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Alternative Farming Systems Information Center of the National Agricultural Library
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture


Rotational Grazing and Intensive Pasture Management, 1993
January 1988 - April 1993

  
 TITLE: Rotational Grazing and Intensive Pasture Management
 AUTHOR:  Jane Potter Gates
          Alternative Farming Systems Information Center
          National Agricultural Library
 PUBLICATION DATE:  August 1993
 SERIES:  QB 93-50
 UPDATES: QB 90-03
 NAL Call no.:   aZ5071.N3 no.93-50 
 CONTACT:  Alternative Farming Systems Information Center
           National Agricultural Library
           Room 123, 10301 Baltimore Ave.
           Beltsville, MD  20705-2351
           Telephone:  (301) 504-6559
           http://afsic.nal.usda.gov


 ==============================================================
                                              ISSN:  1052-5378
 United States Department of Agriculture
 National Agricultural Library
 10301 Baltimore Blvd.
 Beltsville, Maryland  20705-2351
 
 
 
Rotational Grazing and Intensive Pasture Management
 January 1988 - April 1993
 
 Quick Bibliography Series:  QB 93-50
 Updates QB 90-03
 
 148 citations in English from AGRICOLA
 
 Jane Potter Gates
 Alternative Farming Systems Information Center
 
 July 1993
 
 National Agricultural Library Cataloging Record:
 
 Gates, Jane Potter
   Rotational grazing and intensive pasture management.
   (Quick bibliography series ; 93-50)
   1. Grazing--Bibliography. 2. Pastures--Management--
 Bibliography.
   I. Title.
 aZ5071.N3 no.93-50
 
 
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Search AGRICOLA (http://agricola.nal.usda.gov) to update this Quick Bibliography. 
Use the search strategy and terms located below, plus the extensive AGRICOLA Help 
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 SAMPLE CITATIONS
 
 Citations in this bibliography are from the National
 Agricultural Library's AGRICOLA database.  An explanation of
 sample journal article, book, and audiovisual citations
 appears below.
 
 JOURNAL ARTICLE:
 
   Citation #                                     NAL Call No.
   Article title.
   Author.  Place of publication:  Publisher.  Journal Title.
   Date.  Volume (Issue).  Pages.  (NAL Call Number).
 
 Example:
   1                             NAL Call No.:  DNAL 389.8.SCH6
   Morrison, S.B.  Denver, Colo.:  American School Food Service
   Association.  School foodservice journal.  Sept 1987. v. 41
   (8). p.48-50. ill.
 
 BOOK:
 
   Citation #                                   NAL Call Number
   Title.
   Author.  Place of publication:  Publisher, date. Information
   on pagination, indices, or bibliographies.
 
 Example:
 
   1                        NAL Call No.:  DNAL RM218.K36 1987
   Exploring careers in dietetics and nutrition.
   Kane, June Kozak.  New York:  Rosen Pub. Group, 1987.
   Includes index.  xii, 133 p.: ill.; 22 cm.  Bibliography:
   p. 126.
 
 AUDIOVISUAL:
 
   Citation #                                  NAL Call Number
   Title.
   Author.  Place of publication:  Publisher, date.
   Supplemental information such as funding.  Media format
   (i.e., videocassette):  Description (sound, color, size).
 
 Example:
   1                    NAL Call No.: DNAL FNCTX364.A425 F&N AV
   All aboard the nutri-train.
   Mayo, Cynthia.  Richmond, Va.:  Richmond Public Schools,
   1981.  NET funded.  Activity packet prepared by Cynthia
   Mayo.  1 videocassette (30 min.): sd., col.; 3/4 in. +
   activity packet.
 
 
       ROTATIONAL GRAZING AND INTENSIVE PASTURE MANAGEMENT
 
                         SEARCH STRATEGY
 
      Set   Items  Term(s)
      ---   -----  ---------------------
       S1    5544  ROTATION? 
       S2    8118  GRAZING 
       S3     379  ROTATION? AND GRAZING 
       S4    3282  INTENSIVE 
       S5    8118  GRAZING 
       S6      72  INTENSIVE()GRAZING 
       S7    3282  INTENSIVE 
       S8   17483  PASTURE? 
       S9      18  INTENSIVE(1W)PASTURE? 
      S10      90  S6 OR S9 
      S11     455  S3 OR S10 
      S12      12  VOISIN 
      S13     465  VOISIN OR S11 
      S14   56354  CELL? 
      S15      57  CELL? AND (S2 OR S8) 
      S16     519  S13 OR S15 
      S17     478  S16/TI,DE 
      S18     432  S17/ENG 
      S19  368567  PY=1988 : PY=1993 
      S20     170  S18 AND PY=1988:1993 
 
 
       ROTATIONAL GRAZING AND INTENSIVE PASTURE MANAGEMENT
 
 1                                        NAL Call. No.: S1.N32
 ABC's of rotational grazing.
 Emmick, D.L.
 Emmaus, Pa. : Rodale Institute; 1991 Jul.
 The New farm. p. 26-28; 1991 Jul.  Second of series.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rotational grazing
 
 
 2                                      NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Amount and diurnal distribution of grazing time by stocker
 cattle under different tall fescue management strategies.
 Coffey, K.P.; Moyer, J.L.; Brazle, F.K.; Lomas, L.W.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1992 May.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 33 (2/3): p. 121-135; 1992
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle; Grazing behavior; Duration; Diurnal
 activity; Festuca arundinacea; Grassland management;
 Endophytes; Trifolium repens; Oxytetracycline; Controlled
 grazing; Rotational grazing; Grazing systems
 
 
 3                                       NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Animal and forage responses on rotationally grazed 'Floralta'
 limpograss and 'Pensacola' bahiagrass pastures.
 Sollenberger, L.E.; Rusland, G.A.; Jones, C.S. Jr; Albrecht,
 K.A.; Gieger, K.L.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1989 Sep.
 Agronomy journal v. 81 (5): p. 760-764; 1989 Sep.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Paspalum notatum; Hemarthria altissima;
 Varieties; Pasture management; Rotational grazing; Forage;
 Nutritive value; Steers; Weight gain
 
 Abstract:  'Floralta' limpograss [Hemarthria altissima Poir.
 (Stapf) et C.E. Hubb.] has the best combination of in vitro
 digestibility and persistence under grazing of four limpograss
 cultivars released in Florida. Limpograss crude protein (CP)
 concentration has been observed to be low in several studies
 and animal performance on continuously stocked pastures has
 not exceeded that observed on the industry standard,
 'Pensacola' bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge). This study
 was conducted from 1984 through 1986 on soils of the Pomona
 (sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Ultic Haplaquod) and Smyrna
 (sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Aeric haplaquod) series. The
 objective was to compare animal performance on limpograss and
 bahiagrass when they were rotationally grazed to 20- to 25-cm
 and 6- to 8-cm stubble heights, respectively, and fertilized
 with N after each grazing. Seasonal average daily gain (ADG)
 did not differ between grasses in any year, and mean ADG over
 the 3-yr period was 0.41 kg for steers (Bos sp.) grazing
 limpograss and 0.38 kg for those on bahiagrass. Hand-plucked
 samples of Pensacola had higher CP than those of Floralta,
 averaging 116 and 83 g kg-1 dry matter (DM), respectively, but
 in vitro digestible organic matter (IVDOM) concentration of
 bahiagrass was 581 vs. 613 g kg-1 OM for limpograss. In each
 year, there was a marked decline in IVDOM of bahiagrass
 herbage during the late summer period when ADG was also low.
 Limpograss IVDOM was not correlated with ADG and, although CP
 in limpograss herbage was marginal for growing steers, there
 was not a significant correlation between ADG and CP. Mean
 stocking rate (SR) over the season was higher for Floralta
 than for Pensacola, with 3-yr means of 2150 and 1680 kg
 liveweight ha-1 d-1. Due to higher SR, 3-yr means for gain
 ha-1 were also higher for limpograss (460 kg) compared with
 bahiagrass (318 kg). At grazing intensities similar to those
 used in the current study, frequently fertilized, rotationally
 grazed pastures of lim
 
 
 4                                     NAL Call. No.: SB193.F59
 Biological implications of rotational and continuous grazing:
 a case for continuous grazing.
 Bransby, D.I.
 Columbia, Mo. : American Forage and Grassland Council; 1991.
 Proceedings of the Forage and Grassland Conference. p. 10-14;
 1991.  Meeting held April 1-4, 1991, Columbia, Missouri. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rotational grazing; Grazing systems; Grazing
 effects; Grassland management
 
 
 5                                     NAL Call. No.: SB193.F59
 Biological implications of rotational grazing.
 Gerrish, J.R.
 Columbia, Mo. : American Forage and Grassland Council; 1991.
 Proceedings of the Forage and Grassland Conference. p. 6-9;
 1991.  Meeting held April 1-4, 1991, Columbia, Missouri. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rotational grazing; Grazing effects; Pasture
 plants; Grassland management; Persistence
 
 
 6                                     NAL Call. No.: 60.18 J82
 Bobwhite habitat use under short duration and deferred-
 rotation grazing. Wilkins, R.N.; Swank, W.G.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1992 Nov.
 Journal of range management v. 45 (6): p. 549-553; 1992 Nov. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Colinus Virginianus; Habitats; Grazing
 effects; Grazing systems; Semiarid zones; Rangelands; Wildlife
 management; Population density
 
 Abstract:  A study was conducted in the South Texas Plains to
 contrast the short-term impacts of short duration grazing
 (SDG) and deferred-rotation grazing (DG) systems on habitats
 for northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus). Foliar cover,
 species richness, and structural attributes of the vegetation
 were compared at radio-location sites (quail-used) and sites
 along random transects (available) within and between the 2
 grazing systems. Quail-used sites were characterized by
 increased species richness, forb cover, and bare ground and
 decreased plant height and litter accumulations. Principal
 components analysis revealed that available sites on the SDG
 during the fall and winter were scored higher along a habitat
 gradient which had greater species richness and forb cover
 combined with diminished litter accumulations. This habitat
 gradient explained 41% of the variation in the ground layer
 variables. In addition, mark-recapture studies suggested
 positive population responses on the SDG during the first year
 following its initiation. Short-term improvements in bobwhite
 habitats may be realized by initiating SDG on some semiarid
 rangelands.
 
 
 7                                     NAL Call. No.: SB193.F59
 Cattle performance on rotated pastures of switchgrass and
 Kentucky bluegrass. Smart, A.; Undersander, D.
 Columbia, Mo. : American Forage and Grassland Council; 1991.
 Proceedings of the Forage and Grassland Conference. p.
 248-251; 1991.  Meeting held April 1-4, 1991, Columbia,
 Missouri.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Wisconsin; Panicum virgatum; Poa pratensis;
 Rotations; Cattle; Liveweight gain; Grazing systems
 
 
 8                                     NAL Call. No.: 60.18 J82
 Cattle, vegetation, and economic responses to grazing systems
 and grazing pressure.
 Hart, R.H.; Samuel, M.J.; Test, P.S.; Smith, M.A.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1988 Jul.
 Journal of range management v. 41 (4): p. 282-286. ill; 1988
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Wyoming; Cattle; Agropyron; Stipa comata; Grazing
 systems; Grazing intensity; Stocking rate; Rotational grazing;
 Plant production; Forage; Liveweight gains; Economics; Range
 management
 
 
 9                                     NAL Call. No.: 60.18 J82
 Cattle-deer interactions in the Sierra Nevada: a bioeconomic
 approach. Loomis, J.B.; Loft, E.R.; Updike, D.R.; Kie, J.G.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1991 Jul.
 Journal of range management v. 44 (4): p. 395-398; 1991 Jul. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Odocoileus hemionus; Cattle; Multiple
 land use; Rotational grazing; Grazing intensity; Carrying
 capacity; Population density; Range pastures; Rangelands;
 Hunting; Economic analysis; Range management; National forests
 
 Abstract:  Four potential cattle grazing systems on summer
 range in the Sierra Nevada are compared in terms of deer
 harvest, number of hunters attracted, and the net economic
 value of hunting. Research on deer carrying capacity response
 to different 3-year rest rotation grazing patterns indicates
 continuous moderate grazing provides 82% of the potential deer
 carrying capacity. A 2-years-off, 1-year-on grazing system
 provides 94% of potential deer carrying capacity. The increase
 in carrying capacity associated with grazing 1 year in 3 could
 increase buck harvest by 200 animals in the Sierra Nevada's
 hunt zone D5. Change in deer harvest in the previous year is
 one of the key variables in a model that determines the
 attractiveness of hunt zones to California deer hunters. The
 model predicts that increasing buck harvest by 200 deer in
 hunt zone D5 results in 2,721 more hunters visiting this zone
 each year. This translates into nearly 11,835 more trips. The
 net economic value of these additional hunters is determined
 based on a simulated market approach. Using the value from the
 hunter survey, the annual increase in hunting value is $2.3
 million. The present value of this change over each 3-year
 rest-rotation cycle is $6.5 million using a 4% discount rate.
 The incremental benefits of deer hunting gained under the 2-
 years-off, 1-year-on grazing system is greater than the lost
 net economic value of the forage to the rancher as computed by
 USDA Economic Research Service.
 
 
 10                                     NAL Call. No.: 23 AU783
 Changes in the size and composition of the seed bank of medic
 pastures grown in rotation with wheat in north Syria.
 Cocks, P.S.
 Melbourne : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research
 Organization; 1992.
 Australian journal of agricultural research v. 43 (7): p.
 1571-1581; 1992. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Syria; Medicago; Seed banks; Genotypes; Botanical
 composition; Grazing effects; Monitoring; Rotations; Trifolium
 subterraneum
 
 
 11                                 NAL Call. No.: 275.29 OK41C
 A comparison of continuous and rotational grazing in tallgrass
 prairie. McCollum, F.T.; Gillen, R.L.
 Stillwater, Okla. : The Service; 1992 Feb.
 Circular E - Oklahoma State University, Cooperative Extension
 Service (905): p. 17; 1992 Feb.  In the series analytic: Range
 research highlights, 1983-1991 / edited by T.G. Bidwell, D.
 Titus and D. Cassels.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rotational grazing; Grazing systems; Prairies;
 Stocking rate; Liveweight gain
 
 
 12                                   NAL Call. No.: SF207.B442
 Comparison of conventional and intensive grazing management on
 two forage types in a beef cow-calf system.
 Fisher, J.C.; Bolze, R.P.
 Wooster, Ohio : The Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural
 Research and Development Center; 1988 Mar.
 Beef cattle research report (88-1): p. 22-30; 1988 Mar.  In
 subseries: Animal Science Series.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Grazing intensity; Grazing time;
 Festuca arundinacea; Dactylis glomerata; Trifolium pratense;
 Conception rate; Beef production; Growth; Liveweight gain;
 Weight losses
 
 
 13                                    NAL Call. No.: SB193.F59
 Continous versus rapid rotational grazing of 'Tifton-44'
 bermudagrass by steers at varying stocking rate.
 Kee, D.D.; Bransby, D.I.; Gamble, B.E.; Ivey, H.W.
 Columbia, Mo. : American Forage and Grassland Council; 1991.
 Proceedings of the Forage and Grassland Conference. p.
 198-201; 1991.  Meeting held April 1-4, 1991, Columbia,
 Missouri.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Steers; Grazing systems; Stocking rate; Cynodon
 dactylon; Pastures
 
 
 14                        NAL Call. No.: Videocassette no.1223
 Controlled grazing.
 Land Stewardship Project (U.S.)
 Lewiston, MN : Land Stewardship Project,; 1991.
 1 videocassette (18 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. (Farming for
 the future: a farmer-to-farmer video series.).  A Blue Moon
 production.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Milk production; Cattle; Dairying; Grazing;
 Agricultural systems
 
 Abstract:  This video provides examples of rotating grazing
 for farm animals and shows the increase in profit and milk
 production as a result of practicing rotation with both the
 livestock and the land use.
 
 
 15                                    NAL Call. No.: SB193.F59
 Controlled-rotation grazing of a bermudagrass-annual ryegrass
 12-paddock cell with 2 herds.
 Dalrymple, R.L.
 Lexington, Ky. : The Conference; 1988.
 Proceedings of the Forage and Grassland Conference. p.
 138-142; 1988.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Steers; Cynodon dactylon; Lolium multiflorum;
 Grazing experiments; Pasture management; Rotational grazing;
 Liveweight gains; Costs
 
 
 16                                      NAL Call. No.: 10 J822
 Density of Trifolium repens plants in mixed swards under
 intensive grazing by sheep.
 Hay, M.J.M.; Brock, J.L.; Thomas, V.J.
 Cambridge : Cambridge University Press; 1989 Aug.
 The Journal of agricultural science v. 113 (pt.1): p. 81-86;
 1989 Aug. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New Zealand; Trifolium repens; Crop density;
 Mixed pastures; Pasture management; Rotational grazing; Ewes;
 Lambs
 
 
 17                                    NAL Call. No.: 60.18 J82
 Desert mule deer use of grazed and ungrazed habitats.
 Ragotzkie, K.E.; Bailey, J.A.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1991 Sep.
 Journal of range management v. 44 (5): p. 487-490; 1991 Sep. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Odocoileus hemionus; Cattle; Habitats;
 Habitat selection; Grazing effects; Grazing; Range pastures;
 Semi-desert scrub
 
 Abstract:  We studied use of pastures and habitats in relation
 to moderate cattle grazing for 19 radio-collared desert mule
 deer (Odocoileus hemionus crooki) in a southeastern Arizona
 grass-shrubland. For each deer, use of grazed or ungrazed
 pastures and habitats in relation to their availability within
 the deer's home range was tested on a seasonal and annual
 basis. Deer, especially females during summer, tended to use
 currently ungrazed portions of their home range and dry wash
 habitats more than expected. Most deer showed a strong
 preference for ungrazed dry wash habitats, followed by grazed
 dry washes and ungrazed uplands. Although deer used grazed
 uplands less than expected based on availability, deer were
 still observed frequently in this abundant type. Deer use of
 currently ungrazed habitats may have been due to absence of
 cattle or to effects of recent cattle grazing in these
 habitats. During 2 years of favorable precipitation and forage
 conditions deer appeared to be adjusted to moderate rest-
 rotation cattle grazing. Leaving some areas periodically
 ungrazed might also provide a contingency for deer against
 impacts of cattle grazing during drought.
 
 
 18                                 NAL Call. No.: S544.3.N9C46
 Design and characteristics of the twice-over rotation grazing
 system. Sedivec, K.K.; Barker, W.T.
 Fargo, N.D. : The University; 1991 Jun.
 NDSU Extension Service [publication] - North Dakota State
 University (R-1006): 7 p.; 1991 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rotational grazing; Grazing systems; Pastures;
 Water availability; Fencing; Yields; Wildlife conservation;
 Record keeping
 
 
 19                                   NAL Call. No.: 60.19 SO83
 The ecology and physiology of cool-season forages under
 intensive rotational grazing systems.
 Dougherty, C.T.
 New Orleans, La. : U.S. Department of Agriculture,
 Agricultural Research Service; 1988 Dec.
 Proceedings of the Southern Pasture and Forage Crop
 Improvement Conference. p. 41-43; 1988 Dec.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Forage crops; Cold resistance; Grasses;
 Rotational grazing; Grazing intensity; Plant physiology; Plant
 ecology; Tillering; Plant morphology; Adaptability
 
 
 20                                   NAL Call. No.: 60.19 SO83
 Ecology and physiology of warm season forages in intensive
 rotational grazing systems.
 Rouquette, F.M. Jr
 New Orleans, La. : U.S. Department of Agriculture,
 Agricultural Research Service; 1988 Dec.
 Proceedings of the Southern Pasture and Forage Crop
 Improvement Conference. p. 44-47; 1988 Dec.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Forage crops; Grasses; Rotational grazing;
 Grazing intensity; Plant physiology; Plant ecology;
 Experimental plots; Grazing experiments
 
 
 21                                    NAL Call. No.: SB193.F59
 The economic impact of intensive grazing management of fifteen
 dairy farms in New York State.
 Emmick, D.L.; Toomer, L.F.
 Columbia, Mo. : American Forage and Grassland Council; 1991.
 Proceedings of the Forage and Grassland Conference. p. 19-22;
 1991.  Meeting held April 1-4, 1991, Columbia, Missouri. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New York; Grassland management; Intensive
 production; Dairy farming; Economic impact
 
 
 22                                   NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Economics of lamb production on wheatgrasses and wheatgrass-
 sainfoin pastures. Karnezos, T.P.; Matches, A.G.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Apr.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 5 (2): p. 290-294; 1992
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Southern plains states of U.S.A.; Sheep;
 Lamb production; Agropyron; Onobrychis; Thinopyrum; Rotational
 grazing; Monoculture; Mixed cropping; Mixed pastures;
 Irrigated pastures; Production costs; Returns; Gross margins;
 Liveweight gain; Spring; Summer
 
 
 23                                     NAL Call. No.: SB197.B7
 The effect of annual and spring stocking rates on beef cow and
 calf performance in north-west Spain.
 Osoro, K.
 Hurley, Berkshire : The Society; 1988.
 Occasional symposium - British Grassland Society (22): p.
 235-238; 1988. Paper presented at the "Conference organised
 jointly with the British Society of Animal Production,"
 November 3-5, 1987, Peebles, Scotland.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Spain; Beef cows; Calves; Pastures; Rotational
 grazing; Stocking rate; Liveweight gains; Body weight;
 Herbage; Digestibility; Weaning weight
 
 
 24                                    NAL Call. No.: QH547.I55
 Effect of genetic type, lactation and management on helminth
 infection of ewes in an intensive grazing system on irrigated
 pasture.
 Gruner, L.; Bouix, J.; Cabaret, J.; Boulard, C.; Cortet, J.;
 Sauve, C.; Molenat, G.; Calamel, M.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Nov.
 International journal for parasitology v. 22 (7): p. 919-925;
 1992 Nov. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: France; Sheep; Ewes; Romanov; Arles merino;
 Trichostrongylus vitrinus; Teladorsagia circumcincta;
 Dictyocaulus filaria; Nematode infections; Ewe lactation;
 Grazing systems; Pastures
 
 Abstract:  A survey of helminth infection was conducted in a
 flock of 290 ewes distributed into Romanov (R), Merinos
 d'Arles (M) and Romanov X Merinos (R X M) genetic types,
 grazing irrigated pasture in the south of France. Faecal egg
 and larval counts were done seven times per year from 1981 to
 1984 on homogeneous groups of ewes and then individually once
 to four times every; autumn from 1985 to 1988. Helminth fauna
 was diverse and more abundant during autumn. High levels of
 strongyle infection occurred in the ewes that remained on the
 same irrigated pastures during summer. Moving to Alpian
 pastures during the summer lowered autumnal infection.
 Significant differences between genotypes in intensity of
 infection were observed in the order R > R X M > M for
 strongyles (Teladorsagia circumcincta and or Trichostrongylus
 vitrinus, Chabertia ovina and/or Oesophagostomum venulosum,
 Nematodirus spp.), Moniezia spp. and Dictyocaulus filaria. The
 hierarchy was reversed for Fasciola hepatica infection and not
 consistent from one year to another for protostrongylid
 infections. The effect of lactation intensity on the
 postparturient rise was studied by equilibrating number of
 ewes according to reproductive status (zero, one or two lambs
 in lactation). Merino ewes with two lambs in lactation, as
 well as primiparous Romanov ewes, had significantly higher
 strongyle infections than the others. The repeatabilities of
 the larval and egg counts between the four trial years were
 0.24. 0.23 and 0.16, respectively, for protostrongyles,
 Nematodirus and strongyles, with higher intra-annual values
 for protostrongyles and inconsistently significant results for
 strongyles due to the presence of several species.
 
 
 25                                   NAL Call. No.: SB197.A1T7
 Effect of plant age and harvest date in the dry season on
 yield and quality of Gliricidia sepium in southern Nigeria.
 Adejumo, J.O.
 St Lucia : Tropical Grassland Society of Australia; 1992 Mar.
 Tropical grasslands v. 26 (1): p. 21-24; 1992 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nigeria; Gliricidia sepium; Dry season;
 Harvesting date; Maturity stage; Crop yield; Forage; Crop
 quality; Dry matter accumulation; In vitro digestibility;
 Protein content; Crude protein; Fiber content; Lignin; Cell
 wall components; Mineral content
 
 
 26                                   NAL Call. No.: 60.19 B773
 Effect of seed crop management on the potential seed yield of
 contrasting white clover varieties. I. Inflorescence
 production.
 Marshall, A.H.; Hollington, P.A.; Hides, D.H.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1989 Jun.
 Grass and forage science : the journal of the British
 Grassland Society v. 44 (2): p. 181-188; 1989 Jun.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: United  Kingdom; Sheep; Trifolium repens;
 Varieties; Seed production; Seed crops; Crop management;
 Inflorescences; Defoliation; Rotational grazing; Yield
 components; Yields
 
 
 27                                   NAL Call. No.: 60.19 B773
 The effect of the duration of regrowth on photosynthesis, leaf
 death and the average rate of growth in a rotationally grazed
 sward.
 Parsons, A.J.; Penning P.D.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1988 Mar.
 Grass and forage science : the journal of the British
 Grassland Society v. 43 (1): p. 15-27; 1988 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: England; Sheep; Lolium perenne; Rotational
 grazing; Regrowth; Grass sward; Photosynthesis; Leaves;
 Duration; Defoliation; Canopy; Mathematical models; Yield
 increases
 
 
 28                                    NAL Call. No.: 10.5 IR45
 Effects of autumn closing date and grazing severity in a
 rotationally grazed sward during winter and spring. 1. Dry
 matter production. Carton, O.T.; Brereton, A.J.; O'Keeffe,
 W.F.; Keane, G.P. Dublin : An Foras Taluntais; 1988.
 Irish journal of agricultural research v. 27 (2/3): p.
 141-150; 1988. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ireland; Grasslands; Lolium perenne; Rotational
 grazing; Grazing effects; Grazing intensity; Grazing time;
 Pasture management; Yield components; Dry matter; Holstein-
 friesian; Steers; Winter; Spring; Temperatures
 
 
 29                                    NAL Call. No.: 10.5 IR45
 Effects of autumn closing date and grazing severity in a
 rotationally grazed sward during winter and spring. 2. Tissue
 turnover.
 Carton, O.T.; Brereton, A.J.; O'Keeffe, W.F.; Keane, G.P.
 Dublin : An Foras Taluntais; 1988.
 Irish journal of agricultural research v. 27 (2/3): p.
 151-165; 1988. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ireland; Grasslands; Lolium perenne; Rotational
 grazing; Grazing intensity; Grazing time; Pasture management;
 Steers; Holstein-friesian; Winter; Spring
 
 
 30                                 NAL Call. No.: 275.29 OK41C
 Effects of cattle stock density on trampling loss of simulated
 ground nests. Jensen, H.P.; Rollins, D.; Gillen, R.L.
 Stillwater, Okla. : The Service; 1992 Feb.
 Circular E - Oklahoma State University, Cooperative Extension
 Service (905): p. 36; 1992 Feb.  In the series analytic: Range
 research highlights, 1983-1991 / edited by T.G. Bidwell, D.
 Titus and D. Cassels.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Colinus Virginianus; Birds; Nests; Losses;
 Rotational grazing; Wildlife management; Grazing effects
 
 
 31                                    NAL Call. No.: SF380.I52
 Effects of grazing strategy and stocking rates on wool quality
 and yield in the Andean altiplano of Peru.
 Carey, J.A.; Craddock, B.F.; Florez, A.; Bryant, F.C.
 New York : Elsevier; 1988 Jun.
 Small ruminant research v. 1 (2): p. 127-134; 1988 Jun. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Peru; Ewes; Wool production; Corriedale;
 Rotational grazing; Mixed grazing; Stocking rate; Fiber
 quality; Lactation
 
 
 32                                    NAL Call. No.: 60.18 J82
 Effects of herbage allowance on defoliation patterns of
 tallgrass prairie. Jensen, H.P.; Gillen, R.L.; McCollum, F.T.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1990 Sep.
 Journal of range management v. 43 (5): p. 401-406; 1990 Sep. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Andropogon gerardii; Sorghastrum
 nutans; Schizachyrium scoparium; Prairies; Grazing trials;
 Grazing intensity; Grazing effects; Herbage; Tillers; Leaf
 area; Feeding preferences; Grazing behavior; Rotational
 grazing; Feeding frequency; Grazing time
 
 
 33                                     NAL Call. No.: 79.9 W52
 The effects of intensive grazing on ox-eye daisy.
 Wallander, R.T.; Olson, B.E.; Fay, P.K.; Olson-Rutz, K.
 Reno, Nev. : The Society; 1991.
 Proceedings - Western Society of Weed Science v. 44: p. 91-94;
 1991.  Meeting held March 12-14, 1991, Seattle Washington. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Leucanthemum vulgare; Weed control; Grazing
 effects; Cattle
 
 
 34                                    NAL Call. No.: 60.18 J82
 Effects of seasonal rest in aboveground biomass for a native
 grassland of the flood Pampa, Argentina.
 Hidalgo, L.G.; Cauhepe, M.A.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1991 Sep.
 Journal of range management v. 44 (5): p. 471-474; 1991 Sep. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Argentina norte; Natural grasslands; Grasses;
 Botanical composition; Biomass production; Grazing systems;
 Rotational grazing; Floodlands; Paspalum dilatatum;
 Bothriochloa; Yields; Grazing intensity; Sporobolus indicus;
 Seasonal variation
 
 Abstract:  Changes in total biomass and botanical composition
 in a native pasture of the Flooding Pampa in the Salado River
 Basin (Province of Buenos Aires), under 3 grazing systems:
 spring-summer rest (November, December, and January); fall
 rest April, May, and June), and continuous grazing were
 evaluated from October 1979 to August 1981. A variable
 stocking rate based on available forage was used. Total
 aboveground biomass was periodically sampled to ground level
 and separated into dead and green components. The green
 biomass was subdivided into individual species. Total
 aboveground biomass averaged 4,600 +/- 445 kg . ha-1 and 3,750
 +/- 120 kg . ha-1 for the spring-summer rest treatment during
 the first and second years, respectively. In the same period,
 warm-season species increased, principally due to an increase
 in dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum Poir.) and bluestem
 (Bothriochloa laguroides Herter) biomass. Total aboveground
 biomass yield was 2,000 +/- 170 kg . ha-1 during the fall rest
 treatment, and cool-season species such as Poa spp. and Stipa
 spp. increased. In general, continuous grazing at a moderate
 intensity resulted in total aboveground biomass of about 2,000
 kg DM . ha-1 throughout the experimental period. Contributions
 of warm-season and cool-season species did not change. Only
 West Indies smutgrass (Sporobolus indicus (L.) R. Br.)
 increased under continuous grazing.
 
 
 35                                   NAL Call. No.: SB197.A1T7
 Effects of trees on nutritional quality of understorey
 gramineous forage in tropical savannas.
 Belsky, A.J.
 St Lucia : Tropical Grassland Society of Australia; 1992 Mar.
 Tropical grasslands v. 26 (1): p. 12-20; 1992 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kenya; Savanna woodlands; Tropics; Acacia
 tortilis; Adansonia digitata; Undergrowth; Forage; Pasture
 plants; Nutritive value; Crop quality; In vitro digestibility;
 Fiber content; Lignin; Cellulose; Mineral content
 
 
 36                                     NAL Call. No.: 100 T31P
 Evaluation of a rotational feeding program for finishing
 cattle. Hutcheson, D.P.; Chirase, N.K.
 College Station, Tex. : The Station; 1990 Mar.
 PR - Texas Agricultural Experiment Station (4690-4729): p.
 148-151; 1990 Mar.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Steers; Crossbreds; Grazing; Sown pastures;
 Wheat; Pens; Feeding; Diets; Lasalocid; Chlortetracycline;
 Feed intake; Liveweight gains; Carcass quality
 
 
 37                                   NAL Call. No.: S539.5.A77
 Evaluation of an herbage-based method for adjusting short
 duration grazing periods.
 Mosley, J.C.; Dahl, B.E.
 New York, N.Y. : Springer; 1990.
 Applied agricultural research v. 5 (2): p. 142-148; 1990. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Steers; Rotational grazing; Controlled
 grazing; Grazing trials; Grazing time; Herbage; Moisture
 content; Crude protein; Digestibility; Weight gain; Quercus
 havardii; Rangelands
 
 Abstract:  Livestock nutrition and performance under short
 duration grazing (SDG) possibly could be enhanced by
 incorporating flexible grazing periods (i.e., varying the
 number of days a pasture is grazed without interruption). This
 study evaluated a method that used available herbage as an
 indicator for adjusting length of grazing periods for SDG on
 rangeland. A controlled grazing trial was conducted using four
 simulated six-pasture SDG systems on sand shinnery oak
 (Quercus havardii) rangeland on the Rolling Plains of Texas.
 There were four grazing cycles during the five-month grazing
 season. Each system was variably stocked with four tester
 steers and up to five additional grazer steers. Steers in two
 of the systems were rotated between pastures according to a
 fixed, seven-day grazing period (control). Steers grazing the
 remaining two systems were rotated independently according to
 available herbage (flexible rotation). Available herbage was
 determined at the beginning of each pasture's grazing period
 by clipping current annual herbaceous growth within 0.4-m2
 (4.8-ft2) quadrats. Grazing periods for flexible rotations
 varied from 0-14 days. Herbage crude protein, herbage
 digestibility, herbage moisture content, available herbage,
 and animal gain were not improved (P > 0.10) by rotating
 steers flexibly according to available herbage when compared
 to rotating steers every seven days. Therefore, our technique
 using available herbage to adjust grazing periods for SDG was
 not advantageous under conditions of this study.
 
 
 38                                     NAL Call. No.: 23 AU792
 An evaluation of the production potential of six tropical
 grasses under grazing. 1. Yield and yield components, growth
 rates and phenology. Hacker, J.B.; Evans, T.R.
 East Melbourne : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial
 Research Organization; 1992.
 Australian journal of experimental agriculture v. 32 (1): p.
 19-27; 1992. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Queensland; Digitaria decumbens; Pennisetum
 clandestinum; Setaria sphacelata; Production possibilities;
 Crop yield; Grassland management; Growth rate; Phenology;
 Rotational grazing; Steers; Tropical grasslands; Yield
 components
 
 
 39                                     NAL Call. No.: 23 AU792
 An evaluation of the production potential of six tropical
 grasses under grazing. 2. Assessment of quality using variable
 stocking rates. Evans, T.R.; Hacker, J.B.
 East Melbourne : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial
 Research Organization; 1992.
 Australian journal of experimental agriculture v. 32 (1): p.
 29-37; 1992. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Queensland; Digitaria decumbens; Pennisetum
 clandestinum; Setaria sphacelata; Tropical grasslands;
 Production possibilities; Crop quality; Grassland management;
 Rotational grazing; Stocking rate; Liveweight gain; Animal
 production
 
 
 40                                     NAL Call. No.: S601.A34
 Evolution of vegetation under intensive grazing: two examples
 in North-western Italian mountains.
 Acutis, M.; Pascal, G.; Reyneri, A.; Siniscalco, C.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier; 1989 Nov.
 Agriculture, ecosystems and environment v. 27 (1/4): p.
 347-359; 1989 Nov. Proceedings of an International Symposium
 on Agricultural Ecology and Environment held April 5-7, 1988,
 Padova, Italy.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Italy; Mountain grasslands; Abandoned land;
 Grazing intensity; Grazing effects; Plant succession; Plant
 competition; Vegetation types; Evolution
 
 
 41                                     NAL Call. No.: SF207.B4
 Facts about short-duration grazing.
 Bryant, F.C.
 Bryan, Tex. : Lang Printing; 1990.
 Beef cattle science handbook v. 24: p. 89-112; 1990. 
 Literature review. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Forage; Grassland management; Grazing
 experiments; Rotational grazing; Stocking density; Rain; Soil
 types; Biomass production
 
 
 42                                       NAL Call. No.: S1.N32
 The farm they couldn't plow under.
 Kendall, D.
 Emmaus, Pa. : Regenerative Agriculture Association; 1988 Nov.
 The New farm v. 10 (7): p. 16-17, 62-63. ill; 1988 Nov.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Montana; Cattle farming; Fodder crops; Organic
 farming; Protein content; Rotations; Fertilizers; Costs; Soil
 testing; Drought; Grazing systems; Appropriate technology
 
 
 43                        NAL Call. No.: Videocassette no.1212
 Farmer to farmer strategies for sustainable agriculture.. 
 Field crops Rotational grazing Vegetables IPM for vegetables
 and small fruits IPM for apples High-value marketing High
 value marketing
 Rodale Institute, Rooy Media (Firm)
 Frederick, Md. : Rooy Media ; Emmaus, Pa. : Distributed by
 Rodale Institue,; 1991.
 6 videocassettes (180 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. + 1 video
 resource and viewing guide (13 p.)..  "Partial funding for
 this video series and the ... guide was provided by a grant
 from USDA's Low-Input Sustainable Agriculture Program,
 Northeast Region"--P. [i] of guide.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sustainable agriculture; Pests; Grazing
 
 Abstract:  Using farmers to talk to their peers informally and
 frankly about their experiences with sustainable agriculture,
 the videos are designed to help farmers get acquainted with
 six key strategies for sustainable agriculture. Photographed
 over the course of a growing season, the structure allows for
 an introduction to the six subjects, while promoting follow-up
 discussion after viewing each video.
 
 
 44                                   NAL Call. No.: SF85.A1R32
 Fire department uses torches to help its neighbors.
 Merz, D.F.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1991 Feb.
 Rangelands v. 13 (1): p. 31-32; 1991 Feb.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Range management; Prescribed burning;
 Rotational grazing; Goats; Fire effects
 
 
 45                                       NAL Call. No.: 23 R88
 Fire, supplements, and cattle production in the far north.
 Davidson, S.
 East Melbourne : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial
 Research Organization; 1988.
 Rural research : a CSIRO quarterly (138): p. 9-14; 1988.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Australian northern territory; Queensland; Beef
 production; Feed supplements; Grassland management; Liveweight
 gain; Prescribed burning; Rotational grazing; Savannas
 
 
 46                                   NAL Call. No.: SF85.A1R32
 Florida ranchers manage for deer.
 Fults, G.A.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1991 Feb.
 Rangelands v. 13 (1): p. 28-30; 1991 Feb.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Range management; Odocoileus
 Virginianus; Hunting; Leases; Prescribed burning; Plant
 communities; Rotational grazing
 
 
 47                                       NAL Call. No.: 6 AR44
 For the past 20 years--rest-rotation grazing on the Arizona
 Strip. Hughes, L.E.
 Spokane, Wash. : The Journal; 1989 Apr.
 Arizona farmer-stockman v. 68 (4): p. 16-18. ill; 1989 Apr.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Cattle; Rangelands; Grazing systems;
 Rotational grazing; Fallow systems; Vigor; Seed production;
 Plant establishment; Arid zones
 
 
 48                                    NAL Call. No.: SB193.F59
 Forage production of intensive grazing management systems for
 cow-calf and stocker herds in Illinois.
 Kaiser, C.J.; Saxe, T.D.; Ahrenholz, R.; Frank, R.W.; Plumer,
 M.D. Belleville, Pa. : American Forage and Grassland Council;
 1990. Proceedings of the Forage and Grassland Conference. p.
 147-151; 1990.  Paper presented at the "Forage and Grassland
 Conference," June 6-9, 1990, Blacksburg, Virginia.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Illinois; Cattle; Grazing intensity; Stocking
 rate; Grassland management
 
 
 49                                 NAL Call. No.: SF85.4.A8A97
 Forage utilization by sheep and kangaroos in a semi-arid
 woodland. Wilson, A.D.
 Cottesloe, W.A. : Australian Rangeland Society; 1991.
 The rangeland journal v. 13 (2): p. 81-90; 1991.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Australia; Sheep; Kangaroos; Semiarid zones;
 Grasslands; Woodlands; Forage; Stocking rate; Animal
 competition; Rotational grazing; Grazing experiments; Rain
 
 
 50                                     NAL Call. No.: aS622.S6
 GPCP aids drought stricken area.
 Wilder, L.; Deutscher, A.
 Washington, D.C. : The Service; 1988 Oct.
 Soil & water conservation news - U.S. Deptartment of
 Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service v. 9 (7): p. 6-7. ill;
 1988 Oct.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Dakota; Rotational grazing; Federal
 programs; Usda; Contract farming; Soil and water conservation
 
 
 51                                  NAL Call. No.: 275.29 M58B
 Grasses and legumes for intensive grazing in Michigan.
 Moline, W.J.; Middleton, J.M.; Plummer, R.
 East Lansing, Mich. : The Service; 1991 Nov.
 Extension bulletin E - Cooperative Extension Service, Michigan
 State University (2307): 6 p.; 1991 Nov.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Michigan; Fodder plants; Fodder legumes; Pasture
 plants; Grassland management
 
 
 52                                 NAL Call. No.: S544.3.K4K42
 Grazing alfalfa.
 Lacefield, G.; Burris, R.; Dougherty, C.; Absher, C.
 Lexington, Ky. : The Service; 1990 Feb.
 ID - University of Kentucky, Cooperative Extension Service
 (97): 3 p.; 1990 Feb.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Medicago sativa; Bloat; Rotational grazing;
 Stocking rate
 
 
 53                                    NAL Call. No.: S916.I2F6
 Grazing systems and prescribed fire can mix.
 Jirik, S.J.; Bunting, S.C.
 Moscow, Idaho : The Station; 1989 May.
 Focus on renewable natural resources - University of Idaho,
 Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station v. 14: p. 4.
 ill; 1989 May.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rotational grazing; Sage; Grasslands; Agropyron
 spicatum; Sitanion hystrix; Prescribed burning; Rotational
 grazing; Simulation; Responses; Growth; Vigor; Herbage;
 Production
 
 
 54                                   NAL Call. No.: SF85.A1R32
 Grazing systems in Wyoming--impacts of grazing pressure and
 livestock distribution.
 Hart, R.H.; Samuel, M.J.; Waggoner, J.W. Jr; Smith, M.A.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1991 Feb.
 Rangelands v. 13 (1): p. 12-16; 1991 Feb.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Wyoming; Beef cattle; Controlled grazing; Grazing
 intensity; Rotational grazing; Soil water; Permeability;
 Forage; Liveweight gain; Profitability; Stocking rate; Grazing
 effects
 
 
 55                                    NAL Call. No.: 60.18 J82
 Grazing systems, pasture size, and cattle grazing behavior,
 distribution and gains.
 Hart, R.H.; Bissio, J.; Samuel, M.J.; Waggoner, J.W. Jr
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1993 Jan.
 Journal of range management v. 46 (1): p. 81-87; 1993 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Grazing systems; Rotational grazing;
 Duration; Grazing time; Controlled grazing; Pastures; Size;
 Grazing behavior; Liveweight gain; Drinking water; Distance
 travelled
 
 Abstract:  Reduced pasture size and distance to water may be
 responsible for the alleged benefits of intensive time-
 controlled rotation grazing systems. We compared cattle gains,
 activity, distance traveled, and forage utilization on a time-
 controlled rotation system with eight 24-ha pastures, on two
 24-ha pastures grazed continuously (season-long), and on a
 207-ha pasture grazed continuously, all stocked at the same
 rate. Utilization on the 207-ha pasture, but not on the 24-ha
 pastures, declined with distance from water. At distances
 greater than 3 km from water in the 207-ha pasture,
 utilization was significantly less than on adjacent 24-ha
 pastures, at distances of 1.0 to 1.6 km from water. Cows on
 the 207-ha pasture travelled farther (6.1 km/day) than cows on
 the 24-ha rotation pastures (4.2 km/day), which traveled
 farther than cows on the 24-ha continuously grazed pastures
 (3.2 km/day). Grazing system, range site, slope, and weather
 had minimal effects on cow activity patterns. Gains of cows
 and calves were less on the 207-ha pasture (0.24 and 0.77
 kg/day, respectively) than on the 24-ha rotation pastures or
 24-ha continuously grazed pastures (0.42 and 0.89 kg/da,
 respectively), with no differences between the latter.
 Calculated "hoof action" on the rotation pastures was less
 than that demonstrated to increase seed burial and seedling
 emergence. Intensive rotation grazing systems are unlikely to
 benefit animal performance unless they reduce pasture size and
 distance to water below previous levels, decreasing travel
 distance and increasing uniformity of grazing.
 
 
 56                                    NAL Call. No.: 60.18 J82
 Grazing systems, stocking rates, and cattle behavior in
 southeastern Wyoming. Hepworth, K.W.; Test, P.S.; Hart, R.H.;
 Waggoner, J.W. Jr; Smith, M.A. Denver, Colo. : Society for
 Range Management; 1991 May.
 Journal of range management v. 44 (3): p. 259-262; 1991 May. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Wyoming; Steers; Beef cattle; Grazing behavior;
 Grazing systems; Rotational grazing; Stocking rate; Distance
 travelled; Grazing time; Grazing intensity; Grazing trials;
 Liveweight gain
 
 Abstract:  Grazing systems and stocking rates are used to
 influence livestock grazing behavior with the intent of
 improving livestock and vegetation performance. In 1982, a
 study was initiated to determine effects of continuous,
 rotationally deferred, and short-duration rotation grazing and
 moderate and heavy stocking rates on steer gains, range
 vegetation, and distance traveled by and activity patterns of
 steers. Steers were observed from dawn to dark on 12 dates
 during 1983, 1984, and 1985, and activity recorded every 15
 minutes. Eight steers per treatment (system X stocking rate
 combination) per date were observed in 1983 and 1984, and 10
 per treatment in 1985. In 1984 and 1985, map locations of all
 steers were recorded at the same times as activity, and
 distance traveled summed from distances between successive map
 locations. In 1984, activity of 3 steers per treatment was
 electronically monitored during darkness. Steers grazed
 approximately 8.6 hr per day during daylight and 1.6 hr during
 darkness. Steers grazed an average of 8.9 hr/day during
 daylight under moderate vs 8.1 hr under heavy stocking, but
 stocking rate interacted with date in 1984 and grazing system
 in 1985. Steers traveled farther under continuous than under
 short-duration rotation grazing at both stocking rates in
 1984, but only at the high stocking rate in 1985. Steers had
 to travel farther to water in the continuous pastures, and may
 have had to cover a greater area in an effort to select a more
 desirable diet, particularly under heavy stocking. These
 differences were not reflected in differences in gain among
 stocking rates or grazing systems.
 
 
 57                                    NAL Call. No.: SF951.J65
 Growth yearling horses managed in continuous or rotational
 grazing systems at three levels of forage-on-offer.
 Webb, G.W.; Conrad, B.E.; Hussey, M.A.; Potter, G.D.
 Lake Elsinore, Calif. : William E. Jones, DVM; 1989 Sep.
 Journal of equine veterinary science v. 9 (5): p. 258-261;
 1989 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Horses; Grazing systems; Rotational grazing;
 Stocking rate; Growth; Weight gain; Forage; Quality
 
 
 58                                  NAL Call. No.: 275.29 M58B
 Hay and pasture for horses in the north central United States.
 Moline, W.J.; Plummer, R.
 East Lansing, Mich. : The Service; 1991 Apr.
 Extension bulletin E - Cooperative Extension Service, Michigan
 State University v.): 7 p.; 1991 Apr.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North central states of U.S.A.; Horses; Pastures;
 Grassland management; Pasture plants; Rotational grazing
 
 
 59                                 NAL Call. No.: 275.29 OK41C
 Herbage dynamics of tallgrass prairie under short duration
 grazing. Brummer, J.E.; Gillen, R.L.; McCollum, F.T.
 Stillwater, Okla. : The Service; 1992 Feb.
 Circular E - Oklahoma State University, Cooperative Extension
 Service (905): p. 20; 1992 Feb.  In the series analytic: Range
 research highlights, 1983-1991 / edited by T.G. Bidwell, D.
 Titus and D. Cassels.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rotational grazing; Herbage crops; Grazing
 effects; Stocking rate
 
 
 60                                    NAL Call. No.: 60.18 J82
 Herbage production of Mediterranean grassland under seasonal
 and yearlong grazing systems.
 Gutman, M.; Seligman, N.G.; Noy-Meir, I.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1990 Jan.
 Journal of range management v. 43 (1): p. 64-68; 1990 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Israel; Mediterranean countries; Cows; Forage;
 Rotational grazing; Grazing systems; Supplementary feeding;
 Grazing trials; Liveweight gains; Herbage; Performance traits
 
 
 61                                       NAL Call. No.: 6 AR44
 HRM just part of complete package on Bar Flying V Ranch.
 Shannon, M.
 Spokane, Wash. : The Journal; 1989 May.
 Arizona farmer-stockman v. 68 (5): p. 6, 8-9. ill; 1989 May.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Cattle; Ranching; Beef production;
 Resource management; Holistic approach; Arid zones; Grazing
 systems; Overgrazing; Productivity
 
 
 62                                       NAL Call. No.: HD1.A3
 Impact of agronomic and economic factors on farm
 profitability. Hansen, B.R.; Krause, M.A.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1989.
 Agricultural systems v. 30 (4): p. 369-390; 1989.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South australia; Farm profit; Profitability;
 Cereals; Sheep; Grazing; Tillage; Rotations; Linear
 programming; Computer simulation; Simulation models;
 Economics; Agronomy; Farm management
 
 
 63                                       NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Implant and copper oxide needles for steers grazing Acremonium
 coenophialum-infected tall fescue pastures: effects on grazing
 and subsequent feedlot performance and serum constituents.
 Coffey, K.P.; Moyer, J.L.; Lomas, L.W.; Smith, J.E.; La Rue,
 D.C.; Brazle, F.K.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1992
 Oct. Journal of animal science v. 70 (10): p. 3203-3214; 1992
 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Steers; Cuprous oxide; Blood serum;
 Festuca arundinacea; Acremonium coenophialum; Grazing
 experiments; Ceruloplasmin; Fattening performance; Rotational
 grazing; Progesterone; Estradiol; Controlled release; Carcass
 composition
 
 Abstract:  Two experiments were conducted to compare the
 effects of a progesterone-estradiol implant (PEI) with no
 implant (NI) and 20 g of copper oxide needles (CuON) with no
 CuON on grazing, subsequent feedlot performance, and selected
 serum constituents of steers. In Exp. 1, 114 Limousin
 crossbred yearling steers (317 kg average initial BW) were
 stocked continuously on Acremonium coenophialum-infected tall
 fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.)-ladino clover (Trifolium
 repens L.) pastures (C) or were rotated to bermudagrass
 (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.) during summer months (R) of two
 consecutive years. Implant and copper treatments were applied
 within pasture. Blood samples were collected four times during
 each grazing season. Continuously stocked steers had greater
 (P < .05) grazing gain, less (P < .10) feedlot gain, and
 heavier (P < .05) carcass weights than R steers did. Implanted
 steers had greater (P < .05) pasture but lesser (P < .05)
 feedlot gains than did NI steers. Prolactin concentrations
 were greater (P < .05) from R than from C steers in late
 summer 1988. Ceruloplasmin was greater (P < .01) with CuON
 than without on the last three and last two sampling dates in
 1988 and 1989, respectively. In Exp. 2, blood samples were
 collected twice from 40 mixed-breed steers (283 kg average
 initial BW receiving the same implant and copper treatments as
 in Exp. 1 and grazing infected fescue for one season. Serum
 ceruloplasmin and copper concentrations were increased (P <
 .01) by CuON, but other measurements did not differ among
 treatments. Summer grazing of bermudagrass increased serum
 copper, ceruloplasmin, and prolactin but decreased grazing
 performance. Implanting increased grazing performance. Copper
 oxide needles increased serum ceruloplasmin and copper
 concentrations but did not affect steer performance.
 
 
 64                                    NAL Call. No.: SB193.F59
 Implications of daily quality changes is rotationally grazed
 pasture for beef cattle.
 Morrow, R.E.; Schulze-Tate, V.G.; Gerrish, J.R.; Roberts, C.R.
 Columbia, Mo. : American Forage and Grassland Council; 1991.
 Proceedings of the Forage and Grassland Conference. p.
 145-149; 1991.  Meeting held April 1-4, 1991, Columbia,
 Missouri.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Rotational grazing; Mixed pastures;
 Forage; Quality
 
 
 65                                     NAL Call. No.: SF207.B4
 Improving forage-beef production and returns from grazing
 bermudagrass. Rouquette, M. Jr
 Bryan, Tex. : Lang Printing; 1988.
 Beef cattle science handbook v. 22: p. 309-320; 1988. 
 Literature review. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Beef production; Cynodon dactylon; Pasture
 management; Crossbreds; Sex differences; Breed differences;
 Grazing intensity; Rotational grazing; Liveweight; Cost
 benefit analysis
 
 
 66                                    NAL Call. No.: SB193.F59
 Improving overall forage quality by adding higher quality warm
 season grasses to the bermudagrass sward.
 Dalrymple, R.L.; Flatt, B.
 Georgetown, Tx. : American Forage and Grassland Council; 1992.
 Proceedings of the Forage and Grassland Conference v. 1: p.
 41-43; 1992.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oklahoma; Cynodon dactylon; Grasses; Fodder
 crops; Rotational grazing
 
 
 67                                   NAL Call. No.: SF85.A1R32
 Improving riparian habitats.
 Floyd, D.; Ogden, P.; Roundy, B.; Ruyle, G.; Stewart, D.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1988 Jun.
 Rangelands v. 10 (3): p. 132-134. ill., maps; 1988 Jun. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Range management; Rotational grazing;
 Riparian forests; National forests; Habitat improvement;
 Wetlands; Ecosystems; Nature conservancy; Wildlife
 conservation
 
 
 68                                   NAL Call. No.: 60.19 B773
 Influence of defoliation regime on herbage production and
 characteristics of intake by dairy cows as affected by grazing
 intensity.
 Kristensen, E.S.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1988 Sep.
 Grass and forage science : the journal of the British
 Grassland Society v. 43 (3): p. 239-251; 1988 Sep.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Denmark; Dairy cows; Lolium perenne; Herbage;
 Plant production; Stocking rate; Grazing intensity; Feed
 intake; Defoliation; Growth rate; Yields; Rotational grazing;
 Cutting frequency
 
 
 69                                    NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 The influence of intensively managed rotational grazing,
 traditional continuous grazing, and confinement housing on
 bulk tank milk quality and udder health.
 Goldberg, J.J.; Wildman, E.E.; Pankey, J.W.; Kunkel, J.R.;
 Howard, D.B.; Murphy, B.M.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1992
 Jan. Journal of dairy science v. 75 (1): p. 96-104; 1992 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Vermont; Dairy cows; Rotational grazing; Zero
 grazing; Selective grazing; Bovine mastitis; Udders; Teats;
 Bulk milk; Milk tanks; Dairy farms; Teat dip; Microbial
 contamination; Milk quality; Plate count
 
 Abstract:  Monthly bulk tank milk samples and veterinary
 records were analyzed for 1 yr on 15 Vermont dairy farms. Data
 were evaluated using ANOVA to compare effects of grazing
 management systems on milk quality and udder health. Systems
 evaluated were intensively managed rotational grazing,
 traditional continuous grazing, and confinement housing. Bulk
 tank samples were evaluated for standard plate count,
 bacterial type counts on tryptose-blood-esculin agar, and SCC.
 Veterinary records were evaluated for incidence of clinical
 mastitis, udder edema, and teat injuries. Within- and between-
 treatment group analyses were conducted by season, herd size,
 and udder sanitation systems. Mean standard plate counts were
 lower in rotationally grazed herds than counts of confined
 herds during die grazing season. Similarly, rotationally
 grazed herds with fewer than 60 cows had lower standard plate
 counts than confined herds of similar size. Mean bulk tank
 counts of streptococci other than Streptococcus agalactiae
 during the grazing season differed among treatments. The
 lowest counts occurred in rotationally grazed herds. Among
 herd using predip products recognized as efficacious, fewer
 streptococci other than S. agalactiae were isolated from bulk
 tank milk of rotationally grazed herds than confined herds.
 Rotationally grazed herds using postdips recognized as
 efficacious had lower SCC than those using unrecognized
 postdips. No udder health differences were observed among
 grazing treatments.
 
 
 70                                 NAL Call. No.: 275.29 OK41C
 Influence of short duration grazing on quality of cattle diets
 in central Oklahoma.
 McCollum, F.T.; Gillen, R.L.; Brummer, J.E.
 Stillwater, Okla. : The Service; 1992 Feb.
 Circular E - Oklahoma State University, Cooperative Extension
 Service (905): p. 27-28; 1992 Feb.  In the series analytic:
 Range research highlights, 1983-1991 / edited by T.G. Bidwell,
 D. Titus and D. Cassels.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oklahoma; Rotational grazing; Cattle; Protein
 intake; Prairies
 
 
 71                                      NAL Call. No.: S69.R47
 The innovation of tradition--low-cost, low input alternatives
 for Maine farmers.
 Gauvin, M.
 Orono, Maine : The Station; 1988 Sep.
 Research for Maine and its people - Agricultural Experiment
 Station, University of Maine v. 1 (8): p. 2-8; 1988 Sep.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Maine; Alternative farming; Sustainability;
 Legumes; Rotations; Mixed cropping; Double cropping; Cultural
 weed control; Insect control; Rotational grazing; Grazing
 intensity
 
 
 72                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 Intensified rotational grazing.
 Johnson, E.G.
 Lawrenceville, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company;
 1989 Sep. The Compendium on continuing education for the
 practicing veterinarian v. 11 (9): p. 1135-1137; 1989 Sep.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Supplementary feeding; Rotational
 grazing; Alfalfa; Weight gain
 
 
 73                                    NAL Call. No.: SB193.F59
 Intensive grazing in arid regions.
 Heitschmidt, R.K.
 Lexington, Ky. : The Conference; 1988.
 Proceedings of the Forage and Grassland Conference. p.
 340-353. ill; 1988. Literature review.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Grazing systems; Intensive farming; Pasture
 management; Livestock; Ecosystems; Energy conservation; Arid
 regions
 
 
 74                                   NAL Call. No.: 100 C12CAG
 Intensive grazing increases beef production.
 George, M.R.; Knight, R.S.; Sands, P.B.; Demment, M.W.
 Oakland, Calif. : Division of Agriculture and Natural
 Resources, University of California; 1989 Sep.
 California agriculture v. 43 (5): p. 16-19; 1989 Sep.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Beef cattle; Beef production; Range
 management; Forage; Cattle feeding; Grazing intensity;
 Rotational grazing; Electric fences
 
 
 75                                    NAL Call. No.: SB193.F59
 Intensive grazing of cool season forages.
 Marten, G.C.
 Lexington, Ky. : The Conference; 1988.
 Proceedings of the Forage and Grassland Conference. p.
 305-318. ill; 1988. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Grazing systems; Intensive farming; Forage crops;
 Cold tolerance; Pasture management; Ruminants; Stocking rate;
 Liveweight gains; Forage; Availability; Feed supplements
 
 
 76                                    NAL Call. No.: SB193.F59
 Intensive grazing of warm-season grasses in humid areas.
 Rouquette, F.M. Jr
 Lexington, Ky. : The Conference; 1988.
 Proceedings of the Forage and Grassland Conference. p.
 319-339; 1988. Literature review.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Grasses; Heat tolerance; Annuals; Perennials;
 Grazing systems; Intensive farming; Pasture management;
 Utilization; Diets; Grazing behavior; Stocking rate;
 Liveweight gains; Humid zones
 
 
 77                                   NAL Call. No.: SF85.A1R32
 Intensive grazing--precautions.
 Burleson, W.H.; Leininger, W.C.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1988 Aug.
 Rangelands v. 10 (4): p. 186-188; 1988 Aug.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Range management; Rangelands; Grazing systems;
 Grazing effects; Planning; Stocking rate; Efficiency;
 Planning; Operations research; Cash flow analysis
 
 
 78                                     NAL Call. No.: 100 AL1H
 Intensive rotational grazing not always beneficial.
 Bransby, D.I.; Kee, D.D.; Gregory, W.H.
 Auburn University, Ala. : The Station; 1989.
 Highlights of agricultural research - Alabama Agricultural
 Experiment Station v. 36 (4): p. 3. ill; 1989.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alabama; Sown pastures; Steers; Intensive
 livestock farming; Rotational grazing; Liveweight gains;
 Stocking rate
 
 
 79                                       NAL Call. No.: HD1.A3
 Interactive effects of grazing system variables on simulated
 cattle production and stocking rate of bermudagrass (Cynodon
 dactylon).
 Senft, R.L.; Tharel, L.M.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1989.
 Agricultural systems v. 31 (2): p. 205-220; 1989.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South eastern states of U.S.A.; South central
 states of U.S.A.; Cynodon dactylon; Grazing systems; Beef
 production; Simulation models; Stocking rate; Growth models;
 Computer simulation
 
 
 80                                      NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Lamb production on wheatgrasses and wheatgrass-sainfoin
 mixtures. Karnezos, T.P.; Matches, A.G.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Mar.
 Agronomy journal v. 83 (2): p. 278-286; 1991 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Lambs; Lamb production; Grazing trials;
 Forage; Agropyron cristatum; Agropyron desertorum; Hybrids;
 Elymus hispidus subsp. barbulatus; Elymus elongatus;
 Onobrychis viciifolia; Crop mixtures; Mixed pastures;
 Monoculture; Rotational grazing; Liveweight gain; Feed intake;
 Feed conversion; Herbage; Nutritive value; Crude protein;
 Digestibility
 
 Abstract:  Previous research indicates that wheatgrasses
 (Agropyron and Thinopyron spp.) and sainfoin (Onobrychis spp.)
 produce high quality forage from early spring to summer on the
 Southern Great Plains. Little information is available on
 their potential for lamb (Ovis aries L.) production under
 grazing. Our objective was to determine levels of spring lamb
 production from three irrigated wheatgrasses, 'Hycrest' [A.
 cristatum (L.) Gaertner X A. desertorum (Fischer ex Link)
 Shatters], 'Luna' [T. intermedium subsp. barbulatum (Schur)
 Barkw. and D.R. Dewey], and 'Jose' [T. ponticum (Podp.) Barkw.
 and D.R. Dewey], grown alone and with 'Renumex' sainfoin (O.
 viciifolia Scop.). Replicated pastures grown on a Pullman clay
 loam (fine, mixed thermic Torrertic Paleustoll) were
 rotationally grazed (herbage allowance of 6.5% of body wt.
 d-1) by weaned Rambouillet X Suffolk wether lambs for an
 average of 77 d in spring of 1987 and 1988. Seasonal average
 daily gain (ADG) ranged between 45 and 69 g d-1 for
 monocultures and between 80 and 104 g d-1 for mixtures. Lamb
 production per hectare (PROD) for all mixtures was similar
 (463 kg ha-1), but higher than for monocultures (238 kg ha-1).
 Mixtures compared to monocultures had greater ADC (63%), feed
 conversion (55%), and intake (23%). For Jose and Jose-
 sainfoin, poor ADG after Week 7 was associated with low
 herbage crude protein (92-135 g kg-1) and organic matter
 digestibility (550-570 g kg-1). Jose (12.2 Mg ha-1) had the
 highest herbage accumulation and Hycrest (7.31 Mg ha-1) the
 lowest. Wheatgrasses, particularly when grown with sainfoin,
 provide good PROD during spring and early summer.
 
 
 81                                   NAL Call. No.: 60.19 B773
 Leaf age structure and canopy photosynthesis in rotationally
 and continuously grazed swards.
 Parsons, A.J.; Johnson, I.R.; Williams, J.H.H.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1988 Mar.
 Grass and forage science : the journal of the British
 Grassland Society v. 43 (1): p. 1-14; 1988 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: England; Sheep; Lolium perenne; Sward renovation;
 Grazing effects; Grass sward; Leaf age; Canopy;
 Photosynthesis; Rotational grazing; Grazing intensity;
 Defoliation; Regrowth; Yields; Mathematical models
 
 
 82                                   NAL Call. No.: SF85.A1R32
 Lehmann lovegrass and simple time control grazing.
 Cumming, K.J.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1989 Aug.
 Rangelands v. 11 (4): p. 150-153. ill., maps; 1989 Aug. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Eragrostis lehmanniana; Range pastures;
 Rotational grazing; Beef cattle; Range management;
 Rehabilitation; Breeding season; Calf production; Plant
 introduction; Ripping; Sowing; Brush control
 
 
 83                                   NAL Call. No.: SB197.A1T7
 Liveweight gain from rotationally and continuously grazed
 pastures of Narok setaria and Samford rhodesgrass fertilized
 with-nitrogen in southeast Queensland.
 Jones, R.J.; Jones, R.M.
 Brisbane : Tropical Grassland Society of Australia; 1989 Sep.
 Tropical grasslands v. 23 (3): p. 135-142; 1989 Sep.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Queensland; Steers; Beef production; Setaria
 sphacelata; Chloris gayana; Grazing trials; Nutritive value;
 Liveweight gains; Rotational grazing; Grazing systems;
 Nitrogen fertilizers; Dry matter accumulation; Herbage; Crop
 yield
 
 
 84                                    NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Management and economic implications of intensive grazing on
 dairy farms in the northeastern states.
 Parker, W.J.; Muller, L.D.; Buckmaster, D.R.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1992
 Sep. Journal of dairy science v. 75 (9): p. 2587-2597; 1992
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pennsylvania; Dairy cows; Grazing; Dry feeding;
 Forage; Alfalfa; Maize; Land use; Agricultural land; Herbage
 
 Abstract:  The effects of intensive grazing by dairy cattle on
 annual herbage utilization, forage and crop production, and
 net returns were compared with a drylot feeding system for a
 typical Pennsylvania dairy farm using linked spreadsheet
 models. The 80-ha case farm supported a herd of 53 cows and 48
 replacements with a herd average of 6800 kg of milk/yr per
 cow. Annual feed consumption for the grazing farm included
 173, 182, and 118 tonnes of pasture, stored forage, and
 concentrate DM, respectively. Corresponding tonnes of DM for
 the drylot feeding system were 47, 293, and 114. Net herbage
 production of 6589 kg of DM/ha was used for grazing (5350 kg
 of Dm/ha) and for hay (970 kg of Dm/ha), and 269 kg/ha were
 not utilized on the grazing farm. On the confined farm,
 herbage was used primarily for hay (4484 kg of Dm/ha) rather
 than for grazing (1446 kg of Dm/ha), and herbage loss amounted
 to 659 kg of Dm/ha. The gross margin was $121 per cow higher
 on the grazing farm. Despite this potential to improve the
 profitability of dairy farms, the low usage of intensive
 grazing in the northeastern US is likely to continue until
 dairy producers become confident 1) that milk production per
 cow can be maintained at a level similar to that for confined
 feeding or 2) that the relative price of concentrates, stored
 forage, and pasture change to favor grazing more.
 
 
 85                                      NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Modeling lamb weight changes on wheatgrass and wheatgrass-
 sainfoin mixtures. Karnezos, T.P.; Matches, A.G.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Jan.
 Agronomy journal v. 84 (1): p. 5-10; 1992 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Lambs; Sheep; Grazing trials; Prediction;
 Liveweight gain; Mixed pastures; Agropyron cristatum;
 Agropyron desertorum; Elymus hispidus; Elymus elongatus;
 Onobrychis viciifolia; Crop mixtures; Hybrids; Irrigated
 pastures; Crop quality; Herbage; Crop yield; Forage;
 Mathematical models
 
 Abstract:  Prediction of animal weight change (CUM) with
 regression models developed from grazing trials typically uses
 herbage parameters and CUM measured on the same day. We
 hypothesized that lamb (Ovis aries L.) CUM recorded at time t
 was a function of herbage quality and/or quantity measured at
 a previous harvest t - x (where x = days prior to measurement
 of CUM). Our objectives were (i) to determine if time series
 regression analysis (TSR) could be used to model CUM from
 three irrigated wheatgrasses, 'Hycrest' [Agropyron cristatum
 (L.) Gaertner X A. desertorum (Fischer ex Link) Shulters],
 'Luna' [Thinopyrum intermedium subsp. barbulatum (Schur)
 Barkw. and D.R. Dewey], and 'Jose' [T. ponticum (Podp.) Barkw.
 and D.R. Dewey] grown alone and with 'Renumex' sainfoin
 (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.), and (ii) to test the models.
 Replicated pastures grown on a fine, mixed thermic Torrertic
 Paleustolls were rotationally grazed by Rambouillet X Suffolk
 wether lambs for an average of 77 d in spring of 1987 and
 1988. Herbage quality, quantity, and plant parts were
 estimated from pregrazing, after 2 and 4 d of grazing, and
 postgrazing (7 d) harvests and used as variables in TSR. For
 TSR models, lagged variables (t - x) were selected more
 (67-92% of total) than nonlagged variables (t), supporting our
 hypothesis. Time series regression models described CUM
 accurately (average R2 > 0.70), but selected variables were
 not consistent among treatments, time lags, or years. Model
 testing indicated poor predictive accuracy (r2 = 0.07-0.51),
 limiting the usefulness of projecting CUM across seasons and
 demonstrating the necessity of testing regression models.
 
 
 86                                     NAL Call. No.: 382 SO12
 Modification of in-vitro digestibility and cell-wall
 composition of cocksfoot, ryegrass and timothy by imazethapyr.
 Fales, S.L.; Bohn, P.J.; Hoover, R.J.; Karunanandaa, K.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science; 1991.
 Journal of the science of food and agriculture v. 54 (1): p.
 71-78; 1991. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dactylis glomerata; Lolium; Phleum pratense;
 Imazethapyr; Nutritive value; Ruminants; Animal nutrition;
 Fiber; Plant growth regulators; Cinnamic acid; P-coumaric
 acid; Ferulic acid
 
 Abstract:  Recent studies have shown that the compound
 imazethapyr (5-ethyl-2-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-
 imidazolin-2-yl)nicotinic acid) possesses growth regulatory
 activity and can be used to enhance nutritive value of
 grasses. However, little is known about possible effects of
 this material on fibre composition or potential fibre
 utilisation by ruminants. The objective of this research was
 to examine imazethapyr-treated cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata
 L), ryegrass (Lolium perenne L X L multiflorum Lam), and
 timothy (Phleum pratense L) for possible treatment-induced
 changes in in-vitro digestibility and in concentrations of
 selected fibre constituents. Replicated field plots treated
 with imazethapyr at 0 (control) or 100 g ai ha-1 during the
 vegetative (pre-elongation) stage of growth were harvested
 when controls were in the early stage of inflorescence
 emergence. Samples taken from treated plots 4 weeks post-
 treatment had higher in-vitro dry matter disappearance
 (IVDMD), lower neutral detergent fibre (NDF), lower acid
 detergent fibre (ADF), lower cellulose, lignin, and higher
 hemicellulose concentrations compared with controls.
 Imazethapyr treatment also reduced the concentration of p-
 coumaric acid in NDF, but had no effect on ferulic acid. The
 treatment effect on in-vitro NDF disappearance, however, was
 inconsistent among the grass species and was statistically
 non-significant (P = 0.10), implying that, under the
 conditions of this study, imazethapyr-related enhancements in
 IVDMD can be attributed primarily to a reduction in the amount
 of NDF and its associated constituents, as opposed to
 qualitative differences in NDF composition.
 
 
 87                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 AN55
 Morphological alterations in the reproductive organs of ewe
 lambs reared on lucerne.
 Valderrabano, J.; Ramon, J.P.; Barberan, M.
 S.l. : Durrant; 1988 Oct.
 Animal production v. 47: p. 271-274; 1988 Oct.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Spain; Ewes; Lambs; Reproductive organs (animal);
 Morphology; Rotational grazing; Alfalfa; Lolium multiflorum
 
 
 88                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Nematodirus infection in lambs on an alternate grazing system
 of husbandry. Coop, R.L.; Jackson, F.; Jackson, E.;
 Fitzsimons, J.; Lowman, B.G. London : British Veterinary
 Association; 1988 Jul.
 Research in veterinary science v. 45 (1): p. 62-67; 1988 Jul. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Lambs; Cattle; Nematodirus battus; Rotational
 grazing; Epidemiology; Nematode infections
 
 
 89                                       NAL Call. No.: S1.N32
 New ideas for profitable farming.
 Tjepkema, J.
 Emmaus, Pa. : Rodale Institute; 1990 May.
 The New farm v. 12 (4): p. 6-8. maps; 1990 May.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North central states of U.S.A.; Farming;
 Rotational grazing; Cover crops; Nitrogen fertilizers;
 Profitability
 
 
 90                                    NAL Call. No.: SB193.F59
 A new program for dairymen: the Dairy Lot Rotational
 Management System. Swisher, J.M. Jr
 Belleville, Pa. : American Forage and Grassland Council; 1990.
 Proceedings of the Forage and Grassland Conference. p.
 181-184; 1990.  Paper presented at the "Forage and Grassland
 Conference," June 6-9, 1990, Blacksburg, Virginia.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Virginia; Dairy cows; Exercise; Paddocks;
 Rotational grazing
 
 
 91                                      NAL Call. No.: 10 J822
 Nodal structure and branching of Trifolium repens in pastures
 under intensive grazing by sheep.
 Hay, M.J.M.; Newton, P.C.D.; Thomas, V.J.
 Cambridge : Cambridge University Press; 1991 Apr.
 The Journal of agricultural science v. 116 (pt.2): p. 221-228;
 1991 Apr. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New Zealand; Trifolium repens; Grassland
 management; Grazing effects; Grazing intensity; Plant
 morphology; Sheep; Stocking rate; Branching
 
 
 92                                    NAL Call. No.: SF380.I52
 Nutrition of herded sheep in the Andes of southern Peru.
 Fierro, L.C.; Bryant, F.C.
 New York : Elsevier; 1990 Mar.
 Small ruminant research v. 3 (2): p. 117-134. maps; 1990 Mar. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Peru; Sheep; Rotational grazing; Dry season; Wet
 season; Feed intake; Forage; Protein intake; Pasture plants;
 Edible species; Nutrient intake; Range pastures; Botanical
 composition; Energy intake; Stocking rate
 
 
 93                                    NAL Call. No.: QH547.I55
 Parasitological and immunological responses of genetically
 resistant Merino sheep on pastures contaminated with parasitic
 nematodes.
 Gray, G.D.; Barger, I.A.; Le Jambre, L.F.; Couch, P.G.C.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Jul.
 International journal for parasitology v. 22 (4): p. 417-425;
 1992 Jul. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sheep; Haemonchus contortus; Trichostrongylus
 colubriformis; Ostertagia ostertagi; Nematode infections;
 Genetic resistance; Genotypes; Epizootiology; Pastures;
 Leukotrienes; Small intestine; Nematode larvae; Feces;
 Anthelmintics; Sheep diseases
 
 Abstract:  One hundred and twenty lambs were grazed
 continuously from weaning until 9 months of age on 12 plots
 contaminated with larvae of three nematode species (Haemonchus
 contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Ostertagia
 circumcincta). The lambs were sired by either a genetically
 resistant ram or susceptible rams (determined by the response
 of previous progeny to artificial H. contortus infection).
 Half the resistant and half the susceptible lambs were given
 strategic anthelmintic treatment and the remainder remained
 untreated. Faecal egg counts and blood packed cell volume were
 measured frequently in all animals. One and 5 months after
 weaning, two lambs from each plot were slaughtered, and worm
 burdens and larval establishment rates of the three species of
 nematode were estimated. At the second slaughter, leukotriene
 levels and larval migration inhibitory (LMI) activity were
 measured in mucus collected from the small intestine. The
 dominant species in all faecal samples and the
 gastrointestinal tract was T. colubriformis. Lambs of the
 resistant genotype had lower faecal worm egg counts, lower
 worm burdens and higher levels of resistance to larval
 establishment. There were no differences in larval migration
 inhibition (LMI) activity, but resistant lambs had higher
 levels of the leukotriene LTC4/D4/E4. Further, the resistant
 genotype, identified on responsiveness to artificial
 infections with H. contortus, was more resistant to infections
 of three important species acquired naturally from
 contaminated pastures. All these genetic differences were
 maintained while the lambs were subject to strategic
 anthelmintic treatment.
 
 
 94                                   NAL Call. No.: SB197.A1T7
 Pasture and animal productivity of buffel grass with Siratro,
 lucerne or nitrogen fertilizer.
 Mannetje, L. 't; Jones, R.M.
 St Lucia : Tropical Grassland Society of Australia; 1990 Dec.
 Tropical grasslands v. 24 (4): p. 269-281; 1990 Dec.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Queensland; Steers; Cattle; Macroptilium
 atropurpureum; Medicago sativa; Cenchrus ciliaris; Grazing
 trials; Mixed pastures; Sown grasslands; Natural grasslands;
 Botanical composition; Nitrogen fertilizers; Superphosphate;
 Crop yield; Herbage; Persistence; Crop quality; Nutritive
 value; Liveweight gain; Stocking rate; Rotational grazing;
 Grazing systems
 
 
 95                                   NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Performance of cows and calves with continuous or rotational
 stocking of endophyte-infested tall fescue-clover pastures.
 Chestnut, A.B.; Fribourg, H.A.; Onks, D.O.; McLaren, J.B.;
 Gwinn, K.D.; Mueller, M.A.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Jul.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 5 (3): p. 405-408; 1992
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Tennessee; Cattle; Calves; Rotational grazing;
 Grazing systems; Comparisons; Performance testing; Grazing
 experiments; Trifolium; Species; Acremonium coenophialum;
 Seasonal variation
 
 
 96                                   NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Performance of grazing Holstein heifers supplemented with
 slowly degraded protein.
 Fox, D.G.; Emmick, D.L.; Chase, L.E.; Sniffen, C.J.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Apr.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 4 (2): p. 225-228; 1991
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New York; Dairy cows; Heifers; Calves; Fattening
 performance; Animal nutrition; Grazing trials; Rotational
 grazing; Protein supplements; Fish meal; Soybean oilmeal;
 Protein degradation; Liveweight gain; Grassland management;
 Forage; Availability; Quality; Crude protein; Fiber content;
 Plant protein; Hill land
 
 
 97                                   NAL Call. No.: SB197.A1T7
 Permanent pastures on a brigalow soil: changes in pasture
 yield and composition during the first five years.
 Silvey, M.W.; Jones, R.M.
 St Lucia : Tropical Grassland Society of Australia; 1990 Dec.
 Tropical grasslands v. 24 (4): p. 282-290; 1990 Dec.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Queensland; Cows; Panicum maximum var.
 trichoglume; Medicago sativa; Macroptilium atropurpureum;
 Neonotonia wightii; Subtropical soils; Vertisols; Permanent
 grasslands; Botanical composition; Sown grasslands; Mixed
 pastures; Superphosphate; Ammonium sulfate; Application rates;
 Rotational grazing; Stocking rate; Crop yield; Herbage; Crop
 quality
 
 
 98                                   NAL Call. No.: SF85.A1R32
 A pitch for Badger Creek.
 Schwien, J.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1991 Aug.
 Rangelands v. 13 (4): p. 181-182; 1991 Aug.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Colorado; Streams; Rotational grazing; Riparian
 vegetation; Watersheds
 
 
 99                                     NAL Call. No.: 23 AU783
 Plant attributes leading to persistence in grazed annual
 medics (Medicago spp.) growing in rotation with wheat.
 Cocks, P.S.
 Melbourne : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research
 Organization; 1992.
 Australian journal of agricultural research v. 43 (7): p.
 1559-1570; 1992. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Syria; Medicago; Agronomic characteristics;
 Genotypes; Grazing effects; Hard seeds; Persistence;
 Rotations; Seed banks; Survival; Triticum
 
 
 100                                NAL Call. No.: 275.29 OK41C
 Plant community responses to short duration grazing in
 tallgrass prairie. Gillen, R.L.; McCollum, F.T.; Hodges, M.E.;
 Brummer, J.E.; Tate, K.W. Stillwater, Okla. : The Service;
 1992 Feb.
 Circular E - Oklahoma State University, Cooperative Extension
 Service (905): p. 17-18; 1992 Feb.  In the series analytic:
 Range research highlights, 1983-1991 / edited by T.G. Bidwell,
 D. Titus and D. Cassels.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Rotational grazing; Prairies; Herbage
 crops; Range management; Prescribed burning; Ambrosia
 psilostachya
 
 
 101                                   NAL Call. No.: 60.18 J82
 Plant community responses to short duration grazing in
 tallgrass prairie. Gillen, R.L.; McCollum, F.T.; Hodges, M.E.;
 Brummer, J.E.; Tate, K.W. Denver, Colo. : Society for Range
 Management; 1991 Mar.
 Journal of range management v. 44 (2): p. 124-128; 1991 Mar. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oklahoma; Cattle; Natural grasslands; Prairies;
 Controlled grazing; Rotational grazing; Grazing time; Grazing
 effects; Grazing intensity; Stocking rate; Plant communities;
 Botanical composition; Plant succession
 
 Abstract:  A key to management of short duration grazing
 systems is maintaining proper rest periods for individual
 pastures, but information on the necessary length of rest
 periods for tallgrass prairie is limited. Research hypotheses
 for this study were that tallgrass prairie plant communities
 would respond differently to grazing schedules incorporating
 rest periods of varying lengths and that this response would
 be dependent on stocking rate. Treatments consisted of 3
 grazing schedules (2, 3, or 4 rotation cycles per 152 day
 grazing season) and 2 stocking rates (1.6 and 2.2 times the
 moderate continuous rate). Plant frequency, standing crop,
 species composition, and forage utilization were sampled from
 1985 to 1989. Precipitation was above average in 4 of the 5
 study years. Grazing schedule did not affect any vegetation
 parameter over time. Stocking rate did not affect plant
 frequency or species composition. Standing crop was reduced
 and forage utilization increased at the higher stocking rate
 but these effects were consistent over time. Frequency of
 western ragweed [Ambrosia psilostachya DC.] and the relative
 species composition of the forb component increased in all
 grazed pastures compared to ungrazed pastures. The overall
 lack of major treatment effects was attributed to favorable
 precipitation, spring burning, and the initial high-seral
 successional stage of the experimental pastures.
 
 
 102                                   NAL Call. No.: 60.18 J82
 Plant responses to pine management and deferred-rotation
 grazing in north Florida.
 Lewis, C.E.; Tanner, G.W.; Terry, W.S.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1988 Nov.
 Journal of range management v. 41 (6): p. 460-465; 1988 Nov. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Livestock; Pinus elliottii; Pinus
 palustris; Aristida stricta; Grazing systems; Forestry;
 Prescribed burning; Grazing effects; Plant succession;
 Environmental impact reporting
 
 
 103                                      NAL Call. No.: S1.N32
 Pretty doesn't pay the bills.
 Cramer, C.
 Emmaus, Pa. : Regenerative Agriculture Association; 1989 Feb.
 The New farm v. 11 (2): p. 20-22. ill; 1989 Feb.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nebraska; Crop management; Pasture management;
 Dairy farming; Rotational grazing; Broadcasting; Appropriate
 technology
 
 
 104                                  NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Preweaning production of two-breed-cross cows under an
 intensive grazing system in a temperate climate.
 Brown, A.H. Jr; Chewning, J.J.; Brown, C.J.; Johnson, Z.;
 Phillips, J.M. Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy;
 1989 Jul.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 2 (3): p. 213-216; 1989
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arkansas; Beef cattle; Crossbreds; Crossbred
 progeny; Dams (mothers); Breeding efficiency; Weaning; Weaning
 weight; Birth weight; Stocking rate; Grazing; Temperate
 climate
 
 
 105                                   NAL Call. No.: SB193.F59
 Production and quality of selected cool-season grasses under
 intensive rotational grazing by dairy cattle.
 Pysher, D.; Fales, S.
 Georgetown, Tx. : American Forage and Grassland Council; 1992.
 Proceedings of the Forage and Grassland Conference v. 1: p.
 32-36; 1992. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pennsylvania; Dactylis glomerata; Lolium perenne;
 Festuca arundinacea; Fodder crops; Dairy cattle; Rotational
 grazing
 
 
 106                                 NAL Call. No.: 275.29 W99B
 Production and use of sudangrass, sorghum-sudangrass hybrids
 and millets for forage.
 Koch, D.W.
 Laramie, Wyo. : The Service; 1988 Mar.
 Bulletin - Wyoming University, Cooperative Extension Service
 (904): 4 p.; 1988 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Wyoming; Sorghum sudanense; Cultivars; Millets;
 Fodder crops; Rotations; Weed control; Fertilizers; Grazing
 systems; Harvesting
 
 
 107                                     NAL Call. No.: 23 W52J
 Production from and management of burr medic pastures.
 Thorn, C.; Revell, C.; Ewing, M.
 South Perth : Department of Agriculture, Western Australia;
 1988. Journal of agriculture, Western Australia v. 29 (2): p.
 48-53. ill; 1988.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Western australia; Sheep; Medicago polymorpha;
 Pastures; Crop quality; Grazing effects; Liveweight gains;
 Wool production; Rotations; Wheat; Yields; Stocking rate; Weed
 control; Insect control; Pasture management
 
 
 108                                   NAL Call. No.: 64.8 C883
 Productivity and consumption of wheatgrasses and wheatgrass-
 sainfoin mixtures grazed by sheep.
 Griggs, T.C.; Matches, A.G.
 Madison, Wis. : Crop Science Society of America; 1991 Sep.
 Crop science v. 31 (5): p. 1267-1273; 1991 Sep.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sheep; Agropyron cristatum; Agropyron desertorum;
 Elymus elongatus; Elymus hispidus; Onobrychis viciifolia; Crop
 mixtures; Rotational grazing; Grazing intensity; Feed intake;
 Forage; Herbage; Crop quality; Grazing effects; Growth rate;
 Regrowth; Seasonal growth; Botanical composition
 
 Abstract:  Grazing systems based on warm- and cool-season
 components have limited productivity during parts of spring
 and autumn. Wheat-grasses (Agropyron and Thinopyrum spp.) and
 sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) may improve the
 seasonal distribution of growth in grazing systems on the U.S.
 Southern High Plains. Objectives were to determine the herbage
 production and consumption of three wheatgrasses and their
 binary mixtures with sainfoin under three schedules of
 initiation of spring grazing by sheep (Ovis aries). 'Hycrest'
 crested wheatgrass [A. cristatum (L.) Gaertn. X A. desertorum
 (Fisch. ex Link) Schult.], 'Jose' tall wheatgrass [T. ponticum
 (Podp.) Barkw. & D.R. Dewey], and 'Luna' pubescent wheatgrass
 [T. intermedium subsp. barbulatum (Schar) Barkw. & D.R. Dewey]
 and their mixtures with 'Renumex' sainfoin were established on
 a Pullman clay loam (fine, mixed thermic Torrertic Paleustoll)
 in 1984. First growths were initially grazed in 1985 and 1986
 under three schedules spaced approximately 3.5 wk apart.
 Second growths were grazed approximately 6 to 11 wk later.
 Herbage production of mixtures usually did not exceed that of
 grasses, but consumption was 13 to 29% greater in mixtures
 than in pure grasses except under drought conditions. Herbage
 mass increased with delays in the initiation of grazing in
 first growths with adequate soil water, and decreased with
 successive schedules in second growths. Herbage consumption in
 first growths was greatest for mid or late schedules of
 grazing initiation. Herbage live leaf and sainfoin
 concentrations suggest highest forage quality levels for
 mixtures, particularly in first growths. Wheatgrasses and
 their mixtures with sainfoin can make important seasonal
 contributions to the productivity of regional grazing systems.
 
 
 109                                      NAL Call. No.: S1.N32
 Profitable pork on pasture.
 Cramer, C.
 Emmaus, Pa. : Rodale Institute; 1990 May.
 The New farm v. 12 (4): p. 15-18. ill; 1990 May.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pig farming; Grazing; Rotational grazing
 
 
 110                                   NAL Call. No.: 60.18 J82
 Protein supplementation of steers grazing tobosa-grass in
 spring and summer. Pitts, J.S.; McCollum, F.T.; Britton, C.M.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1992 May.
 Journal of range management v. 45 (3): p. 226-231; 1992 May. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Steers; Hilaria mutica; Prosopis glandulosa var.
 glandulosa; Grazing; Protein supplements; Cottonseed oilmeal;
 Beef cattle; Spring; Summer; Liveweight gain; Feces; Nitrogen
 content; Blood; Urea; Protein status
 
 Abstract:  A 3-year study evaluated weight gain, blood urea
 nitrogen (BUN), and fecal nitrogen (FN) of beef steers fed
 0.00, 0.34, or 0.68 kg/hd/day of cottonseed meal (41% CP)
 while grazing mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa
 Torr.)/tobosagrass (Hilaria mutica [Buckl.] Benth.) range
 between April and July. Mixed breed beef steers (avg wt 230
 kg) were allocated to three 6-pasture grazing cells and group-
 fed prorated amounts of supplement 3 days a week. Individual
 weights were recorded every 21 days. Crude protein in clipped
 forage samples remained above 7.0% except in July, 1985
 (6.5%). Gain response varied among periods within year but the
 primary effects occurred in the first 40 to 60 days of
 grazing. In 1985, daily gains over 92 days were 0.38, 0.44,
 and 0.67 kg/hd/day for the 0.00, 0.34, and 0.68 kg supplement
 groups, respectively. In 1986 and 1987, daily gains during 85-
 day trials were 0.65, 0.66, and 0.71 kg/hd/day and 0.98, 1.08,
 and 1.07 kg/hd/day, respectively. Blood and feces were
 collected from 10 steers in each treatment group on each weigh
 date during the first 2 years. The 0.68 kg/hd/day supplement
 maintained higher (P<0.05) BUN and FN than the control group
 but response to 0.34 kg supplement was inconsistent.
 Performance and BUN data suggested that protein concentrate
 was not the appropriate supplement for steers grazing
 tobosagrass in the spring and summer.
 
 
 111                                    NAL Call. No.: aS622.S6
 Reservation improves rangeland.
 Gray, R.L.; Robinett, D.
 Washington, D.C. : The Service; 1988 Oct.
 Soil & water conservation news - U.S. Deptartment of
 Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service v. 9 (7): p. 8-9. ill;
 1988 Oct.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Rangelands; American indians; Reserved
 areas; Rotational grazing; Range pastures; Soil and water
 conservation; Rural development
 
 
 112                                  NAL Call. No.: SF85.A1R32
 A riparian zone--one story.
 Bezanson, C.E.; Hughes, L.E.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1989 Apr.
 Rangelands v. 11 (2): p. 56-57. ill., maps; 1989 Apr.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Riparian grasslands; Rotational grazing;
 Cattle
 
 
 113                                   NAL Call. No.: SB193.F59
 Rotational and continuous grazing interactions with stocking
 rate on warm season perennial pastures.
 Bransby, D.I.
 Lexington, Ky. : The Conference; 1988.
 Proceedings of the Forage and Grassland Conference. p. 97-101;
 1988.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South  Africa; Cynodon dactylon; Chloris gayana;
 Pennisetum clandestinum; Grazing experiments; Steers;
 Liveweight gains; Stocking rate; Rotational grazing
 
 
 114                                  NAL Call. No.: SB197.A1T7
 Rotational and continuous grazing of Zulu forage sorghum
 (Sorghum spp. hybrid) by beef cattle grazed at 3 stocking
 rates.
 French, A.V.; O'Rourke, P.K.; Cameron, D.G.
 Brisbane : Tropical Grassland Society of Australia; 1988 Jun.
 Tropical grasslands v. 22 (2): p. 91-93; 1988 Jun.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Queensland; Beef cattle; Sorghum; Hybrids;
 Stocking rate; Rotational grazing; Grazing systems; Grazing
 trials; Liveweight gains
 
 
 115                                   NAL Call. No.: aZ5071.N3
 Rotational grazing and intensive pasture management January
 1970-August 1988. Maclean, J.T.
 Beltsville, Md. : The Library; 1989 Jan.
 Quick bibliography series - U.S. Department of Agriculure,
 National Agricultural Library (U.S.). (89-16): 20 p.; 1989
 Jan.  Bibliography.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pasture management; Rotational grazing;
 Bibliographies
 
 
 116                                   NAL Call. No.: aZ5071.N3
 Rotational grazing and intensive pasture management, January
 1979-June 1989. MacLean, J.T.
 Beltsville, Md. : The Library; 1989 Oct.
 Quick bibliography series - U.S. Department of Agriculure,
 National Agricultural Library (U.S.). (90-03): 23 p.; 1989
 Oct.  Updates QB 89-16. Bibliography.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rotational grazing; Pasture management;
 Bibliographies
 
 
 117                                NAL Call. No.: 275.29 OK41C
 Rotational grazing plan with bluestem.
 Ewing, S.
 Stillwater, Okla. : The Service; 1991 Mar.
 Circular E - Oklahoma State University, Cooperative Extension
 Service (901): p. 60-63; 1991 Mar.  Paper presented at the
 "Old World Bluestem Conference," March 29, 1988, Cheyenne,
 Oklahoma.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oklahoma; Texas; Bothriochloa ischaemum; Beef
 cattle; Rotational grazing; Fencing; Wildlife management;
 Quails
 
 
 118                                   NAL Call. No.: 60.18 J82
 Salinity effects on forage quality of Russian thistle.
 Fowler, J.L.; Hageman, J.H.; Moore, K.J.; Suzukida, M.;
 Assadian, H.; Valenzuela, M.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1992 Nov.
 Journal of range management v. 45 (6): p. 559-563; 1992 Nov. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New Mexico; Salsola iberica; Nutrient solutions;
 Saline water; Sodium chloride; Calcium chloride; Forage;
 Quality; Lignin; Nitrogen; Nitrate; Fiber content; Oxalates;
 Plant composition; Nutritive value; Cell wall components
 
 Abstract:  Russian thistle (Salsola iberica Sennen and Pau), a
 common weed found on overgrazed rangelands, abandoned
 farmlands, and other disturbed sites in the western United
 States, is often grazed by livestock and in times of drought
 has been extensively harvested for hay. Much of the land where
 Russian thistle grows in the western United States has a
 salinity hazard. The purpose of this study was to determine
 the effects of salinity stress on forage quality of Russian
 thistle. Russian thistle plants were grown in a greenhouse in
 sand culture irrigated with salinized nutrient solutions
 (electrical conductivities of 1.3, 10.6, 19.5, 26.8, and 33.9
 dS/m) prepared with NaCl and CaCl2 (2:1 molar ratio). Chemical
 indices of forage quality (total N, neutral detergent fiber,
 acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin, nitrate, and
 oxalates) at 2 growth stages (early flower and full flower)
 were determined. Forage quality of Russian thistle, as
 measured by total N and fiber constituents, improved with
 increasing salinity. Mineral ash content increased with
 salinity stress at both growth stages but was reduced slightly
 by increasing maturity. Nitrate levels increased at early
 flower but decreased at full flower with increasing salinity,
 whereas oxalate-levels at both growth stages were reduced by
 salinity. Neither component was of sufficient magnitude to be
 toxic to ruminants. These results indicate that salinity
 stress is not detrimental to forage quality of Russian thistle
 but tends to improve it.
 
 
 119                                NAL Call. No.: 275.29 OK41C
 Seasonal growth rates of tallgrass prairie after clipping.
 Gillen, R.L.
 Stillwater, Okla. : The Service; 1992 Feb.
 Circular E - Oklahoma State University, Cooperative Extension
 Service (905): p. 22; 1992 Feb.  In the series analytic: Range
 research highlights, 1983-1991 / edited by T.G. Bidwell, D.
 Titus and D. Cassels.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rotational grazing; Prairies; Grazing effects;
 Herbage crops; Seasonal growth
 
 
 120                                  NAL Call. No.: SB197.A1T7
 Seasonal herbage and animal production from three Cynodon
 species. Larbi, A.; Mislevy, P.; Adjei, M.B.; Brown, W.F.
 St Lucia : Tropical Grassland Society of Australia; 1990 Dec.
 Tropical grasslands v. 24 (4): p. 305-310; 1990 Dec.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Steers; Cynodon dactylon; Cynodon
 nlemfuensis; Cultivars; Grazing trials; Rotational grazing;
 Crop yield; Herbage; Dry matter accumulation; Seasonal growth;
 Nutritive value; Crop quality; In vitro digestibility;
 Liveweight gain; Crude protein; Animal production; Carrying
 capacity
 
 
 121                                   NAL Call. No.: 60.18 J82
 Seasonal stocking of tobosa managed under continuous and
 rotation grazing. Anderson, D.M.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1988 Jan.
 Journal of range management v. 41 (1): p. 78-83. ill; 1988
 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New Mexico; Hilaria mutica; Cattle; Grazing
 systems; Rotational grazing; Crop quality; Forage; Crude
 protein; Liveweight gains; Stocking rate; Arid zones;
 Rangelands
 
 
 122                                    NAL Call. No.: 470 C16C
 Septal and lateral pores in the fungal endophytes of two
 pasture grasses. Philipson, M.N.
 Ottawa, Ont. : National Research Council of Canada; 1991 Dec.
 Canadian journal of botany; Journal canadien de botanique v.
 69 (12): p. 2740-2743; 1991 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Lolium perenne; Festuca arundinacea; Endophytes;
 Gliocladium; Phialophora; Fungal morphology; Pores; Hyphae;
 Cell ultrastructure
 
 
 123                                  NAL Call. No.: SF85.A1R32
 Short duration grazing--Southern style.
 Cutshall, J.R.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1991 Feb.
 Rangelands v. 13 (1): p. 22-24; 1991 Feb.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Louisiana; Beef cattle; Rotational grazing;
 Winter; Grasses; Forage; Beef production
 
 
 124                                     NAL Call. No.: 10 J822
 Simplified rotational grazing management of dairy cows:
 effects of rates of stocking and concentrate.
 Hoden, A.; Peyraud, J.L.; Muller, A.; Delaby, L.; Faverdin, P.
 Cambridge : Cambridge University Press; 1991 Jun.
 The Journal of agricultural science v. 116 (pt.3): p. 417-428;
 1991 Jun. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: France; Dairy cows; Concentrates; Feed intake;
 Feed supplements; Grassland management; Milk production; Milk
 yield; Rotational grazing; Stocking rate
 
 
 125                                      NAL Call. No.: HD1.A3
 A simulation approach for evaluating field data from grazing
 trials. Walker, J.W.; Stuth, J.W.; Heitschmidt, R.K.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1989.
 Agricultural systems v. 30 (4): p. 301-316; 1989.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Cattle; Grazing trials; Field tests;
 Rotational grazing; Simulation models; Dry matter;
 Digestibility; Feces collection; Grazing time; Energy; Weight
 
 
 126                                      NAL Call. No.: HD1.A3
 A simulation model of bull beef production under rotational
 grazing in the Waikato Region of New Zealand.
 Doyle, C.J.; Baars, J.A.; Bywater, A.C.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1989.
 Agricultural systems v. 31 (3): p. 247-278; 1989.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New Zealand; Beef bulls; Beef production;
 Rotational grazing; Profitability; Simulation models;
 Optimization; Stocking rate; Silage; Grazing effects
 
 
 127                                  NAL Call. No.: SF85.A1R32
 Snowberry.
 Banister, R.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1991 Feb.
 Rangelands v. 13 (1): p. 33-34; 1991 Feb.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Montana; Symphoricarpos; Beef cattle; Forage;
 Range management; Rotational grazing; Plant ecology;
 Biological competition
 
 
 128                                   NAL Call. No.: 60.18 J82
 Some effects of a rotational grazing treatment on cattle
 grazing behavior. Walker, J.W.; Heitschmidt, R.K.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1989 Jul.
 Journal of range management v. 42 (4): p. 337-342; 1989 Jul. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Cattle; Grazing behavior; Range pastures;
 Rotational grazing; Grazing intensity; Stocking rate; Grazing
 time; Spatial distribution; Grazing experiments
 
 
 129                                NAL Call. No.: S544.3.M9E23
 Species selection, seeding techniques, and management of
 irrigated pastures in Montana and Wyoming.
 Holzworth, L.; Lacey, J.
 Bozeman, Mont. : The Service; 1991 Apr.
 EB - Montana State University, Extension Service (99): 15 p.;
 1991 Apr. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Montana; Wyoming; Pastures; Grassland management;
 Irrigation; Site selection; Irrigation systems; Grasses;
 Cultivars; Site preparation; Planting; Weed control; Grazing
 systems; Rotational grazing
 
 
 130                                  NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Steer performance on birdsfoot trefoil and alfalfa pasture in
 central Georgia. Hoveland, C.S.; Hill, N.S.; Lowery, R.S. Jr;
 Fales, S.L.; McCormick, M.E.; Smith, A.E. Jr
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1988 Oct.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 1 (4): p. 343-346; 1988
 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Georgia; Steers; Lotus corniculatus; Medicago
 sativa; Rotational grazing; Performance; Pasture management
 
 
 131                                  NAL Call. No.: 292.9 AM34
 Stormflow and sediment loss from intensively managed forest
 watersheds in east Texas.
 Blackburn, W.H.; Knight, R.W.; Wood, J.C.; Pearson, H.A.
 Minneapolis, Minn. : American Water Resources Association;
 1990 Jun. Water resources bulletin v. 26 (3): p. 465-177; 1990
 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Watershed management; Stream flow;
 Sediments; Losses from soil systems; Clearcutting; Site
 preparation; Logging effects; Rotational grazing; Stocking
 density; Grazing effects
 
 
 132                                NAL Call. No.: TP248.13.B54
 Study claims: pasturing cows more profitble than injecting
 BST. New York : McGraw-Hill :.; 1991 Jul15.
 Biotechnology newswatch v. 11 (14): p. 10; 1991 Jul15.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Milk production; Rotational grazing;
 Somatotropin; Genetic engineering; Farm inputs
 
 
 133                                    NAL Call. No.: TX341.C6
 Study predicts more profit with alternative to BGH.
 Washington, D.C. : Community Nutrition Institute; 1991 Jul19.
 Nutrition week v. 21 (28): p. 6; 1991 Jul19.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Somatotropin; Drug residues; Food safety; Feeds;
 Milk yield; Profits; Rotational grazing; Milk production; Cows
 
 Abstract:  An experimental method for feeding dairy cattle may
 be safer, cheaper and may produce higher milk yields than
 injections of synthetic bovine growth hormone (BGH), according
 to an analysis of several recent studies comparing the two
 approaches.
 
 
 134                                   NAL Call. No.: 60.18 J82
 Survival of juvenile basin big sagebrush under different
 grazing regimes. Owens, M.K.; Norton, B.E.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1990 Mar.
 Journal of range management v. 43 (2): p. 132-135; 1990 Mar. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Utah; Artemisia tridentata; Survival; Range
 pastures; Grazing effects; Grazing intensity; Plant density;
 Size; Grazing systems; Agropyron desertorum; Population
 dynamics
 
 Abstract:  Basin big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt ssp
 tridentata Beetle) often invades rangelands seeded to
 introduced grass species. Livestock grazing may enhance the
 invasion but the effects of grazing intensity on invasion
 rates are not known. To investigate invasion rates, individual
 big sagebrush plants were marked and observed for mortality
 over a 4-year period within a short duration grazing (SDG)
 cell and continuous season-long grazed pastures. Over the
 course of the experiment, the survival of juvenile big
 sagebrush was higher in the SDG cell. However, there were no
 differences in survival between grazing treatments during the
 first year of the study. In subsequent years, declining tiller
 numbers and density of individual crested wheatgrass plants
 may have decreased the competitive pressure on juvenile big
 sagebrush under SDG. The intensity of grazing did not affect
 which individual juveniles survived. Plants with more than 50
 cm2 canopy area had the highest survival rates of all big
 sagebrush in both grazing treatments. Plant density, which
 ranged from 1 to 30 plants m-2, did not affect plant survival
 in either of the grazing treatments. Big sagebrush survival in
 the SDG cell was higher in a rhizomatous grass community than
 in a tussock grass community.
 
 
 135                                 NAL Call. No.: 286.81 F322
 Theories emerge on mechanisms of ionophore rotation.
 Eng, K.
 Minnetonka, Minn. : Miller Publishing Co; 1988 Jan18.
 Feedstuffs v. 60 (3): p. 18, 57; 1988 Jan18.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ruminant feeding; Ionophores; Rotational grazing;
 Feedlots
 
 
 136                                NAL Call. No.: 275.29 OK41C
 Tiller defoliation patterns under short duration grazing in
 tallgrass prairie. Gillen, R.L.; McCollum, F.T.; Brummer, J.E.
 Stillwater, Okla. : The Service; 1992 Feb.
 Circular E - Oklahoma State University, Cooperative Extension
 Service (905): p. 18-19; 1992 Feb.  In the series analytic:
 Range research highlights, 1983-1991 / edited by T.G. Bidwell,
 D. Titus and D. Cassels.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rotational grazing; Tillers; Grazing effects;
 Andropogon gerardii; Schizachyrium scoparium; Range management
 
 
 137                                   NAL Call. No.: 60.18 J82
 Tiller defoliation patterns under short duration grazing in
 tallgrass prairie. Gillen, R.L.; Mccollum, F.T.; Brummer, J.E.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1990 Mar.
 Journal of range management v. 43 (2): p. 95-99; 1990 Mar. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oklahoma; Cattle; Andropogon gerardii;
 Schizachyrium scoparium; Tillers; Defoliation; Grazing
 effects; Stocking rate; Rotational grazing; Grazing intensity;
 Plant height; Controlled grazing
 
 Abstract:  Simulated 8-pasture short duration grazing systems
 were studied in 1985-86 to determine the effect of grazing
 schedule and stocking rate on defoliation patterns of
 individual grass tillers of big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii
 Vitman) and little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.)
 Nash). Treatments consisted of 3 grazing schedules (2,3, or 4
 rotation cycles per 152-day grazing season) and 2 stocking
 rates (1.3 and 1.8 times the recommended normal). Grazing
 schedule and stocking rate did not affect the percent tiller
 height reduction per grazing period except for the combination
 of 2-cycle grazing and heavy stocking which increased percent
 height reduction. Percent tiller height reduction per grazing
 period decreased over the grazing season for the 3 and 4-cycle
 grazing schedules. Grazing schedule and stocking rate had
 little effect on the height at which tillers were defoliated.
 Increasing the number of grazing periods reduced the
 percentage of tillers defoliated per grazing period but
 increased the cumulative defoliation frequency over the
 grazing season. Grazing schedule did not affect the percentage
 of tillers ungrazed over the entire grazing season. Big
 bluestem was consistently defoliated more intensely and
 frequently than little bluestem.
 
 
 138                                    NAL Call. No.: SF191.G4
 Timed deworming and rotational grazing.
 Macon, Ga. : Georgia Cattlemen's Association; 1990 Mar.
 Georgia cattleman v. 18 (3): p. 31, 33. ill; 1990 Mar.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle; Veterinary helminthology; Rotational
 grazing
 
 
 139                                  NAL Call. No.: SF85.A1R32
 Twenty years of rest-rotation grazing on the Arizona Strip--an
 observation. Hughes, L.E.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1990 Jun.
 Rangelands v. 12 (3): p. 173-176; 1990 Jun.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Grazing systems; Rotational grazing
 
 
 140                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Use of modeling in evaluation of rotational grazing systems.
 Senft, R.L.; Tharel, L.M.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1989.
 Journal of animal science v. 67 (suppl.2): p. 71-72; 1989. 
 Includes abstract.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Forage; Rotational grazing; Simulation models;
 Computer software
 
 
 141                                   NAL Call. No.: 60.18 J82
 Utilization of linear prediction procedures to evaluate animal
 response to grazing systems.
 Winder, J.A.; Beck, R.F.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1990 Sep.
 Journal of range management v. 43 (5): p. 396-400; 1990 Sep. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New Mexico; Cattle; Heifers; Rotational grazing;
 Grazing effects; Diets; Grazing systems; Progeny testing;
 Calves; Responses; Breeding value; Genetic effects;
 Environmental factors; Liveweight gain; Best linear unbiased
 prediction
 
 
 142                                  NAL Call. No.: 57.8 P34AE
 Variations in cellulose-decomposing activity of gray forest
 soil under sown pastureland as a function of management
 technique.
 Yermolayev, A.M.; Shirshova, L.T.; Medvedeva, I.F.; Bykhovets,
 S.S. New York, N.Y. : Scripta Technica; 1992 Mar.
 Soviet soil science v. 23 (7): p. 32-40; 1992 Mar.  Translated
 from: Pochvoedenie, (1), 1991, p. 59-66. (57.8 P34).  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English; Russian
 
 Descriptors: U.S.S.R.; Grey forest soils; Agricultural soils;
 Festuca pratensis; Phleum pratense; Trifolium pratense;
 Cellulose digestion; Biological activity in soil; Soil flora;
 Pastures; Soil management; Vegetation; Crop yield; Soil
 organic matter; Biodegradation; Climatic factors; Air
 temperature; Precipitation; Edaphic factors; Soil temperature;
 Soil water content; Seasonal fluctuations; Ammonium nitrate;
 Superphosphate; Potassium chloride; Mowing; Litter (plant);
 Long term experiments; Temporal variation
 
 
 143                                  NAL Call. No.: SF85.A1R32
 Vegetation changes on a rest-rotation grazing system.
 Yeo, J.J.; Wittinger, W.T.; Peek, J.M.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1990 Aug.
 Rangelands v. 12 (4): p. 220-224; 1990 Aug.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Idaho; Wyoming; Grazing systems; Rotational
 grazing; Vegetation
 
 
 144                                   NAL Call. No.: 60.18 J82
 Vegetation response to the Santa Rita grazing system.
 Martin, S.C.; Severson, K.E.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1988 Jul.
 Journal of range management v. 41 (4): p. 291-295; 1988 Jul. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Grazing systems; Rotational grazing;
 Vegetation; Grasslands; Semiarid zones; Yield response
 functions; Plant density; Range management
 
 
 145                                   NAL Call. No.: 60.18 J82
 Vegetational response to short-duration and continuous grazing
 in southcentral New Mexico.
 White, M.R.; Pieper, R.D.; Donart, G.B.; Trifaro, L.W.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1991 Jul.
 Journal of range management v. 44 (4): p. 399-403; 1991 Jul. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New Mexico; Bouteloua gracilis; Vegetation;
 Cattle; Grazing intensity; Grazing time; Grazing effects;
 Biomass; Biomass production; Botanical composition; Stocking
 rate; Range pastures; Range management
 
 Abstract:  Vegetational response of a nine-paddock, short-
 duration grazing cell was compared to that of a continuous
 pasture for a 5-year period in southcentral New Mexico.
 Differences in vegetational response to short-duration and
 continuous grazing on blue grama rangeland were small. Basal
 plant cover was slightly hither for the short-duration
 pastures, but end-of-season standing crop of all species was
 similar for both systems. Blue grama aboveground productivity
 and basal cover were higher for the short-duration pastures
 than for the continuously-grazed pasture. Possible short-term
 results from short-duration grazing include slightly higher
 stocking rates and a positive response of blue grama.
 
 
 146                                    NAL Call. No.: SF191.G4
 Veterinarians add grazing management to herd health programs.
 Macon, Ga. : Georgia Cattlemen's Association; 1990 Sep.
 Georgia cattleman v. 18 (9): p. 19, 61. ill; 1990 Sep.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rotational grazing; Veterinarians
 
 
 147                        NAL Call. No.: Videocassette no.685
 Voisin controlled grazing management a better way to farm.
 Murphy, Bill
 University of Vermont, Dept. of Plant and Soil Science
 Burlington, VT : University of Vermont Extension,; 1989.
 1 videocassette (34 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in.  Video
 production coordinated by Bill Murphy.  VHS.  "With funding by
 the Low-Input/Sustainable Agriculture and Research Education
 Program, Northeast Region, United States Department of
 Agriuclture"--Contaner.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Grazing; Pastures; Meadows; Forage plants
 
 Abstract:  Several Vermont dairy farmers and a professor of
 Agronomy discuss the advantages to the system of "rational
 grazing" developed by Andre Voisin in France in the 1950's,
 whereby use is made of the natural plant growth curve, pasture
 recovery periods are lengthened as the season progresses, and
 paddocks are rotated.
 
 
 148                       NAL Call. No.: Videocassette no.1328
 Voisin controlled grazing management a better way to farm Part
 II Equipping for livestock control and maximum net forage
 production..  Equipping for livestock control and maximum net
 forage production Equipping for maximum net forage production
 Murphy, Bill; Flack, Doug
 Perceptions, Inc, University of Vermont, Dept. of Plant and
 Soil Science, University of Vermont, Extension Service
 Burlington, VT : University of Vermont Extension :; 1990. 1
 videocassette (38 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in.  Title on
 cassette label: Equipping for maximum net forage production.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Electric fences; Grazing; Pastures; Range
 management
 
 Abstract:  Discusses the use of electric fences in the Voisin
 system of "rational grazing." Demonstrates what types of wire
 to use for which purpose, how to string the wire, how to deal
 with water hoses in relation to electric fences, and how and
 when to move the high density flock around the pasturage using
 the electric fences.
 
 
                          AUTHOR INDEX
 
 Absher, C.  52
 Acutis, M.  40
 Adejumo, J.O.  25
 Adjei, M.B.  120
 Ahrenholz, R.  48
 Albrecht, K.A.  3
 Anderson, D.M.  121
 Assadian, H.  118
 Baars, J.A.  126
 Bailey, J.A.  17
 Banister, R.  127
 Barberan, M.  87
 Barger, I.A.  93
 Barker, W.T.  18
 Beck, R.F.  141
 Belsky, A.J.  35
 Bezanson, C.E.  112
 Bissio, J.  55
 Blackburn, W.H.  131
 Bohn, P.J.  86
 Bolze, R.P.  12
 Bouix, J.  24
 Boulard, C.  24
 Bransby, D.I.  4, 13, 78, 113
 Brazle, F.K.  2, 63
 Brereton, A.J.  28, 29
 Britton, C.M.  110
 Brock, J.L.  16
 Brown, A.H. Jr  104
 Brown, C.J.  104
 Brown, W.F.  120
 Brummer, J.E.  59, 70, 100, 101, 136, 137
 Bryant, F.C.  31, 41, 92
 Buckmaster, D.R.  84
 Bunting, S.C.  53
 Burleson, W.H.  77
 Burris, R.  52
 Bykhovets, S.S.  142
 Bywater, A.C.  126
 Cabaret, J.  24
 Calamel, M.  24
 Cameron, D.G.  114
 Carey, J.A.  31
 Carton, O.T.  28, 29
 Cauhepe, M.A.  34
 Chase, L.E.  96
 Chestnut, A.B.  95
 Chewning, J.J.  104
 Chirase, N.K.  36
 Cocks, P.S.  10, 99
 Coffey, K.P.  2, 63
 Conrad, B.E.  57
 Coop, R.L.  88
 Cortet, J.  24
 Couch, P.G.C.  93
 Craddock, B.F.  31
 Cramer, C.  103, 109
 Cumming, K.J.  82
 Cutshall, J.R.  123
 Dahl, B.E. 37
 Dalrymple, R.L.  15, 66
 Davidson, S.  45
 Delaby, L.  124
 Demment, M.W.  74
 Deutscher, A.  50
 Donart, G.B.  145
 Dougherty, C.  52
 Dougherty, C.T.  19
 Doyle, C.J.  126
 Emmick, D.L.  1, 21, 96
 Eng, K.  135
 Evans, T.R.  38, 39
 Ewing, M.  107
 Ewing, S.  117
 Fales, S.  105
 Fales, S.L.  86, 130
 Faverdin, P.  124
 Fay, P.K.  33
 Fierro, L.C.  92
 Fisher, J.C.  12
 Fitzsimons, J.  88
 Flack, Doug  148
 Flatt, B.  66
 Florez, A.  31
 Floyd, D.  67
 Fowler, J.L.  118
 Fox, D.G.  96
 Frank, R.W.  48
 French, A.V.  114
 Fribourg, H.A.  95
 Fults, G.A.  46
 Gamble, B.E.  13
 Gauvin, M.  71
 George, M.R.  74
 Gerrish, J.R.  5, 64
 Gieger, K.L.  3
 Gillen, R.L.  11, 30, 32, 59, 70, 100, 101, 119, 136, 137
 Goldberg, J.J.  69
 Gray, G.D.  93
 Gray, R.L.  111
 Gregory, W.H.  78
 Griggs, T.C.  108
 Gruner, L.  24
 Gutman, M.  60
 Gwinn, K.D.  95
 Hacker, J.B.  38, 39
 Hageman, J.H.  118
 Hansen, B.R.  62
 Hart, R.H.  8, 54, 55, 56
 Hay, M.J.M.  16, 91
 Heitschmidt, R.K.  73, 125, 128
 Hepworth, K.W.  56
 Hidalgo, L.G.  34
 Hides, D.H.  26
 Hill, N.S.  130
 Hoden, A.  124
 Hodges, M.E.  100, 101
 Hollington, P.A.  26
 Holzworth, L.  129
 Hoover, R.J.  86
 Hoveland, C.S.  130
 Howard, D.B.  69
 Hughes, L.E.  47, 112, 139
 Hussey, M.A.  57
 Hutcheson, D.P.  36
 Ivey, H.W.  13
 Jackson, E.  88
 Jackson, F.  88
 Jensen, H.P.  30, 32
 Jirik, S.J.  53
 Johnson, E.G.  72
 Johnson, I.R.  81
 Johnson, Z.  104
 Jones, C.S. Jr  3
 Jones, R.J.  83
 Jones, R.M.  83, 94, 97
 Kaiser, C.J.  48
 Karnezos, T.P.  22, 80, 85
 Karunanandaa, K.  86
 Keane, G.P.  28, 29
 Kee, D.D.  13, 78
 Kendall, D.  42
 Kie, J.G.  9
 Knight, R.S.  74
 Knight, R.W.  131
 Koch, D.W.  106
 Krause, M.A.  62
 Kristensen, E.S.  68
 Kunkel, J.R.  69
 La Rue, D.C.  63
 Lacefield, G.  52
 Lacey, J.  129
 Land Stewardship Project (U.S.)  14
 Larbi, A.  120
 Le Jambre, L.F.  93
 Leininger, W.C.  77
 Lewis, C.E.  102
 Loft, E.R.  9
 Lomas, L.W.  2, 63
 Loomis, J.B.  9
 Lowery, R.S. Jr  130
 Lowman, B.G.  88
 Maclean, J.T.  115
 MacLean, J.T.  116
 Mannetje, L. 't  94
 Marshall, A.H.  26
 Marten, G.C.  75
 Martin, S.C.  144
 Matches, A.G.  22, 80, 85, 108
 McCollum, F.T.  11, 32, 59, 70, 100, 101, 110, 136
 Mccollum, F.T.  137
 McCormick, M.E.  130
 McLaren, J.B.  95
 Medvedeva, I.F.  142
 Merz, D.F.  44
 Middleton, J.M.  51
 Mislevy, P.  120
 Molenat, G.  24
 Moline, W.J.  51, 58
 Moore, K.J.  118
 Morrow, R.E.  64
 Mosley, J.C.  37
 Moyer, J.L.  2, 63
 Mueller, M.A.  95
 Muller, A.  124
 Muller, L.D.  84
 Murphy, B.M.  69
 Murphy, Bill  147, 148
 Newton, P.C.D.  91
 Norton, B.E.  134
 Noy-Meir, I.  60
 O'Keeffe, W.F.  28, 29
 O'Rourke, P.K.  114
 Ogden, P.  67
 Olson, B.E.  33
 Olson-Rutz, K.  33
 Onks, D.O.  95
 Osoro, K.  23
 Owens, M.K.  134
 Pankey, J.W.  69
 Parker, W.J.  84
 Parsons, A.J.  27, 81
 Pascal, G.  40
 Pearson, H.A.  131
 Peek, J.M.  143
 Penning P.D.  27
 Perceptions, Inc, University of Vermont, Dept. of Plant and
 Soil Science, University of Vermont, Extension Service  148
 Peyraud, J.L.  124
 Philipson, M.N.  122
 Phillips, J.M.  104
 Pieper, R.D.  145
 Pitts, J.S.  110
 Plumer, M.D.  48
 Plummer, R.  51, 58
 Potter, G.D.  57
 Pysher, D.  105
 Ragotzkie, K.E.  17
 Ramon, J.P.  87
 Revell, C.  107
 Reyneri, A.  40
 Roberts, C.R.  64
 Robinett, D.  111
 Rodale Institute, Rooy Media (Firm)  43
 Rollins, D.  30
 Roundy, B.  67
 Rouquette, F.M. Jr  20, 76
 Rouquette, M. Jr  65
 Rusland, G.A.  3
 Ruyle, G.  67
 Samuel, M.J.  8, 54, 55
 Sands, P.B.  74
 Sauve, C.  24
 Saxe, T.D.  48
 Schulze-Tate, V.G.  64
 Schwien, J.  98
 Sedivec, K.K.  18
 Seligman, N.G.  60
 Senft, R.L.  79, 140
 Severson, K.E.  144
 Shannon, M.  61
 Shirshova, L.T.  142
 Silvey, M.W.  97
 Siniscalco, C.  40
 Smart, A.  7
 Smith, A.E. Jr  130
 Smith, J.E.  63
 Smith, M.A.  8, 54, 56
 Sniffen, C.J.  96
 Sollenberger, L.E.  3
 Stewart, D.  67
 Stuth, J.W.  125
 Suzukida, M.  118
 Swank, W.G.  6
 Swisher, J.M. Jr  90
 Tanner, G.W.  102
 Tate, K.W.  100, 101
 Terry, W.S.  102
 Test, P.S.  8, 56
 Tharel, L.M.  79, 140
 Thomas, V.J.  16, 91
 Thorn, C.  107
 Tjepkema, J.  89
 Toomer, L.F.  21
 Trifaro, L.W.  145
 Undersander, D.  7
 University of Vermont, Dept. of Plant and Soil Science  147
 Updike, D.R.  9
 Valderrabano, J.  87
 Valenzuela, M.  118
 Waggoner, J.W. Jr  54, 55, 56
 Walker, J.W.  125, 128
 Wallander, R.T.  33
 Webb, G.W.  57
 White, M.R.  145
 Wilder, L.  50
 Wildman, E.E.  69
 Wilkins, R.N.  6
 Williams, J.H.H.  81
 Wilson, A.D.  49
 Winder, J.A.  141
 Wittinger, W.T.  143
 Wood, J.C.  131
 Yeo, J.J.  143
 Yermolayev, A.M.  142
 
 
 
                          SUBJECT INDEX
 
 Abandoned land  40
 Acacia tortilis  35
 Acremonium coenophialum  63, 95
 Adansonia digitata  35
 Adaptability  19
 Agricultural land  84
 Agricultural soils  142
 Agricultural systems  14
 Agronomic characteristics  99
 Agronomy  62
 Agropyron  8, 22
 Agropyron cristatum  80, 85, 108
 Agropyron desertorum  80, 85, 108, 134
 Agropyron spicatum  53
 Air temperature  142
 Alabama  78
 Alfalfa  72, 84, 87
 Alternative farming  71
 Ambrosia psilostachya  100
 American indians  111
 Ammonium nitrate  142
 Ammonium sulfate  97
 Andropogon gerardii  32, 136, 137
 Animal competition  49
 Animal nutrition  86, 96
 Animal production  39, 120
 Annuals  76
 Anthelmintics  93
 Application rates  97
 Appropriate technology  42, 103
 Argentina norte  34
 Arid regions  73
 Arid zones  47, 61, 121
 Aristida stricta  102
 Arizona  17, 47, 61, 67, 82, 111, 112, 139, 144
 Arkansas  104
 Arles merino  24
 Artemisia tridentata  134
 Australia  49
 Australian northern territory  45
 Availability  75, 96
 Beef bulls  126
 Beef cattle  12, 32, 54, 55, 56, 63, 64, 72, 74, 82, 104, 110,
 114, 117, 123, 127
 Beef cows  23
 Beef production  12, 45, 61, 65, 74, 79, 83, 123, 126
 Best linear unbiased prediction  141
 Bibliographies  115, 116
 Biodegradation  142
 Biological activity in soil  142
 Biological competition  127
 Biomass  145
 Biomass production  34, 41, 145
 Birds  30
 Birth weight  104
 Bloat  52
 Blood  110
 Blood serum  63
 Body weight  23
 Botanical composition  10, 34, 92, 94, 97, 101, 108, 145
 Bothriochloa  34
 Bothriochloa ischaemum  117
 Bouteloua gracilis  145
 Bovine mastitis  69
 Branching  91
 Breed differences 65
 Breeding efficiency  104
 Breeding season  82
 Breeding value  141
 Broadcasting  103
 Brush control  82
 Bulk milk  69
 Calcium chloride  118
 Calf production  82
 California  9, 74, 132
 Calves  23, 95, 96, 141
 Canopy  27, 81
 Carcass composition  63
 Carcass quality  36
 Carrying capacity  9, 120
 Cash flow analysis  77
 Cattle  2, 7, 8, 9, 14, 17, 33, 47, 48, 61, 70, 88, 94, 95,
 101, 112, 121, 125, 128, 137, 138, 141, 145
 Cattle farming  42
 Cattle feeding  74
 Cell ultrastructure  122
 Cell wall components  25, 118
 Cellulose  35
 Cellulose digestion  142
 Cenchrus ciliaris  94
 Cereals  62
 Ceruloplasmin  63
 Chloris gayana  83, 113
 Chlortetracycline  36
 Cinnamic acid  86
 Clearcutting  131
 Climatic factors  142
 Cold resistance  19
 Cold tolerance  75
 Colinus Virginianus  6, 30
 Colorado  98
 Comparisons  95
 Computer simulation  62, 79
 Computer software  140
 Concentrates  124
 Conception rate  12
 Contract farming  50
 Controlled grazing  2, 37, 54, 55, 101, 137
 Controlled release  63
 Corriedale  31
 Cost benefit analysis  65
 Costs  15, 42
 Cottonseed oilmeal  110
 Cover crops  89
 Cows  60, 97, 133
 Crop density  16
 Crop management  26, 103
 Crop mixtures  80, 85, 108
 Crop quality  25, 35, 39, 85, 94, 97, 107, 108, 120, 121
 Crop yield  25, 38, 83, 85, 94, 97, 120, 142
 Crossbred progeny  104
 Crossbreds  36, 65, 104
 Crude protein  25, 37, 80, 96, 120, 121
 Cultivars  106, 120, 129
 Cultural weed control  71
 Cuprous oxide  63
 Cutting frequency  68
 Cynodon dactylon  13, 15, 65, 66, 79, 113, 120
 Cynodon nlemfuensis  120
 Dactylis glomerata  12, 86, 105
 Dairy cattle  105
 Dairy cows  68, 69, 84, 90, 96, 124
 Dairy farming  21, 103
 Dairy farms  69
 Dairying  14
 Dams (mothers)  104
 Defoliation  26, 27, 68, 81, 137
 Denmark  68
 Dictyocaulus filaria  24
 Diets  36, 76, 141
 Digestibility  23, 37, 80, 125
 Digitaria decumbens  38, 39
 Distance travelled  55, 56
 Diurnal activity  2
 Double cropping  71
 Drinking water  55
 Drought  42
 Drug residues  133
 Dry feeding  84
 Dry matter  28, 125
 Dry matter accumulation  25, 83, 120
 Dry season  25, 92
 Duration  2, 27, 55
 Economic analysis  9
 Economic impact  21
 Economics  8, 62
 Ecosystems  67, 73
 Edaphic factors  142
 Edible species  92
 Efficiency  77
 Electric fences  74, 148
 Elymus elongatus  80, 85, 108
 Elymus hispidus  85, 108
 Elymus hispidus subsp. barbulatus  80
 Endophytes  2, 122
 Energy  125
 Energy conservation  73
 Energy intake  92
 England  27, 81
 Environmental factors  141
 Environmental impact reporting  102
 Epidemiology  88
 Epizootiology  93
 Eragrostis lehmanniana  82
 Estradiol  63
 Evolution  40
 Ewe lactation  24
 Ewes  16, 24, 31, 87
 Exercise  90
 Experimental plots  20
 Fallow systems  47
 Farm inputs  132
 Farm management  62
 Farm profit  62
 Farming  89
 Fattening performance  63, 96
 Feces  93, 110
 Feces collection  125
 Federal programs  50
 Feed conversion  80
 Feed intake  36, 68, 80, 92, 108, 124
 Feed supplements  45, 75, 124
 Feeding  36
 Feeding frequency  32
 Feeding preferences  32
 Feedlots  135
 Feeds  133
 Fencing  18, 117
 Fertilizers  42, 106
 Ferulic acid  86
 Festuca arundinacea  2, 12, 63, 105, 122
 Festuca pratensis  142
 Fiber  86
 Fiber content  25, 35, 96, 118
 Fiber quality  31
 Field tests  125
 Fire effects  44
 Fish meal  96
 Floodlands  34
 Florida  3, 46, 102, 120
 Fodder crops  42, 66, 105, 106
 Fodder legumes  51
 Fodder plants  51
 Food safety  133
 Forage  3, 8, 25, 35, 41, 49, 54, 57, 60, 64, 74, 75, 80, 84,
 85, 92, 96, 108, 118, 121, 123, 127, 140
 Forage crops  19, 20, 75
 Forage plants  147
 Forestry  102
 France  24, 124
 Fungal morphology  122
 Genetic effects  141
 Genetic engineering  132
 Genetic resistance  93
 Genotypes  10, 93, 99
 Georgia  130
 Gliocladium  122
 Gliricidia sepium  25
 Goats  44
 Grass sward  27, 81
 Grasses  19, 20, 34, 66, 76, 123, 129
 Grassland management  2, 4, 5, 21, 38, 39, 41, 45, 48, 51, 58,
 91, 96, 124, 129
 Grasslands  28, 29, 49, 53, 144
 Grazing  14, 17, 36, 43, 62, 84, 104, 109, 110, 147, 148
 Grazing behavior  2, 32, 55, 56, 76, 128
 Grazing effects  4, 5, 6, 10, 17, 28, 30, 32, 33, 40, 54, 59,
 77, 81, 91, 99, 101, 102, 107, 108, 119, 126, 131, 134, 136,
 137, 141, 145
 Grazing experiments  15, 20, 41, 49, 63, 95, 113, 128
 Grazing intensity  8, 9, 12, 19, 20, 28, 29, 32, 34, 40, 48,
 54, 56, 65, 68, 71, 74, 81, 91, 101, 108, 128, 134, 137, 145
 Grazing systems  2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 11, 13, 18, 24, 34, 42, 47,
 55, 56, 57, 60, 61, 73, 75, 76, 77, 79, 83, 94, 95, 102, 106,
 114, 121, 129, 134, 139, 141, 143, 144
 Grazing time  12, 28, 29, 32, 37, 55, 56, 101, 125, 128, 145
 Grazing trials  32, 37, 56, 60, 80, 83, 85, 94, 96, 114, 120,
 125 Grey forest soils  142
 Gross margins  22
 Growth  12, 53, 57
 Growth models  79
 Growth rate  38, 68, 108
 Habitat improvement  67
 Habitat selection  17
 Habitats  6, 17
 Haemonchus contortus  93
 Hard seeds  99
 Harvesting  106
 Harvesting date  25
 Heat tolerance  76
 Heifers  96, 141
 Hemarthria altissima  3
 Herbage  23, 32, 37, 53, 60, 68, 80, 83, 84, 85, 94, 97, 108,
 120
 Herbage crops  59, 100, 119
 Hilaria mutica  110, 121
 Hill land  96
 Holistic approach  61
 Holstein-friesian  28, 29
 Horses  57, 58
 Humid zones  76
 Hunting  9, 46
 Hybrids  80, 85, 114
 Hyphae  122
 Idaho  143
 Illinois  48
 Imazethapyr  86
 In vitro digestibility  25, 35, 120
 Inflorescences  26
 Insect control  71, 107
 Intensive farming  73, 75, 76
 Intensive livestock farming  78
 Intensive production  21
 Ionophores  135
 Ireland  28, 29
 Irrigated pastures  22, 85
 Irrigation  129
 Irrigation systems  129
 Israel  60
 Italy  40
 Kangaroos  49
 Kenya  35
 Lactation  31
 Lamb production  22, 80
 Lambs  16, 80, 85, 87, 88
 Land use  84
 Lasalocid  36
 Leaf age  81
 Leaf area  32
 Leases  46
 Leaves  27
 Legumes  71
 Leucanthemum vulgare  33
 Leukotrienes  93
 Lignin  25, 35, 118
 Linear programming  62
 Litter (plant)  142
 Livestock  73, 102
 Liveweight  65
 Liveweight gain  7, 11, 12, 22, 39, 45, 54, 55, 56, 80, 85,
 94, 96, 110, 120, 141
 Liveweight gains  8, 15, 23, 36, 60, 75, 76, 78, 83, 107, 113,
 114, 121
 Logging effects  131
 Lolium  86
 Lolium multiflorum  15, 87
 Lolium perenne  27, 28, 29, 68, 81, 105, 122
 Long term experiments  142
 Losses  30
 Losses from soil systems  131
 Lotus corniculatus  130
 Louisiana  123
 Macroptilium atropurpureum  94, 97
 Maine  71
 Maize  84
 Mathematical models  27, 81, 85
 Maturity stage  25
 Meadows  147
 Medicago  10, 99
 Medicago polymorpha  107
 Medicago sativa  52, 94, 97, 130
 Mediterranean countries  60
 Michigan  51
 Microbial contamination  69
 Milk production  14, 124, 132, 133
 Milk quality  69
 Milk tanks  69
 Milk yield  124, 133
 Millets  106
 Mineral content  25, 35
 Mixed cropping  22, 71
 Mixed grazing  31
 Mixed pastures  16, 22, 64, 80, 85, 94, 97
 Moisture content  37
 Monitoring  10
 Monoculture  22, 80
 Montana  42, 127, 129
 Morphology  87
 Mountain grasslands  40
 Mowing  142
 Multiple land use  9
 National forests  9, 67
 Natural grasslands  34, 94, 101
 Nature conservancy  67
 Nebraska  103
 Nematode infections  24, 88, 93
 Nematode larvae  93
 Nematodirus battus  88
 Neonotonia wightii  97
 Nests  30
 New Mexico  118, 121, 141, 145
 New York  21, 96
 New Zealand  16, 91, 126
 Nigeria  25
 Nitrate  118
 Nitrogen  118
 Nitrogen content  110
 Nitrogen fertilizers  83, 89, 94
 North central states of U.S.A.  58, 89
 North Dakota  50
 Nutrient intake  92
 Nutrient solutions  118
 Nutritive value  3, 35, 80, 83, 86, 94, 118, 120
 Odocoileus hemionus  9, 17
 Odocoileus Virginianus  46
 Oklahoma  66, 70, 101, 117, 137
 Onobrychis  22
 Onobrychis viciifolia  80, 85, 108
 Operations research  77
 Optimization  126
 Organic farming  42
 Ostertagia ostertagi  93
 Overgrazing  61
 Oxalates  118
 Oxytetracycline  2
 P-coumaric acid  86
 Paddocks  90
 Panicum maximum var. trichoglume  97
 Panicum virgatum  7
 Paspalum dilatatum  34
 Paspalum notatum  3
 Pasture management  3, 15, 16, 28, 29, 65, 73, 75, 76, 103,
 107, 115, 116, 130
 Pasture plants  5, 35, 51, 58, 92
 Pastures  13, 18, 23, 24, 55, 58, 93, 107, 129, 142, 147, 148
 Pennisetum clandestinum  38, 39, 113
 Pennsylvania  84, 105
 Pens  36
 Perennials  76
 Performance  130
 Performance testing  95
 Performance traits  60
 Permanent grasslands  97
 Permeability  54
 Persistence  5, 94, 99
 Peru  31, 92
 Pests  43
 Phenology  38
 Phialophora  122
 Phleum pratense  86, 142
 Photosynthesis  27, 81
 Pig farming  109
 Pinus elliottii  102
 Pinus palustris  102
 Planning  77, 77
 Plant communities  46, 101
 Plant competition  40
 Plant composition  118
 Plant density  134, 144
 Plant ecology  19, 20, 127
 Plant establishment  47
 Plant growth regulators  86
 Plant height  137
 Plant introduction  82
 Plant morphology  19, 91
 Plant physiology  19, 20
 Plant production  8, 68
 Plant protein  96
 Plant succession  40, 101, 102
 Planting  129
 Plate count  69
 Poa pratensis  7
 Population density  6, 9
 Population dynamics  134
 Pores  122
 Potassium chloride  142
 Prairies  11, 32, 70, 100, 101, 119
 Precipitation  142
 Prediction  85
 Prescribed burning  44, 45, 46, 53, 100, 102
 Production  53
 Production costs  22
 Production possibilities  38, 39
 Productivity  61
 Profitability  54, 62, 89, 126
 Profits  133
 Progeny testing  141
 Progesterone  63
 Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa  110
 Protein content  25, 42
 Protein degradation  96
 Protein intake  70, 92
 Protein status  110
 Protein supplements  96, 110
 Quails  117
 Quality  57, 64, 96, 118
 Queensland  38, 39, 45, 83, 94, 97, 114
 Quercus havardii  37
 Rain  41, 49
 Ranching  61
 Range management  8, 9, 44, 46, 67, 74, 77, 82, 100, 127, 136,
 144, 145, 148
 Range pastures  9, 17, 82, 92, 111, 128, 134, 145
 Rangelands  6, 9, 37, 47, 77, 111, 121
 Record keeping  18
 Regrowth  27, 81, 108
 Rehabilitation  82
 Reproductive organs (animal)  87
 Reserved areas  111
 Resource management  61
 Responses  53, 141
 Returns  22
 Riparian forests  67
 Riparian grasslands  112
 Riparian vegetation  98
 Ripping  82
 Romanov  24
 Rotational grazing  1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, 15, 16, 18, 19,
 20, 22, 23, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34, 37, 38, 39, 41,
 44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 50, 52, 53, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59,
 60, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 74, 78, 80, 81,
 82, 83, 87, 88, 89, 90, 92, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 100, 101, 103,
 105, 108, 109, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 119, 120,
 121, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133,
 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 143, 144, 146
 Rotations  7, 10, 42, 62, 71, 99, 106, 107
 Ruminant feeding  135
 Ruminants  75, 86
 Rural development  111
 Sage  53
 Saline water  118
 Salsola iberica  118
 Savanna woodlands  35
 Savannas  45
 Schizachyrium scoparium  32, 136, 137
 Seasonal fluctuations  142
 Seasonal growth  108, 119, 120
 Seasonal variation  34, 95
 Sediments  131
 Seed banks  10, 99
 Seed crops  26
 Seed production  26, 47
 Selective grazing  69
 Semi-desert scrub  17
 Semiarid zones  6, 49, 144
 Setaria sphacelata  38, 39, 83
 Sex differences  65
 Sheep  22, 24, 26, 27, 49, 62, 81, 85, 91, 92, 93, 107, 108
 Sheep diseases  93
 Silage  126
 Simulation  53
 Simulation models  62, 79, 125, 126, 140
 Sitanion hystrix  53
 Site preparation  129, 131
 Site selection  129
 Size  55, 134
 Small intestine  93
 Sodium chloride  118
 Soil and water conservation  50, 111
 Soil flora  142
 Soil management  142
 Soil organic matter  142
 Soil temperature  142
 Soil testing  42
 Soil types  41
 Soil water  54
 Soil water content  142
 Somatotropin  132, 133
 Sorghastrum nutans  32
 Sorghum  114
 Sorghum sudanense  106
 South  Africa  113
 South australia  62
 South central states of U.S.A.  79
 South eastern states of U.S.A.  79
 Southern plains states of U.S.A.  22
 Sowing  82
 Sown grasslands  94, 97
 Sown pastures  36, 78
 Soybean oilmeal  96
 Spain  23, 87
 Spatial distribution  128
 Species  95
 Sporobolus indicus  34
 Spring  22, 28, 29, 110
 Steers  3, 13, 15, 28, 29, 36, 37, 38, 56, 63, 78, 83, 94,
 110, 113, 120, 130
 Stipa comata  8
 Stocking density  41, 131
 Stocking rate  8, 11, 13, 23, 31, 39, 48, 49, 52, 54, 56, 57,
 59, 68, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 91, 92, 94, 97, 101, 104, 107,
 113, 114, 121, 124, 126, 128, 137, 145
 Stream flow  131
 Streams  98
 Subtropical soils  97
 Summer  22, 110
 Superphosphate  94, 97, 142
 Supplementary feeding  60, 72
 Survival  99, 134
 Sustainability  71
 Sustainable agriculture  43
 Sward renovation  81
 Symphoricarpos  127
 Syria  10, 99
 Teat dip  69
 Teats  69
 Teladorsagia circumcincta  24
 Temperate climate  104
 Temperatures  28
 Temporal variation  142
 Tennessee  95
 Texas  6, 22, 37, 44, 65, 80, 85, 100, 117, 125, 128, 131
 Thinopyrum  22
 Tillage  62
 Tillering  19
 Tillers  32, 136, 137
 Trichostrongylus colubriformis  93
 Trichostrongylus vitrinus  24
 Trifolium  95
 Trifolium pratense  12, 142
 Trifolium repens  2, 16, 26, 91
 Trifolium subterraneum 10
 Triticum  99
 Tropical grasslands  38, 39
 Tropics  35
 U.S.S.R.  142
 Udders  69
 Undergrowth  35
 United  Kingdom  26
 Urea  110
 Usda  50
 Utah  134
 Utilization  76
 Varieties  3, 26
 Vegetation  142, 143, 144, 145
 Vegetation types  40
 Vermont  69
 Vertisols  97
 Veterinarians  146
 Veterinary helminthology  138
 Vigor  47, 53
 Virginia  90
 Water availability  18
 Watershed management  131
 Watersheds  98
 Weaning  104
 Weaning weight  23, 104
 Weed control  33, 106, 107, 129
 Weight  125
 Weight gain  3, 37, 57, 72
 Weight losses  12
 Western australia  107
 Wet season  92
 Wetlands  67
 Wheat  36, 107
 Wildlife conservation  18, 67
 Wildlife management  6, 30, 117
 Winter  28, 29, 123
 Wisconsin  7
 Woodlands  49
 Wool production  31, 107
 Wyoming  8, 54, 56, 106, 129, 143
 Yield components  26, 28, 38
 Yield increases  27
 Yield response functions  144
 Yields  18, 26, 34, 68, 81, 107
 Zero grazing  69
 
 

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The Alternative Farming Systems Information Center, afsic@nal.usda.gov
https://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/AFSIC_pubs/qb93-50.htm, August 1993

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