, J.  66
 Lamond, B.J.  120
 Lansdell, M.  155
 Latif, M.  139
 Lee, D.L.  18
 Lefkoff, L.J.  131
 Leong, L.Y.C.  48
 Levin, I.  20
 Lichtenberg, E.  41
 Lico, Michael S.  25
 Lindsey, S.B.  115, 133
 Lindstrand, O.  29
 Linscombe, S.D.  38
 Logasundari, S.  61
 Lombardo, N.  40, 51
 MacDonald, D.V.  23
 Mackzum, A.  125
 MacLeod, J.  17
 Madany, I.M.  9
 Magaritz, M.  29, 30
 Magette, W.L.  157
 Malek, E. 26
 Mancino, C.F.  70, 71, 72
 Manickavel, K.  61
 Manor, Y.  33, 45
 Mara, D.D.  7, 18, 101, 114, 128
 Marsilio, V.  51
 Martens, D.A.  88
 Martin, G.E.  43
 Martinez, A.  32
 Mataix, J.  65
 May, D.M.  143
 McCormick, R.L.  158
 McCurdy, G.D.  26
 McHaney, S.X.  123
 McMurtry, M.R.  84, 122
 Milburn, P.  17
 Miller, C.T.  85
 Mills, S.W.  7
 Mitchell, J.P.  143
 Monte, H.M. do  44
 Moravek, M.G.  78
 Mote, C.R.  3
 Mourik, E. van  28
 Mujeriego, R.  54
 Mujumdar, P.P.  99
 Murashima, K.  83
 Muthanna, L.  35
 Naney, J.W.  119
 Narkis, N.  16
 Nash, A.  84
 Navarro-Pedreno, J.  65
 Neal, R.H.  125
 Neher, D.  112
 Neilsen, G.H.  132
 Nelson, P.V.  84, 122
 Nicolaou, M.  148
 Niedrum, S.B.  7
 Nijman, C.M.  100
 Oblisami, G.  36, 63, 64
 Ogino, Y.  83
 Oliveri, R.L.  8
 Olson, K.R.  109
 Oron, G.  33, 45, 140, 150
 Oyama, G.  76
 Paliwal, K.  61
 Parlange, J.Y.  82
 Parlange, M.B.  82
 Parsons, J.E.  157
 Pearson, H.W.  128
 Pepper, I.L.  22, 70, 71, 72, 77
 Pescod, M.B.  149
 Petrovic, A.M.  94
 Phene, C.J.  158
 Pionke, H.B.  121
 Plazner, N.  150
 Pollara, J.R.  8
 Poppe, R.E.  80
 Potgieter, L.N.D.  3
 Priel, M.  90
 Rajamanickam, C.  61
 Rao Bhamidimarri, S.M.  6
 Rao, K.V.G.K.  127
 Ravina, I.  73
 Reedy Creek Improvement District (Fla.),Geological Survey
 (U.S.)  37
 Restrepo-Bardon, M.  62
 Rey Benayas, J.M.  32
 Reynolds, B.  104
 Rhoades, J.D.  52
 Rigby, M.G.  48
 Ristaino, J.B.  60
 Rogowski, A.S.  121
 Ronen, D.  29, 30
 Rose, C.W.  82
 Rose, J.B.  15
 Rosenthal, E.  66
 Russel, J.M.  133
 Russell, J.M.  115
 Sakaji, R.H.  48
 Sala, L.  54
 Salama, R.B.  12, 31
 Sanders, D.C.  84, 122
 Sathyanarayan, S.  35
 Satish, P.N.  35
 Sauer, T.  111
 Scanlon, B.R.  113
 Schepers, J.S.  78
 Schnabel, R.R.  121
 Schneider, K.  151
 Schoppet, M.J.  145
 Schrale, G.  68
 Schreiber, M.M.  145
 Schwartz, F.W.  98
 Scotter, D.  111
 Shalhevet, Joseph  73
 Sharma, M.L.  134
 Sharpley, A.N.  144, 146
 Sheikh, B.  92
 Shelef, G.  14, 47, 89, 90, 152
 Shennan, C.  143
 Shioda, K.  130
 Shirmohammadi, A.  145, 157
 Shuval, H.I.  27, 58
 Sigua, G.C.  38
 Silva, S.A.  18, 101
 Simunek, J.  86
 Singh, S.R.  127
 Skaggs, R.W.  85
 Skopp, J.  19
 Smith, S.J.  119, 144, 146
 Snow, D.D.  43
 Solinas, M.  51
 Sommerfeldt, T.G.  120
 Soulie, M.  62
 Sousa, M.S.  44
 Spalding, R.F.  43
 Sparks, Donald L.  34
 Sposito, G.  11, 125
 Stagnitti, F.  82
 Steenhuis, T.S.  82
 Stein, R.  98
 Stevenson, D.S.  132
 Stewart, H.T.L.  97
 Stott, R.  18
 Strauss, M.  59
 Suarez, D.L.  86
 Tallahassee (Fla.),Geological Survey (U.S.)  137
 Tanigawa, T.  83
 Taniguchi, M.  134
 Tarbox, G.L. Jr  147
 Tchobanoglous, G.  118
 Teltsch, B.  14
 Ternan, J.L.  104
 Thellier, C.  11
 Thoma, K.  24
 Torregrossa, M.V.  8
 United States-Israel Binational Agricultural Research and
 Development Fund  34
 United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Energy and
 Natural Resources. Subcommittee on Water and Power  110
 Unruh, R.R.  80
 Urban, J.B.  121
 Urbanek, J.  116
 Ushikubo, A.  76
 Valentino, L.  8
 Van Genuchten, M.T.  127
 Van Wesenbeeck, I.J.  138
 Varadarajan, K.  61
 Vargas-Lopez, C.E.  114
 Vaz da Costa-Vargas, S.M.  114
 Vedula, S.  99
 Von Bernuth, R.D.  3
 Waggoner, B.L.  52
 Wallender, W.W.  53
 Wasson, R.J.  39
 Watson, G.D.  12, 31
 Weinberger, G.  66
 Wells, M.C.  30
 Whalen, S.A.  2, 79
 Wierenga, P.J.  75, 124
 Wilcock, D.N.  10
 Williams, A.G.  104
 Williams, B.G.  39
 Wing, R.E.  145
 Wright, J.A.  157
 Xanthoulis, D.  53
 Yabe, K.  83
 Yang, A.  125
 Yang, P.Y.  2, 79
 Yokose, H.  135
 Yoshimura, M.  76
 Zekri, M.  13, 42
 Zilberman, D.  41
 
 
 
                          SUBJECT INDEX
 
 Activated sludge  15, 21, 148
 Adsorption  125, 126
 Aeration  2, 69, 76
 Aerobic treatment  2, 79
 Aggregates  88, 109
 Agricultural chemicals  57, 121
 Agricultural land  43, 64, 83
 Agricultural production  59
 Agricultural soils  4, 50, 56, 112, 116, 125, 138
 Alberta  98, 120
 Alfalfa  88
 Algae  7, 69
 Algorithms  85
 Alkaline soils  126
 Alluvial soils  125, 126
 Almonds  65
 Aluminum  104
 Ammonia  76
 Ammonium nitrogen  76
 Anaerobic conditions  76, 79
 Anaerobic digesters  142
 Anaerobic treatment  2, 133
 Analytical methods  39
 Animal models  3
 Animal wastes  76
 Application rates  20, 71, 77
 Application to land  24, 68, 70, 71, 74, 76, 97, 117
 Aquaculture  59, 67, 122
 Aquatic weeds  69
 Aquifers  12, 29, 30, 31, 37, 39, 66, 113, 117, 127, 131
 Arachis hypogaea  146
 Arid regions  70
 Arid zones  140
 Arizona  22, 55, 70, 71, 72, 77, 96
 Ascaridia galli  18
 Ascaris lumbRicoides  18
 Atrazine  145
 Australia  39, 97
 Australian northern territory  103
 Automatic irrigation systems  20
 Bacteria  45, 92
 Bahrain  9
 Barley straw  88
 Basin irrigation  109
 Beta-fructofuranosidase  64
 Bibliographies  151
 Bioavailability  146
 Biodegradation  29
 Biofilms  23
 Biological activity in soil  125
 Biological oxygen demand  76
 Biological techniques  14
 Biological treatment  76
 Biomass  20
 Biomass accumulation  97
 Bioreactors  23
 Blood picture  61
 Botulism  69
 Brazil  18, 101
 British Columbia  93
 Bromacil  50
 Bromide  124
 Brown chernozemic soils  120
 Bulk density  88
 Byproducts  65
 Calcareous soils  65
 Calcium  65, 84, 113, 135
 Calcium carbonate  120
 Calcium sulfate  120
 Calculation  83
 California  11, 23, 41, 48, 53, 56, 60, 88, 91, 92, 123, 125,
 126, 136, 143, 158
 Campylobacter  142
 Canals  5, 139
 Cannery wastes  53
 Capacity  14
 Capillary rise  11
 Carbon  29, 43, 77
 Carbon dioxide  12, 36, 86
 Case studies  7, 116, 141, 147, 153
 Catchment hydrology  82, 106
 Cations  74
 Cellulase  64
 Channels  5
 Chemical analysis  9, 113
 Chemical composition  12, 66, 115
 Chemical oxygen demand  76
 Chemical precipitation  148
 Chemical treatment  148
 Chemicals  108
 Chemistry  98
 Chloride  43
 Chlorides  87
 Chlorine  92, 142
 Citrus  20, 42
 Citrus sinensis  13
 Clay loam soils  22
 Clay soils  87
 Clones  93
 Coagulation  148
 Cocos nucifera  35
 Coliform bacteria  95
 Colorado  131
 Comparisons  16
 Computer programming  80
 Computer software  106
 Concentration  14
 Coniferous forests  104
 Connecticut  82
 Constraints  102
 Construction  62
 Contaminants  30
 Contamination  3, 30, 45, 114, 125
 Control methods  14, 27
 Copper  72
 Cost analysis  2, 79
 Costs  23, 54, 102, 131
 Cotton  41
 Counting  45
 Crop establishment  71
 Crop growth stage  99, 112
 Crop management  17
 Crop mixtures  131
 Crop production  40, 49, 78
 Crop quality  42, 44, 71, 143
 Crop yield  20, 44, 112, 131, 140, 150, 158
 Crops  45, 114
 Cucumis sativus  122
 Cultivation  38
 Culture media  122
 Cynodon dactylon  71, 72
 Cyprus  21, 148
 Czechoslovakia  116
 Dairy cows  61
 Dairy industry  21
 Dams  31
 Decision making  99, 100, 131
 Decomposition  36
 Decontamination  114
 Deficiency  129
 Delaware  57
 Deltas  130
 Denitrification  22, 23, 43, 76, 133
 Depletion  32
 Depth  127, 141
 Desalinization  129
 Desert soils 22, 77
 Design  23, 24, 53, 79, 83, 139
 Desorption  126, 144
 Deterministic models  75, 124
 Developing countries  27
 Differentiation  39
 Diffusion  19
 Diffusion models  87
 Diffusivity  19
 Discharge  5, 17, 28, 31, 32, 83, 106, 139, 141
 Disease control  142
 Disease models  3
 Disease transmission  3
 Disinfectants  16
 Disinfection  16, 142
 Dispersion  126
 Disposal  39, 150
 Dissolved oxygen  76
 Dissolving  29, 126
 Distribution  30
 Drain pipes  28
 Drainage  17, 41, 116, 122, 126, 157
 Drainage channels  83
 Drainage water  12, 28, 56, 125, 126, 127, 135
 Drained conditions  85
 Drinking water  43, 103, 107, 117, 129, 155
 Drying  142
 Earthworm channels  116
 Earthworms  116
 Economic analysis  103
 Economic evaluation  152
 Efficiency  79
 Effluents  7, 16, 23, 29, 33, 44, 45, 46, 47, 69, 76, 84, 89,
 90, 101, 122, 127, 128, 133
 Egypt  28
 Electrical conductivity  70, 72, 98, 132
 Emitters  140
 Encapsulation  145
 Enterobacteriaceae  95
 Enterovirus  15, 48
 Environmental aspects  137
 Environmental impact  32, 78, 103
 Environmental policy  41
 Enzyme activity  64
 Epidemiology  112
 Equations  94
 Erosion  109
 Erosion control  119
 Estimation  130
 Eucalyptus  24
 Evaluation  48
 Evaporation  10, 12, 82, 98
 Evapotranspiration  10, 26, 158
 Exchangeable cations  11
 Exchangeable sodium  11, 70
 Experimental design  17p
 Fallow  146
 Farm inputs  41
 Farm management  41
 Farm workers  105
 Farmland  41, 119, 146
 Fecal flora  114
 Fertigation  20, 30, 45, 49, 74
 Fertilizer requirement determination  49
 Fertilizer technology  49
 Fertilizers  20, 40, 65, 113
 Fertirrigation  36
 Field capacity  19
 Field experimentation  138
 Fields  38
 Filters  69
 Filtration  14
 Fish culture  84
 Fish ponds  122
 Flood irrigation  38, 50
 Flooded rice  38
 Florida  13, 42, 105, 137, 137
 Flow  12
 Flow to drains  56
 Fluids  49
 Foliar diagnosis  42
 Foliar nutrition  132
 Food composition  65
 Food contamination  92
 Food crops  33
 Forest plantations  24, 93
 Forest soils  135, 138
 Forest trees  97
 Forestry  115
 France  62
 Fresh water  129
 Freshwater fishes  14
 Fruits  20
 Furrow irrigation  22, 60, 77, 96
 Furrows  53
 Gaging  81
 Gates  139
 Geochemistry  12, 56
 Geological sedimentation  109
 Geology  98
 Geomorphology  31
 Gibbsite  12
 Golf courses  54, 123
 Gossypium  47, 96
 Gossypium hirsutum  22, 140
 Grasses  146
 Greenhouse culture  122
 Ground cover  144
 Groundwater  12, 29, 30, 31, 39, 43, 52, 56, 57, 66, 78, 91,
 107, 121, 126, 145
 Groundwater extraction  32
 Groundwater flow  31, 56, 66, 98
 Groundwater level  31, 66
 Groundwater pollution  113, 115
 Groundwater recharge  9, 23, 31, 32, 43, 55, 66, 102, 117
 Growth  93
 Guidelines  27, 59, 108
 Gypsum  126
 Hawaii  2, 79
 Health  101
 Health hazards  15, 27, 46, 149
 Health protection  7, 27, 54, 55, 58, 59, 107, 108, 114, 117,
 118, 129, 154
 Heat  134
 Heat flow  10, 86
 Heavy metals  35, 92
 Helminths  27
 Hematology  61
 Herbicide residues  50
 High water tables  98
 Hill land  104
 Historical records  58
 Horizons  138
 Households  33, 101
 Human diseases  3, 8
 Hybrids  93
 Hydraulic conductivity  87, 98, 116
 Hydraulics  2, 28
 Hydrogen ions  104
 Hydrography  81
 Hydrological factors  32
 Hydrology  56, 157
 Hysteresis  126
 India  127
 Indicators  48
 Industrial wastes  6, 21, 24, 115
 Infection  3
 Infestation  18
 Infiltration  53, 62, 75, 88, 111, 116, 124, 134
 Innovation adoption  41
 Inoculum density  112
 Insect pests  105
 Installation  23
 Installations  79
 Ion transport  104
 Ions  12, 66
 Iron  72
 Irrigated conditions  56, 78, 88, 105, 143
 Irrigated farming  41
 Irrigated pastures  61, 115
 Irrigated soils  29, 68, 126
 Irrigated stands  26, 114, 117
 Irrigation  3, 13, 24, 25, 35, 42, 44, 46, 64, 65, 69, 76, 80,
 84, 93, 94, 97, 126, 133, 149, 151
 Irrigation laws  110
 Irrigation requirements  20, 99
 Irrigation scheduling  19, 99, 135
 Irrigation systems  5, 83, 100, 130, 139
 Irrigation water  1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18,
 21, 23, 26, 27, 33, 39, 40, 45, 47, 48, 49, 51, 54, 55, 58,
 59, 62, 67, 70, 71, 72, 89, 90, 92, 95, 101, 102, 103, 107,
 108, 114, 115, 117, 118, 123, 126, 128, 129, 131, 132, 142,
 147, 148, 150, 152, 153, 154, 155
 Israel  14, 16, 27, 29, 30, 33, 45, 47, 66, 89, 90, 128, 140,
 150, 152
 Italy  51, 141
 Japan  76, 83, 135
 Kaolinite  12
 Karnataka  35, 99
 Kentucky  113
 Kinetics  125, 144
 Kraft mill effluent  63
 Laboratory tests  11
 Lactuca sativa  18, 114
 Lagoons  2, 44
 Lakes  155
 Land management  31, 144
 Land use  113
 Landscape  32, 46, 123
 Landscape gardening  62
 Landscaping  9
 Lawns and turf  3, 15, 46, 62, 70, 72, 105, 123
 Leachates  70
 Leaching  11, 50, 77, 78, 87, 96, 126, 144, 145
 Leaf water potential  94
 Leakage  12
 Leaves  94
 Libya  95, 142
 Liquid fertilizers  49
 Liquid wastes  77
 Literature reviews  98
 Loam soils  134
 Lolium perenne  71
 Losses from soil systems  96, 146
 Louisiana  38
 Lycopersicon esculentum  60, 84, 112, 122, 143, 156, 158
 Macropore flow  87
 Macropores  116
 Magnesium  65, 84, 113
 Maintenance  54
 Malus pumila  20
 Man  59
 Management  49, 83, 139
 Manganese  72, 125
 Mathematical models  49, 50, 52, 82, 85, 86, 87, 99, 126, 127
 Matric potential  20
 Measurement  10, 124
 Meat and livestock industry  6, 115, 133
 Medicago sativa  26, 131
 Metal tolerance  35
 Metals  30
 Methodology  130, 138
 Microbial activities  36, 88
 Microbial contamination  7, 27, 54, 90, 95, 113, 117
 Microbiology  63, 101, 108
 Middle east  153, 154
 Mineral content  38
 Mineral nutrition  42
 Mineralization  77
 Minimum tillage  146
 Models  106
 Monitoring  39, 49, 89, 90
 Morocco  7
 Movement in soil  49, 50, 104, 125, 126, 127, 145
 Multiple cropping  99
 Nebraska  43, 78
 New Mexico  75, 124
 New Zealand  6, 115
 Nitrate  104, 125
 Nitrate nitrogen  43, 76, 78, 96
 Nitrates  22, 113, 115, 119, 121, 135, 137
 Nitrites  76, 125
 Nitrogen  43, 49, 65, 76, 77, 84, 94
 Nitrogen fertilizers  71, 78, 132, 158
 Nitrogen fixing bacteria  95
 No-tillage  146
 Northeastern states of U.S.A.  121
 Northern ireland  10
 Nutrient availability  20, 84, 94
 Nutrient content  38, 140
 Nutrient excesses  71
 Nutrient requirements  49
 Nutrient uptake  19, 49, 84, 132
 Nutrients  97
 Ohio  106
 Oklahoma  80, 119, 144, 146
 Olea europaea  40, 51
 Olive oil  40, 51
 Ontario  138
 Operation  54
 Oreochromis mossambicus  84
 Organic amendments  88
 Organic compounds  2
 Organic farming  6
 Organic fertilizers  6, 7
 Osmotic pressure  94
 Oxidation  126
 Oxidation ditches  76
 Oxygen  125
 Pakistan punjab  5, 139
 Pans  120
 Paper mill sludge  35, 64
 Particle size  96
 Particle size distribution  109
 Particles  14
 Pathogenicity  112
 Pathogens  8, 69, 92, 117
 Percolation  62, 119
 Performance  23, 28, 79
 Performance appraisals  100
 Permeability  116
 Persistence  43
 Pesticide residues  38
 Ph  49, 66, 144
 Phaseolus vulgaris  122
 Phosphorus  19, 65, 72, 76, 84, 146
 Phosphorus fertilizers  146, 158
 Physicochemical properties  54, 125, 126
 Physiographic features  98
 Phytophthora nicotianae var. parasitica  60, 112
 Pigs  3
 Pipe drainage  141
 Pisum sativum  140
 Plains  119
 Plankton  14
 Planning  102, 103
 Plant composition  35
 Plant height  93
 Plant nutrition  13, 49
 Plant water relations  4
 Plants, Effect of pollution on  37
 Poa pratensis  94
 Pollutants  29
 Pollution  41
 Polysaccharides  88
 Ponds  7, 27, 62, 69, 101
 Population density  105
 Populus canadensis  74
 Populus deltoides  93
 Populus nigra  93
 Populus trichocarpa  93
 Porcine enterovirus  3
 Porosity  87
 Portugal  44, 114
 Potassium  19, 65, 72, 74, 84, 94
 Potassium chloride  138
 Potassium content  34
 Potassium fertilizers  158
 Poultry manure  88
 Prediction  75, 82, 85, 86, 87, 124, 127
 Pretreatment  2, 79
 Price policy  41
 Processing  40, 51
 Production  86
 Productivity  140
 Profiles  12, 60
 Profitability  41
 Profits  131
 Programs  89
 Projects  23
 Protozoa  69
 Prunus avium  132
 Psychoda alternata  105
 Public gardens  147
 Public health  7, 27, 54, 59, 107, 108, 114, 117, 129, 154
 Public parks  123
 Pulp mill effluent  36
 Pumps  69
 Quality  47, 137
 Quality controls  89
 Quality standards  1, 27, 108, 114, 153
 Quantitative analysis  56
 Quantitative techniques  109
 Radiocarbon dating  66
 Rain  12
 Rangelands 119
 Recharge  104, 106, 107, 134
 Reclamation  48, 90, 123
 Recovery  135
 Redistribution  111, 124
 Redox potential  125
 Redox reactions  125
 Reduction  125
 Refuse  1, 16, 44, 48, 92
 Regressions  131
 Regulation  139
 Regulations  48, 58, 76
 Relative humidity  19
 Remote control  80
 Removal  2, 79
 Requirements  14, 54, 117, 152
 Reservoirs  106, 128
 Resources  102
 Respiration  86
 Respiration rate  88
 Retention  2
 Reviews  116
 Rhizobiaceae  63
 Risk  3
 Rivers  130
 Root rots  60, 112
 Root systems  20, 49
 Roots  20, 22, 112
 Rotations  146
 Runoff  82, 104, 144, 146
 Rural areas  113, 149
 Safety  101
 Saline soils  98, 120
 Saline water  11, 26, 39, 65, 129, 131, 143
 Salinity  12, 28, 31, 39, 49, 56
 Salinization  98
 Salt water intrusion  66
 Salts  12
 Salts in soil  98, 120, 126
 Samples  141
 Sampling  57, 121
 Sand  134
 Sandy loam soils  122
 Sandy soils  111, 132
 Saturated conditions  126, 134
 Saturated hydraulic conductivity  75, 82
 Saturation  134
 Saturation extract  11
 Seasonal fluctuations  113
 Seasonal variation  112
 Sediment  38
 Seedling emergence  71
 Seepage  82
 Selenium  56, 125, 126
 Semiarid soils  75, 124
 Semiarid zones  140
 Sensors  20
 Septic tank effluent  113, 114
 Sewage  61, 105
 Sewage effluent  15, 30, 55, 70, 71, 72, 93, 95, 97, 140, 142,
 147
 Sewage effluent disposal  61, 68, 95
 Sewage irrigation  34, 73
 Sewage sludge  43, 65, 77, 88, 96, 142
 Sewage sludge as fertilizer  137
 Sicily  8, 129
 Silica  135
 Silt loam soils  111
 Simulation  85, 127
 Simulation models  4, 5, 41, 86, 130, 131, 157
 Site selection  139
 Size  20, 141
 Slopes  82, 109, 119
 Sloping land  135
 Sludges  22
 Sodium  65, 69, 72, 74
 Sodium carbonate  113
 Sodium chloride  113
 Soil  45, 109, 133
 Soil amendments  22, 51, 63, 96
 Soil bacteria  72, 125
 Soil biology  36, 63, 86
 Soil chemistry  63, 72, 86, 88, 135
 Soil density  88
 Soil depth  4, 11, 60, 82, 120, 126, 134
 Soil fertility  36, 51, 72
 Soil fungi  60, 63
 Soil injection  43
 Soil insects  105
 Soil organic matter  72, 77, 88, 113
 Soil ph  70, 72, 125, 132
 Soil physical properties  82, 88, 135
 Soil physics  87
 Soil pollution  8, 24, 29, 92
 Soil pore system  19
 Soil salinity  11, 98, 119, 127
 Soil solution  19, 49, 138
 Soil temperature  134
 Soil texture  4
 Soil treatment  88
 Soil variability  75, 124
 Soil water  42, 75, 82, 88, 96, 104, 106, 119, 124, 138
 Soil water balance  82, 85
 Soil water content  19, 49, 88, 134
 Soil water movement  4, 106, 111, 138
 Soil water regimes  125
 Soils  34, 97
 Solid wastes  2
 Solubility  119, 125
 Solutes  4, 19, 52, 56, 75, 85, 87, 96, 104, 111, 124, 126,
 127, 134, 138
 Sorghum  53
 Sorghum bicolor  146
 South australia  24, 68
 South Carolina  147
 Spacing  127
 Spain  32, 54, 74
 Spatial distribution  31, 49, 86, 126
 Spatial variation  138
 Specific heat  134
 Springs  113
 Sprinkler irrigation  18, 33, 37, 45, 114, 135
 Sri lanka  100
 Stability  88
 Stabilization  27
 Stabilizing  7, 62, 101
 Stable isotopes  43, 66, 98
 Starch  145
 Stomatal resistance  94
 Storage  106, 128
 Storms  104
 Stream flow  130
 Streams  12, 31, 104, 131
 Stubble mulching  146
 Subsurface drainage  28, 127
 Subsurface irrigation  136, 140, 157
 Subsurface layers  135
 Sugar factory waste  2
 Sugar industry  79
 Sugarcane  2, 79
 Sulfates  104, 144
 Sulfur  84
 Surface irrigation  53
 Surface layers  135
 Surface water  5, 12, 38, 98
 Survival  15
 Sweetcorn  45, 150
 Systems  24, 90, 141
 Tallahassee  137, 137
 Tamil nadu  36, 61, 63
 Technology  6, 101
 Temperate climate  10
 Temperate zones  17
 Temperature  66, 76
 Temporal variation  49, 113
 Texas  144, 146
 Textile industry  148
 Thailand  130
 Thermodynamics  125
 Thermophilic bacteria  142
 Tides  81
 Tilapia aurea  122
 Tile drainage  17, 127
 Tillage  146
 Time 2
 Time lag  126
 Tomatoes  53, 65
 Topsoil  87
 Toxicity  61
 Trace elements  84
 Tracers  134, 138
 Transformation  125
 Transient flow  4
 Transpiration  12
 Transport processes  4, 19, 49, 50, 52, 75, 85, 86, 98, 111,
 124, 125, 126, 134, 138, 144
 Treatment  9, 55
 Trickle irrigation  2, 14, 20, 33, 41, 45, 49, 79, 111, 140,
 145, 150, 158
 Triticum  66
 Triticum aestivum  119, 140, 146
 Tritium  124
 Turgor  94
 U.S.A.  58, 108
 Underground storage  90
 Unsaturated flow  85
 Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity  134
 Upland areas  31
 Uptake  35
 Urban areas  102, 123, 149
 Utah  26
 Utilization  23, 123
 Vegetables  117, 122
 Venezuela  155
 Viruses  45, 92
 Vitis vinifera  20
 Volume  93
 Wales  104
 Washing  79
 Waste disposal  26, 45, 53, 77, 97, 103
 Waste disposal sites  24
 Waste treatment  6, 16, 45
 Waste utilization  59, 70, 71, 72, 76, 132, 136
 Waste water  3, 9, 13, 24, 26, 29, 39, 40, 42, 51, 53, 58, 59,
 67, 72, 76, 80, 93, 101, 105, 107, 123, 129, 132, 133, 135,
 140, 149, 151, 153
 Waste water disposal  36
 Waste water treatment  1, 2, 7, 8, 14, 18, 21, 23, 27, 33, 35,
 44, 46, 47, 54, 59, 62, 68, 74, 79, 89, 90, 91, 92, 95, 101,
 102, 103, 108, 114, 117, 118, 128, 142, 147, 148, 150, 152,
 153, 154, 155
 Waste waters  136
 Wastes  59
 Water  25, 44, 102
 Water allocation  5, 99
 Water availability  19, 20, 94, 99
 Water balance  10
 Water budget  106
 Water conservation  41, 42, 129
 Water costs  41
 Water deficit  143
 Water distribution  5, 139
 Water erosion  119
 Water filters  69
 Water flow  75, 82, 86, 124, 134, 135
 Water holding capacity  82
 Water management  38, 52, 78, 118, 130, 157
 Water policy  5
 Water pollution  14, 15, 27, 29, 43, 77, 107, 121, 125, 129,
 145  Water purification  27, 74
 Water quality  1, 7, 12, 13, 14, 17, 25, 27, 31, 33, 37, 38,
 46, 52, 54, 56, 57, 70, 76, 78, 85, 90, 104, 108, 113, 117,
 127, 135, 152, 153, 155, 157
 Water requirements  156
 Water reservoirs  95, 99
 Water resources  54, 103, 107, 118, 129, 149, 152, 155
 Water resources development  110
 Water reuse  1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 14, 16, 18, 21, 27, 33, 37, 44,
 45, 48, 54, 55, 58, 59, 62, 67, 79, 89, 90, 91, 101, 102, 103,
 108, 110, 114, 115, 117, 118, 128, 129, 147, 148, 150, 152,
 153, 154, 155
 Water storage  117
 Water supply  102
 Water table  10, 32, 85, 119, 127, 141, 157
 Water uptake  19, 60
 Water use  5, 107, 131
 Water use efficiency  99, 158
 Water yield  82
 Water, Underground  137
 Waterborne diseases  142
 Waterfowlx 69
 Watershed management  31
 Watersheds  12, 31, 82, 83, 121, 144, 146
 Weathering  12
 Weed control  69
 Wells  66, 113
 Western australia  12, 31
 Wetlands  32
 Wetting front  75
 Who  27, 108
 Yield losses  112
 Yield response functions  7, 92, 143
 Yield targets  78
 Zea mays  19, 45, 78, 131, 140, 150
 Zinc  72
 
 

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United States Department of Agriculture
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National Agricultural Library

The Alternative Farming Systems Information Center, afsic@nal.usda.gov
https://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/AFSIC_pubs/qb93-55, July 1993

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