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Alternative Farming Systems Information Center of the National Agricultural Library
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture


Ethnobotany and Medicinal Plants, Part 2
July 1991 - July 1992

 
 TITLE: Ethnobotany and Medicinal Plants, Part 2
 AUTHOR:  Susan A. McCarthy
          Plant Genome Data and Information Center
         National Agricultural Library
 PUBLICATION DATE:  October 1992
 SERIES:  QB 93-02
NAL Call no.: aZ5071.N3 no.93-02 CONTACT: Alternative Farming Systems Information Center National Agricultural Library Room 123, 10301 Baltimore Ave. Beltsville, MD 20705-2351 Telephone: (301) 504-6559 http://afsic.nal.usda.gov ============================================================== ISSN: 1052-5378 United States Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Library 10301 Baltimore Blvd. Beltsville, Maryland 20705-2351 Ethnobotany and Medicinal Plants July 1991 - July 1992 Quick Bibliography Series: QB 93-02 Updates QB's 90-44 and 92-66 546 citations from AGRICOLA Susan A. McCarthy Plant Genome Data and Information Center October 1992 National Agricultural Library Cataloging Record: McCarthy, Susan A. Ethnobotany and medicinal plants : July 1991-July 1992. (Quick bibliography series ; 93-02) 1. Medicinal plants--Bibliography. 2. Materia medica, Vegetable--Bibliography. 3. Ethnobotany--Bibliography. I. Title. aZ5071.N3 no.93-02 About the Quick Bibliography Series Bibliographies in the Quick Bibliography Series of the National Agricultural Library, are intended primarily for current awareness, and as the title of the series implies, are not indepth exhaustive bibliographies on any given subject. However, the citations are a substantial resource for recent investigations on a given topic. They also serve the purpose of bringing the literature of agriculture to the interested user who, in many cases, could not access it by any other means. The bibliographies are derived from computerized on-line searches of the AGRICOLA data base. Timeliness of topic and evidence of extensive interest are the selection criteria. The author/searcher determines the purpose, length, and search strategy of the Quick Bibliography. Information regarding these is available upon request from the author/searcher. Copies of this bibliography may be made or used for distribution without prior approval. The inclusion or omission of a particular publication or citation may not be construed as endorsement or disapproval. Document Delivery Information: Read Request Library Materials, https://www.nal.usda.gov/nal-services/request-library-materials, to get directions for ordering publications through interlibrary loan. AGRICOLA Citations in this bibliography were entered in the AGRICOLA database between January 1979 and the present. Search AGRICOLA (http://agricola.nal.usda.gov) to update this Quick Bibliography. Use the search strategy and terms located below, plus the extensive AGRICOLA Help site to locate recent literature on your subject of interest. SAMPLE CITATIONS Citations in this bibliography are from the National Agricultural Library's AGRICOLA database. An explanation of sample journal article, book, and audiovisual citations appears below. JOURNAL ARTICLE: Article title. Author. Place of publication: Publisher. Journal Title. Date. Volume (Issue). Pages. (NAL Call Number). Example: Morrison, S.B. Denver, Colo.: American School Food Service Association. School foodservice journal. Sept 1987. v. 41 (8). p.48-50. ill. (NAL Call No.: DNAL 389.8.SCH6). BOOK: Title. Author. Place of publication: Publisher, date. Information on pagination, indices, or bibliographies. (NAL Call Number). Example: Exploring careers in dietetics and nutrition. Kane, June Kozak. New York: Rosen Pub. Group, 1987. Includes index. xii, 133 p.: ill.; 22 cm. Bibliography: p. 126. (NAL Call No.: DNAL RM218.K36 1987). AUDIOVISUAL: Title. Author. Place of publication: Publisher, date. Supplemental information such as funding. Media format (i.e., videocassette): Description (sound, color, size). (NAL Call Number). Example: All aboard the nutri-train. Mayo, Cynthia. Richmond, Va.: Richmond Public Schools, 1981. NET funded. Activity packet prepared by Cynthia Mayo. 1 videocassette (30 min.): sd., col.; 3/4 in. + activity packet. (NAL Call No.: DNAL FNCTX364.A425 F&N AV). Ethnobotany and Medicinal Plants Search Strategy Set Description S1 ETHNOBOTANY S2 MEDICINAL S3 PLANTS S4 MEDICINAL (W) PLANTS S5 FOLK S6 MEDICINE S7 FOLK (W) MEDICINE S8 TRADITIONAL S9 MEDICINE S10 TRADITIONAL (W) MEDICINE S11 TRADITIONAL S12 MEDICINES S13 TRADITIONAL (W) MEDICINES S14 HERBAL S15 HERBALS S16 HERBS, THERAPEAUTIC USE S17 PHYTOPHARMACEUTICAL S18 ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY S19 ETHNOBOTANY OR MEDICINAL PLANTS OR FOLK MEDICINE OR TRADITIONAL MEDICINE OR TRADITIONAL MEDICINES OR HERBAL OR HERBALS OR "HERBS, THERAPEUTIC USE" OR PHYTOPHARMACEUTICAL OR ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY S20 UD=9107:9207 S21 S19 AND S20 1 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 (-)- Di-de-O-methylgrandisin, a lignan from Virola pavonis leaves. Ferri, P.H.; Barata, L.E.S. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (12): p. 4204-4205; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Brazil; Virola pavonis; Medicinal plants; Leaves; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Lignans Abstract: Leaves of Virola pavonis yielded a (7-alpha,7'-beta,8-beta,8'-alpha)-4, 4'-dihydroxy-3,3'5,5'- tetramethoxy-7, 7'-epoxylignan,(-)-di-de-O-methylgrandisin. 2 NAL Call. No.: RS160.I47 (+)- Dihydroperfamine: an alkaloid from Halplophyllum tuberculatum. Al-Yaha, M.A.; El-Domiaty, M.M.; Al-Meshal, I.A.; Al-Said, M.S.; El-Feraly, F.S. Lisse, Netherlands : Swets & Zeitlinger; 1991. International journal of pharmacognosy v. 29 (4): p. 268-272; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Haplophyllum tuberculatum; Alkaloids; Chemical analysis; Medicinal plants; Nuclear magnetic resonance 3 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 11,11-dimethyl-1,3,8,10-tetrahydroxy-9-methoxypeltogynan and three pentacyclic triterpenes from Cassine transvaalensis. Drewes, S.E.; Mashimbye, M.J.; Field, J.S.; Ramesar, N. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (10): p. 3490-3493; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Southern Africia; Triterpenoids; Chemical composition; Spectral analysis; Roots; Bark; Medicinal plants; Cassine Abstract: From the root bark of Cassine transvaalensis a new peltogynoid, (+)-11,11-dimethyl-1,3,8,10-tetrahydroxy-9- methoxypeltogynan was obtained along with three pentacyclic triterpenes, canophyllol, canophyllal and 6-beta-hydroxy- lup-20(30)-en-3-one. The latter was fully characterized by X-ray analysis and high resolution NMR. The carbohydrate galactitol was also present in unusually high concentration. 4 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 13 beta-dihydroeurycomanol, a quassinoid from Eurycoma longifolia. Chan, K.L.; Lee, S.P.; Sam, T.W.; Tan, S.C.; Noguchi, H.; Sankawa, U. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (9): p. 3138-3141; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Malaysia; Medicinal plants; Roots; Spectral analysis; Quassinoids; Chemical composition; Antimalarials; Eurycoma longifolia Abstract: A new quassinoid, 13 beta,18-dihydroeurycomanol, and 14,15 beta-dihydroxyklaineanone have been isolated from the roots of Eurycoma longifolia. On the basis of NOE and 1H-1H COSY measurements, the previous 1H NMR assignment for the C-4 and C-10 methyl groups of eurycomanol-2-O-beta-D-glycopyranoside and eurycomanol are reversed. 5 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 2- Ethoxycarbonyl-1-hydroxyanthraquinone from Rubia akane. Okuyama, E.; Sato, K.; Yoshihira, K. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1990. Phytochemistry v. 29 (12): p. 3973-3974; 1990. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Japan; Rubia; Medicinal plants; Roots; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Anthraquinones Abstract: From the roots of Rubia akane, 1-hydroxy-2- methylanthraquinone and a new anthraquinone, 2- ethoxycarbonyl-1-hydroxyanthraquinone were isolated. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by spectroscopy and synthesis. 6 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 5- Hydroxy-3,6,7,2',5'-pentamethoxyflavone from Inula grantioides. Ahmad, V.U.; Ismail, N. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (3): p. 1040-1041; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Pakistan; Inula; Medicinal plants; Chemical composition; Spectral analysis; Flavonols; Medicinal properties; Asthma Abstract: A new flavonol, grantioidin, has been isolated from Inula grantioides and its structure was determined as 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,2',5'-pentamethoxyflavone. beta-Sitosterol, lupeol, taraxasterol, taraxasterol acetate and triacontanol were also isolated for the first time from this plant. 7 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 6- hydroxykaempferol 7-rutinoside from leaves of Sapium eugniaefolium. Ahmad, M.; Jain, N.; Kamil, M.; Ilyas, M. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (8): p. 2815-2816; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: India; Medicinal plants; Leaves; Chemical composition; Kaempferol; Glycosides; Sapium Abstract: A new glycoside 6-hydroxykaempferol 7-glucosyl(1 leads to 6)rhamnoside was isolated from the leaves of Sapium eugniaefolium. 8 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 6- methoxygeniposidic acid, an iridoid glycoside from Rubia cordifolia. Wu, L.J.; Wang, S.X.; Hua, H.M.; Li, W.; Zhu, T.R.; Miyase, T.; Ueno, A. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (5): p. 1710-1711; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Abstract: 6-Methoxygeniposidic acid, a new iridoid glucoside, was isolated from the roots of Rubia cordifolia. The structure was deduced from spectral and chemical evidence. 9 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 7- hydroxycoumarin derivatives from the juice oil of Citrus hassaku. Masuda, T.; Muroya, Y.; Nakatani, N. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Apr. Phytochemistry v. 31 (4): p. 1363-1366; 1992 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Citrus hassaku; Citrus fruits; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Juices; Plant oils; Coumarins; Derivatives Abstract: Three new 7-hydroxycoumarin derivatives have been isolated from the juice oil of whole fruits of Citrus hassaku, and their structures determined to be 7-(6R-hydroxy-3,7- dimethyl-2E,7-octadienyloxy)coumarin, (+/-)-7-hydroxy-6- linalylcoumarin and (R)-6-O-(4-geranyloxy-2-hydroxy)cinnamoylmarmin by spectral data and chemical evidence. 10 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 7- Keto-octadec-cis-11-enoic acid from Gardenia lucida seed oil. Mahmood, C.; Daulatabad, J.D.; Mulla, G.M.M.; Mirajkar, A.M.; Hosamani, K.M. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (7): p. 2399-2400; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Seed oils; Chemical composition; Keto acids; Fatty Acides; Medicinal plants; Antibiotics; Gardenia lucida Abstract: A hitherto unknown keto fatty acid has been isolated from Gardenia lucida seed oil. It has been characterized as 7-keto-octadec-cis-11-enoic acid based on spectrometry and chemical degradations. 11 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 8- Hentriacontanol and other constituents from Piper attenuatum. Sumathyutty, M.A.; Madhusudana Rao, J. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (6): p. 2075-2076; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: India; Medicinal plants; Leaves; Chemical composition; Piper attenuatum Abstract: Pipoxide chlorohydrin, (-)-galbelgin and a new aliphatic alcohol, 8-hentriacontanol have been isolated from the leaves of Piper attenuatum. 12 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 8- Hydroxyflavonoid glucuronides from Malva sylvestris. Billeter, M.; Meier, B.; Sticher, O. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (3): p. 987-990; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Leaves; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Flavonoids; Glucuronic acid; Derivatives; Malva sylvestris Abstract: Four 8-hydroxyflavonoid glucuronides were isolated from the leaves of Malva sylvestris L. The structures of the two novel compounds gossypetin 3-glucoside-8-glucuronide and hypolaetin 4'- methyl ether 8-glucuronide were determined on the basis of spectroscopy and hydrolysis experiments. For hypolaetin 8-glucuronide and isoscutellarein 8-glucuronide spectroscopic data are given. 13 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Abietane diterpenoids from Saliva microstegia. Ulubelen, A.; Topcu, G. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (6): p. 2085-2086; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Turkey; Salvia; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Diterpenoids Abstract: Four abietane diterpenoids were isolated from the aerial parts of Salvia microstegia. Two, ferruginol and pisiferal, are known compounds. The other two, 10- acetylferruginol and 5,11,12-trihydroxy-abieta-8,11,13-triene, are new compounds. 14 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Acetylenes from Cirsium japonicum. Takaishi, Y.; Okuyama, T.; Masuda, A.; Nakano, K.; Murakami, K.; Tomimatsu, T. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1990. Phytochemistry v. 29 (12): p. 3849-3852; 1990. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Roots; Chemical composition; Alkynes; Molecular conformation; Cirsium japonicum Abstract: Three new and two known acetylene derivatives were isolated from the roots of C. japonicum and their structures established by chemical and spectroscopic means. 15 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Acidic and phenolic lignans from Juniperus sabina. San Feliciano, A.; Miguel del Corral, J.M.; Gordaliza, M.; Castro, A. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (10): p. 3483-3485; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Spain; Medicinal plants; Leaves; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Lignans; Juniperus sabina Abstract: Along with some known compounds, two new lignans, a naphthalene derivative named junaphtoic acid and (-)-3-O- demethylyatein, were isolated from the acidic fraction of a n- hexane extract from the leaves of Juniperus sabina. Their structures were established by spectroscopic and chemical means. 16 NAL Call. No.: 450 P697 Acinospesigenin--ein neues Triterpen aus den Blattern von Phytolacca acinosa [Acinospesigenin: a new triterpene from the leaves of Phytolacca acinosa]. Spengel, S.; Schaffner, W. Stuttgart, W. Ger. : Georg Thieme Verlag; 1990 Jun. Planta medica v. 56 (3): p. 284-286; 1990 Jun. Includes references. Language: German Descriptors: Leaves; Plant Extracts; Medicinal plants; Triterpenoids; Phytolacca acinosa 17 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Activity of water extracts of Albizzia anthelmintica and A. lebbek barks against experimental Hymenolepis diminuta infection in rats. Galal, M.; Bashir, A.K.; Salih, A.M.; Adam, S.E.I. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Mar. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 31 (3): p. 333-337; 1991 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Albizia; Albizia lebbek; Hymenolepis diminuta; Plant extracts; Traditional medicines; Bark; Rats Abstract: The aqueous extract of Albizzia anthelmintica bark at 10-150 g/kg orally showed no toxicity and high anthelmintic activity (68-100%) against experimental Hymenolepis diminuta infection in albino rats. The water extract from A. lebbek bark at 10-100 g/kg orally was less effective against the cestode and was toxic to rats at the highest dose tested (150 g/kg). 18 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Acyclic sequiterpene oligoglycosides from pericarps of Sapindus delavayi. Wong, W.H.; Kasai, R.; Choshi, W.; Nakagawa, Y.; Mizutani, K.; Ohtani, K.; Tanaka, O. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (8): p. 2699-2702; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Yunnan; Sapindus; Pericarp; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Sesquiterpenes; Glycosides; Surfactants Abstract: From pericarps of Sapindus delavayi, new acyclic sesquiterpene oligoglycosides named pyishauosides Ib, IIb, IIIA, IVa and IVb were isolated and the structure of these glycosides was elucidated. A remarkable solubilizing effects on saponin A, geraniol, farnesol and dl-alpha-tocopherol in water were observed for pyishiauoside IIIa and IVa. 19 NAL Call. No.: 470 SCI24 Adjuvant advantage: breast cancer therapies promise a longer life. Fackelmann, K.A. Washington, D.C. : Science Service :.; 1992 Feb22. Science news v. 141 (8): p. 124-125; 1992 Feb22. Language: English Descriptors: U.S.A.; Taxus; Medicinal plants 20 NAL Call. No.: RS160.I47 Aflatoxin and citrinin in seeds of some medicinal plants under storage. Roy, A.K.; Kumari, V. Lisse, Netherlands : Swets & Zeitlinger; 1991 Feb. International journal of pharmacognosy v. 29 (1): p. 62-65; 1991 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Hydnocarpus; Acanthaceae; Piper betle; Acacia concinna; Caesalpinia; Cassia fistula; Medicinal plants; Seeds; Storage; Microbial contamination; Aflatoxins; Citrinin; Aspergillus flavus; Penicillium citrinum; Deuteromycotina 21 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Agaveside C, a steroidal glycoside from Agave cantala. Uniyal, G.C.; Agrawal, P.K.; Sati, O.P.; Thakur, R.S. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (4): p. 1336-1339; 1991. Part 34 in the series 'Studies on Indian Medicinal Plants'. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Uttar pradesh; Agave cantala; Fruits; Spectral analysis; Glycosides; Plant extracts Abstract: A new steroidal glycoside, agaveside C, isolated from the fruits of Agave cantala was characterized as 3 beta-[alpha-L- rhamnopyranosyl-(1 leads to 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 leads to 3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 leads to 4)- alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 leads to 2)]-beta-D- glucopyranosyl]-2 alpha-hydroxy-25R-5 alpha-spirostane on the basis of chemical degradation, 13CNMR spectroscopy and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. 22 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Aliphatic hydroxyketones from Adhatoda vasica. Singh, R.S.; Misra, T.N.; Pandey, H.S.; Singh, B.P. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (11): p. 3799-3801; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: India; Adhatoda vasica; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Ketones Abstract: Two new aliphatic hydroxyketones, isolated from the aerial parts of Adhatoda vasica have been characterized as 37- hydroxyhexatetracont-1-en-15-one and 37- hydroxyhentetracontan-19-one, respectively, on the basis of spectral data and chemical studies. 23 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Alkaloids, flavonoids and phenylpropanoids of the West African plant Oxymitra velutina. Achenbach, H.; Hemrich, H. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (4): p. 1265-1267; 1991. Part 40 in the series 'Constituents of Tropical Medicinal Plants'. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ghana; Annonaceae; Stems; Chemical composition; Flavonoids; Sesquiterpenoids; Alkaloids; Propionic acid; Phytosterols Abstract: From the twigs of Oxymitra velutina 23 compounds belonging to the alkaloids, flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, sterols and sesquiterpenes have been isolated. Among the alkaloids, aporphine-type and related constituents prevail. (2S)-5,6,7-Trimethoxyflavanone has been isolated as a natural product for the first time. 24 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Alkaloids from Guatteria goudotiana. Castedo, L.; Granja, J.A.; Rodriguez de Lera, A.; Villaverde, M.C. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (8): p. 2781-2783; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Colombia; Guatteria; Medicinal plants; Leaves; Bark; Chemical composition; Alkaloids; Isoquinoline alkaloids Abstract: The leaves and bark of Guatteria goudotiana were investigated for their alkaloid content. From the leaves, 15 alkaloids were isolated: the 1-benzylisoquinolines, (+)- reticuline and (-)-juziphine; the morphinandienone, (-)- pallidine; the noraporphines, (-)-3-hydroxynornuciferine, (+)- laurotetanine and (+)-norisodomesticine; the aporphines, (+)- neolitsine, (+)-isodomesticine, (+)-N-methyllaurotetanine, (+)-isoboldine and (+)-corytuberine; the dehydroaporphines, dehydroneolitsine, dehydronantenine and goudotianine; and the oxoaporphine, liriodenine. From the bark, the following four alkaloids were isolated: the noraporphines, (+)- norisodomesticine and (-)-anolobine; the dehydroaporphine, goudotianine; and the phenanthrene alkaloid, argentinine. This is the first time the dehydroaporphines, dehydroneolitsine and goudotianine, have been isolated from a natural source. 25 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Alkaloids from leaves and root bark of Ervatamia hirta. Clivio, P.; Richard, B.; Deverre, J.R.; Sevenet, T.; Zeches, M.; Le Men-Oliver, L. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (11): p. 3785-3792; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Malaysia; Poisonous plants; Medicinal plants; Leaves; Roots; Bark; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Indole alkaloids; Ervatamia Abstract: During chemical investigation of the leaves and root bark of Ervatamia hirta, 33 alkaloids were isolated. Seven are new: six are the 'monomeric' alkaloids (E) 16-epi- normacusine B, (E) 16-epi-affinisine, O-acetyl-16-epi- affinisine, affinisine-N(4)-oxide, dehydro-16-epi-affinisine, norfluorocurarine-N(4)-oxide, and the seventh is the bisindole 16- decarbomethoxyvoacamine-pseudoindoxyl. The known alkaloids are: (E) 16-epi-isositsirikine, beta-yohimbine, yohimbine, 19,20-dehydro-beta-yohimbine, beta-yohimbine-pseudoindoxyl, isositsirikine, 19,20-dihydroisositsirikine, beta-yohimbine- oxindole, normacusine B, affinisine, vobasine, dregamine, tabernaemontanine, norfluorocurarine, 12- hydroxynorfluorocurarine, apparicine, 3,14-dihydroellipticine, antirhine, voacristine, ibogaine, iboxygaine, iboxygaine- hydroxyindolenine, iboluteine, 4',17,(17 beta)- dihydrotchibangensine, 16-decarbomethoxyvoacamine and 19,20- dihydro-16-decarbomethoxyvoacamine. Structural elucidation of the new alkaloids is based on spectral data and chemical correlations. 26 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Alkaloids from Melodinus suaveolens. Ye, J.H.; Zhou, Y.L.; Huang, Z.H.; Picot, F. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (9): p. 3168-3170; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: China; Apocynaceae; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Alkaloids Abstract: Fourteen alkaloids were isolated from the trunk of Melodinus suaveolens. Thirteen of them were identified as delta 14-vincine, vindolinine, 11-methoxytabersonine, vincadifformine, hazuntine, 11-hydroxytabersonine, 11- methoxyoxyvicadiffromine, cathovalinine, vincoline, 19R- hydroxytabersonine, 11-methoxy-19R-hydrotabersonine, 11,19R- dihydroxytabersonine and tabersonine. The last one is a new alkaloid, named suvaeolenine; its structural elucidation was achieved by means of detailed spectral analysis. 27 NAL Call. No.: 450 P697 Alkaloids of anatolian Thalictrum foetidum. Baser, K.H.C.; Ertan, A. Stuttgart, W. Ger. : Georg Thieme Verlag; 1990 Jun. Planta medica v. 56 (3): p. 337; 1990 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Turkey; Thalictrum; Plant extracts; Medicinal plants; Alkaloids 28 NAL Call. No.: RS160.I47 Allelopathic activity of the essential oils of Nigerian medicinal plants. Oguntimein, B.O.; Elakovich, S.D. Lisse, Netherlands : Swets & Zeitlinger; 1991 Feb. International journal of pharmacognosy v. 29 (1): p. 39-44; 1991 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Nigeria; Eugenia uniflora; Piper guineense; Chromolaena; Medicinal plants; Lactuca sativa; Plant extracts; Essential oils; Allelopathins; Allelopathy; Seedling growth; Bioassays 29 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Allose gallates from Euphorbia fischeriana. Lee, S.H.; Tanaka, T.; Nonaka, G.I.; Nishioka, I.; Zhang, B. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (4): p. 1251-1253; 1991. Part 104 in the series 'Tannins and Related Compounds'. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: China; Euphorbia; Medicinal plants; Insecticidal plants; Roots; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Gallic acid; Tannins; Ellagic acid Abstract: A chemical investigation of the roots of Euphorbia fischeriana has led to the isolation of three novel gallotannins, 1,3,6-tri-O-, 1,2,6-tri-O-and 1,2,3,6-tetra-O- galloyl-beta-D-allopyranoses, together with ellagitannins (corilagin, sanguiin H-5 and tercatain) and 3,4,6-tri-O- galloyl-D-glucose. The structures of these compounds were established from spectroscopic and chemical evidence. 30 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 alpha-Amyrin derivatives from Corchorus depressus. Khan, M.S.Y.; Javed, K.; Khan, M.H.; Shamsi, M.A.; Siddiqui, A.A. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (6): p. 1989-1992; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: India; Corchorus; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Triterpenoids Abstract: From the whole plant of Corchorus depressus, in addition to sitosterol glucoside, sitosterol, apigenin and luteolin, three new alpha-amyrin derivatives, cordepressic acid, cordepressenic acid and cordepressin, have been isolated and their structures established by spectral data and chemical evidence. 31 NAL Call. No.: 450 P697 Ambrosanolides and other constituents of two Rudbeckia species. Gutierrez, A.B.; Herz, W. Stuttgart, W. Ger. : Georg Thieme Verlag; 1990 Jun. Planta medica v. 56 (3): p. 295-297; 1990 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Missouri; Medicinal plants; Sesquiterpenoid lactones; Coumarin; Plant extracts; Rudbeckia 32 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Ambrosia maritima: effects on molluscs and non-target organisms. Geerts, S.; Belot, J.; Sabbe, F.; Triest, L.; Sidhom, M. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 May. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 33 (1/2): p. 1-12; 1991 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ambrosia; Molluscicidal properties; Toxicology; Pharmacology; Chemical properties; Plant morphology; Taxonomy; Geographical distribution; Traditional medicines; Sesquiterpenoid lactones Abstract: The actual knowledge about Ambrosia maritima is reviewed with emphasis on recent developments in the fields of plant morphology and taxonomy, the molluscicidal principles--the sesquiterpene lactones--present in the plant and the effects on snails and on nontarget organisms. The use of the plant in traditional medicine is also discussed. Areas where more research is needed are outlined. 33 NAL Call. No.: RS160.I47 Analgesic and antiinflammatory effects of chasmanthera dependens. Onabanjo, A.O.; John, T.A.; Sokale, A.A.; Samuel, O.T. Lisse, Netherlands : Swets & Zeitlinger; 1991 Feb. International journal of pharmacognosy v. 29 (1): p. 24-28; 1991 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Menispermaceae; Medicinal plants; Pharmaceutical products; Plant extracts; Alkaloids; Tannins; Cardiac glycosides; Medicinal properties; Analgesics; Antiinflammatory agents; Drug toxicity; Mice 34 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Analgesic effect of Momordica charantia seed extract in mice and rats. Biswas, A.R.; Ramaswamy, S.; Bapna, J.S. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Jan. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 31 (1): p. 115-118; 1991 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Momordica charantia; Medicinal plants; Plant extracts; Analgesics; Mice; Rats 35 NAL Call. No.: S605.5.O74 And now for something completely different: create your own botanical bodycare. Meyer, S. Emmaus, Pa. : Rodale Press, Inc; 1991 Dec. Organic gardening v. 38 (9): p. 46-49; 1991 Dec. Language: English Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Home gardens; Essential oils; Allergic reactions; Essential oil plants 36 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Anthraquinones from Salvia przewalskii. Lu, X.Z.; Xu, W.H.; Naoki, H. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Feb. Phytochemistry v. 31 (2): p. 708-709; 1992 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Salvia; Medicinal plants; Roots; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Anthraquinones Abstract: One new anthraquinone, przewalskinone B and a known compound, ziganein, were isolated from Salvia przewalskii. Their chemical structures were elucidated by spectral analysis. 37 NAL Call. No.: RS160.I47 Antibacterial aromatic isothiocyanates from the essential oil of Hippocratea welwitschii roots. Iwu, M.W.; Unaeze, N.C.; Okunji, C.O.; Corley, D.G.; Sanson, D.R.; Tempesta, M.S. Lisse, Netherlands : Swets & Zeitlinger; 1991 Jun. International journal of pharmacognosy v. 29 (2): p. 154-158; 1991 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Celastraceae; Medicinal plants; Antibacterial plants; Essential oils; Benzyl isothiocyanate; Antibacterial properties; Volatile compounds; Saponins; Cyanogenic glycosides; Triterpenoids 38 NAL Call. No.: 381 J825N Anticancer drug: boost to taxol supply planned. Borman, S. Washington, D.C. : American Chemical Society; 1992 Mar09. Chemical and engineering news v. 70 (10): p. 4; 1992 Mar09. Language: English Descriptors: Taxus; Medicinal plants 39 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Anticholinergic action of Swertia japonica and an active constituent. Yamahara, J.; Kobayashi, M.; Matsuda, H.; Aoki, S. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 May. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 33 (1/2): p. 31-35; 1991 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Japan; Swertia japonica; Colon; Cholinergic mechanisms; Contraction; Carbachol; Plant extracts; Rats; Traditional medicines Abstract: The anticholinergic action of Swertia japonica, used in Japan as a bitter stomachic, was examined using in vivo experiments in rats in order to substantiate the presence or absence of antispasmodic properties. The methanol extract of Swertia japonica was found to be an effective anticholinergic given orally. Fractionation and purification of the methanol extract through column chromatography revealed that swertiamarin, found in the methanol extract in amounts of about 30%, was an active constituent with an anticholinergic action. 40 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Anticonceptive and estrogenic effects of a seed extract of Ricinus communis var. minor. Okwuasaba, F.K.; Osunkwo, U.A.; Ekwenchi, M.M.; Ekpenyong, K.I.; Onwukeme, K.E.; Olayinka, A.O.; Uguru, M.O.; Das, S.C. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Sep. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 34 (2/3): p. 141-145; 1991 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ricinus communis; Seeds; Plant extracts; Contraceptives; Estrogenic properties; Females; Rates; Mice; Traditional medicines Abstract: An ether-soluble fraction of a methanol extract of Ricinus communis var. minor seeds administered subcutaneously to adult female rats and rabbits at doses up to 1.2 g/kg and 600 mg/kg, respectively, in divided doses showed anti- implantation and anticonceptive activities. Laparotomy performed on Day 10 and Day 15 or pregnancy on mated female rats and rabbits treated with the extract did not reveal any uterine implantation sites. The animals were protected against pregnancy for over three gestation periods and among those that later delivered, there was no evidence of abnormality in the pups. In ovariectomized young female rats as well as in immature mice, the extract dose-dependently increased uterine wet weight. Furthermore, the extract induced premature opening of the vagina, increased the number of epithelial cells and cornified cells and decresed the leucocyte number in the vaginal smear. The estrogen-like activities exhibited by the extract were dose-dependent and the anticonceptive effect may be due at least in part to such estrogenic action. 41 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Antihypertensive action of a procyanidin glycoside from Rhamnus lycioides. Terencio, M.C.; Sanz, M.J.; Paya, M. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Jan. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 31 (1): p. 109-114; 1991 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Rhamnus; Antihypertensive agents; Glycosides; Hypertension; Rats; Folk medicine Abstract: The antihypertensive action of a procyanidin glycoside from Rhamnus lycioides aerial parts was studied in spontaneously and renal hypertensive rats. This compound, like 20 microgram/kg i.v. of captopril, produced a very clear in vivo inhibition of angiotensin I converting enzyme when given at a dose of 3 mg/kg i.v. 42 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Antiinflammatory activity of a Ghanaian antiarthritic herbal preparation. I. Kweifio-Okai, G. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Jul. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 33 (3): p. 263-267; 1991 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ghana; Alstonia boonei; Rauvolfia vomitoria; Elaeis guineensis; Roots; Antiinflammatory agents; Carrageenan; Traditional medicines; Plant extract; Arthristis; Rats Abstract: A boiling water extract from a powdered sample containing Alstonia boonei root bark (90%) Rauvolfia vomitoria root bark (5%) and Elaeis guineensis nut without pericarp (5%) was tested intraperitoneally for its antiinflammatory activity by measuring rat hindpaw edema induced by the subplantar injection of carrageenin in the presence or absence of arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid increased swelling during the early phase of carrageenin edema. The extract suppressed the late phase of carrageenin edema and both phases in the presence of arachidonic acid. These preliminary results are consistent with a herbal preparation known to be used in the management of r heumatoid arthritis. 43 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Antiinflammatory activity of a Ghanaian antiarthritic herbal preparation. II. Kweifio-Okai, G. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 May. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 33 (1/2): p. 129-133; 1991 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ghana; Alstonia boonei; Rauvolfia vomitoria; Elaeis guineensis; Roots; Bark; Nuts; Antiinflammatory agents; Arthritis; Rats; Plant extracts Abstract: A boiling water extract from a mixture of Alstonia boonei and Rauvolfia vomitoria root barks and Elaeis guineensis nuts without pericarp was tested for its antiinflammatory activity by measuring over a period of 17 days the changes in rat ankle diameter caused by subplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant. The extract fed in drinking water ad libitum reduced ipsilateral ankle adjuvant swelling by an average of 16% for the period of +4 to +17 days and improved weight gain. 44 NAL Call. No.: RS164.P59 The antiinflammatory effect in rats of Chieh-pu-warn, a traditional Chinese herbal preparation. Chang, C.G.; Chen, M.C.; Yang, H.Y. Sussex : John Wiley & Sons; 1991 Jun. Phytotherapy research : PTR v. 5 (3): p. 107-110; 1991 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Antiinflammatory agents; Drug toxicity; Folk medicine 45 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Antiinflammatory evaluation of a Pluchea indica root extract. Sen, T.; Nag Chaudhuri, A.K. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 May. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 33 (1/2): p. 135-141; 1991 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Pluchea; Roots; Plant extracts; Antiinflammatory agents; Arthritis; Traditional medicines; Mice Abstract: A methanolic fraction of a chloroform extract of defatted Pluchea indica roots was investigated for its antiinflammatory potential against several models of inflammation. The extract showed significant inhibitory activity against carrageenin-, histamine-, serotonin-, hyaluronidase- and sodium urate-induced pedal inflammation. The extract inhibited protein exudation and leucocyte migration. The extract also inhibited carrageenin- and cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation as well as turpentine- induced joint oedema and adjuvant-induced polyarthritis. The present observations establish the efficacy of the extract in the exudative, proliferative and chronic stages of inflammation. 46 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Antimalarial activity and cytotoxicity of Evodia fatraina stem bark extracts. Ratsimamanga-Urverg, S.; Rasoanaivo, P.; Rakoto-Ratsimamanga, A.; Le Bras, J.; Ramiliarisoa, O.; Savel, J.; Coulaud, J.P. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Jul. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 33 (3): p. 231-236; 1991 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Madagascar; Euodia; Bark; Plant extracts; Traditional medicines; Antimalarials; Cytotoxicity; Plasmodium falciparum; Mice Abstract: Stem bark extracts of Evodia fatraina (Rutaceae) were tested for antimalarial activity in vitro on Plasmodium falciparum using an isotopic semi-microtest and in vivo on Plasmodium berghei in mice. Ethyl acetate extract showed moderate antimalarial activity in vitro (IC50=8.5 microgram ml-1). However, ethanolic extract exhibited significant potency in vivo (65% suppression of parasitaemia). Moreover, low toxicity against HeLa cells and L 929 fibroblasts was observed with ethanolic extract (IC50=95 microgram ml-1 and 60 microgram ml-1, respectively). 47 NAL Call. No.: R850.A1B72 Antimalarial activity of crude extracts from Brazilian plants studied in vivo in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice and in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum in culture. Carvalho, L.H.; Brandao, M.G.L.; Santos-Filho, D.; Lopes, J.L.C.; Krettli, A.U. Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brasil : Associacao Brasileira de Divulgacao Cientifica; 1991. Brazilian journal of medical and biological research; Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas v. 24 (11): p. 1113-1123; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Brazil; Medicinal plants; Plant extracts; Medicinal properties; Folk medicine; Plasmodium falciparum; Plasmodium berghei; Malaria; Mice 48 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Antimalarial activity of some plant remedies in use in Marracuene, southern Mozambique. Jurg, A.; Tomas, T.; Pividal, J. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 May. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 33 (1/2): p. 79-83; 1991 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Mozambique; Euphorbiaceae; Bridelia; Plant extracts; Antimalarials; In vitro; Traditional medicines Abstract: Two plants, Spirostachys africana and Bridelia were selected for investigation on the basis of a clinical study of four herbal antimalarial remedies used in southern Mozambique. Petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts were tested for activity in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum. Crude ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the root and the ethanolic extract of the stem of B. cathartica caused a 50% inhibition of parasite growth at an incubation concentration of 0.05 mug/ml. 49 NAL Call. No.: 450 P697 Antimalarial activity of Tanzanian medicinal plants. Weenen, H.; Nkunya, M.H.H.; Bray, D.H.; Mwasumbi, L.B.; Kinabo, L.S.; Kilimali, V.A.E.B. Stuttgart, W. Ger. : Georg Thieme Verlag; 1990 Aug. Planta medica v. 56 (4): p. 368-370; 1990 Aug. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Tanzania; Plasmodium falciparum; Medicinal plants; Antimalarials 50 NAL Call. No.: RS160.I47 Antimalarial activity of traditional plants against erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium berghei. Misra, P.; Pal, N.L.; Guru, P.Y.; Katiyar, J.C.; Tandon, J.S. Lisse, Netherlands : Swets & Zeitlinger; 1991 Feb. International journal of pharmacognosy v. 29 (1): p. 19-23; 1991 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Pharmaceutical products; Plant extracts; Screening; Antimicrobial properties; Plasmodium berghei; Malaria; Treatment; Mice; Schizonts 51 NAL Call. No.: 450 P697 Antimalarial compounds containing an alpha, beta-unsaturated carbonyl moiety from Tanzanian medicinal plants. Weenen, H.; Nkunya, M.H.H.; Bray, D.H.; Mwasumbi, L.B.; Kinabo, L.S.; Kilimali, V.A.E.B.; Wijnber, J.B.P.A. Stuttgart, W. Ger. : Georg Thieme Verlag; 1990 Aug. Planta medica v. 56 (4): p. 371-373; 1990 Aug. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Tanzania; Plasmodium falciparum; Medicinal plants; Plant extracts; Antimalarials 52 NAL Call. No.: 448.9 R813 Anti- malarial property of an extract of the plant Streblus asper in murine malaria. Das, M.K.; Beuria, M.K. London : The Society; 1991 Jan. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene v. 85 (1): p. 40-41; 1991 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: India; Medicinal plants; Plant extracts; Bark; Pharmaceutical products; Medicinal properties; Malaria; Plasmodium berghei; Mice 53 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Achillea fragrantissima. Barel, S.; Segal, R.; Yashphe, J. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 May. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 33 (1/2): p. 187-191; 1991 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Achillea; Plant extracts; Essential oils; Antimicrobial properties; Folk medicine Abstract: Essential oil from Achillea fragrantissima exerted a bactericidic effect on several gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains, as well as on Candida albicans. The oil was fractionated on sillica gel columns by a gradient of ether in petrol ether (30 degrees C - 40 degrees C). Two fractions which contained less polar compounds were active against C. albicans only. The fractions which contained more polar compounds inhibited the growth of all the microorganisms tested. One of these compounds was identified as terpinen-4-ol. Commercial terpinen-4-ol had a similar antimicrobial activity. 54 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Antimicrobial screening of medicinal plants from Baja California Sur, Mexico. Dimayuga, R.E.; Garcia, S.K. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Feb. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 31 (2): p. 181-192; 1991 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Mexico; Medicinal plants; Plant extracts; Antimicrobial properties; Staphylococcus aureus; Bacillus subtilis; Streptococcus faecalis; Escherichia coli; Candida albicans; Traditional medicines; Correlation; Screening Abstract: The ethanolic extracts of 72 plants belonging to 35 different families, and used in traditional medicine in Baja California Sur (Mexico), were tested for antimicrobial activity in vitro using the filter paper disk assay method. Activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus faecalis (Gram-positive microorganisms), Escherichia coli (Gram-negative microorganisms) and Candida albicans (yeast) is discussed. 55 NAL Call. No.: 450 P697 Anti- platelet action of GU-7, a 3-arylcoumarin derivative, purified from glycyrrhizae radix. Tawata, M.; Yoda, Y.; Aida, K.; Shindo, H.; Sasaki, H.; Chin, M.; Onaya, T. Stuttgart, W. Ger. : Georg Thieme Verlag; 1990 Jun. Planta medica v. 56 (3): p. 259-263; 1990 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Japan; Glycyrrhiza uralensis; Plant extracts; Medicinal plants; Coumarin; Platelets 56 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Antipyretic activity of six indigenous medicinal plants of Tirumala Hills, Andhra Pradesh, India. Vedavathy, S.; Rao, K.N. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 May. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 33 (1/2): p. 193-196; 1991 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Andhra pradesh; Medicinal plants; Plant extracts; Antipyretics; Rats; Folk medicine 57 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Antitumor activity of quassinoids from Hannoa klaineana. Lumonadio, L.; Atassi, G.; Vanhaelen, M.; Vanhaelen-Fastre, R. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Jan. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 31 (1): p. 59-65; 1991 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Simaroubaceae; Roots; Bark; Quassinoids; Medicinal plants; Neoplasms; Leukemia; Melanoma; Carcinoma; Mice Abstract: Of the five quassinoids isolated from the root bark of Hannoa klaineana, only 15-desacetylundulatone was found active against P388 mouse lymphocytic leukemia cells and colon 38 adenocarcinoma. Undulatone and especially 15-O-beta-D- glucopyranosyl-21-hydroxy-glaucarubolone were found to be more toxic while 6 alpha-tigloyloxy-glaucarubol and 21-hydroxyglaucarubolone were found inactive. Structure- activity relationships are discussed. 58 NAL Call. No.: QD415.A1B52 Antitumor effect of echitamine chloride on methylcholonthrene induced fibrosarcoma in rats. Kamarajan, P.; Sekar, N.; Mathuram, V.; Govindasamy, S. Marrickville : Academic Press; 1991 Oct. Biochemistry international v. 25 (3): p. 491-498; 1991 Oct. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Alstonia scholaris; Plant composition; Alkaloids; Antineoplastic agents; Bioassays; Neoplasms; Rats; Medicinal plants Abstract: Echitamine chloride a plant alkaloid from Alstonia scholaris has been used to examine the anticancer effects on methylcholanthrene - induced fibrosarcoma. Echitamine chloride dissolved in saline (10mg/kg body weight) and injected subcutaneously for 20 days in fibrosarcoma rats has exhibited significant regression in tumor growth. The altered activities of plasma and liver transaminases and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and lipid peroxidation in fibrosarcoma have been corrected to near normal after echitamine chloride treatment. The decreased liver glutathione content and the lowered activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase have also been reversed to near normals after echitamine chloride treatment. 59 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Antiulcerogenic effects of two Maytenus species in laboratory animals. Souza-Formigoni, M.L.O.; Oliveira, M.G.M.; Monteiro, M.G.; Silveira-Filho, N.G. da; Braz, S.; Carlini, E.A. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Aug. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 34 (1): p. 21-27; 1991 Aug. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Brazil; Maytenus; Medicinal properties; Gastric ulcer; Rats; Traditional medicines Abstract: Leaves of Maytenus species are commonly used in Brazil for the treatment of gastric ulcers, dyspepsias and other gastric problems. The present study evaluated the antiulcerogenic potential of a boiling water extract of equal parts of M. aquifolium and M. ilicifolia leaves against ulcer lesions induced by indomethacin and cold-restraint stress in rats. Ranitidine and cimetidine were used as reference drugs. The oral and intraperitoneal administration of the extract had a potent antiulcerogenic effect against both types of ulcers. The extract was shown to cause an increase in volume and pH of gastric juice of the animals with the pH effects comparable to those of cimetidine. The results tend to confirm the popular use of the plant. 60 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Antraquinones from Cassia greggii. Gonzalez, A.G.; Barrera, J.B.; Davila, B.B.; Valencia, E.; Dominguez, X.A. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Jan. Phytochemistry v. 31 (1): p. 255-258; 1992 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Mexico; Cassia; Medicinal plants; Roots; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Anthraquinones Abstract: The dichloromethane extract of the roots of Cassia greggii afforded seven new anthraquinones: 5-hydroxy-1,4,6,7-tetramethoxy-2-methylanthraquinone, 1,5,7-trihydroxy-4,6-dimethoxy-2-methylanthraquinone, 5,6-dihydroxy-1,4,7-trimethoxy-2-methylanthraquinone, 1-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-5,6-methylenedioxy-2- methylanthraquinone, 5,7-dihydroxy-1,4,6-trimethoxy-2- hydroxymethylanthraquinone, 4,5-dihydroxy-1,6,7-trimethoxy-2- methylanthraquinone, and 5,6-dihydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-2- methylanthraquinone. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectral data. 61 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Applanoxidic acids A, B, C and D, biologically active tetracyclic triterpenes from Ganoderma applanatum. Chairul; Tokuyama, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Nishizawa, M.; Tokuda, H.; Chairul, S.M.; Hayashi, Y. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (12): p. 4105-4109; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Indonesia; Ganoderma applanatum; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Triterpene acids Abstract: Four novel polyoxygenated lanostanoid triterpenes, named applanoxidic acids A, B, C, and D, have been isolated from an Indonesian tropical fungus, Ganoderma applanatum. Their structures were determined by spectrocopic and chemical methods. Biological activity as an anti-tumour promoter was observed for these components. 62 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Arbutin and sucrose in the leaves of the resurrection plant Myrothamnus flabellifolia. Suau, R.; Cuevas, A.; Valpuesta, V.; Reid, M.S. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (8): p. 2555-2556; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Zimbabwe; Dicotyledons; Medicinal plants; Leaves; Plant composition; Sucrose; Disaccharides; Metabolites; Drought resistance; Desiccation Abstract: Forty-two per cent of the desiccated leaves of Myrothamnus flabellifolia was extracted in methanol, and contained two major components, sucrose (30%) and arbutin (65%). Its arbutin content can probably explain the purported medicinal properties of this plant. By analogy with other desiccation-tolerant organisms, sucrose and arbutin may be partially responsible for the extreme resistance of Myrothamnus to environmental stress. 63 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Aryltetralin lignans from Linum flavum and Linum capitatum. Broomhead, A.J.; Dewick, P.M. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1990. Phytochemistry v. 29 (12): p. 3839-3844; 1990. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Linum; Podophyllum; Podophyllum peltatum; Chemical composition; Lignans; Spectral analysis; Antineoplastic agents; Biosynthesis; Medicinal plants; Glucosides Abstract: Phytochemical analysis of ethanol extracts from Linum flavum, L. flavum compactum and L. capitatum has demonstrated their capability of producing and storing relatively large amounts of cytotoxic aryltetralin lignans structurally related to podophyllotoxin. 5- Methoxypodophyllotoxin, its glucoside and acetate are the main constituents of both roots and stem/leaves of L. flavum and L. flavum compactum, the roots containing up to 3.5% dry weight of these compounds. Although 5-methoxypodophyllotoxin and its glucoside were also found in L. capitatum roots, stem/leaves were shown to produce alpha- and beta-peltatins and their 5-O- glucosides. Coniferyl alcohol and coniferin were present in all three plants. 64 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 A- type proanthocyanidins from Prunus spinosa. Kolodziej, H.; Sakar, M.K.; Burger, J.F.W.; Engelshowe, R.; Ferreira, D. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (6): p. 2041-2047; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Prunus spinosa; Flowers; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Stereochemistry; Anthocyanidins; Metabolites Abstract: The range of natural dimeric A-type proanthocyanidins is extended by identification of ent- epicatechin-(4 alpha leads to 8;2 alpha leads to O leads to 7)- catechin and ent-epiafzelechin-(4 alpha leads to 8;2 alpha leads to O leads to 7)-epicatechin. They are accompanied in the flowers of Prunus spinosa by the structurally related metabolites ent-epicatechin-(4 alpha leads to 8;2 alpha leads to O leads to 7)-epicatechin, ent-epiafzelechin-(4 alpha leads to 8;2 alpha leads to O leads to 7)-catechin and ent- epiafzelechin-(4 alpha leads to 8;2 alpha leads to O leads to 7)- epiafzelechin, these being reported from a plant source for the second time. Nuclear Overhauser effect difference spectroscopy facilitated assessment of both 3,4-relative stereochemistry of the heterocyclic ring C and absolute configuration of terminal units, as well as determination of the mode of interflavanyl linkage. Whereas methylation and subsequent acetylation of A-types with 'lower' catechin units produce the expected methyl ether acetates, those species with a 'lower' epicatechin moiety indicate restricted access of diazomethane to 5-OH(A). 65 NAL Call. No.: SB294.A8W44 1991 Australian bush flower essences.. Bush flower essences White, Ian Sydney ; New York : Bantam Books,; 1991. xiv, 210 p., [16] p. of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 26 cm. Includes bibliographical references (p. 192-194). Language: English Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Wild flowers; Essences and essential oils; Plants 66 NAL Call. No.: TX392.A1V44 A beginner's guide to using herbs at home. Gladstar, R. Mt. Morris, Ill. : Vegetarian Times; 1991 Dec. Vegetarian times (172): p. 64-70. ill; 1991 Dec. Language: English Descriptors: Home food preparation; Food quality; Food purchasing; Food storage; Medical treatment; Information services; Medicinal plants Abstract: The author explains her view of herbology as an excellent preventive and first choice medicine and how it is possible to incorporate this philosophy into your life. Included are the basic steps needed to get started as a knowledgeable home herbalist. 67 NAL Call. No.: 450 EC7 Begonias as food and medicine. Laferriere, J.E. Bronx, N.Y. : New York Botanical Garden; 1992 Jan. Economic botany v. 46 (1): p. 114-116; 1992 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Begonia; Ethnobotany; Medicinal properties; Edible species; Medicinal plants; Food crops 68 NAL Call. No.: 451 F16B The Belize ethnobotany project: discovering the resources of the tropical rain forest. Balick, M.J. Miami, Fla. : The Garden; 1991 Apr. Fairchild Tropical Garden bulletin v. 46 (2): p. 16-24. ill; 1991 Apr. Language: English Descriptors: Belize; Ethnobotany; Tropical rain forests 69 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Benzofuranosesquiterpenes from Ligularia virgaurea. Jia, Z.J.; Chen, H.M. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (9): p. 3132-3134; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Gansu; Ligularis; Rhizomes; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Sesquiterpenes; Furans Abstract: Three new benzofuranosesquiterpenes, 2-(3'-pentenyl)-3,7-dimethylbenzofuran-1,4-dione, 1-hydroxy-2,(3'-pentenyl)-3,7-dimethylbenzofuran and 1-methoxy-2-(3'-pentenyl)-3,7-dimethylbenzofuran, were isolated from the rhizome of Ligularia virgaurea, together with two known furanoeremophilanes, cacalol and 4 alphaH-9- methoxyfuranoeremophilane. 70 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 A benzoquinone and a coumestan from Psoralea plicata. Rasool, N.; Khan, A.Q.; Ahmad, V.U.; Malik, A. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (8): p. 2800-2803; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Pakistan; Psoralea; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Benzoquinone; Coumarins; Derivatives Abstract: The neutral fraction from the ethanolic extract of Psoralea plicata afforded a new coumestan, plicadin, and a new benzoquinone, alpha-tocopherolquinone methyl ether, together with alpha-tocopherolquinone. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic studies and biogenetic consideration. 71 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 A betulinic and glycoside from Schefflera venulosa. Purohit, M.C.; Pant, G.; Rawat, M.S.M. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (7): p. 2419; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Schefflera; Medicinal plants; Leaves; Chemical composition; Triterpenoids; Glycosides Abstract: A new betulinic acid glycoside, lup-20(29)-en-28-oic-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (2 leads to 1)-O- beta-D-glucopyranoside has been characterized from the leaves of Schefflera venulosa. 72 NAL Call. No.: HD9000.9.U5A1 Beware the unknown brew--herbal teas and toxicity. Snider, S. Rockville, Md. : Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health & Human Services; 1991 May. F.D.A. consumer v. 25 (4): p. 30-33; 1991 May. Language: English Descriptors: Herbal teas; Toxicity; Food and nutrition controversies; Health hazards; Regulations; Adverse effects; Symphytum officinale; Lobelia; Sassafras Abstract: Herbal teas have been the subject of controversy in the United States since their introduction into the mainstream marketplace two decades ago. Possible adverse effect and toxic reactions are discussed. 73 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 A bidesmosidic triterpenoid saponin from Schefflera octophylla. Sung, T.V.; Peter-Katalinic, J.; Adam, G. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (11): p. 3717-3720; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Vietnam; Medicinal plants; Leaves; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Triterpenoids; Saponins; Trisaccharides; Schefflera Abstract: A new 3,28-bidesmosidic triterpenoid saponin was isolated from the leaves of Schefflera octophylla together with a new trisaccharide and oleanonic acid. Based on spectroscopic data and chemical transformations, the structures of the new constituents were determined as 3-epi- betulinic acid 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside 28-O-[alpha-L- rhamno-pyranosyl (1 leads to 4)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1 leads to 6)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside and alpha-L- rhamnopyranosyl(1 leads to 4)-O-beta-D-g]ucopyranosyl(1 leads to 6)-beta-D-glucopyranose. 74 NAL Call. No.: A00110 Bill would catalog U.S. biological riches: aim is to protect nation's 'biodiversity'. San Francisco, Calif. : The Chronical Publishing Co; 1991 May25. San Francisco chronicle. p. A3; 1991 May25. Language: English Descriptors: U.S.A.; Diversity; Legislation; Medicinal plants 75 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Bioactive butenolides from Melodorum fruticosum. Tuchinda, P.; Udchachon, J.; Reutrakul, V.; Santisuk, T.; Taylor, W.C.; Farnsworth, N.R.; Pezzutos, J.M.; Kinghorn, A.D. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (8): p. 2685-2689; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Thailand; Annonaceae; Branches; Leaves; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Flavonoids; Cytotoxic compounds; Medicinal plants Abstract: From leaves and branches of Melodorum fruticosum, five butenolides have been isolated: (4Z)-6-acetoxy-7- benzoyloxy-2,4-heptadien-4-olide, (4E)-6-acetoxy-7- benzoyloxy-2,4-heptadien-4-olide, (4Z)-7-benzoyloxy-6-hydroxy-2,4-heptadien-4-olide, (4E)-7-benzoyloxy-6-hydroxy-2,4-heptadien-4-olide and (4Z)-6-benzoyloxy-7-hydroxy-2,4-heptadien-4-olide. In addition, two known flavonoids (chrysin, pinocembrin) and benzoic acid were isolated. All butenolides showed cytotoxic activities in several tumour cell lines. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. 76 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Bioactivity in plants: the link between phytochemistry and medicine. Hamburger, M.; Hostettmann, K. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (12): p. 3864-3874; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Plant physiology; Bioassays; Screening; History; Literature reviews Abstract: The development of medicinal plant research over the last 30 years is reviewed with reference to the search for new active principles. Difficulties inherent to activity guided isolation and the specific requirements of bioassays are discussed. An overview is given on currently used systems for various bioactivities, with emphasis on simple bioassays for phytochemical laboratories. The progress in medicinal plant research is illustrated by selected examples of plant derived compounds of importance as drugs or pharmacological tools. 77 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Biomimetic cyclizations of a germacranolide from Tanacetum annuum. Barrero, A.F.; Sanchez, J.F.; Barron, A.; Ramirez, A. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Jan. Phytochemistry v. 31 (1): p. 332-335; 1992 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Tanacetum; Flowers; Medicinal plants; Chemical composition; Sesquiterpenoid lactones Abstract: A new germacranolide was isolated from the flowers of Tanacetum annuum, which was chemically transformed into three eudesmanolides and a lactone with a rearranged sesquiterpene skeleton. 78 NAL Call. No.: TP248.2.A77 Biosource genetics using tobacco plants as protein factories. Stamford, Conn. : Business Communications Co., Inc; 1991 Sep. Applied genetics news v. 12 (2): p. 11-12; 1991 Sep. Language: English Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Tobacco mosaic tobamovirus; Field tests; Genetic engineering; Nicotiana tabacum 79 NAL Call. No.: RS160.I47 Blood sugar lowering effect of Pterocarpus santalinus (Red Sanders) wood extract in different rat models. Nagaraju, N.; Prasad, M.; Gopalakrishna, G.; Rao, K.N. Lisse, Netherlands : Swets & Zeitlinger; 1991 Jun. International journal of pharmacognosy v. 29 (2): p. 141-144; 1991 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Pterocarpus santalinus; Medicinal plants; Wood; Plant extracts; Pharmaaceutical products; Medicinal properties; Blood sugar; Experimental diabetes; Rates 80 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Boerhaavia diffusa: a study of its hepatoprotective activity. Chandan, B.K.; Sharma, A.K.; Anand, K.K. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Mar. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 31 (3): p. 299-307; 1991 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Uttar pradesh; Boerhavia diffusa; Plant extracts; Folk medicine; Liver; Rats; Mice Abstract: An alcoholic extract of whole plant Boerhaavia diffusa given orally exhibited hepatoprotective activity against experimentally induced carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity in rats and mice. The extract also produced an increase in normal bile flow in rats suggesting a strong choleretic activity. The extract does not show any signs of toxicity up to an oral dose of 2 g/kg in mice. 81 NAL Call. No.: 450 EC7 The botanical origin of scented myrrh (bissabol or habak hadi). Thulin, M.; Claeson, P. Bronx, N.Y. : New York Botanical Garden; 1991 Oct. Economic botany v. 45 (4): p. 487-494; 1991 Oct. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Somalia; Commiphora; Resins; Ethnobotany; Perfumery; History; Geographical distribution; Habitats 82 NAL Call. No.: Q1.S37 Botanists ply trade in tropics, seeking plant-based medicinals. Eisner, R. Philadelphia, Pa. : Institute for Scientific Information :.; 1991 Jun10. The scientist v. 5 (12): p. 1, 4-5, 25; 1991 Jun10. Language: English Descriptors: Rain forests; Diversity; Conservation; Ethnobotany; Patents; Licenses; Medicinal plants 83 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Brahmighritham, an Ayurvedic herbal formula for the control of epilepsy. Shanmugasundaram, E.R.B.; Mohammed Akbar, G.K.; Radha Shanmugasundaram, K. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Jul. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 33 (3): p. 269-276; 1991 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Cacopa; Cyperus rotundus; Saussurea lappa; Ghee; Epilepsy; Rats; Traditional medicines; Drug formulations Abstract: Brahmighritham is an Ayurvedic herbal recommended for the control of epilepsy. The preparation of the drug is described. It was tested for its oral effectiveness in controlling pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in male albino rats and was compared with benzdiazepam. Alterations in the EEG pattern and gross neurological function were measured or rated 60 min after pentylenetetrazole administration. Thirty-day pretreatment with both Brahmighritham and benzdiazepam served to make the rats more insensitive to epileptogenic events. 84 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Brandioside, a phenylpropanoid glycoside from Brandisia Hancei. He, Z.D.; Yang, C.R. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (2): p. 701-702; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Yunnan; Scrophulariaceae--glycosides--medicinal plants--chemical composition--spectral analysis Abstract: A new phenylpropanoid glycoside, brandioside, was isolated from Brandisia hancei. Its structure, [beta-(3',4'-dihydroxylphenyl)-ethyl]-(2-O-acetyl)- (3,6-O-di-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl) (4-O-caffeoylyl)-beta-D- glucopyranoside, was established by chemical and spectroscopic methods. 85 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 A butyrolactone lignan disaccharide from Flacourtia ramontchi. Satyanarayana, V.; Krupadanam, G.L.D.; Srimannarayana, G. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (3): p. 1026-1029; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: India; Flacourtia; Medicinal plants; Heartwood; Spectral analysis; Lignans; Lactones; Disaccharides Abstract: beta-Sitosterol, beta-sitosterol-beta-D- glucopyranoside and a butyrolactone lignan disaccharide, ramontoside, were isolated from the heartwood of Flacourtia ramontchi. The structure of ramontoside was determined as diphyllin-4-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1 leads to 4)]-beta-2,3-di-O-methyl-D-xylopyranoside by hydrolysis and spectral data. 86 NAL Call. No.: QK725.P54 Callus induction in Phyllanthus species and inhibition of viral DNA polymerase and reverse transcriptase by callus extracts. Unander, D.W. Berlin, W. Ger. : Springer International; 1991. Plant cell reports v. 10 (9): p. 461-466; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Phyllanthus; Phyllanthus urinaria; Medicinal plants; In vitro culture; Callus; Induction; Growth; Plant extracts; Hepatitis b virus; Enzyme inhibitors; Dna polymerase; Transcription Abstract: Studies on callus induction and growth in Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn. (Euphorbiaccae) and some related species are described, as well as the inhibition of enzymes of hepatitis B and related viruses by callus extracts. Callus was induced from stem or branch pieces of P. amarus placed on several media combinations. Optimum induction and growth of friable, undifferentiated calli occurred on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with either 0.5 mg or 1 mg of BA/liter and 1 mg/liter of either 2,4-D or IBA, but not IAA. Callus induction using the same media was also attempted with other Phyllanthus spp. The best success was with P. abnormis. Aqueous extracts from field-grown plants were more active in vitro against viral DNA polymerase and reverse transcriptase than extracts of calli. 87 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Can ethnopharmacology contribute to the development of anti-fertility drugs?. Xiao, P.G.; Wang, N.G. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Apr. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 32 (1/3): p. 167-177; 1991 Apr. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Ethnopharmacology, June 5-9, 1990, Strasbourg, France. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: China; Females; Males; Fertility agents; Birth control; Folk medicine; Medicinal plants; Medicinal properties Abstract: China, one of the developing countries with approx. one- fifth of the world population, has been making great efforts in controlling her population size. One of the efforts being stressed is to look into the practicability of employing Chinese herbal medicine for fertility control. The rich ethnopharmacological descriptions in the ancient books of herbal remedy and those scattered in the folklore medicine contribute the possibility of this approach. After a discussion concerning the facets of antifertility drugs linked with male or female fertility regulation, several selected examples are presented, which include yuehchukene (isolated from Murraya paniculata), pseudolarix acids A and B (from Pseudolarix kaempferi), mardekoside A (from Mardenia koi), gardenic acid and gardenodic acid A (from Gardenia jasminoides) as early pregnancy terminating agent, for fertility regulation in females; whereas gossypol (from cottonseed oil) and total glycosides of Tripterygium wilfordii (GTW) as antispermatogenic agent for fertility regulation in males. Further research and development strategies of antifertility drugs from herbal medicines have also been discussed based on a collective research data in this field worldwide. 88 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Can ethnopharmacology contribute to the development of antimalarial agents?. Phillipson, J.D.; Wright, C.W. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Apr. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 32 (1/3): p. 155-165; 1991 Apr. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Ethnopharmacology, June 5-9, 1990, Strasbourg, France. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Plasmodium malariae; Plasmodium ovale; Plasmodium vivax; Plasmodium falciparum; Antimalarials; Medicinal plants; Traditional medicines; Terpenoids; Alkaloids; Quinones; Phenols Abstract: The resistance of Plasmodium falciparum, the cause of tertian malaria, to synthetic antimalarials, together with the resistance of the vector mosquitoes to insecticides, has resulted in a resurgence in the use of quinine and a search for new antimalarial agents. In recent years, artemisinin, isolated from Artemisia annua which is used in Chinese traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria, has proved to be effective in the treatment of cerebral malaria due to chloroquine- resistant strains of P. falciparum. The development of in vitro tests utilising P. falciparum obtained from malaria patients means that it is possible to use bioassay guided fractionation of active extracts in order to isolate active principles. A number of laboratories throughout the world are currently investigating plants used in traditional medicine for their active constituents. Some of their results will be described and in particular two aspects of our investigations with species of Simaroubaceae and Menispermaceae will be discussed. There is every possibility that such approaches which use leads from Ethnopharmacology will result in the development of new antimalarial agents. it is vitally important to those populations relying on traditional medicines for the treatment of malaria that the safety and efficacy of such medicines be established, their active principles determined and that reproducible dosage forms be prepared and made available for use. 89 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Can ethnopharmacology contribute to the development of antiviral drugs?. Vlietinck, A.J.; Vanden Berghe, D.A. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Apr. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 32 (1/3): p. 141-153; 1991 Apr. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Ethnopharmacology, June 5-9, 1990, Strasbourg, France. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Antiviral agents; Virucides; Medicinal plants; Plant extracts; In vitro; Testing; Rhinovirus; Human immunodeficiency virus Abstract: In recent years, many compounds having potent antiviral activity in cell cultures and in experimental animals have been detected, but only a few have been approved by Western health authorities for clinical use. Nevertheless, some of these compounds are currently undergoing either preclinical or clinical evaluation, and perspectives for finding new interesting antiviral drugs are promising. Among these antiviral substances are several natural compounds isolated from plants used in traditional medicine including polysaccharides, flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids, phenolics and amino acids. Some of these plant compounds exhibit a unique antiviral mechanism of action and are good candidates for further clinical research. What follows is a brief summary of the selection methods of plants for antiviral screening and in vitro and in vivo assays, which are currently used for detecting this activity in plant extracts. The importance of the plant kingdom as a source of new antiviral substances will be illustrated by presenting a survey on plant-derived antirhinovirus and anti-HIV agents. 90 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Can ethnopharmacology contribute to the development of new anticancer drugs?. Cordell, G.A.; Beecher, C.W.W.; Pezzuto, J.M. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Apr. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 32 (1/3): p. 117-133; 1991 Apr. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Ethnopharmacology, June 5-9, 1990, Strasbourg, France. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: U.S.A.; Neoplasms; Plants; Medical research; Drug therapy; Databases; Pharmacology; Government organizations Abstract: Ethnopharmacologic and ethnomedical information has been poorly utilized in the past in the search for new and effective treatments for cancer. In spite of this, plants have been a very viable source of clinically useful compounds, leads for synthetic modification and tools for mechanistic studies. In this paper, a new strategy for the discovery of anticancer agents from plants is proposed in which ethnomedical information is correlated against pertinent published chemical and biological information, resulting in a prioritization of plants for collection. Authenticated plants are extracted and the extracts tested in a broad array of more than 20 human cancer cell and mechanism-based assays through a cooperative research program involving a university, a research institute and a pharmaceutical company. Bioactivity- directed fractionation will be carried out at all three sites, with a view to identifying novel compounds which will serve as candidates for preclinical testing. 91 NAL Call. No.: 330.9 N21NE Can the neem solve world problems?. Lowe, S. Washington, D.C. : National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council; 1992 Feb. News report v. 42 (2): p. 5-7; 1992 Feb. Language: English Descriptors: Azadirachta indica; Medicinal plants; Drought resistance; Research support; Pesticidal properties 92 NAL Call. No.: A00110 The cancer medicine no one knew was there. Mathews, J. San Francisco, Calif. : The Chronical Publishing Co; 1991 Jul07. San Francisco chronicle. p. 16; 1991 Jul07. This article is found in the San Francisco Examiner which is the Sunday edition to the San Francisco Chronicle. Language: English Descriptors: Taxus baccata; Medicinal plants; Diversity 93 NAL Call. No.: A00110 Cancer-killing yew bark plundered. McCabe, M. San Francisco, Calif. : The Chronical Publishing Co; 1991 Oct09. San Francisco chronicle. p. A1, A9; 1991 Oct09. Language: English Descriptors: Oregon; Taxus baccata; Medicinal plants; Vandalism 94 NAL Call. No.: SB108.P4R8 1990 Catalogo de plantas utiles de la Amazonia Peruana [Catalog of useful plants of the Peruvian Amazon]., 2. ed. rev.. Rutter, Richard A.; Shanks, Ann Yarinacocha, Pucallpa, Peru : Ministerio de Educacion : Instituto Linguistico de Verano,; 1990. xix, 349 p. : ill. ; 22 cm. (Comunidades y culturas peruanas ; no. 22). "Primera edicion en microfichas: Plantas de la Amazonia y sus usos, Datos etno-linguisticos, no. 44, 1976"--T.p. verso. Includes bibliographical references (p. 347-349). Language: Spanish Descriptors: Botany, Economic; Medicinal plants; Plant names, Popular; Dictionaries, Polyglot 95 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Cell culture of Holarrhena antidysenterica: growth and alkaloid production. Panda, A.K.; Bisaria, V.S.; Mishra, S.; Bhojwani, S.S. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (3): p. 833-836; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: India; Holarrhena; Callus; Cell suspensions; Growth; Steroid alkaloids; Biosynthesis; Medicinal plants; Quantitative analysis; Spectral analysis Abstract: Callus and suspension culture of Holarrhena antidysenterica were established for production of steroidal alkaloids, especially conessine. The doubling time and specific growth rate of cells in suspension culture were computed to be 47.5 hr and 0.35 per day respectively. A maximum of 300 mg alkaloids per 100 g dry cell wt in 40 days and 130 mg per 100 g dry cell wt in eight days were obtained in the callus and suspension cultures respectively. Alkaloid production in suspension culture was a combined growth and non-growth associated phenomena. About 90% of the total alkaloids produced in the cell culture was conessine, which was confirmed by spectral data. 96 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Chalcones from Angelica keiskei. Baba, K.; Nakata, K.; Taniguchi, M.; Kido, T.; Kozawa, M. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1990. Phytochemistry v. 29 (12): p. 3907-3910; 1990. Part 7 in the series 'Chemical Components of Angelica keiskei.'. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Japan; Angelica keiskei; Medicinal plants; Roots; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Chalcones Abstract: Four new chalcones, xanthangelols B-E were isolated from roots of Angelica keiskei and their structures determined to be 2',4,4'-trihydroxy-3'-[(E)-6-hydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-2,7- octadienyl]chalcone, 2',4,4'-trihydroxy-3'-[(E)-3-methyl-6- oxo-2-hexenyl]chalcone, 2',4-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-3'-(2- hydroxy-3-methyl-3-butenyl)chalcone and 2',4-dihydroxy-4'- methoxy-3'-(2-hydroperoxy-3-methyl-3-butenyl)chalcone, respectively, by means of chemical and spectral analyses. 97 NAL Call. No.: 26 T754 Changes in yield components of Plantago ovata Forsk. in northern Western Australia in response to sowing date and sowing rate. McNeil, D.L. Guildford : Butterworth Scientific; 1991 Apr. Tropical agriculture v. 68 (2): p. 191-195; 1991 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Western australia; Plantago ovata; Medicinal plants; Plant density; Seed production; Sowing date; Sowing rates; Yield components; Anticholesteremic agents 98 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Changes of the triterpenoid patterns during formation of the fruit body in Ganoderma lucidum. Hirotani, M.; Furuya, T. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1990. Phytochemistry v. 29 (12): p. 3767-3771. ill; 1990. Part 8 in the series 'Studies on the Metabolites of Higher Fungi'. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ganoderma lucidum; Fruits; Mycelium; Developmental stages; Chemical composition; Triterpenoids; Regenerative ability; Metabolites; Biosynthesis; Biochemical pathways; Stereochemistry; Medicinal plants Abstract: The terpenoid components of the extracts of three parts (pileus, stalk and underground part) of the fruiting bodies of different growth stages (small, medium and large) of the fruit body of Ganoderma lucidum and of regenerated fruiting bodies from cultured mycelia were examined by HPLC. Ganoderic acids T, S and R were found in the extract of the underground part of the fruit bodies and ganoderic acid T was isolated and identified with an authentic sample. 99 NAL Call. No.: RS160.I47 Chemical and pharmacological investigations of Limnophila conferta and Limnophila heterophylla. Reddy, G.B.S.; Melkhani, A.B.; Kalyani, G.A.; Rao, J.V.; Shirwaikar, A.; Kotian, M.; Ramani, R.; Aithal, K.S.; Udupa, A.L.; Bhat, G. Lisse, Netherlands : Swets & Zeitlinger; 1991 Jun. International journal of pharmacognosy v. 29 (2): p. 145-153; 1991 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Limnophila heterophylla; Limnophila; Medicinal plants; Antifungal plants; Antibacterial plants; Nematicidal plants; Essential oils; Thymol; Phellandrene; Flavones; Antibacterial properties; Antifungal properties; Anthelmintics; Cytotoxic compounds; Medicinal properties; Healing; Wounds 100 NAL Call. No.: SB351.H5H365 Chinese medicinal plants in the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System. Widrlechner, M.P.; Foster, S. Amherst, Mass. : Massachusetts Cooperative Extension Service; 1991. The Herb, spice and medicinal plant digest v. 9 (4): p. 1-5; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: China; U.S.A.; Medicinal plants; Gene banks 101 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Chromones from Cnidium monnieri. Baba, K.; Kawanishi, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Kozawa, M. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Apr. Phytochemistry v. 31 (4): p. 1367-1370; 1992 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Japan; Cnidium; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Chromones Abstract: Four new chromones, cnidimol C F, along with cnidimol A, cnidimol B and karenin were isolated from the aerial parts of Cnidium monnieri. The structures of the new chromones were determined to be 5,7-dihydroxy -2-hydroxy- methylchromone, 5,7-dihydroxy-6-[(2Z)-3-hydroxymethyl-2-butenyl]-2- hydroxymethylchromone, 5,7-dihydroxy-6-[2-hydroxy-3-methyl-3- butenyl]-2-hydroxymethylchromone and 5,8-dihydroxy-2- hydroxymethyl-8-methyl-4H, 9H-pyrano[3,2-h][1]benzoxepin-4-one. 102 NAL Call. No.: RS180.C6C58 1975 Ch'uan kuo Chung ts'ao yao hui pien [Collection of Chinese medicinal plants]., Ti 1 pan.. Pei-ching shih : Jen min wei sheng ch'u pan she : Hsin hua shu tien Pei-ching fa hsing so fa hsing, 1975-1978; 1975-1978. 2 v. : ill. ; 27 cm. Includes indexes. Language: Chinese; Chinese Descriptors: Materia medica, vegetable; Medicinal plants 103 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Clerodane-type diterpenes and other constituents of Penianthus zenkeri. Achenbach, H.; Hemrich, H. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (6): p. 1957-1962; 1991. Part 42 in the series 'Constituents of Tropical Medicinal Plants'. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ghana; Menispermaceae; Medicinal plants; Leaves; Roots; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Alkaloids Abstract: Twenty-four compounds were isolated from Penianthus zenkeri and their structures determined by spectroscopic and chemical studies. 6-Hydroxycolumbin, 6-hydroxyisocolumbin, penianthic acid methyl ester, 2 beta-3 alpha-dihydroxy-2,3,7,8 alpha-tetrahydropenianthic acid lactone and the glycosides floribundic acid glucoside and zenkerin are new clerodanes or clerodane derivatives. 104 NAL Call. No.: RS160.I47 Clerodendrum colebrookianum, a folk remedy for the treatment of hypertension in northeastern India. Nath, S.C.; Bordoloi, D.N. Lisse, Netherlands : Swets & Zeitlinger; 1991 Jun. International journal of pharmacognosy v. 29 (2): p. 127-129; 1991 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: India; Clerodendrum colebrookianum; Medicinal plants; Ethnobotany; Medicinal properties; Plant extracts; Pharmaceutical products; Hypertension; Folk medicine; Traditional medicines 105 NAL Call. No.: QH442.A1G4 Cloning of trichosanthin cDNA and its expression in Escherichia coli. Shaw, P.C.; Yung, M.H.; Zhu, R.H.; Ho, W.K.K.; Ng, T.B.; Yeung, H.W. Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers; 1991. Gene v. 97 (2): p. 267-272; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Trichosanthes kirilowii; Medicinal plants; Escherichia coli; Cloning; Pharmaceutical proteins; Plant proteins; Genes; Recombinant DNA; Nucleotide sequences; Amino acid sequences; Restriction mapping; Gene expression Abstract: Several cDNA clones coding for trichosanthin (TCS) have been isolated from a cDNA library prepared from the poly(A) + RNA of the root tuber of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maximowicz. The nucleotide sequence codes for a protein of 289 amino acids (aa) including a putative signal peptide of 23 aa and an extra 19 aa at the C terminus; the latter two have not been found in TCS obtained from the natural product [Collins et al., J. Biol. Chem. 265 (1990) 8665-8669]. Recombinant TCS (reTCS) was synthesized in Escherichia coli, in which the cDNA without the signal sequence was expressed under the control of the trc promoter; reTCS was detected by a rabbit anti-TCS antiserum. 106 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Cohirsinine, an alkaloid from Cocculus hirsutus. Ahmad, V.U.; Rasheed, T.; Iqbal, S. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (4): p. 1350-1351; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Pakistan; Cocculus; Medicinal plants; Chemical composition; Alkaloids; Spectral analysis Abstract: A new alkaloid, cohirsinine, was isolated from Cocculus hirsutus. Its structure is assigned on the basis of chemical and spectral studies. 107 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Comparative study on essential oil of some Teucrium species from Cyprus. Arnold, N.; Bellomaria, B.; Valentini, G.; Rafaiani, S.M. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Dec. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 35 (2): p. 105-113; 1991 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Cyprus; Teucrium; Traditional medicines; Essential oils; gas chromatography Abstract: A comparative study on the essential oil of Teucrium cyprium ssp. cyprium. T micropodioides. T divaricatum ssp. canescens and T. kotschyanum has been carried out. The four specimens are found in Cyprus and were used in the traditional mecidine of the island. The first three are endemic to Cyprus. The essential oil was extracted by steam distillation of the dried flowers, leaves and stems and analyzed by GLC and GC-MS. The percentage of the essential oil obtained varies in the different parts of the plants from 0.07 to 1.3%. Forty-eight components have been identified. Some of them were present in all the species which have been investigated, others were characteristic of one species only. 108 NAL Call. No.: NBUQK99 C66 1988 The conservation of medicinal plants proceedings of an International consultation, 21-27 March 1988 held at Chiang Mai, Thailand. Akerele, Olayiwola; Heywood, V. H._1927-; Synge, Hugh World Health Organization, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, World Wide Fund for Nature Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press,; 1991. xvi, 362 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. Language: English Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Plant conservation 109 NAL Call. No.: 475 AC8 Constituents of Bidens pilosa L.: Do the components found so far explain the use of this plant in traditional medicine?. Geissberger, P.; Sequin, U. Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers; 1991 Feb. Acta tropica v. 48 (4): p. 251-261; 1991 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Bidens pilosa; Traditional medicines; Plant extracts; Antiinflammatory agents; Antimicrobial properties 110 NAL Call. No.: RS164.C698 1989 Contribution to the medico-botany of East Godavari and West Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh.. Andhrapradesa ke Purvi evam Pascimi Godavari janapadom ki aushadha vanaspatiyam Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (India) New Delhi : Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India; 1989. xiii, 116 p. : ill., map ; 25 cm. Summary in English and Hindi. Cover title: Andhrapradesa ke Purvi evam Pascimi Godavari janapadom ki aushadha vanaspatiyam. Includes bibliographical references (p. 69-[71]). Language: English; English Descriptors: Materia medica, Vegetable--Material medica, Vegetable--Medicinal plants 111 NAL Call. No.: S592.7.A1S6 The core structure of shilajit humus. Ghosal, S.; Lal, J.; Singh, S.K. Exeter : Pergamon Press; 1991. Soil biology and biochemistry v. 23 (7): p. 673-680; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: India; Rocks; Exudates; Humic acids; Folk medicine Abstract: The nature of the building blocks and their alignments in the humus 'core' of shilajit were determined by mild and drastic degradations and by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses of the products. Mild hydrolysis of humic acids (HAs) from shilajit afforded two new dibenzo- alpha-pyrones, viz. 3-O-palmitoyl-8-hydroxydibenzo-alpha- pyrone (1) and 3-O-beta-D-glucosyl-8-hydroxydibenzo-alpha-pyrone (2), and two new tirucallane-type triterpenic acids, viz. 24(Z)-3 beta-hydroxy-tirucalla-8,24-dien-26-oic acid (3) and 24(Z)-3 beta- hydroxy-tirucalla-7,24-dien-26-oic acid (4). The resistant Has (RHAs), obtained after mild hydrolysis, when subjected, separately, to KMnO4 oxidation and Zn dust distillation gave several aromatic carboxylic acids, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, a simple dibenzo-alpha- pyrone (= 3,4-benzo-coumarin) and fluorene. These products, except the two last-named compounds, have been reported from similar degradations of soil-sediment humus indicating the inherent structural similarities of humus from two dissimilar sources. On the basis of the above and related observations, a partial structure of the shilajit humus core, involving oxygenated dibenzo-alpha-pyrones, is postulated. Additionally, the necessity of standardization of shilajit, a panacea in oriental medicine, on the basis of its active principles and carrier molecules (e.g. fulvic acids, FAs) is suggested. 112 NAL Call. No.: TX341.P53 Coumarin compounds in cassava diets: 2 health implications of scopoletin in gari. Obidoa, O.; Obasi, S.C. Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic; 1991 Jul. Plant foods for human nutrition v. 41 (3): p. 283-289; 1991 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Nigeria; Cassava; Lipids; Extractants; Cyanides; Toxicity; Flours; Medicinal plants; Pharmacodynamics 113 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Coumarin derivatives in Coptis trifolia. Mizuno, M.; Kojima, H.; Iinuma, M.; Tanaka, T.; Goto, K. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Feb. Phytochemistry v. 31 (2): p. 717-719; 1992 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Japan; Coptis; Medicinal plants; Chemotaxonomy; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Coumarin; Derivatives Abstract: Known compounds, epiberberine, groenlandicine, scopoletin and beta-sitosterol were characterized in the whole plants of Coptis trifolia. By means of spectral analysis, the structures of two new compounds were determined to be glycosides of a 10-hydroxygeranyl residue which is linked with scopoletin (7-hydroxy-6-methoxycoumarin) through an ether linkage. 114 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 A coumarin from Setaria italica. Jain, N.; Alam, M.S.; Kamil, M.; Ilyas, M.; Ali, M. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (11): p. 3826-3827; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: India; Setaria italica; Medicinal plants; Leaves; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Coumarin Abstract: A new coumarin named setarin has been isolated from the leaves of Setaria italica and its structure elucidated as 4- propenoxycoumarin on the basis of spectral and chemical analysis. 115 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Croton zehntneri: possible central nervous system effects in rodents. Bernardi, M.M.; Souza-Spinosa, H. de; Batatinha, M.J.M.; Giorgi, R. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Jul. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 33 (3): p. 285-287; 1991 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Brazil; Croton zehntneri; Plant extracts; Central nervious system; Folk medicine; Rats 116 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Cucurbitacins from Wilbrandia ebracteata. Schenkel, E.P.; Farias, M.R.; Mayer, R.; Breitmaier, E.; Rucker, G. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Apr. Phytochemistry v. 31 (4): p. 1329-1333; 1992 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Brazil; Cucurbitaceae; Medicinal plants; Roots; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Cucurbitacins; Glucosides; Purification Abstract: Three new cucurbitacins were isolated from the roots of Wilbrandia ebracteata and their structures established as 16-alpha,23-alpha-epoxy-2-beta,3-beta,20-beta-trihydroxy-10-alpha, 23-beta-cucurbit-5,24-dien-11-one, 16-alpha,23-alpha-epoxy-2-beta,3-beta,20-beta-trihydroxy-10-alpha, 23-alpha-cucurbit-5,24-dien-11-one and 2-beta,3- beta,16-alpha, 20,25-pentahydroxy-10-alpha-cucurbit-5,23- dien-11-one, mainly by spectroscopy. 117 NAL Call. No.: NBUSB302 I4 C84 1982 Cultivation and utilization of aromatic plants.. Cultivation & utilisation of medicinal and aromatic plants, [Rev. ed.]. Atal, C. K.; Kapur, B. M. Jammu-Tawi : Regional Research Laboratory, Council of Scientific & Industrial Research,; 1982. xxiii, 815 p. : ill. ; 25 cm. Companion volume to Cultivation and utilization of medicinal plants. Previous ed.: Cultivation & utilisation of medicinal and aromatic plants. 1977. Includes bibliographical references and index. Language: English; English Descriptors: Aromatic plants; Plant products 118 NAL Call. No.: SB351.H5H365 Cultivation of finnochio fennel. Morales, M.; Charles, D.; Simon, J. Amherst, Mass. : Massachusetts Cooperative Extension Service; 1991. The Herb, spice and medicinal plant digest v. 9 (1): p. 7; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Bavaria; Culinary herbs; Medicinal plants; Poetry; History; Gardening 119 NAL Call. No.: 450 EC7 The Curagua (Ananas lucidus, Bromeliaceae) crop in Venezuela. Freddy, L.; Amaya, L. Bronx, N.Y. : New York Botanical Garden; 1991 Apr. Economic botany v. 45 (2): p. 216-224; 1991 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Venezuela; Ananas; Fiber plants; Crop production; Plant morphology; Plant ecology; Geographical distribution; Plant fibers; Ethnobotany 120 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Cyclopeptide alkaloids from Zizyphus spina-christi. Abdel-Galil, F.M.; El-Jissry, M.A. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (4): p. 1348-1349; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Egypt; Ziziphus spina-christi; Medicinal plants; Stems; Bark; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Alkaloids Abstract: In addition to the known alkaloids, zizyphine-F, jubanine-A and amphibine-H, a new peptide alkaloid spinanine-A has been isolated from the stem bark of Zizyphus spina- christi. The structure was deduced by spectroscopic methods and chemical degradation. Spinanine-A is a 14-membered cyclopeptide alkaloid of the amphibine-B type. 121 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Cytotoxic pyranocoumarins from the aerial parts of Peucedanum japonicum. Duh, C.Y.; Wang, S.K.; Wu, Y.C. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (8): p. 2812-2814; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Taiwan; Peucedanum; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Coumarins; Cytotoxic compounds Abstract: Bioactivity-guided fractionation of a chloroform extract of the aerial parts of Peucedanum japonicum has afforded two new cytotoxic pyranocoumarins, (+)-trans- khellactone and (+)-trans-4'-acetyl-3'-tigloylkhellactone, as well as a known cytotoxic pyranocoumarin, (+)-cis-4'-acetyl-3'- angeloylkhellactone. 122 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 A dammarane from Stevia salicifolia. Mata, R.; Rodriguez, V.; Pereda-Miranda, R.; Bye, R.; Linares, E. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (11): p. 3822-3823; 1991. Part 20 of the series 'Chemical Studies on Mexican Plants Used in Traditional Medicine'. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Mexico; Stevia; Medicinal plants; Roots; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Triterpenoids Abstract: A new dammarane was isolated from the hexane extract of the roots of Stevia salicifolia. The new metabolite was characterized by spectroscopic and chemical methods as (20S)-dammar-13(17),24-diene-3 beta-yl acetate. 123 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Dammarane triterpenoids from Dysoxylum richii. Aalbersberg, W.; Singh, Y. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (3): p. 921-926; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Fiji; Dysoxylum; Fruit; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Triterpenoids Abstract: Four new dammarane-type triterpenoids, named methyl richenoate, richenone, richenol and richenoic acid, together with four known triterpenoids, ocotillone, cabraleone, shoreic acid and eichlerianic acid, were isolated from the fruits of Dysoxylum richii. The proposed structures were established by chemical interconversions, spectral analysis and comparisons among closely related compounds. 124 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Derivatives of (+)-catechin-5-gallate from the bark of Acacia nilotica. Malan, E. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (8): p. 2737-2739; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Acacia nilotica; Acacia gerrardii; Medicinal plants; Bark; Chemical composition; Catechin; Gallic acid Abstract: Four derivatives of (+)-catechin-5-gallate present in very low concentrations in the bark of Acacia nilotica were isolated and characterized from the acetone extract. An attempt was made to synthesize some of the (+)-catechin galloyl esters found to date. 125 NAL Call. No.: 475 J824 Determination of cinnamic acid and paeoniflorin in traditional chinese medicinal preparations by high-performance liquid chromatography. Wen, K.C.; Huang, C.Y.; Liu, F.S. Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers; 1992 Feb28. Journal of chromatography v. 593 (1/2): p. 191-199; 1992 Feb28. Paper presented at the 15th International Symposium on Column Liquid Chromatography, June 3-7, 1991, Basel, Switzerland, Part 2. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: China; Paeonia; Cinnamic acid; Medicinal plants; Plant extracts; Determination; Hplc 126 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Dibenzocyclo-octandiene lignans from Kadsura heteroclita. Chen, D.F.; Xu, G.J.; Yang, X.W.; Hattori, M.; Tezuka, Y.; Kikuchi, T.; Namba, T. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Feb. Phytochemistry v. 31 (2): p. 629-632; 1992 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Yunnan; Kadsura; Medicinal plants; Stems; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition Abstract: From the stems of Kadsura heteroclita, new dibenzocyclo-octadiene lignans, named heteroclitins A-E, were isolated together with the known compounds, kadsurin and interiorin. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic means. 127 NAL Call. No.: RM666.H33D5 Dictionary of herbal remedies used by migrant farm workers. National Migrant Resource Program (U.S.),Migrant Clinicians Network Austin, TX : National Migrant Resource Program, Inc; 1990. 20 p. ; 28 cm. For the MCN, Migrant Clinicians Network. Publication of this document was made possible by funds from the Migrant Health Program, Bureau of Health Care Delivery and Assistance, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Includes bibliographical rerferences (p. 17). Language: English Descriptors: Herbs; Migrant agricultural workers Abstract: This booklet is designed as a reference tool. It is designed to be used by clinicians to determine the interactive and medicinal properties of herbs used by migrant workers. The dictionary contains Latin, English and Spanish names for the herbs, in addition to information on usage. 128 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Digitalis: is there a future for this classical ethnopharmacological remedy?. Marullaz, P.D. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Apr. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 32 (1/3): p. 111-115; 1991 Apr. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Ethnopharmacology, June 5-9, 1990, Strasbourg, France. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Digitalis purpurea; Medicinal properties; Drugs; History; Traditional medicines Abstract: Withering's (1741-1799) greatest merit is not so much that of having discovered the therapeutic value of foxglove in hydropsy, since this indication (among others) was already part of traditional medicine, but actually during a decade of carefully recording clinical observations, he authoritatively settled definite guidelines for its use. In spite of its further utilization in many additional illnesses such as madness, foxglove, and later its main heteroside digitoxine, progressively reached their eventual place in the treatment of supraventricular arrhythmias and in congestive heart failure. In the latter indication. However, its value is now being questioned; it is being accused of augmenting myocardial work due to its vasoconstrictor properties, of favoring dysrhythmic events in a disease already burdened with a 50% arrhythmia mortality, and actually of having a low therapeutic index. Even though being discarded by a number of cardiologists, digitoxine still remains in the appraisal of others as an indispensable medicine. 129 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 A dimeric stilbene from Gnetum parvifolium. Lin, M.; Li, J.B.; Li, S.Z.; Yu, D.Q.; Liang, X.T. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Feb. Phytochemistry v. 31 (2): p. 633-638; 1992 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Guangxi; Gnetum; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Stilbenes Abstract: Ten constituents have been isolated from lianas of Gnetum parvifolium. Two novel dimeric stilbenes, gnetifolin C and D, a new stilbene glucoside and flavone, gnetifolin E and B have been identified along with six known compounds. Their structures were deduced on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. 130 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Dioncopeltine A and dioncolactone A: alkaloids from Triphyophyllum peltatum. Bringmann, G.; Rubenacker, M.; Vogt, P.; Busse, H.; Assi, L.A.; Peters, K.; Schnering, H.G. von Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (5): p. 1691-1696; 1991. Part 24 in the series 'Acetogenic Isoquinoline Alkaloids.'. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ivory coast; Triphyophyllum peltatum; Medicinal plants; Stems; Bark; Chemical composition; Alkaloids; Stereochemistry; Oxidation; Biochemical pathways Abstract: The isolation of two novel alkaloids from Triphyophyllum peltatum is described. The complete stereostructure of dioncopeltine A, which is closely related to dioncophylline A, is established by spectroscopic, chiroptical, and degradative methods, and is furthermore confirmed by its transformation to O-methyl-dioncopophylline A, as well as by X-ray crystallography. Dioncolactone A, which can be transformed into dioncopeltine A by reductive ring- opening, is the first naturally occurring representative of this novel type of 'axially prostereogenic' biaryl alkaloids. 131 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Dioncophylline B, a naphthylisoquinoline alkaloid with a new coupling type from Triphyophyllum peltatum. Bringmann, G.; Rubenacker, M.; Geuder, T.; Assi, L.A. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (11): p. 3845-3847; 1991. Part 26 in the series 'Acetogenic Isoquinoline Alkaloids'. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ivory coast; Triphyophyllum peltatum; Medicinal plants; Roots; Bark; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Isoquinoline alkaloids Abstract: The isolation of a new alkaloid, dioncophylline B, from the roots of Triphyophyllum peltatum is described. Its complete structure, including absolute configuration, was established by spectroscopic and degradative methods. Dioncophylline B has an unprecedented 7,6'-coupling, and is, because of the lack of bulky substituents next to its axis, the first 'non-bridged' naphthylisoquinoline alkaloid that is not split up into stable atropisomers. 132 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 A dipeptide derivative from Hypericum japonicum. Ishiguro, K.; Nagata, S.; Fukumoto, H.; Yamaki, M.; Takagi, S.; Isoi, K. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (11): p. 3639-3641; 1991. Part 7 in the series 'A Flavanonol Rhamnoside from Hypericum japonicum'. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Dipeptides; Derivatives; Hypericum Abstract: The structure of a novel peptide analogue saropeptate, N-benzoyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-phenylalaninol acetate, isolated from the whole plant of H. japonicum was elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and its absolute configuration determined by comparison with four synthetic diastereoisomers. 133 NAL Call. No.: 475 J824 Direct coupling of high-speed counter-current chromatography to thin-layer chromatography. Application to the separation of asiaticoside and madecassoside from Centella asiatica. Diallo, B.; Vanhaelen-Fastre, R.; Vanhaelen, M. Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers; 1991 Oct11. Journal of chromatography v. 558 (2): p. 446-450; 1991 Oct11. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Plant products; Medicinal plants; Saponins; Separation; Plant extracts; Thin layer chromatography; Centella asiatica 134 NAL Call. No.: SB44.D57 1989 Directory of specialists in herbs, spices, and medicinal plants., 2nd ed.. Craker, Lyle E. Amherst, MA : Herb, Spice, and Medicinal Plant Digest, the Dept. of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Massachusetts; 1989. 17 leaves ; 28 cm. Language: English Descriptors: Horticulturists; Medical botanists 135 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Diterpenes from Saliva mellifera and their biogenetic significance. Gonzalez, A.G.; Andres, L.S.; Aguiar, Z.E.; Luis, J.G. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Apr. Phytochemistry v. 31 (4): p. 1297-1305; 1992 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: California; Salvia; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Diterpenes; Biosynthesis; Biochemical pathways Abstract: The new diterpenes, 11,12-dihydroxy-20-nor-abieta-5(10),8,11,13-tetraen-1-one and isogaldosol, together with the known compounds carnosic acid, carnosol, rosmanol, rosmadial, galdosol and isorosmanol were isolated from the aerial part of Salvia mellifera. The structures of the new diterpenes were established from their spectral data and by chemical correlations. The co-occurrence of all these compounds in one species taken together with their chemical behaviour led to the postulation of a biogenetic pathway to highly oxidized abietatriene diterpenes in which enzymatic dehydrogenation processes and the participation of singlet-state oxygen appear to play an important role. 136 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 A diterpenoid alkaloid from Aconitum alboviolaceum. Hao, Z.; Liu, J.; Zhao, S.; Miao, Z. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (10): p. 3494-3496; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: China; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Diterpenoids; Alkaloids; Aconitum albo-violaceum Abstract: A new diterpenoid alkaloid, named albovionitine, was isolated from Aconitum alboviolaceum. Its structure was elucidated by spectral analysis and was shown to be a seco-N-6 and N-20 hetisine-type diterpenoid alkaloid. Albovionitine is the first example of a diterpenoid alkaloid bearing a hydroxyl group at C-18 and a seco-N-20 functionality. Four known diterpenoid alkaloids were also isolated and identified as ajacine, avadharidine, lycoctonine and lycaconitine. 137 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 A diterpenoid from Rabdosia excisa. Chang, R.; Kim, D.; U, Z.; Shen, X.; Chen, Y.; Sun, H. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Jan. Phytochemistry v. 31 (1): p. 342-343; 1992 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Korea democratic people's republic; Plectranthus; Medicinal plants; Leaves; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Diterpenoids; Kaurene Abstract: A minor new diterpenoid, excisanin C and five known diterpenoids were isolated from Rabdosia excisa. Structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. 138 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Diterpenoids from Eragrostis ferruginea. Nishiya, K.; Kimura, T.; Takeya, K.; Itokawa, H.; Lee, S.R. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (7): p. 2410-2411; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Korea republic; Eragrostis ferruginea; Roots; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Diterpenoids; Medicinal plants Abstract: Two new diterpene compounds have been isolated from the roots of Eragrostis ferruginea. Their structures were elucidated as isopimara-9(11),15-dien-19-ol-3-one and cassa-13(14),15-diene-3,12-dione by various spectroscopic methods. We have also isolated the known diterpene diol, isopimara-9(11),15-diene-3 beta,19-diol. 139 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Diterpenoids from Salvia miltiorrhiza. Ikeshiro, Y.; Hashimoto, I.; Iwamoto, Y.; Mase, I.; Tomita, Y. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (8): p. 2791-2792; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: China; Salvia miltiorrhiza; Medicinal plants; Roots; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Diterpenoids Abstract: The structure of a new abietane type diterpenoid from the Chinese traditional medicine Dan-shen, Salvia miltiorrhiza, was isolated and its structure determined by spectroscopic methods. 140 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Diterpenoids from Spirostachys africana. Duri, Z.J.; Hughes, N.A.; Munkombwe, N.M. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Feb. Phytochemistry v. 31 (2): p. 699-702; 1992 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Zimbabwe; Euphorbiaceae; Heartwood; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Diterpenoids; Medicinal plants; Insecticidal plants Abstract: Two new beyerene derivatives; ent-3 beta,18-dihydroxy-beyer-15-ene-2-one and ent-3 beta-hydroxy-19-nor-beyer-15-ene-2,12-dione have been isolated from Spirostachys africana in addition to the known ent-3 beta-hydroxy-beyer-15-ene-2-one. 141 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Diterpenoids from the roots of Salvia przewalskii. Li, B.; Niu, F.D.; Lin, Z.W.; Zhang, H.J.; Wang, D.Z.; Sun, H.D. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (11): p. 3815-3817; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sichuan; Salvia; Medicinal plants; Roots; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Diterpenoids Abstract: Five abietane diterpenoids, przewalskin, przewaquinone A, tanshinone II A, tanshinone I and tanshinone II B were isolated from the roots of Salvia przewalskii. Przewalskin is a new compound. Its structure was established by a detailed spectroscopic analysis. 142 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Diuretic, natriuretic and hypotensive effects produced by Allium sativum (garlic) in anaesthetized dogs. Pantoja, C.V.; Chiang, L.C.; Norris, B.C.; Concha, J.B. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Mar. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 31 (3): p. 325-331; 1991 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Allium sativum; Dogs; Medicinal properties; Diuretics; Traditional medicines; Pharmacology Abstract: Gastric administration of encapsuled garlic powder to anaesthetized dogs induced dose-dependent (2.5 to 15 mg/kg) natriuretic and diuretic responses which reached maximum 30-40 min after garlic administration and decreased to basal levels after 100-150 min. A simultaneous decrease in arterial blood pressure was observed which continued past the 250 min-mark. High garlic doses (15 and 20 mg/kg) provoked bradycardia and T-wave inversion during the first 10-15 min of the experiment with recordings returning to normal and staying normal throughout the remainder of the experiment. 143 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Does pharmacology corroborate the nicotine therapy and practices of South American shamanism?. Wilbert, J. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Apr. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 32 (1/3): p. 179-186; 1991 Apr. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Ethnopharmacology, June 5-9, 1990, Strasbourg, France. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: South America; American indians; Tobacco; Nicotine; Ethnography; Pharmacology; Therapy Abstract: The use of tobacco by South American Indians is deeply rooted in their culture and thought. From early pre- Columbian times to the present, tobacco has functioned as an important psychotropic drug for magico-religious, medicinal and recreational purposes. Native interest in tobacco centers on the nicotine alkaloid it contains. Data culled from about 1800 sources and pertaining to nearly 300 societies reveal that South American Indians employ six major and several minor means of nicotine application. There exists a close functional relationship between tobacco and shamanism. The empirical ethnographical data base of nicotine application is compared to the comprehensive literature of experimental clinical studies of tobacco and nicotine. Ritual tobacco use aims to achieve acute nicotine intoxication. The pharmacological effects of the alkaloid on the human body are shown to have informed shamanic therapeutic practices and beliefs. Closely associated with soil cultivation, tobacco use in the New World is much more recent than shamanism. Thus, it is not the drug that gave origin to shamanic religion but religion that informed the effects of the drug. 144 NAL Call. No.: SB108.N45B76 1988 Economic native plants of New Zealand. Brooker, S. G.; Cambie, R. C.; Cooper, Robert C. Christchurch, N.Z. : Botany Division, D.S.I.R.,; 1988. xii, 130 p. : ill. ; 30 cm. February 1988. Includes bibliographical references (p. 99-118) and index. Language: English Descriptors: Botany, Economic; Native plants for cultivation; Maori (New Zealand people); Ethnobotany 145 NAL Call. No.: RS164.E28 The economic significance of plants and their constituents as drugs. Principe, P.P. Orlando, Fla. : Academic Press; 1985. Economic and medicinal plant research / edited by H. Wagner, Hiroshi Hikino, Norman R. Farnsworth. v. 3 p. 1-17; 1985. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Economic impact; Market economics 146 NAL Call. No.: RS160.I47 Effect of ascorbic acid on the yield and quality of essential oils in Indian dark variyali sowa (Anethum sowa). Pundarikakshudu, K.; Bhavsar, G.C. Lisse, Netherlands : Swets & Zeitlinger; 1991 Feb. International journal of pharmacognosy v. 29 (1): p. 57-61; 1991 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Anethum sowa; Medicinal plants; Essential oils; Crop yield; Carvone; Dihydrocarvone; Phenolic compounds; Foliar spraying; Ascorbic acid; Fruits 147 NAL Call. No.: TP368.J6 Effect of batch extraction conditions on extraction of polyphenols from rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis). Joubert, E. Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1990 Jun. International journal of food science and technology v. 25 (3): p. 339-343; 1990 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Herbal teas; Flavonoids; Polyphenols; Extraction; Flow; Temperature 148 NAL Call. No.: RS160.I47 Effect of cream bases on the antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Aframomum meleguata. Igwilo, C.I.; Akpan, U.E.; Adeoye, A.O.; Ilozor, C.N. Lisse, Netherlands : Swets & Zeitlinger; 1991 Feb. International journal of pharmacognosy v. 29 (1): p. 45-50; 1991 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Aframomum melegueta; Medicinal plants; Essential oils; Medicinal properties; Antibacterial properties; Antifungal properties; Candida albicans; Escherichia coli; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Staphylococcus aureus; Bacillus cereus; Ointments 149 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Effect of Melothria maderaspatana on carbon tetrachloride- induced changes in rat hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activity. Jayatilaka, K.A.P.W.; Thabrew, M.I.; Perera, D.J.B. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1990 Aug. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 30 (1): p. 97-100; 1990 Aug. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Rats; Melothria; Ethanol; Liver diseases; Medicinal plants; Plant extracts; Enzymes Abstract: Treatment with an aqueous extract of the aerial parts of Melothria maderaspatana, before or after CCl4 administration in rats markedly decreased CCl4-mediated reductions in aniline hydroxylase and p-aminopyrine N- demethylase activities. Phenobarbital-induced sleeping time in rats and kinetic enzyme studies showed that the effect of the plant was neither due to an induction of the drug metabolizing enzymes nor due to an alteration in the Km values of the enzymes. 150 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Effect of Salvia haematodes on sexual behaviour of male rats. Islam, M.W.; Tariq, M.; Ageel, A.M.; Al-Said, M.S.; Al-Yhya, A.M. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 May. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 33 (1/2): p. 67-72; 1991 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Saudi arabia; Rats; Salvia pratensis; Plant extracts; Roots; Sex; Stimulants; Sexual behavior; Traditional medicines; Males Abstract: The effect of an ethanolic extract of Salvia haematodes roots was studied on the sexual behaviour of male rats. in the initial experiments, male sexual responses were assessed by recording penile erection, licking and grooming of genitals and copulatory movement in absence of females. In the second set, copulatory behaviour was observed by caging males with a receptive female brought into estrus with s.c. injection of estradiol benzoate and progesterone. The frequencies of mounting and intromission and latency of the ejaculation were recorded. The results show that the extract (500 mg/kg, orally) produced a significant increase in episodes of penile erection. The drug was found to enhance the orientation of males towards the female by increased anogenital investigatory behaviour and enhanced licking and grooming of the genitals. The extract also increased the ejaculation latency. These findings support the folk use of this plant as aphrodisiac and for the treatment of premature ejaculation. 151 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 The effectiveness of Hernandia spp. (Hernandiaceae) in traditional Samoan medicine and according to scientific analyses. Dittmar, A. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Jul. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 33 (3): p. 243-251; 1991 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Western Samoa; Hernandia; Traditional medicines; Analysis; Medicinal properties Abstract: The use of Hernandia nymphaefolia (Presl.) Kubitzki, Hernandia ovigera Linn., Hernandia peltata Meissner and Hernandia sonora Linn. in traditional Samoan medicine is given. The constituents have been listed and the effectiveness of the various plant parts deduced from them. A comparison of the traditional medicinal use with the assigned medicinal effectiveness shows clear concordances. Further pharmacological investigations are needed. 152 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Effects of an aqueous extract of Ferula ovina on rabbit and guinea pig smooth muscle. Al-Khalil, S.; Aqel, M.; Afifi, F.; Al-Eisawi, D. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1990 Aug. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 30 (1): p. 35-42; 1990 Aug. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ferula; Smooth muscle; Rabbits; Guinea pigs; Medicinal plants; Plant extracts; Intestines; Trachea; Aorta; Acetylcholine; Norepinephrine; Contraction Abstract: The effects of an aqueous extract of Ferula ovina were tested in vitro using isolated segments of rabbit and guinea pig intestine, trachea and aorta. The extract inhibited the spontaneous movements of rabbit jejunum and guinea pig ileum and the contractions induced by acetylcholine. The aqueous extract also inhibited the contractions of rabbit trachealis muscle induced by acetylcholine and the contractions of guinea pig trachealis muscle induced by histamine. These inhibitions were dose-dependent and reversible. However, the aqueous extract did not inhibit the contractions of rabbit and guinea pig aortic rings induced by norepinephrine. These data suggest that this plant has non- specific anticholinergic and antihistaminic antispasmodic effects. 153 NAL Call. No.: RS160.I47 Effects of aqueous extract of Glaucium arabicum on smooth muscles of rabbit and guinea pig. Aqel, M.; Al-Khalil, S.; Afifi, F.; Al-Eisawi, A. Lisse, Netherlands : Swets & Zeitlinger; 1991 Feb. International journal of pharmacognosy v. 29 (1): p. 2-8; 1991 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Glaucium; Medicinal plants; Plant extracts; Pharmaceutical products; Medicinal properties; Inhibition; Muscle contraction; Smooth muscle; Aorta; Trachea; Ileum; Jejunum; Rabbits; Guinea pigs 154 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Effects of chronic oral administration in mice of the gut- stimulating crystals of Croton penduliflorus seed oil. Asuzu, I.U.; Shetty, S.N.; Anika, S.M. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1990 Sep. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 30 (2): p. 135-143; 1990 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Cotton; Purgatives; Diarrhea; Mice; Folk medicine Abstract: Crystals from Croton penduliflorus seeds (CPC) were administered at weekly intervals in two doses (7 mg/kg and 21 mg/kg) by gastric intubation to mice over 12 weeks. CPC induced purgation in the treated mice, with the higher dose having a more profound effect. Mice treated with CPC developed skin lesions with swollen scrotums. There were significant changes in the PCV, Hb and plasma proteins of treated mice. Gangrene of the tail with subsequent sloughing was observed, particularly in the low dose group. Mice in the low dose group also experienced retarded growth. A significant clinical finding in the treated mice was abortion during late pregnancy and 100% fetal mortality. It was concluded that, apart from its purgative effect, CPC can cause toxic effects in chronic administration. Use in pregnant women should be discouraged. 155 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Effects of Croton zehntneri aqueous extracts on some cholinergic- and dopaminergic-related behaviours of laboratory rodents. Giorgi, R.; Batatinha, M.J.M.; Bernardi, M.M.; DeSouza- Spinosa, H.; Spinosa, F.R.N.; Palermo-Neto, J. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Sep. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 34 (2/3): p. 189-193; 1991 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Folk medicine; Plant extracts; Rats; Diopamine; Cholinergic mechanisms; Mice; Croton zehntneri Abstract: The effects of aquerosu croton zehntneri leaf and branch extracts, orally administered, on some dopaminergic- and cholinergic-related behaviours were studied in rats and mice. The leaf extract did not modify apomorphine-induced sterotypic behavior, haloperidot-induced catalepsy and active avoidance/escape responses. The branch extract reduced sterotypy but did not interfere with catalepsy and active avoidance behavior. Both extracts were capable of increasing the tremor induced by oxotremorine. 156 NAL Call. No.: TX541.D33 The effects of drying-methods on the aroma of the herbal tea plant (Rubus idaeus). Kirsi, M.; Julkunen-Titto, R.; Rimpilaninen, T. Amsterdam : Elsevier Scientific Publications; 1990. Developments in food science (24): p. 205-211; 1990. In the series analytic: Flavors and Off-Flavors '89 / edited by G. Charalambous. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Rubus idaeus; Tea; Aroma; Drying methods 157 NAL Call. No.: 442.8 L62 Effects of hirsutine, an antihypertensive indole alkaloid from Uncaria rhynchophylla, on intracellular calcium in rat thoracic aorta. Horie, S.; Yano, S.; Aimi, N.; Sakai, S.I.; Watanabe, K. Elmsford, N.Y. : Pergamon Press; 1992. Life sciences v. 50 (7): p. 491-498; 1992. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Uncaria; Medicinal plants; Indole alkaloids; Antihypertensive agents; Calcium; Calcium ions; Smooth muscle; Aorta; Rats Abstract: The effects of hirsutine, an indole alkaloid from Uncaria rhynchophylla (MIQ.) Jackson, on cytosolic Ca2+ level ([Ca2+]cyt) were studied by using fura-2-Ca2+ fluorescence in smooth muscle of the isolated rat aorta. Noradrenaline and high K+ solution produced a sustained increase in [Ca2+]cyt. Application of hirsutine after the increases in [Ca2+]cyt induced by noradrenaline and high K+ notably decreased [Ca2+]cyt, suggesting that hirsutine inhibits Ca2+ influx mainly through a voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel. Furthermore, the effect of hirsutine on intracellular Ca2+ store was studied by using contractile responses to caffeine under the Ca2+- free nutrient condition in the rat aorta. When hirsutine was added at 30 micromole before caffeine treatment, the agent slightly but significantly reduced the caffeine-induced contraction. When added during Ca2+ loading, hirsutine definitely augmented the contractile response to caffeine. These results suggest that hirsutine inhibits Ca2+ release from the Ca2+ store and increases Ca2+ uptake into the Ca2+ store, leading to a reduction of intracellular Ca2+ level. It is concluded that hirsutine reduces intracellular Ca2+ level through its effect on the Ca2+ store as well as through its effect on the voltage- dependent Ca2+ channel. 158 NAL Call. No.: RS164.P59 Effects of Kamikihi-To, a traditional Chinese medicine, on learning and memory performance in mice. Nishizawa, K.; Saito, H.; Nishiyama, N. Sussex : John Wiley & Sons; 1991 Jun. Phytotherapy research : PTR v. 5 (3): p. 97-102; 1991 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: China; Medicinal plants; Traditional medicines; Folk medicine; Medicinal properties; Learning; Memory; Mice 159 NAL Call. No.: RM301.D73 Effects of some compounds isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs on hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450 and their potential biological consequences. Liu, G.T. New York, N.Y. : M. Dekker; 1991. Drug metabolism reviews v. 23 (3/4): p. 439-465; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: China; Mice; Rats; Reviews; Liver cells; Microsomes; Induction; Enzymes; Pharmacology; Metabolic detoxification; Lipid peroxidation; Toxicity; Hepatotoxins; Cytochrome p-450; Pharmaceutical products; Medicinal plants 160 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Effets pharmacologiques de la mansonine sur des arythmies induites au niveau du coeur isole de rat [Pharmacological effects of mansonine on arrhythmias induced on isolated rat heart]. Ehile, E.E.; Mensah-Nyagan, A.; Guede, G.F.; Aka, K.J. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 May. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 33 (1/2): p. 179-185; 1991 May. Includes references. Language: French Descriptors: Mansonia altissima; Medicinal properties; Arrhythmia; Heart; Traditional medicines; Rats Abstract: The effect of 3 X 10(-13) M Mansonine (MSN) was observed on arrythmias induced on isolated rat heart, perfused with either hypopotassic solution, atropine solution, or MacEwen physiological saline at 18 degrees C. Generally the reversal of induced arrythmias was complete with the hypopotassic solution, and partial with the MacEwen solution at 18 degrees C. On the other hand, when atropine and MSN were combined, their effects induced heart arrest, probably due to an intracellular calcium accumulation. In this case, the heart recovery occurred by preventing the calcium influx, either through EDTA chelation, or blockade of calcium channels. It was concluded that MSN probably acts like most cardiac glycosides, by blocking the Na+-K+ AtPase. This may activate a calcium influx, which causes the subsequent positive inotropic effect, as well as a negative chronotropic effect due to an increase of the membrane activation set point. 161 NAL Call. No.: 450 EC7 Efraim Hernandez Xolocotzi-Guzman--1913-1991. Wilkes, H.G. Bronx, N.Y. : New York Botanical Garden; 1991 Apr. Economic botany v. 45 (2): p. 301-302; 1991 Apr. Language: English Descriptors: Mexico; Botanists; Obituaries; Ethnobotany; Plant breeding; Genetic resources 162 NAL Call. No.: 442.8 L77 Ent- kauranoid diterpenes from Artemisia sacrorum. Li, X.; Zhang, D.; Onda, M. Pittsburgh, Pa. : American Society of Pharmacognosy; 1990 May. Journal of natural products v. 53 (3): p. 657-661; 1990 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: China; Artemisia; Plant extracts; Diterpenes; Glycosides; Medicinal plants; Chemical composition; Molecular conformation 163 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 ent- Kaurene diterpenoids, isodopharicins A, B and C in Isodon pharicus. Wang, Z.M.; Cheng, P.Y.; Min, Z.D.; Zheng, Q.T.; Wu, C.Y.; Xu, C.Y.; Gue, Y.W.; Mizuno, M.; Iinuma, M.; Tanaka, T. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (11): p. 3699-3702; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sichuan; Kaurene; Diterpenoids; Chemical composition; Spectral analysis; Medicinal plants; Labiatae Abstract: Three new ent-kaurene diterpenoids, isodopharicin A, B and C, were isolated from the whole plant of Isodon pharicus. The structures of isodopharicin A and B established by spectroscopic and chemical means were formulated as 11 beta-acetoxy-3 alpha, 13 alpha-dihydroxy-ent-kaur-16-en-15-one and 3 alpha,11 beta- diacetoxy-13 alpha-hydroxy-ent-kaur-16-en-15-one, respectively. The structure isodopharicin C was confirmed by X-ray analysis to be 11 beta-acetoxy-13 alpha,19-dihydroxy- ent-kaur-16-en-15-one. 164 NAL Call. No.: TP248.2.B46 Enzymatic synthesis of biologically active compounds: synthesis of castanospermine derivatives. Margolin, A.L.; Delinck, D.L. New York, N.Y. : American Institute of Chemical Engineers; 1990 May. Biotechnology progress v. 6 (3): p. 203-204; 1990 May. Paper presented at the Symposium on Production of Speciality Chemicals; Polymers and Fibers via Recombinant DNA Methodology; November 5-10, 1989, San Francisco, California. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Alkaloids; Derivatives; Synthesis; Serine proteinases; Triacylglycerol lipase; Esterases; Enzyme activity; Antiviral agents; Antineoplastic agents 165 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Eremophilanolides from Roldana sessilifolia. Delgado, G.; Garcia, P.E.; Byes, R.A.; Linares, E. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (5): p. 1716-1719; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Mexico; Compositae; Medicinal plants; Roots; Spectral analysis; Sesquiterpenoids; Lactones Abstract: Chemical investigation of the roots of the medicinal plant Roldana sessilifolia yielded 1 alpha- angeloyloxy-10 beta H-eremophil-7(11)-en-8 alpha, 12-olide, 1 alpha-angeloyloxy-10 beta-hydroxy-eremophil-7(11)-en-8 alpha, 12- olide and 1 alpha-angeloyloxy-10 beta H, 8 beta-hydroxy-eremophil-7(11)-en-8 alpha, 12-olide. The first two are new compounds and their structures elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods. The compounds were not toxic in an Artemia salina bioassay. 166 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Erratum: Ritualistic use of the holly Ilex guayusa by Amazonian Jivaro Indians. Lewis, W.H.; Kennelly, E.J.; Bass, G.N.; Wedner, H.J.; Elvin-Lewis, M.P.; Fast, D. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Sep. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 34 (2/3): p. 293; 1991 Sep. Language: English Descriptors: Ecuador; Peru; Ilex; Men; Caffeine; Stimulants; Cultural behavior; Vomiting; Folk medicine; Mountain areas 167 NAL Call. No.: TP248.13.B54 ESCAgenetics coaxes Taxol from tissue culture, seeks partner. New York : McGraw-Hill :.; 1991 Jul01. Biotechnology newswatch v. 11 (13): p. 1, 4; 1991 Jul01. Language: English Descriptors: Cell culture; Medicinal plants; Product development; Taxus baccata 168 NAL Call. No.: 450 P697 Esculentoside L and K: two new saponins from Phytolacca esculenta. Yi, Y.H. Stuttgart, W. Ger. : Georg Thieme Verlag; 1990 Jun. Planta medica v. 56 (3): p. 301-303; 1990 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Phytolacca acinosa; Roots; Plant extracts; Saponins; Medicinal plant 169 NAL Call. No.: F3429.3.D69E85 1989 Estudios etnoveterinarios en comunidades alto-andinas del Peru [Ethnoveterinary studies in the high Andes communities of Peru]. Bazalar, Hernando; McCorkle, Constance M. Huancayo [Junin, Peru] : Proyecto de Validacion de Tecnologia en Comunidades,; 1989. 134 p. ; 21 cm. (Serie Comunidades. Reporte tecnico ; no. 99). Includes bibliographical references (p. [119]-127). Language: Spanish; Spanish Descriptors: Indians of South America; Veterinary medicine; Folk medicine 170 NAL Call. No.: SB123.3.D5 Ethnobotanical conservation and plant diversity in the northwest Amazon. Schultes, R.E. Fort Collins, Colo. : Laboratory for Information Science in Agriculture; 1991. Diversity v. 7 (1/2): p. 69-72; 1991. Language: English Descriptors: South America; Ethnobotany; Conservation; Diversity 171 NAL Call. No.: 450 EC7 Ethnobotanical observations in the Ladakh region of northern Jammu and Kashmir State, India. Bhattacharyya, A. Bronx, N.Y. : New York Botanical Garden; 1991 Jul. Economic botany v. 45 (3): p. 305-308; 1991 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Jammu and kashmir; Ethnobotany; Edible species; Fodder plants; Poisonous plants; Plants; Stimulant plants 172 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Ethnobotanical review of medicinal plants from Thai traditional books. II. Plants with antidiarrheal, laxative and carminative properties. Panthong, A.; Kanjanapothi, D.; Taesotikul, T.; Taylor, W.C. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Feb. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 31 (2): p. 121-156; 1991 Feb. Literature review. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Thailand; Medicinal plants; Medicinal properties; Antidiarrhea agents; Laxatives; Carminatives; Ethnobotany; Literature reviews Abstract: A survey of medicinal plants used in Thailand has been made from Thai books on traditional herbal medicine. In this part of the survey, 326 plants with antidiarrheal, laxative and/or carminative properties are described. Information provided for each species includes plant part used, methods of preparation and administration and literature references to Thai books, together with indications of usage in other Southeast Asian countries and of phytochemical work which has been performed. 173 NAL Call. No.: 450 EC7 Ethnobotanical studies of the negrito islanders of Andaman Islands, India--the Great Andamanese. Awasthi, A.K. Bronx, N.Y. : New York Botanical Garden; 1991 Apr. Economic botany v. 45 (2): p. 274-280; 1991 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Andaman and nicobar Islands; Angiosperms; Gymnosperms; Algae; Ethnobotany; Medicinal plants; Edible species; Fiber plants; Medicinal properties 174 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal flora used by the Caribs of Guatemala. Giron, L.M.; Freire, V.; Alonzo, A.; Caceres, A. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Sep. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 34 (2/3): p. 173-187; 1991 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Guatemala; Folk medicine; Regional surveys; Medicinal properties; Ethnic groups; Ethnobotany; Medicinal plants Abstract: An ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the Carib population of Guatemala in 1988-1989. In general terms, the sample surveyed processed a relatively good standard of living. Results indicated that health services were utilized by the population, and that domestic medicine, mainly plants, (96.9%) was used by 15% of the population. One hundred and nineteen plants used for medicinal purposes were collected, of which 102 (85.7%) could be identified; a list of these together with the information provided for each plant is presented. The most frequently reported plants used as medicine are: Acalypha arvensis, Cassia alota, Cymbopogon citratus, Melumpodium divaricutum, Momordica charantia, Neurolaena lobata, Ocimum basilicum, Petiveria alliacea and Solanum nigrescens. Most of these plants are found in the region, but some are brought from the Highlands or outside of the country, such as Malva parviflora, Matricaria chamomilla, Peumus boldus, Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis and Tagetes lucida. This survey demonstrated that the Carib population of Guatemala has survived in a transcultural environment of African and native Amerindian beliefs. 175 NAL Call. No.: QK71.P83 Ethnobotany for the nineties. Balick, M.J. Wayne, Pa. : The Association; 1991 Jul. The Public garden : journal of the American Association of Botanical Gardens and Arboreta v. 6 (3): p. 11-13; 1991 Jul. Language: English Descriptors: Botanical gardens; Educational programs; Research projects; Ethnobotany 176 NAL Call. No.: 451 B78 Ethnobotany of bromeliads: indigenous uses of tillandsias in the southern Andes of Peru. Bennett, B.C. Orlando, Fla. : The Society; 1990 Mar. Journal of the Bromeliad Society v. 40 (2): p. 64-69. ill., maps; 1990 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Peru; Tillandsia; Ethnobotany; History; Flora; Checklists; Epiphytes; Geographical distribution 177 NAL Call. No.: 450 EC7 Ethnobotany of Clitoria (Leguminosae). Fantz, P.R. Bronx, N.Y. : New York Botanical Garden; 1991 Oct. Economic botany v. 45 (4): p. 511-520; 1991 Oct. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Clitoria; Clitoria ternatea; Ethnobotany; Medicinal properties; Pharmaceutical products; Medicinal plants; Dye plants; Fiber plants 178 NAL Call. No.: RS160.I47 Ethnobotany of Cuddapah District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Reddy, M.B.; Reddy, K.R.; Reddy, M.N. Lisse, Netherlands : Swets & Zeitlinger; 1991. International journal of pharmacognosy v. 29 (4): p. 273-280; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Andhra pradesh; Medicinal plants; Ethnobotany; Medicinal properties; Surveys; Pharmaceutical products; Folk medicine; Traditional medicines 179 NAL Call. No.: 450 EC7 Ethnobotany of Ferocactus histrix and Echinocactus platyacanthus (Cactaceae) in the semiarid central Mexico: past, present and future. Castillo, R.F. del; Trujillo, S. Bronx, N.Y. : New York Botanical Garden; 1991 Oct. Economic botany v. 45 (4): p. 495-502; 1991 Oct. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Mexico; Echinocactus; Ferocactus; Ethnobotany; Fruits; Confectionery; Medicinal properties; Semiarid climate; Wild foods 180 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Ethnomycological data from Siberia and North-East Asia on the effect of Amanita muscaria. Saar, M. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Feb. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 31 (2): p. 157-173; 1991 Feb. Literature review. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Siberia; Asia; Amanita muscaria; Stimulants; Usage; Ethnobotany; Ethnic groups; Literature reviews Abstract: The paper includes literary data on the use of Amanita muscaria in Siberia and North-East Asia as well as information collected from ethnographers investigating these areas during the past decades. A survey is given on the cases and rules of Amanita muscaria consumption and the ways of its administration. The peoples having the tradition of Amanita muscaria consumption were aware of its different psychotrophic qualities and were able to use for several purposes. The fungus has been used by them as a psycho-stimulant having a simultaneous effect on several psychic functions. 181 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Ethnopharmacognostical survey of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaaceae). Nat, J.M. van der; Sluis, W.G. van der; Silva, K.T.D. de; Labadie, R.P. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Oct. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 35 (1): p. 1-24; 1991 Oct. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Azadirachta indica; Medicinal properties; Botany; Chemistry; Pharmacology; Toxicology; Synonyms; Limonoi ds Abstract: Literature data on respectively botany, chemistry, ethnopharmacology, pharmacology and toxicology of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae) are reviewed and evaluated. In traditional literature, preparations of the tree are claimed to be vulnerable in wide spectrum of diseases. Especially for inflammation-related diseases a good correlation is found with the results of rcent experimental investigations. In addition, a variety of other biological activities are reported. Most frequently the effects can be attributed to compounds respresenting the structural classes of the limonoids, phenolics and macromolecules. Reported toxicity of preparations anda isolated compounds are low, except for the seed oil. In conclusion, A. indica can be regarded as a valuable plant source for the rationalisation of its use in traditional medicine and for modern drug development. 182 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Ethnopharmacology and the development of natural PAF antagonists as therapeutic agents. Braquet, P.; Hosford, D. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Apr. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 32 (1/3): p. 135-139; 1991 Apr. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Ethnopharmacology, June 5-9, 1990, Strasbourg, France. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ginkgo biloba; Leaves; Plant extracts; Antagonists; Medicinal properties; Pharmacology; Chemistry Abstract: Ginkgolides are unique twenty-carbon terpenes, occurring naturally only in the roots and leaves of Ginkgo biloba. The molecules incorporate a tert-butyl group and six 5- membered rings, and are specific and potent antagonists of platelet-activating factor (PAF), a potent inflammatory autacoid. Studies in animal models with the most potent ginkgolide, BN 52021, and other specific PAF antagonists have demonstrated that PAF plays an important role in pathologies such as asthma, shock, ischemia, anaphylaxis, graft rejection, renal disease, CNS disorders and numerous inflammatory conditions. Ginkgolides are now being developed as therapeutic agents and very promising results have been obtained in clinical trials on shock, organ preservation and thermal injury. In addition to ginkgolides, several other types of natural PAF antagonists have been identified from various medicinal plants. These compounds have not only helped to explain the pharmacological basis of several traditional medicines. but have also provided man with a valuable new class of therapeutic agents. 183 NAL Call. No.: QK265.F38 1989 Etnobotanica de Purace sistemas clasificatorios funcionales [Ethnobotany of Purace, Colombia]. Faust, Franz Xavier Hohenschaftlarn [Germany?] : K. Renner,; 1989. 163 p. : ill. ; 21 cm. Bibliography: p. 147-163. Language: Spanish; Spanish Descriptors: Ethnobotany 184 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Evaluation of root quality of Bupleurum species by TLC scanner and the liver protective effects of "Xiao-chai-hu-tang" prepared using three different Bupleurum species. Yen, M.H.; Lin, C.C.; Chuang, C.H.; Liu, S.Y. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Sep. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 34 (2/3): p. 155-165; 1991 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Roots; Plant extracts; Liver; Saponins; Carbon tetrachloride; Rats; Traditional medicines; Bupleurum falcatum Abstract: A simple and quick quantitative analysis of saikosaponins a, c and d, the major bioactive principles contained in Bupleurum species, by TLC scanner is described. Results with Buplecurum kaoi, the species native to Taiwan, showed that the roots, rhizomes and aerial parts (leaves and stem) have greater quantities of sail-osaponins than cultivated B. falcatum var. komarowi and imported B. chinense. The liver protective effects of water extracts "Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang" (XCHT), a mixture of seven crude drugs, prepared using roots of the three different Bupleurum species and aerial parts of B. kaoi and B. falcatum var. komarowi, were evaluated using CCl4-induced toxicity in rats. The acute increase of serum transaminase (SGOT and SGPT) levels caused by CCl4 administration (3.0 ml/kg, s.c.) was dramatically reduced when treated with XCHT prepared with the roots of B. kaoi. The histological metamorphoses such as fatty changes, ballooning degeneration, cell necrosis and lymphocyte and Kupffer cell increases around the central vein, were clearly decreased by XCHT prepared with B. kaoi. Furthermore, water extracts of aerial parts of B. kaoi and cultivated B. falcatum var. komarowi decreased SGOT and SGPT levels and moderately reduced the pathological changes. 185 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Evaluation of the hypoglycemia effect of Achyranthes aspera in normal and alloxan-diabetic rabbits. Shoaib Akhtar, M. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Jan. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 31 (1): p. 49-57; 1991 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Achyranthes aspera; Blood sugar; Alloxan; Diabetes; Rabbits; Hypoglycemia; Plant extracts; Folk medicine Abstract: Blood glucose levels of normal and alloxan diabetic rabbi were determined after oral administration of various doses of Achyranthes aspera powdered, whole plant and certain aqueous and methanolic extracts. Oral administration of 2, 3 and 4 g/kg of A. aspera powder produced a significant dose- related hypoglycaemic effect in normal as well as in diabetic rabbits. The water and methanol extracts also decreased blood glucose levels in normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits. A 7-day acute toxicity study in rabbits did not reveal any adverse or side effects of this folk medicine at dosages up to 8 g/kg orally. It is possible that the plant could act by providing certain necessary elements like calcium, zine, magnesium, manganese and copper to the beta-cells. 186 NAL Call. No.: TX341.N877 False tenets of paraherbalism. Tyler, V.E. Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1989 Nov. Nutrition forum v. 6 (6): p. 41-44; 1989 Nov. Language: English Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Misinformation; Food safety; Health foods; Toxic substances; Health promotion Abstract: True herbalism encompasses scientific testing, honest reporting of the results, and safe use of effective herbs by informed practitioners and the public. It also includes the production and ethical marketing of herbal products. The author describes what he calls the dark side to herbalism which he calls paraherbalism. 187 NAL Call. No.: 475 J824 Fast development of a robust high-performance liquid chromatographic method for Ginkgo biloba based on computer simulation. Molnar, I.; Gober, K.H.; Christ, B. Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers; 1991 Jul26. Journal of chromatography v. 550 (1/2): p. 39-49; 1991 Jul26. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ginkgo biloba; Flavonoids; Diterpenes; Plant extracts; Medicinal plants; Hplc; Computer simulation 188 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Flavan-3-ols and proanthocyanidins from cistus incanus. Petereit, F.; Kolodziej, H.; Nahrstedt, A. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (3): p. 981-985; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Greece; Cistus; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Anthocyanidins Abstract: Four monomeric and seven oligomeric flavanoids have been identified from a Cistus incanus subspecies traditionally used for treatment of skin diseases in northern parts of Greece and identified as subsp. tauricus. Flavan-3-ols are (+)-catechin, (+)-gallocatechin, the novel (+)-gallocatechin 3- gallate and the rarely occurring (+)-catechin 3-O-alpha-L- rhamnoside; proanthocyanidins are procyanidins B1 and B3, gallocatechin-(4 alpha leads to 8)-gallocatechin, its novel (4 alpha leads to 6)-regioisomer, gallocatechin-(4 alpha leads to 8)- catechin, the tentatively identified novel catechin-(4 alpha leads to 8)-gallocatechin and the trimer gallocatechin-(4 alpha leads to 8)-gallocatechin-(4 alpha leads to 8)- catechin. The uncommon flavanone 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin was also obtained. 189 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 A flavanonol rhamnoside from Hypericum japonicum. Ishiguro, Y.; Nagata, S.; Fukumoto, H.; Yamaki, M.; Takagi, S.; Isoi, K. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (9): p. 3152-3153; 1991. Part 6 in the series 'Sarothralin G: a new antimicrobial compound from Hypericum japonicum'. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: China; Hypericum; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Flavonols; Rhamnose; Glycosides Abstract: A new flavanonol (2R, 3R)-taxifolin-7-rhamnoside, from whole plant of Hypericum japonicum has been isolated together with the known quercitrin and vincetoxicoside B. Their structures were elucidated using spectral techniques. 190 NAL Call. No.: RS160.I47 Flavonoids from Cissus digitata. Al-Said, M.S.; Khalifa, A.S.; Al-Azizi Lisse, Netherlands : Swets & Zeitlinger; 1991. International journal of pharmacognosy v. 29 (4): p. 281-283; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Cissus; Medicinal plants; Flavonoids 191 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Flavonoids of Ochradenus baccatus. Barakat, H.H.; El-Mousallamy, A.M.D.; Souleman, A.M.A.; Awadalla, S. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (11): p. 3777-3779; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Egypt; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Flavonoids; Glycosides; Resedaceae Abstract: From the aerial parts of Ochradenus baccatus, the new flavonoids, quercetin 3-O-beta-glucosyl(1 leads to 2)-alpha-rhamnoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside and quercetin 3-O-p- coumaryl(1 leads to 6)-beta-glucosyl(1 leads to 6)-beta- glucoside-7-O-alpha rhamnoside were isolated. The known quercetin glycosides, quercetin 3-gentiobioside, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, together with the known kaempferol glycosides, astragalin and afzelin, were also characterized. The structures were established by conventional methods of analysis and confirmed by spectral analysis. 192 NAL Call. No.: RS160.I47 Folk herbal medicines of Makawanpur District, Nepal. Bhattarai, N.K. Lisse, Netherlands : Swets & Zeitlinger; 1991. International journal of pharmacognosy v. 29 (4): p. 284-295; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Nepal; Medicinal plants; Medicinal properties; Ethnobotany; Surveys; Pharmaceutical products; Folk medicine; Traditional medicines 193 NAL Call. No.: RS160.I47 Folklore information from Rayalaseema region, Andhra Pradesh for family planning and birth control. Vedavathy, S.; Rao, K.N.; Rajaiah, M.; Nagaraju, N. Lisse, Netherlands : Swets & Zeitlinger; 1991 Jun. International journal of pharmacognosy v. 29 (2): p. 113-116; 1991 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Andhra pradesh; Medicinal plants; Ethnobotany; Medicinal properties; Pharmaceutical products; Birth control; Family planning; Traditional medicines; Folk medicine; Induced abortion 194 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Four neolignan ketones from Piper capense. Green, T.P.; Wiemer, D.F. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (11): p. 3759-3762; 1991. Part 7 in the series 'Studies on Krameriaceae'. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Africa; Medicinal plants; Roots; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Lignans; Ketones; Piper Abstract: Further studies of a chloroform extract of Piper capense roots have resulted in the isolation and characterization of four new neolignans. Three of these compounds are unusual 2'-oxo-8.1'-neolignans, while the fourth is of the more common 6'-oxo-8.3'-neolignan variety. 195 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Four triterpenoid saponins from dried roots of Gypsophila species. Frechet, D.; Christ, B.; Du Sorbier, B.M.; Fischer, H.; Vuilhorgne, M. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (3): p. 927-931; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: China; Gypsophila paniculata; Saponaria; Roots; Chemical composition; Triterpenoid saponins; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis Abstract: Four new triterpenoid saponins were isolated from the roots of Gypsophila paniculata and G. arrostii. Their structures were elucidated using a combination of homo- and heteronuclear 2D NMR techniques, without having recourse to chemical degradation or modification. The saponins investigated are: 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 leads to 2)-[beta- D-xylopyranosyl-(1 leads to 3)]-beta-D- glucuronopyranosyl quillaic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 leads to 3)-[beta-D- xylopyranosyl -(1 leads to 4)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 leads to 2)-beta-D-fucopyranoside; 3-O-beta-D- galactopyranosyl-(1 leads to 2)-beta-D--xylopyranosyl- (1 leads to 3)]-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl quillaic acid 28-O- beta-D-arabinopyranosyl-(1 leads to 4)-beta-D- arabinopyranosyl-(1 leads to 3)- beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 leads to 4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 leads to 2)-beta-D- fucopyranoside; 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 leads to 2)-beta-D- glucuronopyranosyl gypsogenin 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 leads to 3)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 leads to 4)]-alpha-L- rhamnopyranosyl- (1 leads to 2)-beta-D-fucopyranoside; 3-O- beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 leads to 3)-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 leads to 2)]-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl gypsogenin 28-O- beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 leads to 3)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 leads to 4)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 leads to 2)-beta-D- fucopyranoside. 196 NAL Call. No.: 450 P697 Fractionation and characterization of mitogenic and anti- complementary active fractions from kampo (Japanese herbal) medicine "Juzen-Taiho-To". Yamada, H.; Kiyohara, H.; Cyong, J.C.; Takemoto, N.; Komatsu, Y.; Kawamura, H.; Aburada, M.; Hosoya, E. Stuttgart, W. Ger. : Georg Thieme Verlag; 1990 Aug. Planta medica v. 56 (4): p. 386-391; 1990 Aug. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Japan; Medicinal plants; Plant extracts; Mitogens 197 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 From ethnobotanical uses of Strychnos henningsii to antiinflammatories, analgesics and antispasmodics. Tits, M.; Damas, J.; Quetin-Leclercq, J.; Angenot, L. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Sep. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 34 (2/3): p. 261-267; 1991 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Africa; Traditional medicines; Ethnobotany; Antiinflammatory agents; Analgesics; Bark; Rats; Spasms; Pharmacology; Strychnos henningsii Abstract: Strychnos henningsii Gilg is used in African traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments, including rheumatism, gastrointestinal complaints and snake bites. Different preliminary pharmacological experiments are described. The results show that some of the reported folk medicinal applications of S. henningsii can be at least partially explained by the presence of retuline-like alkaloids, whose use could lead to new antinociceptive (antiinflammatory and analgesic) and antispasmodic drugs. 198 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Fungi in Khanty folk medicine. Saar, M. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Feb. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 31 (2): p. 175-179; 1991 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Siberia; Amanita muscaria; Fomes fomentarius; Inonotus; Phellinus; Folk medicine; Ethnic groups; Diseases; Symptoms; Application Abstract: The fungal flora of the forest zone of West Siberia contains an average number of species. The Khanty living there consume only half a score of them. Several fungi are used for different purposes. The article presents data on the use of Amanita muscaria, Fomes fomentarius, Inonotus obliquus, Phellinus nigricans and the puff-ball in folk medicine. 199 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Furanonaphthoquines from Tabebuia ochracea. Zani, C.L.; Oliveira, A.B. de; Oliviera, G.G. de Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (7): p. 2379-2381; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Brazil; Tabebuia; Wood; Medicinal plants; Stems; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Lignans; Furans; Naphthoquinone Abstract: From the trunkwood of Tabebuia ochracea, beta- sitosterol, cycloolivil, lapachol, and seven furanonaphthoquinones including the known 2-(1- hydroxyethyl)naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-quinone were isolated. The six new furanonaphthoquinones comprise three similar C2 alcohol-ketone pairs at C-2 as proved by oxidations with pyridinium chlorochromate. 2-Acetyl-6-methoxynaphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-quinone was shown to be different from the synthetic 7-methoxy isomer, while 2-acetyl-8-methoxynaphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-quinone and 2-acetyl-7,8-dimethoxynaphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-quinone were identical to the synthetic compounds. 200 NAL Call. No.: 450 P697 Further triterpenoids of Musanga cecropioides: the structure of cecropic acid. Lontsi, D.; Sondengam, B.L.; Ayafor, J.F.; Tsoupras, M.G.; Tabacchi, R. Stuttgart, W. Ger. : Georg Thieme Verlag; 1990 Jun. Planta medica v. 56 (3): p. 287-289; 1990 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Cameroon; Moraceae; Plant extracts; Saponins; Medicinal plants 201 NAL Call. No.: 475 J824 Gas chromatographic determination of monoterpenes in essential oil medicinal plants. Sur, S.V.; Tuljupa, F.M.; Sur, L.I. Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers; 1991 Apr12. Journal of chromatography v. 542 (2): p. 451-458. ill; 1991 Apr12. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: U.S.S.R.; Mentha piperita; Foeniculum vulgare; Salvia officinalis; Thymus serpyllum; Monoterpenes; Essential oils; Medicinal plants; Gas chromatography 202 NAL Call. No.: E98.M4M68 Geraniums for the Iroquois a field guide to American Indian medicinal plants. Moerman, Daniel E. Algonac, Mich. : Reference Publications, 1982; 1982. 242 p., [1] p. of plates : ill., maps ; 24 cm. Includes index. Bibliography: p. 218-221. Language: English Descriptors: Indians of North America; Ethnobotany; Materia medica, Vegetable; Medicinal plants 203 NAL Call. No.: A00069 Ginger: a medicinal, but tasty root. Squires, S. Washington, D.C. : The Washington Post Co; 1992 Feb04. The Washington post. p. 20; 1992 Feb04. Language: English Descriptors: Ginger; Medicinal plants; Heart diseases 204 NAL Call. No.: TX341.N877 Ginkgo extract: miracle or ?. Tyler, V.E. Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Company; 1991 May. Nutrition forum v. 8 (3): p. 23-24; 1991 May. Language: English Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Ginkgo biloba; Food preparation; Food advertising; Food and nutrition controversies; Health promotion; Medical treatment; Misinformation Abstract: The Foundation for the Advancement of Innovative Medicine (FAIM) has as a mission the securing of free choice in health care. They define innovative medicine as "a treatment or therapy of empirical benefit that is yet outside the mainstream of conventional medicine." These ideas are discussed in this article. 205 NAL Call. No.: 472 N42 Good hope for Cape's endangered medicinal plants. De Selincourt, K. London, Eng. : New Science Publications; 1992 Jan04. New scientist v. 133 (1802): p. 7; 1992 Jan04. Language: English Descriptors: South Africa; Medicinal plants; Nurseries; Traditional medicines; Conservation 206 NAL Call. No.: SB351.H5H365 Harvesting and cleaning herb seeds. Galambosi, B. Amherst, Mass. : Massachusetts Cooperative Extension Service; 1991. The Herb, spice and medicinal plant digest v. 9 (3): p. 1-4; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Culinary herbs; Medicinal plants; Seed crops; Harvesting; Seed cleaners; Seed certification 207 NAL Call. No.: TX341.N8773 Health hazards of unusual herbal teas. Swenerton, H. Davis : University of California, Cooperative Extension Service; 1991 Mar. Nutrition perspectives v. 16 (2): p. 9; 1991 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Herbal teas; Health hazards 208 NAL Call. No.: A00110 Healthful tobacco: helping farmers kick the habit. Lehrman, S. San Francisco, Calif. : The Chronical Publishing Co; 1991 Jun09. San Francisco chronicle. p. D1, D6; 1991 Jun09. This article is found in the San Francisco Examiner which is the Sunday edition to the San Francisco Chronicle. Language: English Descriptors: North Carolina; Nicotiana tabacum; Genetic engineering; Field tests; Medicinal plants 209 NAL Call. No.: SB293.D32 1989 Heil- und Gewurzpflanzen Anbau--Ernte--Aufbereitung [Medicinal and spice plants]. Dachler, Michael; Pelzmann, Helmut Wien : Osterreichischer Agrarverlag,; 1989. 244 p., [16] p. of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 21 cm. Includes bibliographical references (p. 241-244). Language: German Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Botany, Medical 210 NAL Call. No.: RS160.I47 Hepatoprotective and safety evaluation studies on sarsaparilla. Rafatullah, S.; Mossa, J.S.; Ageel, A.M.; Al- Yahya, M.A.; Tariq, M. Lisse, Netherlands : Swets & Zeitlinger; 1991. International journal of pharmacognosy v. 29 (4): p. 296-301; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Smilax; Medicinal plants; Plant extracts; Medicinal properties; Disease prevention; Liver; Toxicity; Carbon tetrachloride; Adverse effects; Mice 211 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Hepatoprotective effects of Astraglus root. Zhang, Z.L.; Wen, Q.Z.; Liu, C.X. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1990 Sep. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 30 (2): p. 145-149; 1990 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Astragalus; Roots; Plant extracts; Trauma; Liver; Traditional medicines; Hepatotoxins; Stilbenes Abstract: Oral administration of an ethanol extract of the root of Astragalus membranaceus alleviated liver injury induced by stilbenemidine. Pre-administration in mice reduced elevated SGPT levels and subacute toxicity of stilbenemidine, decreased pentobarbital-induced loss of righting reflex and protected hepatic cells from pathological changes. 212 NAL Call. No.: RS160.I47 Herbal drugs used in Guinea worm disease by the tribals of southern Rajasthan (India). Joshi, P. Lisse, Netherlands : Swets & Zeitlinger; 1991 Feb. International journal of pharmacognosy v. 29 (1): p. 33-38; 1991 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Rajasthan; Medicinal plants; Ethnobotany; Medicinal properties; Traditional medicines; Anthelmintics; Dracunculus medinensis; Nematode infections; Man 213 NAL Call. No.: RM666.H33W4513 1988 Herbal medicine.. Lehrbuch der Phytotherapie, English ed.. Weiss, R. F. Gothenburg, Sweden : AB Arcanum ; Beaconsfield, England : Beaconsfield Publishers,; 1988. x, 362 p. : ill. ; 25 cm. Translation of: Lehrbuch der Phytotherapie, 6th ed., 1985. Includes bibliographies and index. Language: English; German Descriptors: Herbs; Medicinal plants 214 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Herbal medicine in the Kingdom of Tonga. Whistler, W.A. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Mar. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 31 (3): p. 339-372; 1991 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Tonga; Medicinal plants; Traditional medicines; Medicinal properties Abstract: A study of the indigenous medical practices of the Kingdom of Tonga in the South Pacific was carried out from 1983 to 1989 by interviewing over 50 traditional healers. A list of 105 plant species used medicinally in the culture was prepared, which includes scientific and Tongan names, voucher specimen numbers, ailments treated and the reported frequency of usage for each plant and remedy. The uses recorded are compared to those published by previous authors in Polynesia. 215 NAL Call. No.: QK98.4.S52 A herbal of foreign plants being a supplement to Culpeper's British herbal. Sibly, E.; Culpeper, Nicholas, Felinfach, Lampeter : Llanerch,; 1988. 116 p. : ill. ; 21 cm. Reprint. Originally published: An appendix to Culpeper's british herbal, being an account of foreign plants. Language: English Descriptors: Plants, Useful 216 NAL Call. No.: QK99.D65L42 1984 Herbario dominicano [Medicinal plants from the Dominican Republic]. Lebron Savinon, Mariano Santo Domingo, Republica Dominicana : Academia Dominicana de Medicina,; 1984. 74 p. ; 21 cm. Publicacion de la Academia Dominicana de Medicina. Bibliography: p. 65-67. Language: Spanish; Spanish Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Botany, Medical 217 NAL Call. No.: F1221.T6H4 Herbolaria y etnozoologia en Papantla [Herbal and ethnozoology in Papantla]. Programa de Artesanias y Culturas Populares (Mexico) Mexico, D.F. : SEP, Subsecretaria de Cultura, Direccion General de Culturas Populares, Programa de Artesanias y Culturas Populares; 1988. 111 p. : ill. ; 21 cm. (Serie Conocimientos). Includes bibliographical references (p. 107) and index. Language: Spanish; Spanish Descriptors: Totonac indians; Ethnobotany; Herbals; Ethnozoology; Folk Medicine 218 NAL Call. No.: 385 C172 Heterogeneity and characterisation of mitogenic and anticomplementary pectic polysaccharides from the roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch et D.C. Zhao, J.F.; Kiyohara, H.; Yamada, H.; Takemoto, N.; Kawamura, H. Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1991 Oct14. Carbohydrate research v. 219: p. 149-172; 1991 Oct14. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Glycyrrhiza uralensis; Roots; Polysaccharides; Methylation; Polygalacturonase; Medicinal plants Abstract: Two anti-complementary polysaccharide fractions (GR-2IIa and GR-2IIb), isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch et D.C., each gave five anti-complementary polysaccharides (GR-2IIa-1-5 and GR-2IIb-1-5) on h.p.l.c.; likewise, Gr-2IIc gave two anti-complementary and mitogenic polysaccharides (GR-2IIc-1-2A and -2IIc-2) by gel filtration and h.p.l.c. GR-2IIc-1-2A showed the most potent anti- complementary activity. GR-2IIa-1-5 and GR-2IIb-1-5 contained 40-85% and 50-90% of GalA, respectively, in addition to Rha, Ara, and Gal. GR-2IIc-1-2A and -2IIc-2 mainly comprised Glc, Gal, GalA, and GlcA in addition to Rha, Fuc, Xyl, Ara, and Man. Methylation analysis and digestion with endo-alpha-(1 leads to 4)-polygalacturonase indicated that all of the polysaccharides contained polygalacturonan regions which were frequently methyl-esterified. GR-2II-a, -2IIb, and -2IIc gave enzyme-resistant fractions of large and intermediate sizes, in addition to oligogalacturonides. Each large fraction from GR-2IIa and -2IIb consisted mainly of Ara, Gal, and GalA, whereas the intermediate fractions were composed of small proportions of 2-Me-Fuc, 2-Me-Xyl, and apiose (Api), in addition to Rha, Ara, Gal, and GalA. The large fraction from GR-2IIc mainly contained Rha, Man, Gal, and GalA in addition to Fuc, Ara, Xyl, and Glc, whereas the intermediate fraction consisted of 2-Me-Fuc, 2-Me-Xyl, and Api, in addition to Rha, Ara, GalA, Fuc, Xyl, Man, Gal, and Glc. Base-catalysed beta-elimination followed by ethylation indicated that all the polysaccharides except GR-2IIc-2 contained a 4-linked uronic acid attached to position 2 of 2.4-linked Rha. Single radial gel diffusion, using the beta-D-glucosyl-Yariv antigen, indicated that GR-2IIa-1 and GR-2IIc-2 contained relatively large proportions of (1 leads to 3,6)-beta-D-galactan moieties. The anti-complementary activities of GR-2IIa-3, GR-2IIa-4, and GR-2IIb-4 decreased after de-esterification followed by digestion with endo-alpha-(1 leads t 219 NAL Call. No.: Z5074.A65H57 1990 History and ethnobotany, 1904 to 1987 98 citations with abstracts. Mallory, Ellen Rodale Research Center, New Crops Dept Kutztown, Pa. : The Center,; 1990. 23 p. ; 28 cm. (Bibliography of cultivated amaranths). Databases searched 1982 to 1987: AGRIBUSINESS, AGRICOLA, AGRIS INTERNATIONAL, CAB, FOODS ALIBRA, FOOD SCI AND TECHNOLOGY ABS, MAGAZINE, PTS-MARS, PTS-PROMPT, SCI-SEARCH.". RRC/NC-90/18. Language: English Descriptors: Amaranthus 220 NAL Call. No.: 451 AR6J History of the introduction of exotic elements into traditional Chinese medicine. Hu, S.Y. Lawrence, Kan. : Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University; 1990 Oct. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum v. 71 (4): p. 487-526; 1990 Oct. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: China; Introduced species; Plant products; Pharmaceutical products; Medicine; Medicinal plants; Medical treatment; Historical records 221 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Homoisoflavanones from Chionodoxa luciliae. Corsaro, M.M.; Lanzetta, R.; Mancino, A.; Parrilli, M. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Apr. Phytochemistry v. 31 (4): p. 1395-1397; 1992 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Chionodoxa; Bulbs; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Flavonoids Abstract: From the bulbs of Chionodoxa luciliae a novel 3-benzyl-4-chromanone, a novel 3-benzylidene-4-chromanone and the novel 2-hydroxy-scillascillin were isolated, besides known homoisoflavanones. Their structures were elucidated by spectra analysis. 222 NAL Call. No.: 450 EC7 The horseradish tree, Moringa pterygosperma (Moringaceae)--a boon to arid lands?. Morton, J.F. Bronx, N.Y. : New York Botanical Garden; 1991 Jul. Economic botany v. 45 (3): p. 318-333; 1991 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Moringa oleifera; Ethnobotany; Edible species; Fruits; Pods; Fodder; Fodder plants; Medicinal properties; Oilseed plants; Seed oils; Industrial applications; Introduced species; Plant introduction; introduction 223 NAL Call. No.: 450 EC7 The house gardens of Santa Rosa: diversity and variability in an Amazonian agricultural system. Padoch, C.; De Jong, W. Bronx, N.Y. : New York Botanical Garden; 1991 Apr. Economic botany v. 45 (2): p. 166-175; 1991 Apr. Paper presented at the 'Symposium on New Directions in Crop Genetic Resource Conservation', Thirtieth Annual Meeting of the Society for Economic Botany, June 12-13, 1989, Knoxville, Tennessee. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Peru; Home gardens; Crop production; Botanical composition; Species diversity; Ethnobotany 224 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 How and why should we standardize phytopharmaceutical drugs for clinical validation?. Bonati, A. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Apr. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 32 (1/3): p. 195-197; 1991 Apr. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Ethnopharmacology, June 5-9, 1990, Strasbourg, France. Language: English Descriptors: Plant extracts; Pharmaceutical products; Standardization; Nomenclature Abstract: Standardized extracts are needed to carry out reliable clinical trials. The standardization of an extract does not include only a whole of analytical controls: it requires also a thorough description of the starting drug and of the whole extraction process, both basic items for the constancy of the quality of an extract. Another not minor aspect in the standardization of an extract is its nomenclature which must include all the necessary data for a clear definition (drug, physical state, solvent of extraction, composition) of the extract itself. Two examples of standardization are described, one concerning an extract whose therapeutical active constituents are known (anthocyanoside complex of Vaccinium myrtillus) and the other concerning an extract whose constituents must be regarded as chemical markers (Pygeum africanum extract). 225 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 How far can one go in the field of structural elucidation of natural products?. Massiot, G. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Apr. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 32 (1/3): p. 103-110; 1991 Apr. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Ethnopharmacology, June 5-9, 1990, Strasbourg, France. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Qinghaosu; Isolation techniques; Sulfur; Oxygen; Mass spectrometry; Nuclear magnetic resonance Abstract: Structural elucidation of bioactive compounds has always been and remains a field of interest for organic chemists. Tools have constantly evolved over the past fifty years and the field has become so sophisticated and relies so heavily on instruments and computers that it is becoming an area for specialists. Specialization has become such that the natural product chemist now faces X-ray professionals, mass spectrometry specialists, not to speak of NMR experts; all these people use different tools, different quantities of material and it may happen that once our natural product chemists opens the door of one of their laboratories, he is not welcome in the others anymore. The purpose of this paper is to discuss briefly what can be done best with each of the tools. It will be also shown that chemistry may still find a use, especially when problems are very difficult to tackle. Examples will be chosen among terpenes, antibiotics and toxins. 226 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Hydrolysable tannin oligomers from Rosa davurica. Yoshida, T.; Jin, Z.X.; Okuda, T. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (8): p. 2747-2752; 1991. Part 10 in the series 'Tannins of Rosaceous Medicinal Plants'. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Heilongjiang; Rosa davurica; Medicinal plants; Roots; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Tannins Abstract: Three new hydrolysable tannin oligomers, davuriciins D1, D2 and T1, along with a main tannin, agrimoniin, have been isolated from the root extract of Rosa davurica. Their structures in which monomeric constituents are linked through a valoneoyl group and/or dehydrodigalloyl group, have been elucidated based on spectral and chemical evidence. 227 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Hypoglycemic activity of Salvia fruticosa Mill. from Cyprus. Perfumi, M.; Arnold, N.; Tacconi, R. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Sep. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 34 (2/3): p. 135-140; 1991 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Cyprus; Salvia; Leaves; Hypoglycemic agents; Blood sugar; Rabbits; Folk medicine Abstract: Salvia fruticosa Mill. has a folk reputation in the eastern Mediterranean region as a hypoglycemic agent. In order to confirm this claim, a 10% infusion of its leaves was tested, at an oral dose of 0.250 g/kg b.wt., on normoglycemic rabbits and in rabbits made hyperglycemic by alloxan administration. This oral dose caused a statistically significant reduction in blood glucose levels in alloxan- hyperglycemic rabbits, but not in normoglycemic animals, only after repeated administrations of the infusion (once a day for 7 consecutive days). Instead, the hypoglycemic effect was evoked by single oral doses of infusion in both normoglycemic and alloxan-hyperglycemic rabbits orally loaded with glucose. However, in these animals S. fruticosa infusion did not modify plasma insulin levels. Moreover, the hypoglycemic effect of the drug was not evoked in rabbits which received the glucose load intravenously. These data strongly suggest that S. fruticosa treatment produces hypoglycemia mainly by reducing absorption of glucose. 228 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Hypotensive action of a Coscinium fenestratum stem extract. Singh, G.B.; Singh, S.; Bani, S.; Malhotra, S. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1990 Sep. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 30 (2): p. 151-155; 1990 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Coscinium fenestratum; Plant extracts; Blood pressure; Folk medicine; Dogs; Rats; Guinea pigs; Hypotension; Stems Abstract: A 50% ethanol extract of Coscinium fenestratum stem material (AECF) has been found to possess hypotensive action in anaesthetised dogs, rats and guinea pigs in a dose-related pattern. The fall in blood pressure was not modified by alpha and beta adrenergic blockers, cholinergic and histaminergic antagonists or by ganglion blocking agents. The effect was more pronounced in spinal-transected animals. AECF non- specifically inhibited the pressor responses to epinephrine, norepinephrine, DMPP and depressor responses to acetylcholine and histamine. AECF failed to exhibit any hypotension when administered via cannula into the lateral cerebral ventricle. Given orally to mice, AECF did not exhibit grossly observable central nervous effects up to doses of 800 mg/kg. The oral LD50 was estimated to be 1200 mg/kg in mice. 229 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 A hypotensive procyanidin-glycoside from Rhamnus lycioides ssp. lycioides. Terencio, M.C.; Sanz, M.J.; Paya, M. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1990 Sep. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 30 (2): p. 205-214; 1990 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Rhamnus; Hypertension; Plant extracts; Folk medicine; Glycosides; Pharmacology; Rats Abstract: A lyophilized hot water extract of the aerial parts of Rhamnus lycioides L. (Rhamnaceae) produced a lowering of systemic arterial blood pressure in normotensive anaesthetized Wistar rats. An activity-guided fractionation of the methanolic extract led to the isolation of a tetrameric procyanidin-glycoside which produced a clear dose-dependent hypotensive response (1.5-6 mg/kg i.v.). This principle was characterized using acid hydrolysis, thiolytic degradation and spectroscopic methods. It consisted of four flavanol units with a 2,3-cis configuration and with a O-beta-D- glucosylpyranoside function on the epicatechin terminal unit. The interflavan linkage was (4-8). 230 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Immunomodulatory activity of three Sir-Lankan medicinal plants used in hepatic disorders. Thabrew, M.I.; Silva, K.T.D. de; Labadie, R.P.; Bie, P.A.F. de; Berg, B. van der Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 May. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 33 (1/2): p. 63-66; 1991 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sri lanka; Melastomataceae; Melothria; Phyllanthus; Medicinal plants; Plant extracts; Hepatotoxins; Traditional medicines Abstract: The effects of aqueous extracts of Osbeckia octandra whole plant, Melothria maderaspatana whole plant and Phyllanthus debelis leaves on the human immune system were investigated. The extracts showed strong anticomplement effects on both the classical and alternate pathways of the human complement system in vitro. The effects were dose- dependent and most pronounced in the classical complement pathway assay. The extracts also exhibited a direct dose- dependent inhibition of luminol-induced chemiluminescence of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes upon stimulation with zymosan. 231 NAL Call. No.: SB123.3.D5 In search of: mechanisms to compensate indigenous peoples for botanical knowledge. Fort Collins, Colo. : Laboratory for Information Science in Agriculture; 1991. Diversity v. 7 (3): p. 21-23; 1991. Language: English Descriptors: Costa Rica; U.S.A.; Medicinal plants; Diversity; Conservation; Indigenous knowledge; Pharmaceutical products; Compensation 232 NAL Call. No.: QK725.P54 In vitro propagation of Coleus forskohlii Briq. for forskolin synthesis. Sen, J.; Sharma, A.K. Berlin, W. Ger. : Springer International; 1991. Plant cell reports v. 9 (12): p. 696-698; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Coleus forskohlii; Shoot tip culture; Diterpenoids; Biosynthesis; Culture media; Regenerative ability; Medicinal plants; Micropropagation Abstract: Shoot multiplication was obtained in vitro within 20-25 d from shoot tip explants of 30 d old aseptically germinated seedlings of Coleus forskohlii Briq., using 2 mg/l of 6- benzylaminopurine (BA). Shoot multiplication was further enhanced with the gradual decrease in the level of BA, and its final omission after 4 months. Different auxins supplemented at the level of 0.05 mg/l with BA did not yield better results. Seven regenerated plants showed only diploid cells in their root tips, while three plants did not. Of these, two were diploid with occasional aneuploid cells. In one plant 32 chromosomes were observed. The potential of shoot culture in vitro and use of micropropagated plants for the production of forskolin has been demonstrated. 233 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 The inappropriate use of traditional medicines in South Africa. Bye, S.N.; Dutton, M.F. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Sep. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 34 (2/3): p. 253-259; 1991 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: South Africa; Traditional medicines; Ethnic groups; Blacks; Rural areas; Medicinal plants 234 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Inaugural lecture at the First International Congress on Ethnopharmacology: historical perspective and future of ethnopharmacology. Holmstedt, B. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Apr. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 32 (1/3): p. 7-24; 1991 Apr. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Ethnopharmacology, June 5-9, 1990, Strasbourg, France. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Pharmacology; Ethnobotany; History; Pharmacodynamics 235 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Induction of neutrophil accumulation by Chinese herbal medicines "Hochu-etsuki-to" and "Jyuzen-daiho-to". Toda, S.; Kimura, M.; Ohnishi, M. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1990 Aug. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 30 (1): p. 91-95; 1990 Aug. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Intraperitoneal injection; Neutrophils; Dosage Abstract: "Hochu-etsuki-to" (HT) and "Jyuzen-daiho-to" (JT) are Chinese herbal medicines that have been used for the treatment of weakened physical strength and asthenic persons. Intraperitoneal injection of boiled water extracts in mice of HT and JT were found to induce a high accumulation of neutrophils 6 h after injection in a manner similar to that seen with the biological response modifier lentinan. The neutrophil accumulation by intraperitoneal injection of HT and JT increased dose-dependently. 236 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Induction of rosmarinic acid accumulation in cell suspension cultures of Orthosiphon aristatus after treatment with yeast extract. Sumaryono, W.; Proksch, P.; Hartmann, T.; Nimtz, M.; Wray, V. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (10): p. 3267-3271; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Cell suspensions; Caffeic acid; Derivatives; Induction; Yeast extracts; Biosynthesis; Orthosiphon aristatus Abstract: Cell suspension cultures of Orthosiphon aristatus were shown to accumulate rosmarinic acid (RA) at concentrations of 1.0-2.0 micromole g-1 fr.wt. Addition of yeast extract (4-6 g-1 to the liquid growth media resulted in a large increase of RA accumulation in treated cells independent of the growth stage. The highest concentration of RA observed in treated cells (ca 10 micromole g-1 fr. wt) was usually reached 72-96 hr after addition of yeast extract. When cells present in the stationary phase were treated with yeast extract a second phenolic was shown to accumulate which presumably originated by oxidative decarboxylation of RA. The induction of RA accumulation by yeast extract was due to de novo synthesis as shown by feeding experiments with 14C- tracers and by analysis of the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) which are the key enzymes of RA biosynthesis. Following addition of yeast extract both enzyme activities showed a strong transient increase which preceded the peak of RA accumulation. Fractionation of yeast extract by acetone precipitation, ion exchange and gel permeation chromatography yielded two active fractions (elicitor A and B) capable of inducing RA accumulation. Both elicitors were shown to be carbohydrate polymers (Mr of elicitor A ca 22 000, of elicitor B ca 7 000) containing mainly mannose, glucose and to a lesser degree galactose. The elicitors are, thus, not identical to a glucan elicitor previously reported from yeast extract. 237 NAL Call. No.: R850.A1B72 Inhibition of insulin release by Jatrophone. Menezes, F.V.; Carneiro, E.M.; Delattre, E.; Boschero, A.C. Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brasil : Associacao Brasileira de Divulgacao Cientifica; 1992. Brazilian journal of medical and biological research; Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas v. 25 (3): p. 305-307; 1992. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Brazil; Medicinal plants; Plant extracts; Insulin; Insulin secretion; Inhibition; Glucose; Carbohydrate metabolism; Pancreas islets; Rats 238 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Interest and limitation of a global ethnopharmacological survey. Weniger, B. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Apr. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 32 (1/3): p. 37-41; 1991 Apr. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Ethnopharmacology, June 5-9, 1990, Strasbourg, France. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Caribbean; Central America; Traditional medicines; Folk medicine; Medicinal plants; Pharmacology; Cultural heritage; Applied research; Research projects Abstract: Since 1983 an ethnopharmacological research called the TRAMIL Programme (Applied Research on the Traditional Popular Medicine in the Caribbean Basin) has been underway in several countries of the West Indies and Central America. The programme, which started in Haiti and in the Dominican Republic, has now extended to Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Guatemala, Honduras and Venezuela. The most important goal of the programme is to evaluate the traditional use of medicinal herbs in order to help unprivileged populations from this geographical area. The study is approached from the point of view of solutions to everyday health problems, rather than as a simple catalogue of plant or traditional remedy usage. An appropriate methodology is employed, including inventory and botanical determination, bibliographical research, study of the unknown species through analytical, toxicological and/or pharmacological methods and transmission of controlled information which ensures the value of natural medication to the public. The TRAMIL Programme leads to protection of cultural heritage and integration of effective and secure traditional remedies in primary health care. 239 NAL Call. No.: RS160.I47 International journal of pharmacognosy a journal of crude drug research. Lisse, Netherlands : Swets & Zeitlinger B.V., 1991-; 1991-9999. v. : ill. ; 24 cm. Title from cover. Language: English; English; French; German; Spanish Descriptors: Drugs; Pharmacognosy; Pharmacology; Folk medicine 240 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Introductory remarks by Professor Inayat Khan at the Mini- symposium on Psychoactive Drugs at the First International Congress on Ethnopharmacology, 5-9 June 1990 at Strasbourg, France. Khan, I. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Apr. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 32 (1/3): p. 199-200; 1991 Apr. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Ethnopharmacology, June 5-9, 1990, Strasbourg, France. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Drugs; Plant extracts; Regulations; Pharmacology 241 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Inventory of plants used in traditional medicine in Somalia. I. Plants of the families Acanthaceae-Chenopodiaeae. Samuelsson, G.; Farah, M.H.; Claeson, P.; Hagos, M.; Thulin, M.; Hedberg, O.; Warfa, A.M.; Hassan, A.O.; Elmi, A.H.; Abdurahman, A.D. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Oct. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 35 (1): p. 25-63; 1991 Oct. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Somalia; Inventories; Literature reviews; Nomenclature; Uses; Synonyms; Medicinal properties; Traditional medicines; Medicinal plants Abstract: Thirty-eight plants are listed, which are used by traditional healers in the central and southern parts of Somalia. For each species are listed: the botanical name with synonyms, collection number, vernacular name, medicinal use, preparation of remedy and dosage. Results of a literature survey are also reported including use, substances isolated and pharmacological effects. 242 NAL Call. No.: 450 EC7 Ipomoea littoralis (Convolvulaceae)--taxonomy, distribution, and ethnobotany. Austin, D.F. Bronx, N.Y. : New York Botanical Garden; 1991 Apr. Economic botany v. 45 (2): p. 251-256; 1991 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: South asia; Queensland; Oceania; Indian ocean Islands; Ipomoea; Medicinal plants; Taxonomy; Nomenclature; Terminology; Synonyms; Geographical distribution; Ethnobotany; Medicinal properties 243 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Iridals from Belamcanda chinensis and Iris japonica. Abe, F.; Chen, R.F.; Yamauchi, T. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (10): p. 3379-3382; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Japan; Iridoids; Chemical composition; Spectral analysis; Rhizomes; Medicinal plants; Iris; Iridaceae Abstract: Three new iridals were isolated, along with two known compounds; (+)-(6R,10S,11S,14S,26R)-26-hydroxy-15- methylidenespiroirid-16-enal and iso-iridogermanal, from the rhizomes and roots of Belamcanda chinensis and Iris japonica. The new iridals were determined to be 28-acetoxy-14,15-dihydro-26-hydroxy-19- methylidenespiroirida-15,17-dienal (belamcandal), its deacetyl derivative and 16-O-acetyl iso-iridogermanal. Their fatty acid esters were also isolated. Belamcandal stimulates throat membrane. 244 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Iridoid diglycoside monoacyl esters from stems of premna japonica. Otsuka, H.; Kubo, N.; Sasaki, Y.; Yamasaki, K.; Takeda, Y.; Seki, T. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (6): p. 1917-1920; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Japan; Premna; Medicinal plants; Stems; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Iridoid glycosides; Esters Abstract: From a methanol extract of stems of Premna japonica, three new monoacyl 6-O-alpha-L- rhamnopyranosylcatalpols were isolated. They were determined to be the 2"-O-, 3"-O- and 4"-O-feruloyl esters of 6-O-alpha-L- rhamnopyranosylcatalpol. Along with these compounds, two phenethyl alcohol glycosides, acteoside and martynoside, aucubin and O-alpha-L-(2"-O-p- methoxycinnamoyl)rhamnopyranosylcatalpol were also isolated. 245 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Iridoid glucosides from Phlomis rotata. Zhang, C.Z.; Li, C.; Feng, S.I.; Shi, J.G. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (12): p. 4156-4158; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Gansu; Labiatae; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Iridoid glycosides Abstract: Two new iridoid glucosides, dehydropentstemoside and 7- epiphlomiol have been isolated from the aerial parts of Phlomis rotata and their structures elucidated by means of chemical and spectral methods. Shanzhiside methyl ester and barlerin have also been isolated and identified. 246 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Is there an industrial future for phytopharmaceutical drugs? An outline of UNIDO programmes in the Sector. Wijesekera, R.O.B. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Apr. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 32 (1/3): p. 217-224; 1991 Apr. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Ethnopharmacology, June 5-9, 1990, Strasbourg, France. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Developing countries; Pharmaceutical products; Plant extracts; Medicinal plants; Unido; Demography; Program development; Traditional medicines; Industrialization; Research Abstract: Although a substantial proportion of the health- care expenditure of developing countries is spent on the acquisition of drugs, this is only sufficient to serve about a quarter of their population. Therefore it is inconceivable that WHO'S goal of HEALTH FOR ALL by the year 2000 could even be approached without consideration being given to the role in health care systems of herbal medicines. In this endeavour, traditional herbal medicines must perforce be granted the benefits of modern science and technology to serve future global needs. Here we are addressing both a contingency situation as well as a long term one. In developing nations there is a dire need for an improved supply of therapeutic agents for a variety of diseases that are characteristic of deprivation and poverty. In addition herbal medicines promise to provide both concepts of therapy, as well as therapeutic agents in areas where modern medicine has few answers. UNIDO's programmes for technical assistance to developing nations aim at the fullest utilization of traditional herbal-based pharmacopoeias in addressing both these situations. They have employed a multi-disciplinary approach to the industrial production of herbal medicines. The projects endeavour to utilize the natural flora, judiciously, for selection, domestication and cropwise cultivation of medicinal plant species for industrial processing. National R & D efforts have been strengthened to include the development of expertise in several areas such as instrumental analyses, biological assessment of raw materials as well as products. Process technology development has received special attention. A versatile poly-functional pilot plant has been developed to enable the production of herbal preparations as well as extracts and phytochemicals. it is possible to simulate the traditional process rationally yet preserve modern scientific parameters of process monitoring and good manufacturing practice. The production of phytopharmaceutical prepara 247 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Is there any danger in using traditional remedies?. Smet, P.A.G.M. de Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Apr. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 32 (1/3): p. 43-50; 1991 Apr. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Ethnopharmacology, June 5-9, 1990, Strasbourg, France. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Traditional medicines; Medicinal plants; Health; Risk; Pharmacology Abstract: The question, whether the use of traditional drugs can entail a health risk, is a rhetorical one. It is well- established that all sorts of vegetable, animal and mineral remedies used in a traditional setting are capable of producing serious adverse reactions. In fact, the medical and toxicological literature is so replete with examples that any attempt to cover them in just thirty minutes would be futile. Instead, the lecture will be largely devoted to a general outlook that may help to put ethnotoxicological case reports and research data in a realistic perspective. The principle that the expected benefit of a drug must outweigh its potential risk applies as much to traditional products as it does to synthetic drug preparations. No patient deserves to be treated with a remedy that is worse than the disease. It is essential, however, that traditional drug therapies are submitted to an appropriate benefit/risk analysis. With respect to the expected benefit, not only pharmacological efficacy should be appraised, but also the social utility of the drug in its cultural context. With regard to potential risk, it is of vital importance to account for confounding factors, such as intuitive risk perception. To assure that ethnotoxicological research efforts have an optimal impact on public health care, practically relevant results must be disseminated in a manner respectful of traditional medicine. 248 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 The isoflavone 6-prenylisocaviunin from Sopubia delphinifolia. Saxena, V.K.; Bhadoria, B.K. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1990. Phytochemistry v. 29 (12): p. 3921-3922; 1990. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: India; Sopubia delphinifolia; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Isoflavones Abstract: The acetone soluble fraction of stems of Sopubia delphinifolia yielded 5,7-dihydroxy-6-prenyl-2',4',5',8- tetramethoxyisoflavone (6-prenylisocaviunin) which was identified by spectral analysis and chemical reactions. It was found to be estrogenically active when bio-assayed on albino rats. 249 NAL Call. No.: 450 P697 Isoflavones of Belamcanda chinensis. Yamaki, M.; Kato, T.; Kashihara, M.; Takagi, S. Stuttgart, W. Ger. : Georg Thieme Verlag; 1990 Jun. Planta medica v. 56 (3): p. 335; 1990 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Iridaceae; Plant extracts; Medicinal plants; Isoflavones 250 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Isoflavonoids from the roots of Salsola somalensis. Abegaz, B.M.; Woldu, Y. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (4): p. 1281-1284; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ethiopia; Salsola; Medicinal plants; Roots; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Isoflavones Abstract: Nine new isoflavones, 5,3'-dihydroxy-6,7,2'- trimethoxyisoflavone, 5,8,3'-trihydroxy-7,2'- dimethoxyisoflavone, 8,3'-dihydroxy-5,7,2'-trimethoxyisoflavone, 5,6,3'-trihydroxy-7,2'-dimethoxyisoflavone, 6,7,3'-trihydroxy-5,2'-dimethoxyisoflavone, 5,8,3'-trihydroxy-2'-methoxy-6,7-methylenedioxyisoflavone, or 5,6,3'-trihydroxy-2'-methoxy-7,8-methylenedioxyisoflavone, 3'- hydroxy-5,6,7,2'-tetramethoxyisoflavone, 7,3'-dihydroxy-5,6,2'-trimethoxyisoflavone and 6,3'-dihydroxy-5,7,2'-trimethoxyisoflavone have been isolated from the roots of the antheimintic plant Salsola somatensis and fully characterized by spectroscopic methods. 251 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 The isolation of a storage organelle of atractyloside in Callilepis laureola. Dehrmann, F.M.; Bye, S.N.; Dutton, M.F. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Sep. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 34 (2/3): p. 247-251; 1991 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Isolation techniques; Folk medicine; Organelles; Vacuoles; Glycosides; Plant extracts; Medicinal plants; Tubers; Callilepis laureola Abstract: A method has been developed for the preparation of protoplasts from both the leaves and tubers of Callilepis laureola, a plant used extensively as a medicament by black people in South Africa. The cellular vacuoles from these protoplasts were isolated and tested for the presence of the nephrotoxic substance, atractyloside, by thin layer chromatography and immunoassay. Both methods indicate that the vacuole of C. laureola is the primary site of storage for atractyloside in the cells of the tuber. 252 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Isolation of steroidal glycoalkaloids from Solanum incanum by two countercurrent chromatographic methods. Fukuhara, K.; Kubo, I. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (2): p. 685-687; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Kenya; Solanum incanum--fruit--medicinal plants--products--chemical composition--glycoalkaloids-- allelopathins--growth inhibitors--chromatography--spectral analysis Abstract: Using a bioassay for inhibition of plant growth and a combination of two countercurrent chromatographies: rotation locular countercurrent chromatography and droplet countercurrent chromatography, two biologically active glycosidal alkaloids, solasonine and solamargine were isolated from fresh ripe fruit of Solanum incanum. The combination of these chromatographic techniques has established an efficient isolation of polar phytochemicals of steroidal glycoalkaloids. 253 NAL Call. No.: 450 P697 Isoliquiritigenin: a new aldose reductase inhibitor from glycyrrhizae radix. Aida, K.; Tawata, M.; Shindo, H.; Onaya, T.; Sasaki, H.; Yamaguchi, T.; Chin, M.; Mitsuhashi, H. Stuttgart, W. Ger. : Georg Thieme Verlag; 1990 Jun. Planta medica v. 56 (3): p. 254-258; 1990 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Japan; Medicinal plants; Plant extracts; Aldoses; Inhibitors; Sorbitol; Diabetes; Glycyrrhiza uralensis 254 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Isospiropachysine, a steroidal alkaloid from Pachysandra axillaris. Minghua, C.; Ruilin, N.; Zhongrong, L.; Jun, Z. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1990. Phytochemistry v. 29 (12): p. 3927-3930; 1990. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Yunnan; Pachysandra--medicinal plants--spectral analysis--steroid alkaloids Abstract: A novel diastereomer, isospiropachysine and spiropachysine were isolated from Pachysandra axillaris. The structure of isospiropachysine was elucidated based on spectral and chemical data and its absolute configuration at C-3 was clarified by comparison of CD spectra with spiropachysine. 255 NAL Call. No.: 475 J824 Isotachophoretic analysis of flavonoids and phenolcarboxylic acids of relevance to phytopharmaceutical industry. Seitz, U.; Bonn, G.; Oefner, P.; Popp, M. Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers; 1991 Oct18. Journal of chromatography v. 559 (1/2): p. 499-504; 1991 Oct18. Paper presented at the Third International Symposium on High Performance Capillary Electrophoresis, February 3-6, 1991, San Diego, California. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sambucus nigra; Plant extracts; Flavonoids; Phenol; Carboxylic acids; Rutoside; Analysis; Electrophoresis 256 NAL Call. No.: 280.8 SY8 Japanese biotech's overnight evolution. Gross, N. New York, N.Y. : McGraw-Hill :.; 1990 Mar12. Business week (3149): p. 69, 72; 1990 Mar12. Language: English Descriptors: Japan; Medicinal plants; Cell culture; Bulbs; Fermentation; Food wastes; Biotechnology; Product development 257 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Kadsulignans H, I, J and K from a Kadsura species. Liu, J.S.; Zhou, H.X.; Li, L. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Apr. Phytochemistry v. 31 (4): p. 1379-1382; 1992 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Guangxi; Kadsura; Medicinal plants; Seeds; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Lignans Abstract: Four new lignans, kadsulignan H, I, J and K were isolated from the seeds of a Kadsura sp., of which kadsulignan K possesses a novel benzobicyclooctane skeleton. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were elucidated by 2D1H-13C long range COSY spectra and chemical conversions. 258 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Kansuiphorin-C and -D, cytotoxic diterpenes from Euphorbia kansui. Pan, D.J.; Hu, C.Q.; Chang, J.J.; Lee, T.T.Y.; Chen, Y.P.; Hsu, H.Y.; Mcphail, D.R.; Mcphail, A.T.; Lee, K.H. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (3): p. 1018-1020; 1991. Part 117 in the series 'Antitumor Agents.'. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Euphorbia; Medicinal plants; Antineoplastic agents; Roots; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Stereochemistry; Diterpenes; Cytotoxic compounds Abstract: Two new cytotoxic diterpenes, kansuiphorin-C and -D, have been isolated from Euphorbia kansui. Their structures and stereochemistries have been established from spectral data in conjunction with X-ray crystallographic analysis of the benzene solvate of kansuiphorin-C. 259 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Ketoalcohols, lignans and coumarins from Chiococca alba. Abd El-Hafiz, M.A.; Weniger, B.; Quirion, J.C.; Anton, R. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (6): p. 2029-2031; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Dominican republic; Rubiaceae--medicinal plants-- leaves--spectral analysis--chemical composition--lignans-- coumarins--alcohols Abstract: Two new hydroxyketones, 4-hydroxyheptadecan-7-one and 5- hydroxyoctadecan-11-one, along with 5,7,4'-trimethoxy-4- phenylcoumarin, exostemin, matairesinol and D-mannitol have been isolated from leaves of Chiococca alba and identified by spectral data and chemical studies. 260 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Kobophenol B, A tetrastilbene from Carex pumila. Kawabata, J.; Mishima, M.; Kurihara, H.; Mizutani, J. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (2): p. 645-647; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Carex--stilbenes--medicinal plants--roots-- chemical composition--spectral analysis--antimicrobial properties--rhizomes Abstract: A novel antimicrobial tetrastilbene, made up of two epsilon-viniferin units, was isolated from the subterranean parts of Carex pumila. Its complex polycyclic structure was elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR analyses. 261 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Koelzioside, an iridoid diglycoside from Scrophularia koelzii. Bhandari, S.P.S.; Mishra, A.; Roy, R.; Garg, H.S. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Feb. Phytochemistry v. 31 (2): p. 689-691; 1992 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: India; Scrophularia; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Iridoid glycosides Abstract: A new iridoid diglycoside named koelzioside has been isolated from Scrophularia koelzii. The structure of koelzioside was elucidated by chemical and spectral analysis as 6- O-(2",3"-di-O-cinnamoyl-4"-O-acetyl)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl catalpol. 262 NAL Call. No.: A00064 Laboratory produces a promising cancer drug from a Pacific yew tree. Thompson, L. Charlotte, N.C. : Observer Co; 1991 Jul29. The Charlotte observer. p. 2E; 1991 Jul29. Language: English Descriptors: U.S.A.; Taxus baccata; Medicinal plants; Biotechnology; Cell culture 263 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Lactiflorin, a monoterpene glycoside from paeony root. Yu, J.; Elix, J.A.; Iskander, M.N. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1990. Phytochemistry v. 29 (12): p. 3859-3863; 1990. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Xinjiang; Paeonia anomala; Medicinal plants; Roots; Spectral analysis; Monoterpenes; Glycosides; Molecular conformation Abstract: The structure of the unique monoterpene glycoside, lactiflorin, a constituent of several species of Paeonia with medicinal properties, has been determined by spectroscopic techniques. 264 NAL Call. No.: 450 EC7 Leaves of Ehretia cymosa (Boraginaceae) used to heal fractures in Ghana increase bone remodeling. Lewis, W.H.; Avioli, L.V. Bronx, N.Y. : New York Botanical Garden; 1991 Apr. Economic botany v. 45 (2): p. 281-282; 1991 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ghana; Boraginaceae; Medicinal plants; Medicinal properties; Leaves; Plant extracts; Ossification; Bone mineralization; Bone fractures; Man; Rats 265 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Legal requirements for the use of phytopharmaceutical drugs in the Federal Republic of Germany. Keller, K. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Apr. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 32 (1/3): p. 225-229; 1991 Apr. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Ethnopharmacology, June 5-9, 1990, Strasbourg, France. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: German democratic republic; German federal republic; Drugs; Medicinal plants; Market regulations; Law; Evaluation; Marketing Abstract: The legal status for herbal remedies is defined by the Drug Law of 24 August 1976 in the version of the forth law amending of April 1990. For finished drugs a marketing authorization is obligatory. Herbal finished drugs have to comply with the same criteria for quality, safety and efficacy as all other finished drugs. Marketing of finished herbal drugs is possible by three ways: 1. Procedure of evaluation and validation of old medicines. Finished drugs registered in 1978 did possess a provisional marketing authorization and could be on the market until the end of April 1990. The medical evaluation of these drugs is mainly based on bibliographic data and it is done by a special expert committee, the Commission E. It is documented by a monograph which is the basis for the assessment of these drugs starting this year. 2. Standardized marketing authorization. Medicines which do not represent a direct or indirect risk for health can be exempted from the need of an individual marketing authorization by monographs of standardized marketing authorizations. If a applicant refers to such a monograph he does not have to present any documentation. 3. Individual applications for marketing authorization. In this procedure a complete documentation including the results of analytical tests, results of the pharmacological and toxicological tests and results of clinical or other medical tests are required. Drugs sold outside pharmacies and referring only to traditional uses without clinical evidence for efficacy have to be labelled as "traditionally used". 266 NAL Call. No.: RC271.H47B34 Lekarstvennye rasteniia i rak [Medicinal plants and cancer]. Balitskii, K. P.; Vorontsova, A. L. Kiev : "Naukova dumka,"; 1982. 372, [1] p. : ill. ; 22 cm. At head of title: Akademiia nauk Ukrainskoi SSR. Institut problem onkologii im. R.E. Kavetskogo. Summary and contents in English. Includes indexes. Bibliography: p. 301-[362]. Language: Russian Descriptors: Herbs--Cancer 267 NAL Call. No.: 450 EC7 Less- known medicinal uses of plants from Mewat (District Gurgaon), Haryana, India. Sharma, M.P. Bronx, N.Y. : New York Botanical Garden; 1991 Jul. Economic botany v. 45 (3): p. 435-436; 1991 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Haryana; Pharmaceutical products; Medicinal properties; Ethnobotany; Medicinal plants 268 NAL Call. No.: 450 EC7 Less- known wild species of Allium L. (Amaryllidaceae) from mountainous regions of India. Negi, K.S.; Pant, K.C. Bronx, N.Y. : New York Botanical Garden; 1992 Jan. Economic botany v. 46 (1): p. 112-114; 1992 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Uttar pradesh; Allium; Allium rubellum; Ethnobotany; Geographical distribution; Edible species; Mountain areas; Medicinal plants; Food crops 269 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Leucasin, a triterpene saponin from Leucas nutans. Hasan, M.; Burdi, D.K.; Ahmad, V.U. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (12): p. 4181-4183; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Pakistan; Leucas; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Triterpenoid saponins Abstract: A new saponin, leucasin, has been isolated from Leucas nutans and characterized on the basis of chemical investigation and spectroscopic studies as 3-O-[beta-D- glucopyranosyl(1 leads to 2)beta-D-glucopyranosyl]2 alpha, 3 beta- dihydroxylup-20(29)-ene. Lupeol palmitate, sitosterol and stigmasterol were also isolated. 270 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Leukogenic effect of complex indigo powder. Liu, C.X.; He, W.G. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Aug. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 34 (1): p. 83-86; 1991 Aug. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Rats; Mice; Toxicity; Leukocytes; Folk medicine; Bile; Phellodendron; Indigofera suffruticosa; Indigofera tinctoria Abstract: Oral administration of complex indigo powder, an anti- scrofula powder, at a daily dose of 0.5 g/kg, raised the leukocyte count in rats injured by irradiation, but prophylactic administration could not prevent the leukopenia induced by irradiation. This dosage did not affect growth in rats and oral doses up to 6 g/kg did not induce any toxic reactions in mice. 271 NAL Call. No.: RM214.J68 The licensing of nutritional supplements. Downing, D. Abingdon, UK : Carfax Pub. Co; 1991. Journal of nutritional medicine v. 2 (2): p. 111-119; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Supplements; Licenses; Drugs; Nutrients; Medicinal plants; Legislation Abstract: In this Editorial the author argues that while there is substantial perceived risk, there is little or no real risk from nutritional supplements. He further contends that the current methods of testing for or defining the toxicity of nutritional supplements is inappropriate; and that legislation to restrict nutrients would be unworkable, and ineffective and represents a bias against nutritional medicine. 272 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 A lignan and pyrone and other constituents from Hyptis capitata. Almtorp, G.T.; Hazell, A.C.; Torssell, K.B.G. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (8): p. 2753-2756; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ecuador; Hyptis; Medicinal plants; Chemical composition; Lignans; Triterpene acids; Spectral analysis Abstract: Investigation of the aerial parts of the medicinal plant Hyptis capitata led to the isolation of two new compounds: 2,3-di(3',4'-methylenedioxybenzyl)-2-buten-4-olide, a lignan with a gamma-butenolide structure and 10-epi-olguine, a 5,6-dihydro- alpha-pyrone. The structure of 10-epi-olguine was determined using X-ray diffraction. Also isolated were stigmasterol, 5-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxyflavone (apigenin-4',7- dimethyl ether), oleanolic, ursolic and rosmarinic acids. The crude extracts prepared with petrol, dichloromethane and methanol showed no pronounced fungicidal or insecticidal effects. The plant contains no alkaloids. 273 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Lignan and terpene glycosides from Epimedium sagittatum. Matsushita, H.; Miyase, T.; Ueno, A. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (6): p. 2025-2027; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Epimedium; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Terpenoids; Glycosides; Lignans Abstract: From the aerial parts of Epimedium sagittatum, four new lignans, icarisides E6, E7, icariols A1, A2, a new phenylethanoid, icariside D3, a new phenylpropanoid, icariside H1 and a new ionone derivative, icariside B9, have been isolated together with 20 known compounds. The structures of new compounds were established by spectral and chemical evidence. 274 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Lignans from Krameria ixina. Achenbach, H.; Utz, W.; Usubillaga, A.; Rodriguez, H.A. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (11): p. 3753-3757; 1991. Part 7 in the series 'Studies on Krameriaceae'. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Venezuela; Medicinal plants; Roots; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Lignans; Krameria Abstract: From a methylene chloride extract of the roots of Krameria ixina nine new neolignans/nor-neolignans besides 24- methylenecycloartanol and eight further lignan-type compounds already known from other Krameriaceae were isolated. 275 NAL Call. No.: SB294.S68M3 1989 Likarski roslyny na prysadybnii diliantsi [Medicinal plants in personal plots].. Lekarstvennye rasteniia na priusadebnom uchastke, 2-e vyd.. Mamchur, F. I.; Hladun, IA. D. Kyiv : Urozhai; 1989. 133 p., [64] p. of plates : col. ill. ; 21 cm. Title on colophon in Russian: Lekarstvennye rasteniia na priusadebnom uchastke. Includes bibliographical references (p. 129-[130]) and index. Language: Ukrainian Descriptors: Medicinal plants 276 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Limonoids and protolimonoids from the fruits of Phellodendron amurense. Kishi, K.; Yoshikawa, K.; Arihara, S. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Apr. Phytochemistry v. 31 (4): p. 1335-1338; 1992 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Japan; Phellodendron amurense; Fruits; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Limonoids; Medicinal plants Abstract: Two novel limonoids, named kihadalactone A and B, have been isolated from the fresh fruits of Phellodendron amurense, along with seven tirucallanes triterpenoids, niloticin, dihydroniloticin, niloticin acetate, piscidinol A, hispidol B, bourjotinolone A, and hispidone. Their structures were established on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence. Further NMR spectral analysis of the tirucallanes showed that the reported shifts of C-13 and C-14 should be revised. 277 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Lipid constituents of Cissus quadrangularis. Gupta, M.M.; Verma, R.K. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (3): p. 875-878; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Cissus; Lipids; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Triterpenoids Abstract: Seven new compounds, isolated from Cissus quadrangularis, have been characterized as 4-hydroxy-2-methyl- tricos-2-en-22-one, 9-methyl-octadec-9-ene, heptadecyl octadecanoate, icosanyl icosanoate, 31-methyltritriacontan-1-ol, 7-hydroxy-20-oxo- docosanyl cyclohexane and 31-methyltritriacontanoic acid. Taraxeryl acetate, friedelan-3-one, taraxerol and iso- pentacosanoic acid were also isolated for the first time from this plant. 278 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Long- chain phenols from the bark of Amphypterygium adstringens. Mata, R.; Calzada, F.; Navarrete, A.; Rio, F. del; Delgado, G. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Sep. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 34 (2/3): p. 147-154; 1991 Sep. Part 19 in the series "Chemical studies of Mexican plants used in traditional medicine.". Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Mexico; Bark; Plant extracts; Phenols; Cholesterol; Rats; Males; Traditional medicines; Chemical composition; Anacardiaceae Abstract: The hexane extract of the stem bark of Amphypterygium adstringens at a dose of 100 mg/kg subcutaneously exhibited significant hypocholesterolemic effect of 24-h fasted rats, lowering the cholesterol levels by 31%, an effect similar to 15 mg/kg estrone given by the same route. Column chromatography of the active extract allowed the isolation of two mixtures of long chain phenols (Mixture I and Mixture II). According to GC/MS analysis, Mixture I contained five alkyl phenolic acids and Mixture II three alkyl phenolic aldehydes. Neither of the mixtures exhibited significant hypocholesterolemic activity at doses up to 15 mg/kg subcutaneously. 279 NAL Call. No.: 470 SCI24 Look what's hidden in the pawpaw. Raloff, J. Washington, D.C. : Science Service :.; 1992 Feb29. Science news v. 141 (9): p. 143; 1992 Feb29. Language: English Descriptors: Asimina triloba; Medicinal plants; Biocides 280 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Looking for new drugs: what criteria?. Sevenet, T. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Apr. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 32 (1/3): p. 83-90; 1991 Apr. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Ethnopharmacology, June 5-9, 1990, Strasbourg, France. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ochrosia elliptica; Euphorbiaceae; Rubiaceae; Drugs; Chemotaxonomy; Pharmacology; Glechoma hederacea; Pituitary; Adenylate cyclase; Rats Abstract: How to took for new drugs? What guidelines to use? Have we to continue investigations on plant and marine organisms? These questions arise frequently today. A pharmacological effect results from the addition of many effects at a molecular level. i.e. the interaction between a ligand and a receptor. As long as the chemical structure of this receptor remains unknown, studies of Nature's resources will yield the largest reservoir of new drugs. Nature provides our imagination with the pattern of novel biologically active molecules. Criteria classically used in the past to select plants for study were chemotaxonomy, ethnopharmacology or pharmacotaxonomy. Examples will be taken from personal experience, to illustrate work done according to the chemotaxonomical approach (Ochrosia and ellipticines), and the ethnopharmacological approach (antiinflammatory properties of Euphorbiaceae from New Caledonia). Taking into account that one of the major problems we have to face is the unsatisfactory classical pharmacological testing procedure, we have tried to set up a network grouping biologists and chemists. Among many results obtained, one concerns the use of the mammalian hypothalamo-pituitary system to screen effects of alkaloids extracted from Psychotria oleoides, a Rubiaceae collected in New Caledonia. Psycholeine exhibits an intriguing activity on GH release. Another result concerns the influence of a Labiatae extract on the adenylate cyclase system: 9 HODE extracted from Glechoma hederacea stimulates the basal level of enzyme activity in platelets, this activity being possibly involved in the folk uses claimed. Using the tubulin test to screen antimitotic activities of plant extracts, the biological activity of rhazinilam has been demonstrated as responsible for the antitubulin activity of a Malaysian plant, Kopsia singapurensis. From past experience, it seems important to improve pharmacological screening methods and to have on hand, as close as possible to the field, som 281 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Lupin alkaloids from Sophora exigua. Takamatsu, S.; Saito, K.; Ohmiya, S.; Ruangrungsi, N.; Murakoshi, I. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (11): p. 3793-3795; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Thailand; Sophora; Medicinal plants; Roots; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Lupins; Alkaloids; Quinolizidine alkaloids Abstract: A new lupin alkaloid, (-)-12-cytisineacetamide, was isolated from the dry roots of Sophora exigua. Its structure was determined by spectroscopic methods and by direct comparison with a synthetic sample. 282 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Macrophylloside, a flavone glucoside from Primula macrophylla. Ahmad, V.U.; Shah, M.G.; Mohammad, F.V.; Ismail, N.; Noorwala, M. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (12): p. 4206-4208; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Pakistan; Primula; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Flavones; Glucosides Abstract: A new flavone glucoside macrophylloside has been isolated from the whole plant of Primula macrophylla and its structure was determined by spectroscopic methods as 2'- hydroxy-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxyflavone. Sitosterol glucoside was also isolated for the first time from this plant. 283 NAL Call. No.: 450 EC7 Madia sativa Mol. (Asteraceae-Heliantheae-Madiinae): an ethnobotanical and geographical disjunct. Zardini, E. Bronx, N.Y. : New York Botanical Garden; 1992 Jan. Economic botany v. 46 (1): p. 34-44; 1992 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: South America; Pacific states of U.S.A.; Madia; Ethnobotany; Geographical distribution; Oilseed plants; Plant morphology; Plant anatomy; Crop production; Crop husbandry 284 NAL Call. No.: RS164.G78 Makroskopische und mikroskopische Untersuchung von Arzneidrogen [Macroscopic and microscopic study of medicinal drugs]. Grunsfelder, Maria Stuttgart ; New York : G. Thieme; 1991. x, 193 p. : ill. ; 23 cm. Includes bibliographical references (p. 176) and index. Language: German Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Materia medica, Vegetable 285 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Matadine, a cytotoxic alkaloid from Strychnos gossweileri. Quetin-Leclercq, J.; Coucke, P.; Delaude, C.; Warin, R.; Bassleer, R.; Angenot, L. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (5): p. 1697-1700; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Zaire; Strychnos gossweileri; Medicinal plants; Roots; Bark; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Indole alkaloids; Cytotoxicity Abstract: Matadine, a new alkaloid, has been isolated from the root bark of Strychnos gossweileri. Elucidation of its structure is mainly based on ID and 2D NMR studies. Its cytotoxic activity has been tested in vitro on cancer cells and normal cells. 286 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Maytensifolin-C, a friedelane alcohol from Maytenus diversifolia. Nozaki, H.; Matsuura, Y.; Hirono, S.; Kasai, R.; Tada, T.; Nakayama, M.; Lee, K.H. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (11): p. 3819-3821; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Taiwan; Maytenus; Medicinal plants; Stems; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Triterpenoids Abstract: A new friedelane triterpene alcohol, maytensifolin-C, has been isolated from the stems of Maytenus diversifolia. Its structure was established as 6 beta- hydroxyfriedelan-3,16,21-trione by spectroscopic methods and single-crystal X-ray analysis. 287 NAL Call. No.: RM666.A68J68 1991 La medecine des plantes aromatiques phyto-aromatherapie et huiles essentielles de l'ocean Indien [Medicine from aromatic plants]. Jouhanneau, D. G. St Denis : Editions du Tramail : Azalees,; 1991. 153 p. : col. ill. ; 21 cm. Includes bibliographical references (p. 140-141). Language: French; French Descriptors: Aromatherapy; Medicinal plants 288 NAL Call. No.: S494.5.B563B56 no.15 Medicinal and aromatic plants III. Bajaj, Y. P. S., Berlin ; New York : Springer-Verlag; 1991. xx, 502 p. : ill. ; 25 cm. (Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry ; 15). Includes bibliographical references and index. Language: English Descriptors: Medicinal plants--Aromatic plants--Plant cell culture--Materia medica, Vegetable 289 NAL Call. No.: QK99.I4U54 1989 Medicinal flora of Garhwal Himalayas., 1st ed.. Uniyal, M. R. Nagpur [India] : Ayurved Bhawan,; 1989. xiv, 150 p., [66] p. of plates : ill. (some col.), maps ; 24 cm. Includes bibliographical references (p. 149-150) and indexes. Language: English Descriptors: Medicinal plants 290 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 The medicinal flora of native North America: an analysis. Moerman, D.E. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Jan. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 31 (1): p. 1-42; 1991 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: North America; American indians; Medicinal plants; Ethnobotany; Flora; Least squares; Regression analysis; Species Abstract: This paper describes an analysis of the plants of North America which have been used medicinally by Native North Americans. A method using regression residuals is developed for analyzing large quantities of data, divided into subgroups of varying sorts and sizes. The analysis shows that the medicinal species utilized by Native North Americans are distributed in a highly non-random fashion across subclasses and families as well as across groups defined in terms of growth habit and life pattern. This distribution makes sense in terms of both the defensive chemistry and the "complexity" of plants. 291 NAL Call. No.: 450 P697 Medicinal plant biotechnology. Constabel, F. Stuttgart, W. Ger. : Georg Thieme Verlag; 1990 Oct. Planta medica v. 56 (5): p. 421-425; 1990 Oct. Literature review. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Genetic engineering; Biotechnology; Cell cultures; Micropropagation; Literature reviews 292 NAL Call. No.: SB293.M43 The Medicinal plant industry. Wijesekera, R. O. B., Boca Raton : CRC Press; 1991. 269 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. Language: English Descriptors: Materia medica, Vegetable; Botanical drug industry; Medicinal plants 293 NAL Call. No.: Z5354.M42R63 1991 Medicinal plants. Robinson, Judith; Carter, Constance Library of Congress, Science and Technology Division, Reference Section Washington, D.C. : Reference Section, Science and Technology Division, Library of Congress,; 1991; LC 33.10:91.8. 18 p. ; 28 cm. (LC science tracer bullet ; TB 91-8). Caption title. May 1991. Language: English Descriptors: Medicinal plants 294 NAL Call. No.: RS164.E28 Medicinal plants in traditional medicine. Akerele, O. Orlando, Fla. : Academic Press; 1990. Economic and medicinal plant research / edited by H. Wagner, Hiroshi Hikino, Norman R. Farnsworth. v. 4 p. 5-16; 1990. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Traditional medicines 295 NAL Call. No.: 448.9 R813 Medicinal plants in tropical medicine. 1. Medicinal plants against protozoal diseases. Phillipson, J.D.; Wright, C.W. London : The Society; 1991 Jan. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene v. 85 (1): p. 18-21; 1991 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Medicinal properties; Antiprotozoal agents; Protozoa; Protozoal infections; Plant extracts 296 NAL Call. No.: 448.9 R813 Medicinal plants in tropical medicine. 2. Natural products in cancer treatment from bench to the clinic. Fox, B.W. London : The Society; 1991 Jan. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene v. 85 (1): p. 22-25; 1991 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Medicinal properties; Antineoplastic agents 297 NAL Call. No.: QK99.I4M43 1984 Medicinal plants of Gwalior forest division, Madhya Pradesh., 1st ed.. Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine (India) Aligarh : Survey of Medicinal Plants Unit ; New Delhi : Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India,; 1984. v, 154 p. : map ; 25 cm. (Monograph series (Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine (India)) ; 4.). Bibliography: p. 146-150. Language: English Descriptors: Gwailior Forest Division (India); Medicinal plants; Materia medica, Vegetable 298 NAL Call. No.: QK99.A43B68 1983 Medicinal plants of North Africa. Boulos, Loutfy Algonac, Mich. : Reference Publications, Inc; 1983. 286 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. (Medicinal plants of the world ; no. 3). Includes index. Bibliography: p. 210-214. Language: English Descriptors: Folk medicine; Materia medica, Vegetable 299 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Medicinal plants of Seberida (Riau Province, Sumatra, Indonesia). Mahyar, U.W.; Burley, J.S.; Gyllenhaal, C.; Soejarto, D.D. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Feb. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 31 (2): p. 217-237. maps; 1991 Feb. Literature review. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sumatra; Medicinal plants; Medicinal properties; Pharmaceutical products; Application methods; Folk medicine; Literature reviews Abstract: Field enquiries on the plants used to treat diseases in villages of Seberida Municipality indicated that a large number of plant species (at least 100) are being used in therapy. Many of the uses, however, are magical in nature. Those in which a cause-effect relationship may be established (56) are presented in this paper. A review of the ethnomedical and experimental literature showed that medicinal plant uses in Seberida fall into three categories: those for which uses are corroborated by similar medicinal uses for the same plant or different species of the same genus in other cultures, those for which uses of the plant or species of the same genus are corroborated by evidence of relevant pharmacological activity in the experimental literature and those for which the medicinal uses are not corroborated. A discussion of these categories is presented. Taken as a whole, the medicinal uses of plants in Seberida are characterized by a remarkably high proportion of plants used to treat fevers and malaria and by a high proportion of species of which the leaves are used (externally or internally) for medicinal purposes. Comparison with other studies reported in the literature seems to indicate that a high frequency of the use of leaves in therapy may be a part of a larger cultural phenomenon among the tropical forest tribes of Southeast Asia and the southern Pacific Islands. Possible rationales for this type of use are offered. 300 NAL Call. No.: RM214.J68 Medicine--a world language with several dialects. Downing, D. Abingdon, UK : Carfax Pub. Co; 1991. Journal of nutritional medicine v. 2 (1): p. 3-8; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Medicine; Medical services; Nutrition; Diet; Folk medicine; World food problems; Preventive medicine; Public health; International comparisons Abstract: Western medicine is expensive and technologically sophisticated; Third World medicine is simpler and cheaper; nutritional medicine is too easily neglected by both of these. All of them have a vital role to play in the future of medical science and practice in an era when the delivery of health care is a political issue as much as a medical one, and when the adverse consequences of progress are liable to return to haunt us. We must learn to co-operate, not to squabble. 301 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Merging pharmacopoeia: understanding the historical origins of incorporative pharmacopoeial processes among Xhosa healers in Southern Africa. Simon, C.; Lamla, M. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Jul. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 33 (3): p. 237-242; 1991 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Southern Africa; Traditional medicines; Drugs; History; Medicinal plants Abstract: This paper focusses on Xhosa healers and their pharmacopoeias in Southern Africa. Its preliminary aim is to show that Xhosa healers have incorporated Western pharmaceutical products into their traditional dispensaries. The primary aim of the paper is to explain the trend towards medicinal incorporation in terms of the historical development of health and health care in Xhosa-speaking regions. Finally, it is suggested that Xhosa healers utilise Western medicines for their symbolic value, allowing them to negotiate some of the historical precedents which have had the effect of marginalising their profession. 302 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Meroterpenes from Cystoseira usneoides. Urones, J.G.; Basabe, P.; Marcos, I.S.; Pienda. J.; Lithgow, A.M.; Moro, R.F.; Brito Palma, F.M.S.; Araujo, M.E.M.; Gravalos, M.D.G. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Jan. Phytochemistry v. 31 (1): p. 179-182; 1992 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Portugal; Phaeophyta; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Terpenoids; Antiviral properties; Antineoplastic agents Abstract: Two new meroterpenes have been isolated from the brown seaweed Cystoseira usneoides usneoidone E and usneoidone Z. Their structures were established mainly by means of 2D NMR experiments: 1H/1H (COSY) and 1H/13C one bond and long range (HCCORR) correlations. Both compounds exhibit antitumoural and antiviral activities. 303 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Metabolites from in vitro cultures of Cassia didymobotrya. Delle Monache, G.; De Rosa, M.C.; Scurria, R.; Monacelli, B.; Pasqua, G.; Dall'Olio, G.; Botta, B. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (6): p. 1849-1854; 1991. Part 4 in the series 'Studies in Cell Suspension Cultures of Cassia didymobotrya'. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Cassia didymobotrya; Cell suspensions; Metabolites; Chemical composition; Medicinal plants; Plant products Abstract: From suspension cultures of Cassia didymobotrya 7- acetylchrysophanol, chrysophanol-physcion-10,10'-bianthrone, (E)- and (Z)-3'-hydroxy-3,4,5'-trimethoxystilbene, (E)-4,3'-dihydroxy-3,5'-dimethoxystilbene and 7,4'-dihydroxy-3,5,3'-trimethoxyflavone have been isolated along with several known metabolites. 304 NAL Call. No.: 450 P697 Metabolites of Eriogonum umbellatum. Ayer, W.A.; Browne, L.M.; Kasitu, G.C. Stuttgart, W. Ger. : Georg Thieme Verlag; 1990 Jun. Planta medica v. 56 (3): p. 336; 1990 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: North America; Alberta; Eriogonum; Plant extracts; Medicinal plants; Phytosterols; Gallic acid 305 NAL Call. No.: 448.39 SO12 Microbiological exploitation of cardiac glycosides and alkaloids from Garcinia kola, Borreria ocymoides, Kola nitida and Citrus aurantifolia. Ebana, R.U.B.; Madunagu, B.E.; Ekpe, E.D.; Otung, I.N. Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1991 Nov. The Journal of applied bacteriology v. 71 (5): p. 398-401; 1991 Nov. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Nigeria; Garcinia kola; Cola nitida; Borreria ocymoides; Citrus aurantiifolia; Plant extracts; Cardiac glycosides; Alkaloids; Bacteria; Pathogens; Antibacterial properties; Medicinal properties Abstract: The four medicinal plants, Garcinia kola (roots), Borreria ocymoides (leaves), Kola nitida (bark) and Citrus aurantifolia (roots) were screened for phytochemical components. They were found to contain tannins, phlobatannins, polyphenols, hydroxymethyl anthraquinones, glucides, saponins, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavanoids and reducing compounds. The aqueous and alcoholic extracts as well as alkaloids and cardiac glycosides of the medicinal plants were tested on various pathogenic bacteria. They were found to inhibit such organisms as Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, beta- haemolytic streptococci, Escherichia coli and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The usefulness of the phytochemical bases of these plants as potential sources of pharmaceutical drug preparation is discussed. 306 NAL Call. No.: QK99.A1O77 1990 Milenarele intimplari ale plantelor medicinale [Centuries of uses of medicinal plants]. Opris, Mihaela Bucuresti : Albatros,; 1990. 166 p. : ill. ; 20 cm. (Colectia Cristal). Includes bibliographical references (p. 163-[165]). Language: Romanian Descriptors: Botany, Medical; Medicinal plants 307 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Minor sesquiterpene lactones from Salvia palaefolia. Gonzalez, A.G.; Grillo, T.A.; Aguiar, Z.E.; Luis, J.G.; Calle, J.; Rivera, A. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (10): p. 3462-3464; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Colombia; Sesquiterpenoid lactones; Chemical composition; Spectral analysis; Medicinal plants; Salvia Abstract: Five minor eudesmane constituents of Salvia palaefolia were isolated from the same extract which had earlier yielded the two fully characterized eudesmanolides. The five new natural compounds were identified by spectral studies and comparison with known substances. 308 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 A monoclonal antibody to scopolamine and its use for competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Kikuchi, Y.; Irie, M.; Ishimaru, K.; Shimomura, K.; Satake, M.; Sueyoshi, S.; Tanno, M.; Kamiya, S.; Sawada, J.; Terao, T. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (10): p. 3273-3276; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Solanaceae; Medicinal plants; Secondary metabolites; Biosynthesis; Tropane alkaloids; Screening; Rapid methods; Monoclonal antibodies; Elisa Abstract: A hybridoma clone producing a monoclonal antibody (SC78.H81) against scopolamine was established. The monoclonal antibody was an IgG1(k) antibody with high affinity (1.6 X 10(9) M-1 for methylscopolamine). The monoclonal antibody was cross-reactive with methylscopolamine and butyscopolamine, and showed weak cross-reactivity with 6 beta- and 7 beta- hydroxyhyoscyamine. The cross-reaction with L-hyoscyamine, atropine, scopine and DL-tropic acid was very weak. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using SC78.H81 was established to quantify scopolamine. The sensitivity of the assay allowed detection of 20 pg assay-1 (0.2 ng ml-1) of scopolamine. The assay was applied to the estimation of scopolamine content in hairy root cultures of a Duboisia hybrid. 309 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Monoterpenes from Chrysactinia mexicana. Delgado, G.; Rios, M.Y. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (9): p. 3129-3131; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Mexico; Compositae; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Monoterpenes; Derivatives; Toxic extracts Abstract: Three new monoterpenes, (4S)-7-acetoxypiperitone, (4S)-7-hydroxypiperitone and (4S,6R)-6-hydroxypiperitone were isolated from aerial parts of the medicinal plant Chrysactinia mexicana, together with (4S)-piperitone and (3S,4S,6R)-3,6- dihydroxypiperitone. (4S)-7-acetoxypiperitone and (4S)-piperitone showed toxicity to Artemia salina. 310 NAL Call. No.: 450 EC7 Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae): ethnobotanical studies in Guatemala. Caceres, A.; Freire, V.; Giron, L.M.; Aviles, O.; Pacheco, G. Bronx, N.Y. : New York Botanical Garden; 1991 Oct. Economic botany v. 45 (4): p. 522-523; 1991 Oct. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Guatemala; Moringa oleifera; Ethnobotany; Medicinal properties; Wild foods; Crop production; Seed germination 311 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 A morphinane alkaloid from roots of Stephania cepharantha. Deng, J.Z.; Zhao, S.X.; Miao, Z.C. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Apr. Phytochemistry v. 31 (4): p. 1448-1450; 1992 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: China; Stephania cepharanthea; Medicinal plants; Roots; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Alkaloids Abstract: From the roots of Stephania cepharantha, a new morphinane alkaloid, named cephamorphinanine, was isolated along with seven known alkaloids including one aporphine, two morphinanes, one promorphinane and three bisbenzylisoquinolines. The structure of cephamorphinanine was established from spectral analysis and chemical correlation. 312 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 A moskachan from roots of Ruta chalepensis. Ulubelen, A.; Tan, N. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1990. Phytochemistry v. 29 (12): p. 3991-3992; 1990. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Turkey; Ruta chalepensis; Medicinal plants; Roots; Chemical composition; Alkaloids; Coumarins Abstract: In addition to previously obtained coumarins and alkaloids, a group of additional coumarins, xanthatoxin, bergapten and rutolide as well as alkaloids graveolinine, 1- hydroxy-N-methylacridone and two moskachans B and D together with the new moskachan, chalepimoskachan were isolated from a new collection of the roots of Ruta chalepensis. 313 NAL Call. No.: SB351.H5H365 Mulches for herbs. Barker, A.V. Amherst, Mass. : Massachusetts Cooperative Extension Service; 1990. The Herb, spice and medicinal plant digest v. 8 (3): p. 1-5; 1990. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Culinary herbs; Medicinal plants; Mulches; Weed control; Temperature; Regulation 314 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Musancropic acids A and B: A-ring contracted triterpenes from Musanga cecropioides. Lontsi, D.; Sondengam, B.L.; Martin, M.T.; Bodo, B. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (7): p. 2361-2364; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Cameroon; Urticaceae; Wood; Medicinal plants; Roots; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Triterpenoids Abstract: Two A-ring contracted triterpenes, musancropic acids A and B, having a new triterpene backbone, were isolated as their methyl esters from the rootwood of the African tree Musanga cecropioides. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic studies. 315 NAL Call. No.: 448.3 J824 Mycoflora, mycotoxin producibility and mycotoxins in traditional herbal drugs from India. Roy, A.K.; Chourasia, H.K. Tokyo : Microbiology Research Foundation; 1990 Oct. The Journal of general and applied microbiology v. 36 (5): p. 295-302; 1990 Oct. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Bihar; Glycyrrhiza glabra; Holarrhena; Strychnos; Tribulus; Medicinal plants; Seeds; Roots; Fruits; Aspergillus flavus; Aspergillus ochraceus; Fusarium oxysporum; Fungi; Storage; Microbial contamination; Aflatoxins; Ochratoxins; Zearalenone; Citrinin; Incidence; Screening 316 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Myrcene mimics the peripheral analgesic activity of lemongrass tea. Lorenzetti, B.B.; Souza, G.E.P.; Sarti, S.J.; Filho, D.S.; Ferreira, S.H. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Aug. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 34 (1): p. 43-48; 1991 Aug. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Cymbopogon citratus; Myrcente; Analgesics; Essential oils; Folk Medicine; Rats Abstract: Oral administration of a infusion of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) fresh leaves to rats produced a dose- dependent analgesia for the hyperalgesia induced by subplantar injections of either carrageenin or prostaglandin E2, but did not affect that induced by dibutyryl cyclic AMP. These results indicate a peripheral site of action which was confirmed with the essential oil obtained by steam distillation of the leaves. Silica gel column fractionation of the essential oil allowed the identification of myrcene as the major analgesic component in the oil. Identification of the components was made by thin-layer chromatography and checked by mass spectrometry. The peripheral analgesic effect of myrcene was confirmed by testing a standard commercial preparation on the hyperalgesia induced by prostaglandin in the rat paw test and upon the contortions induced by intraperitoneal injections of iloprost in mice. In contrast to the central analgesic effect of morphine, myrcene did not cause tolerance on repeated injection in rats. This analgesic activity supports the use of lemongrass tea as a "sedative" in folk medicine. Terpenes such as myrcene may constitute a lead for the development of new peripheral analgesics with a profile of action different from that of the aspirin-like drugs. 317 NAL Call. No.: 286.8 N488 Myth and science converge on the virtues of garlic, and business takes an interest. Burros, M. New York, N.Y. : H.J. Raymond & Co. :.; 1991 May15. The New York times. p. B5; 1991 May15. Language: English Descriptors: Allium sativum; Medicinal plants; Marketing techniques 318 NAL Call. No.: QK99.K89K48 1984 Nabatat al-Kuwayt al-tibbiyah [Medicinal plants of Kuwait]., al- Tab'ah 1.. Khalifah, 'Isa Jasim Muhammad; Sharkas, Muhammad Salah al-Din; Ghunaym, Marzuq Yusuf al-Kuwayt : Mu'assasat al-Kuwayt lil-Taqaddum al-'Ilmi, Idarat al- Ta'lif wa-al-Tarjamah; 1984. 401 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 24 cm. (Barnamaj katib wa-kitab ; 26; Barnamaj katib wa-kitab ; 26.). Includes index. Bibliography: p. 387-391. Language: Arabic Descriptors: Medicinal plants 319 NAL Call. No.: E98.B7M38 Nanise, a Navajo herbal one hundred plants from the Navajo Reservation.. Navajo herbal Mayes, Vernon O.; Lacy, Barbara Bayless; Ahasteen, Jack; Chee, Jason Tsaile, Ariz. : Navajo Community College Press,; 1989. viii, 153 p. : ill. ( some col.) ; 20 x 23 cm. Includes indexes. Bibliography: p. 145-148. Language: English Descriptors: Navajo Indians; Ethnobotany; Indians of North America 320 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 A naphthalene glucoside lactone from Rhamnus wightii. Pepalla, S.B.; Jammula, S.R.; Telikepalli, H.; Bhattiprolu, K.R.; Jagannadha Rao, K.V. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (12): p. 4193-4194; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: India; Rhamnus; Medicinal plants; Stems; Bark; Chemical composition; Molecular conformation; Naphthalene; Glucosides; Lactones Abstract: A new naphthalene glucoside lactone was isolated from the acetone extract of the stem bark of Rhamnus wightii. Cynodontin, chrysophanol, physcion, musizin, lupeol, sitosterol, 7-hydroxy-5-methoxyphthalide, emodin, sitosterol glycoside, beta-sorigenin are the known compounds; beta- sorigenin may be an artifact of its glucoside. The co- occurrence of two lactone ring compounds, 7-hydroxy-5- methoxyphthalide and the naphthalide glucoside is the significant feature of this plant. 321 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Narciclasine-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, a glucosyloxy amidic phenanthridone derivative from Pancratium maritimum. Abou-Donia, A.H.; De Giulio, A.; Evidente, A.; Gaber, M.; Habib, A.A.; Lanzetta, R.; Seif El Din, A.A. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (10): p. 3445-3448; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Egypt; Pancratium; Bulbs; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; alkaloids; Phenanthrene; Derivatives; Metabolites Abstract: Bulbs of Pancratium maritimum were found to contain a new glucosyloxy phenolic metabolite as well as 14 known Amaryllidaceae alkaloids. The structure of the phenolic metabolite was elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods, and it was identified as narciclasine-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside. When tested in Artemia salina and potato disc assays the new glucoside showed cytotoxic and antitumour activity very similar to narciclasine. 322 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Native drugs of Vietnam: which traditional and scientific approaches?. Do Tat Loi; Nguyen Xuan Dung Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Apr. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 32 (1/3): p. 51-56; 1991 Apr. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Ethnopharmacology, June 5-9, 1990, Strasbourg, France. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Vietnam; Medicinal plants; Traditional medicines; Drugs Abstract: For thousands of years, our people treated diseases with herbs and plants which were gathered from gardens and forests. The recorded medical literature which now remains dates only after 10th century. In the history of Vietnamese national medicine, two names in particular stand out before 18th century. The first one is Tue Tinh of the 17th century, author of two treatises: Nam Duoc Than Hieu (The Miraculous Efficacy of Vietnamese Medicines) describing 580 indigenous drugs in 3873 prescriptions for 10 clinical specialities and Hong Nghia Giac Tu Thu (Medical book from village Hong Nghia) summarizing the indications of 630 drugs with a theoretical part of traditional medicine. The second name would be Le Huu Trac (1720-1791) writing as Hai Thuong Lan Ong, author of the great treatise of traditional medicine with more than 30 volumes. From generation to generation by oral tradition and through literature, people have collected a lot of medicinal plants and especially a lot of medicinal prescriptions based on a long empirical knowledge of medicinal and toxic plants. After the August Revolution (1945), traditional medicine in our country was rehabilitated to its state position. Prof. Dr. Do Tat Loi, one of the authors of this paper, was busy over 40 years compiling the medicinal plants, animal and mineral origins into a book (more than 1200 pages): Medicinal Plants and Drugs from Vietnam. A general part, the theoretical bases of eastern medicine, basic principles of drug identification, processing and preparation, study of drug efficaciousness and particular guides for using traditional drugs are presented. In the second part, the author introduces more than 700 drugs common in Vietnam. The medicinal plants and medicines are presented according to their therapeutic action. From our views, we get to know the following problems: (1) Traditional medicinal plants and medicines in Vietnam clearly have effectiveness for treatment of diseases on the basis of eastern philosoph 323 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Natural products as probes for new drug target identification. Evans, F.J. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Apr. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 32 (1/3): p. 91-101; 1991 Apr. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Ethnopharmacology, June 5-9, 1990, Strasbourg, France. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Euphorbiaceae; Esters; Plant products; Phosphatidylinositols; Transduction; Protein kinase; Receptors; Drugs; Mammals; Cells Abstract: One traditional aspect of natural products in medical research has been their use in the identification and investigation of the physiological/pathological role of receptors and enzymes as possible targets for drug design programmes. Classical examples of this function of natural products in drug research can be seen in the investigation of the cholinergic system. For example, the importance of alkaloids such as nicotine, physostigmine and curare for research into the nicotinic receptor and muscarine, pilocarpine and the tropane alkaloids on the muscarinic receptor. On binding of a ligand to its cell surface membrane receptor and prior to a physiological/pharmacological response two mechanisms are currently known to be involved in membrane signal transductance. In the minority of cases signal transductance involves the direct opening of an ion channel, for example sodium ion influx, but in the majority of cases involves stimulation of a family of G-proteins and subsequent activation of second messenger systems. For example, the cyclic-AMP/adenylate cyclase system and the phosphoinositol cycle. in this communication, the part played currently by the tumour- promoting and pro-inflammatory phorbol esters from the plant family Euphorbiaceae in furthering our understanding of the role of a group of related kinases from one arm of the phosphoinositol cycle as a signal transduction pathway will be illustrated. The possibilities of using these new receptors as targets for future drug development will also be described. 324 NAL Call. No.: QL391.N4R4 Nematicidal potentials of some naturally-growing medicinal plants against Pratylenchus zeae. Khan, F.A. Paris : ORSTOM; 1990. Revue de nematologie v. 13 (4): p. 463-465; 1990. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Nigeria; Pratylenchus zeae; Leaves; Medicinal plants; Nematicidal properties; Nematode control 325 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 A neo-clerodane diterpenoid from Teucrium bidentatum. Handong, S.; Xingliang, C.; Tianen, W.; Lutai, P.; Zhongwen, L.; Deyuan, C. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (5): p. 1721-1723; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: China; Teucrium; Medicinal plants; Chemical composition; Diterpenoids; Derivatives Abstract: A novel neo-clerodane diterpenoid, bidentatin, was isolated from the aerial part of Teucrium bidentatum. Its structure, 8 beta-hydroxy-15, 16-epoxy-neo- clerodane-13(16),14-dien-18,19:20,12,S-diolide-6-one, was established by spectroscopic methods. 326 NAL Call. No.: 450 P697 Neue Prenylflavonoid-Glykoside aus Epimedium koreanum [New prenylflavonoid glycosides from Epimedium koreanum]. Pachaly, P.; Schonherr-Weissbarth, C.; Sin, K.S. Stuttgart, W. Ger. : Georg Thieme Verlag; 1990 Jun. Planta medica v. 56 (3): p. 277-280; 1990 Jun. Includes references. Language: German Descriptors: Epimedium; Plant extracts; Medicinal plants; Flavonoids; Hypotension; Glycosides 327 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Neuropsychopharmacologic properties of a Schumanniophyton problematicum root extract. Amadi, E.; Offiah, N.V.; Akah, P.A. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 May. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 33 (1/2): p. 73-77; 1991 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Nigeria; Schumanniophyton problematicum; Roots; Plant extracts; Mental disorders; Pharmacology; Folk medicine; Mice Abstract: Schumanniphyton problematicum is a plant popular among Nigerian native healers for the treatment of pschotic patients (madness). An extract obtained by ethanol extraction of the roots caused reductions in respiratory rate, body and limb tone, startle response and spontaneous locomotor activity after i.p. injection in mice, and was capable of inhibiting amphetamine-induced hyperactivity and stereotypic behaviour. It also induced passivity, piloerection, hypothermia and prolonged pentobarbital sleeping time. The i.p. LD50 of the extract in mice was 2.37 g/kg. The effects of the extract appear to be due to depression of central and autonomic system. 328 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Neutralization of toxic effects of different crude jellyfish venoms by an extract of Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R. Br. Pongprayoon, U.; Bohlin, L.; Wasuwat, S. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Oct. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 35 (1): p. 65-69; 1991 Oct. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Thailand; Caprae; Plant extracts; Coelenterata; Venoms; Neutralization; Dermatitis; Traditional medicines; Ipomoea pes-caprae Abstract: An extract (IPA) of the plant Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R. Br., previously shown to be clinically effective toward dermatitis caused by venomous jellyfishes, was studied as to its ability to neutralize toxic activities of jellyfish venoms. Different venoms exhibited different degrees of activity. When IPA was incubated with active venoms, it inhibited the actions of all jellyfish venoms tested, with IC50 values in the range of 0.3-0.8 mgIPA/mg venom for proteolytic action, and with about 10 times lower IC50 values for the neutralization of haemolytic action. These activities of IPA support the previously reported effectiveness in the treatment of dermatitis caused by jellyfish sting. 329 NAL Call. No.: QH301.N32 New alkaloids of some Turkish medicinal plants. Sener, B.; Temizer, H. New York, N.Y. : Plenum Press; 1991. NATO ASI series : Series A : Life sciences v. 207: p. 281-285; 1991. In the series analytic: Bioorganic chemistry in healthcare and technology / edited by U.K. Pandit and F.C. Alderweireldt. Proceedings of an Advanced Research Workshop, September 18-21, 1990, Houthalen-Helchteren, Belgium. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Turkey; Corydalis; Fumaria; Medicinal plants; Alkaloids; Drugs 330 NAL Call. No.: 450 P697 New coumarins from Pilocarpus goudotianus. Amaro-Luis, J.M.; Massanet, G.M.; Pando, E.; Rodriguez-Luis, F.; Zubia, E. Stuttgart, W. Ger. : Georg Thieme Verlag; 1990 Jun. Planta medica v. 56 (3): p. 304-306; 1990 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Coumarins; Medicinal plants; Plant extracts; Leaves; Pilocarpus 331 NAL Call. No.: A00110 New effort to save tropical forests: pact on natural 'prospecting'. Petit, C. San Francisco, Calif. : The Chronical Publishing Co; 1991 Sep21. San Francisco chronicle. p. A15; 1991 Sep21. Language: English Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Rain forests; Conservation 332 NAL Call. No.: 450 P697 A new minor saponin from the leaves of Panax ginseng. Zhang, S.; Takeda, T.; Zhu, T.; Chen, Y.; Yao, X.; Tanaka, O.; Ogihara, Y. Stuttgart, W. Ger. : Georg Thieme Verlag; 1990 Jun. Planta medica v. 56 (3): p. 298-300; 1990 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Leaves; Plant extracts; Saponins; Medicinal plants; Panax pseudoginseng 333 NAL Call. No.: 381 J825N New plant proteins inhibit HIV in vitro. Dagani, R. Washington, D.C. : American Chemical Society; 1991 Sep16. Chemical and engineering news v. 69 (37): p. 29-30; 1991 Sep16. Language: English Descriptors: Momordica charantia; Trichosanthes Kirilowii; Human immunodeficiency virus; Medicinal plants; Plant protein 334 NAL Call. No.: 450 P697 New taxanes from Taxus chinensis. Zhang, Z.; Jia, Z.; Zhu, Z.; Cui, Y.; Cheng, J.; Wang, Q. Stuttgart, W. Ger. : Georg Thieme Verlag; 1990 Jun. Planta medica v. 56 (3): p. 293-294; 1990 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: China; Taxus; Leaves; Stems; Plant extracts; Diterpenes; Medicinal plants 335 NAL Call. No.: SB108.N45C66 1991 New Zealand's economic native plants. Cooper, Robert C.; Cambie, R. C. Auckland : Oxford University Press,; 1991. 234 p., 16 p. of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 24 cm. Includes bibliographical references and indexes. Language: English Descriptors: Botany, Economic; Native plants for cultivation; Ethnobotany 336 NAL Call. No.: NBURM666 H33 M69 1990 Next generation herbal medicine guaranteed potency herbs.. Guaranteed potency herbs, 2nd ed., completely rev.. Mowrey, Daniel B., New Canaan, Conn. : Keats,; 1990. 157 p. ; 23 cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. Language: English Descriptors: Herbs; Medicinal plants; Materia medica, Vegetable 337 NAL Call. No.: 451 M69 Nigerian Solanum species of economic importance. Gbile, Z.O.; Adesina, S.K. St. Louis, Mo. : The Garden; 1988. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden v. 75 (3): p. 862-865; 1988. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Nigeria; Solanum; Species; Food crops; Medicinal plants; Vegetables; Fruit crops; Chemical composition; Medicinal properties 338 NAL Call. No.: 450 M99 Nineteenth century shaman grave guardians are carved Fomitopsis officinalis sporophores. Blanchette, R.A.; Compton, B.D.; Turner, N.J.; Gilberton, R.L. Bronx, N.Y. : The New York Botanical Garden; 1992 Jan. Mycologia v. 84 (1): p. 119-124; 1992 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: North America; Fomes; Folk culture; Folk medicine; American indians; Ethnobotany 339 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Non- identity of hortensin from Millingtonia hortensis with 3,4'-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavone. Nair, A.G.R.; Sivakumar, R. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Feb. Phytochemistry v. 31 (2): p. 671-673; 1992 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: India; Millingtonia hortensis; Flowers; Leaves; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Flavones; Medicinal plants Abstract: Hortensin, isolated from M. hortensis and analysed as 3,4'-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavone, has been found to be different from a synthetic sample. Reinterpretation of the reported data and comparisons with authentic samples show that hortensin is 5,4'-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavone (cirsimaritin). 340 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Nor- cucurbitacin glucosides from Wilbrandia species. Elisa, M.; Matos, O.; Machado, M.I.L.; Craveiro, A.A.; Matos, F.J.A.; Braz-Filho, R. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (3): p. 1020-1023; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Brazil; Cucurbitaceae; Medicinal plants; Roots; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Cucurbitacins; Glucosides Abstract: Two new nor-cucurbitacin glucosides were isolated from the roots of Wilbrandia sp. and their structures established as 29-nor-1,2,3,4,5,10-dehydro-25-O-acetyl-2-O-beta-D- glucopyranosyl-3,16 alpha, 20(R)-trihydroxy-11,22- dioxocucurbita-6,23-diene and 29-nor-1,2,3,4,5,10-dehydro-2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3,16 alpha, 20(R),25-tetrahydroxy-11,22-dioxocucurbitac-6-ene mainly by 1H and 13C NMR of the peracetyl derivatives, including 2D experiments. 341 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 A note on the use of topical Digitalis prior to William Withering. Groves, M.J.; Bisset, N.G. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Dec. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 35 (2): p. 99-103; 1991 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Folk medicine; History; Uses; Digitalis Abstract: Attention is called to the fact that, long before the systematization of oral digitalis therapy by Withering in the eighteenth century, the drug was applied to the skin by inunction, producing effects that can now be recognized as due to an overdosage of Digitalis glycosides. The history of digitalis is brielfy reviewed: the drug appears not to have been known to Greek and Roman physicians, but by the middle ages was widely used in folk medicine. Contrary to current wisdom there is a wealth of historical information suggesting that topically applied Digitalis glycosides are capable of exerting physiological activity. It is perhaps time to re- examine this feature, in view of the present day general interest in transdermal medications. 342 NAL Call. No.: 26 T756 Nutritional value of some lesser-known wild food plants and their role in tribal nutrition. A case study in North East India. Maikhuri, R.K. London : Whurr Publishers Ltd; 1991. Tropical science v. 31 (4): p. 397-405; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Arunachal pradesh; Wild plants; Ethnobotany; Food analysis; Food supplements; Nutritive value 343 NAL Call. No.: GB500.M68 Observations on the ethnobotany of the Tons valley region in the Uttarkashi district of the northwest Himalaya, India. Jain, S.K.; Saklani, A. Berkeley, Calif. : University of California Press; 1991 May. Mountain research and development v. 11 (2): p. 157-161; 1991 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: India; Ethnobotany; River valleys; Mountain areas; Medicinal plants 344 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Ochnabianthrone: a trans-9,9'-bianthrone from Ochna pulchra. Sibanda, S.; Nyanyira, C.; Nicoletti, M.; Galeffi, C. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1990. Phytochemistry v. 29 (12): p. 3974-3976; 1990. Part 22 in the series 'Research on African Medicinal Plants'. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Zimbabwe; Ochna; Medicinal plants; Poisonous plants; Roots; Bark; Chemical composition; Molecular conformation Abstract: (-)-trans-2,2'-Digeranyloxy-7,7'-dimethyl-4,4', 5,5'-tetrahydroxy-9,9'-bianthrone, (-)-ochnabianthrone, was isolated from the root bark of Ochna pulchra. The circular dichroism curve and therefore the absolute configuration at 9,9' (R,R' or S,S') is similar to that of (-)-sennidin A1. 345 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Oligostilbenes from Carex kobomugi. Kurihara, H.; Kawabata, J.; Ichikawa, S.; Mishima, M.; Mizutani, J. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (2): p. 649-652; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Japan; Carex--stilbenes--rhizomes--roots-- chemical composition--stereochemistry--spectral analysis-- medicinal plants--antimicrobial properties Abstract: A novel tetrastilbene, kobophenol A was isolated from subterranean parts of Carex kobomugi together with the previously known miyabenol C and (-)-epilson-viniferin. The stereochemistry of kobophenol A and miyabenol C was elucidated as (7aR,8aR,7bS,8bS,7cS,8cS,7dS,8dR) and (7aR,8aR,7bS,8bS), respectively. The biogenetic relationship of all the above compounds is briefly discussed. 346 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 One man's poison, another man's medicine?. Bisset, N.G. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Apr. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 32 (1/3): p. 71-81; 1991 Apr. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Ethnopharmacology, June 5-9, 1990, Strasbourg, France. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Aconitum; Ergot; Euphorbiaceae; Thymelaeaceae; Strychnos; Cardiac glycosides; Triterpenoid saponins; Animals; Toxic substances; Medicinal properties; Pharmacology; Dosage effects; Poisonous plants Abstract: Poisonous plants and animals are widespread in nature and have been used for a great variety of purposes. Brief discussions of a number of examples: aconite, ergot, Euphorbiaceae/Thymelaeaceae, curare, cardiac glycosides, triterpenoid saponins and animal toxins, make the point that, in addition to allowing their use as medicinal agents, the study of such substances has opened up new areas of (bio)chemistry, physiology and pharmacology. But even though the compounds concerned have a relatively low molecular weight, in some cases their examination had to wait until appropriate methods of investigation became available. Understanding the modes of action has allowed the molecules to be used as starting points for the development of useful medicinal agents, a better appreciation of structure-activity relationships having led to improvements in the properties desired. With the advent of methods for the investigation of high- molecular-weight proteins, polypeptides, polyketides, etc., it is now possible to enter entirely new fields and to study more complex materials derived from plant, animal and other sources. It is here that future developments, coupled with the possibility of more specific targeting, hold most promise for the beneficial utilization of otherwise highly poisonous substances. 347 NAL Call. No.: TP248.13.S68 Optimization of the process of producing polysaccharide from plant raw material. Akhnazarova, S.L.; Gershanova, N.V.; Tolstykh, L.P.; Sidorova, E.A.; Moksyakova, T.A.; Rusakova, S.V. New York, N.Y. : Allerton Press; 1990. Soviet biotechnology (6): p. 125-128; 1990. Translated from: Biotekhnologiia, (6), 1990, p. 91-93. (TP248.2 B57). Includes references. Language: English; Russian Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Polysaccharides; Extraction; Drugs; Medicinal properties; Mathematical models; Equations; Bioreactors Abstract: The problem of optimizing the stage of extraction of polysaccharide having biological activity from plant raw material was solved with the use of experimental design methods. A mathematical model was constructed and a continuous direct-flow isothermal process of extracting polysaccharide in a series of mixing reactors was calculated. 348 NAL Call. No.: SF601.P76 Oriental concepts of acupuncture. Limehouse, J.B. Hagerstown, Md. : J.B. Lippincott Co; 1992 Mar. Problems in veterinary medicine v. 4 (1): p. 53-65; 1992 Mar. In the series analytic: Veterinary acupuncture / edited by A. M. Schoen. Language: English Descriptors: Acupuncture; Traditional medicines; Health beliefs 349 NAL Call. No.: 385 T29 Orthosiphol A, a highly oxygenated diterpene from the leaves of Orthosiphon stamineus. Masuda, T.; Masuda, K.; Nakatani, N. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Feb11. Tetrahedron letters v. 33 (7): p. 945-946; 1992 Feb11. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Orthosiphon aristatus; Leaves; Plant composition; Diterpenoids; Isolation; Spectral data; Medicinal plants Abstract: The structure of orthosiphol A (1), a highly oxygenated pimarane diterpene, has been established on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical methods. 350 NAL Call. No.: RS164.E28 An overview of the system of traditional medicine currently practised in Mexico. Lozoya, X. Orlando, Fla. : Academic Press; 1990. Economic and medicinal plant research / edited by H. Wagner, Hiroshi Hikino, Norman R. Farnsworth. v. 4 p. 71-93; 1990. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Mexico; Health care; Traditional medicines; Medical treatment; Medicinal plants 351 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Oxindole alkaloids from Gelsemium elegans. Lin, L.Z.; Cordell, G.A.; Ni, C.Z.; Clardy, J. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (4): p. 1311-1315; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Guangxi; Gelsemium--medicinal plants--spectral analysis--chemical composition--indole alkaloids Abstract: Four new oxindole alkaloids, 20- hydroxydihydrorankinidine, N-desmethoxyhumantenine, 15- hydroxyhumantenine and gelsemoxonine have been isolated from Gelsemium elegans, and their structures assigned by spectral and X- ray crystallographic analyses. 352 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Oxindole alkaloids from Gelsemium elegans. Lin, L.Z.; Cordell, G.A.; Ni, C.Z.; Clardy, J. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (4): p. 1311-1315; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Guangxi; Gelsemium; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Indole alkaloids Abstract: Four new oxindole alkaloids, 20- hydroxydihydrorankinidine, N-desmethoxyhumantenine, 15- hydroxyhumantenine and gelsemoxonine have been isolated from Gelsemium elegans, and their structures assigned by spectral and X- ray crystallographic analyses. 353 NAL Call. No.: 385 T29 Palbinone, a potent inhibitor of 3 alpha-hydroxy dehydrogenase from Paeonia albiflora. Kadota, S.; Terashima, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Namba, T. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Jan07. Tetrahedron letters v. 33 (2): p. 255-256; 1992 Jan07. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Paeonia lactiflora; Medicinal plants; Plant composition; Terpenoids; Enzyme inhibitors; Purification; Oxidoreductases; Spectral data; Stereochemistry Abstract: The structure of palbinone (1), isolated as potent inhibitor of 3 alpha-hydroxy dehydrogenase from the roots of Paeonia albiflora PALLAS, was determined based on the 2D NMR spectroscopy. 354 NAL Call. No.: 500 N483J Paper route: Were the man the manufacture and use of bark paper introduced into Mesoamerica from Asia?. Tolstoy, P. New York, N.Y. : American Museum of Natural History; 1991 Jun. Natural history (6): p. 6-8, 10, 12-14; 1991 Jun. Language: English Descriptors: Mexico; American indians; Ethnobotany; Handicrafts; History; Paper; Rural industry; Textiles; Bark; Manufacture; Processing; Pulping; Trees; Ficus 355 NAL Call. No.: 385 C172 Partial structure of an anti-ulcer pectic polysaccharide from the roots of Bupleurum falcatum L. Yamada, H.; Hirano, M.; Kiyohara, H. Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1991 Oct14. Carbohydrate research v. 219: p. 173-192; 1991 Oct14. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Bupleurum falcatum; Roots; Polysaccharides; Methylation; Galactose; Medicinal plants Abstract: Methylation analysis of a pectic polysaccharide (Bupleuran 2IIc) with anti-ulcer activity, isolated from the roots of Bupleurum falcatum L., revealed (1 leads to 4)-linked alpha-GalA together with small proportions of 2,4- and 3,4- linked GalA, and variously linked neutral sugars. Digestion of Bupleuran 2IIc with endo-alpha-(1 leads to 4)- polygalacturonase gave mainly galacturono-oligosaccharides (PG-4) and small proportions of enzyme-resistant regions (PG-1-3). PG-1 contained the sequence leads to 4)-GalA-(1 leads to 2)-Rha-(1 leads to 4)-GalA-(1 leads to, and partial acid hydrolysis gave GalA-(1 leads to 4)-Rha, GlcA-(1 leads to 4)-Rha, and several di- and oligo-saccharides consisting variously of Xyl, Glc, Gal, and Man. PG-2 and PG-3 each contained Rha, Fuc, Ara, Xyl, Man, Gal, Glc, GalA, GlcA, 2-Me-Fuc, 2-Me-Xyl, apiose (Api), aceric acid (AceA), and 3-deoxy-D-manno-2- octulosonic acid (Kdo). PG-4 contained (1 leads to 4)-linked alpha- galacturono-di- to -penta-saccharides and GalA. The galacturono-tetra- and -penta-saccharides had one and three methyl-esterified GalA units, respectively, and some of the galacturono-oligosaccharides contained 2,4- or 2,3- linked GalA. 356 NAL Call. No.: 450 EC7 The past and present uses of rhatany (Krameria, Krameriaceae). Simpson, B.B. Bronx, N.Y. : New York Botanical Garden; 1991 Jul. Economic botany v. 45 (3): p. 397-409; 1991 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Dye plants; Dyes; Medicinal properties; History; Astringents; Plant extracts; Ethnobotany; Pharmaceutical products; Carcinogens; Carcinogenesis; Tannins; Lignans 357 NAL Call. No.: RS164.S88 1990 Pengembangan kultur tanaman berkhasiat obat [Culture development of medicinal plants]. Sutedjo, Mul Mulyani Jakarta : Rineka Cipta,; 1990. x, 160 p. : ill. ; 21 cm. Bibliography: p. 89. Language: Indonesian; Indonesian Descriptors: Herbs 358 NAL Call. No.: A00036 Perspectives in plant genetic engineering and biopharmacy. Hughes, J.; Qoronfleh, M.W. Eugene, Or. : Aster Pub. Corp. :.; 1991 May. Biopharm v. 4 (5): p. 18-20, 22, 24, 26, 28; 1991 May. Language: English Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Genetic engineering; Biotechnology; Transgenics; Monoclonal antibodies 359 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Pharmacological assay of Casearia sylvestris. I. Preventive anti- ulcer activity and toxicity of the leaf crude extract. Basile, A.C.; Sertie, J.A.A.; Panizza, S.; Oshiro, T.T.; Azzolini, C.A. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1990 Sep. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 30 (2): p. 185-197; 1990 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Flacourtiaceae; Leaves; Plant extracts; Ulcers; Folk medicine; Pharmacology; Toxicology; Rates Abstract: An ethanol extract of the leaves of Brazilian Casearia sylvestris, given orally, inhibited gastric secretion in pylorus-ligated rats. At a prophylactic dose of 57.5 mg/kg, the extract showed a reduction of gastric juice more effective than misoprostol (500 microgram/kg). In reducing hydrochloric acid output, the extract was less effective than misoprostol, cimetidine (32.0 mg/kg) and atropine (5.3 mg/kg). With the extract, the pH of the stomach contents was not significantly different from that of controls. Stress-induced lesions produced by restraint and water immersion were significantly prevented by the extract for all levels of severity when compared with the controls. The extract appeared more effective than misoprostol in suppressing light lesions, was equivalent to cimetidine and misoprostol for moderate lesions, and less effective than cimetidine and misoprostol for severe lesions. Toxicological experiments indicated a low acute toxicity, confirmed by subchronic daily testing. The oral LD50 value of > 1840 mg/kg was over 32 times higher than the antiulcerogenic ED50 (57.5 mg/kg). 360 NAL Call. No.: RS160.I47 Pharmacological effects of Gardenia erubescens in mice, rats and cats. Hussain, M.M.; Sokombia, E.N.; Shok, M. Lisse, Netherlands : Swets & Zeitlinger; 1991 Jun. International journal of pharmacognosy v. 29 (2): p. 94-100; 1991 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Gardenia; Medicinal plants; Plant extracts; Saponins; Mannitol; Medicinal properties; Anesthesia; Sleep; Blood pressure; Diuresis; Lethal dose; Mice; Rats; Cats 361 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Pharmacological properties of Moringa oleifera. 1. Preliminary screening of antimicrobial activity. Caceres, A.; Cabrera, O.; Morales, O.; Mollinedo, P.; Mendia, P. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Jul. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 33 (3): p. 213-216; 1991 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Antimicrobial properties; Traditional medicines; Pharmacology; Ethnobotany; Plant extracts; Helminths; Dermatophytes; Yeasts; Gram negative bacteria; Gram positive bacteria; Moringa oleifera Abstract: The antimicrobial activities of Moringa oleifera leaves, roots, bark and seeds were investigated in vitro against bacteria, yeast, dermatophytes and helminths pathogenic to main. By a disk-diffusion method, it was demonstrated that the fresh leaf juice and aqueous extracts from the seeds inhibit the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and that extraction temperatures above 56 degrees C inhibited this activity. No activity was demonstrated against four other pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram- negative bacteria and Candida albicans. By a dilution method, no activity was demonstrated against six pathogenic dermatophytes. A method was standardized for studying the effect of aqueous extracts on Ascaris lumbricoides eggs, but no activity was exibited by any part of the tree in contrast to Chenopodium ambrosioides leaf extracts. 362 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Pharmacological screening of plant decoctions commonly used in Cuba folk medicine. Carbajal, D.; Casaco, A.; Arruzazabala, L.; Gonzalez. R.; Fuentes, V. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 May. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 33 (1/2): p. 21-24; 1991 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Cuba; Medicinal plants; Medicinal properties; Folk medicine; Traditional medicines; Regional surveys; Pharmacology; Rats; Guinea pigs; Hypertension; Heart diseases; Asthma Abstract: Pharmacological screening for cardiotonic, hypotensive or bronchodilator activities was performed on 50 plant species depending on their traditional medical use by the Cuban population. Eleven of these species may have promise as therapeutic agents, but additional preclinical pharmacological and toxicological studies are needed to establish their therapeutic effectiveness and safety in human disease. 363 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Pharmacology of an Indian-snuff obtained from Amazonian Maquira sclerophylla. Carvalho, J.E. de; Lapa, A.J. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1990 Aug. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 30 (1): p. 43-54; 1990 Aug. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Brazil; Moraceae; Bark; Powders; Pharmacology; Ethnobotany; Forest trees; Tropical forests; Plant extracts; Hallucinogens; Blood pressure Abstract: The powdered bark of Maquira sclerophylla is consumed as snuff in north Brazil. Both the crude and the purified hydrosoluble extract (WP) injected i.p. in the dose range of 0.05-0.5 g/kg induced hyperexcitability, tremors, motor incoordination, ataxia, quietness and muscle relaxation in rats. The effects were progressive, dose-related and reversed after 30 min. Anesthetized rats, guinea-pigs and dogs injected with the purified extract (10-50 mg/kg, i.v.) showed a biphasic change of carotid blood pressure. The early and transient hypotension was blocked by atropine but not by vagotomy: the secondary hypertension was long lasting and sustained for over 30 min. The hypertension was shortened but not blocked after ganglionic blockade or reserpine treatment. Either pithing or alpha receptor blockade with yohimbine reduced both effects of the extract. Guinea-pigs and dogs were more responsive than rats and died by heart arrest. Incubation of WP (20 microgram/ml) increased both the rate and force of contraction of isolated guinea-pig right atria by 2 and 5 times, respectively. Propranolol (4 microgram/ml) blocked the chronotropic effect but did not decrease the inotropic effect. In electrically driven guinea-pig left atria, WP (10 microgram/ml) increased the force of contraction by 80% and the maximum rate of force development by 60%, but did not change the time to peak tension, the time to 50% relaxation, or the rate of relaxation. These cardiovascular effects resemble those of digitalis-like drugs. Cardenolides were detected in WP by phytochemical screening. 364 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 The pharmacology of psychoactive alkaloids from Ephedra and Catha. Kalix, P. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Apr. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 32 (1/3): p. 201-208; 1991 Apr. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Ethnopharmacology, June 5-9, 1990, Strasbourg, France. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ephedra; Catha edulis; Alkaloids; Pharmacology; Chemical composition; Traditional medicines Abstract: Ever since the introduction of the alkaloid ephedrine as an anti-asthmatic, the CNS stimulatory effects of this sympathomimetic have been a problem in therapy. Indeed, the use of ephedrine is not only limited by its cardiovascular effects, but also by the occurrence of insomnia, restlessness and anxiety. Exceptionally, ephedrine may even induce toxic psychosis, and the possibility of this side effect has recently received renewed attention. Besides ephedrine, the ephedra plant contains some norpseudoephedrine. This substance is also called cathine, because it is a major alkaloid of Catha edulis or khat, a plant that is widely used as a stimulant in certain countries of East Africa and of the Arab Peninsula. The effects of khat have been explained formerly by those of cathine; some time ago, however, the labile alkaloid cathinone was discovered in khat. This substance is the keto-analog of cathine; it is therefore more lipophilic and penetrates easily to its sites of action in the central nervous system. Indeed, cathinone has been found to be a highly potent CNS stimulant and it is now known to be the main psychoactive constituent of khat; the results of various in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that cathinone must be considered a natural amphetamine. In confirmation of this view, it has recently been demonstrated that cathinone has in humans marked euphorigenic and psychostimulant effects. As the case may be, these findings may lead, together with epidemiological data, to a reconsideration of the use of khat as a stimulant and social drug. 365 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Phenanthrene derivatives from the medullae of Juncus effusus. Shima, K.; Toyota, M.; Asakawa, Y. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (9): p. 3149-3151; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Juncus effusus; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Phenanthrene Abstract: The medullae of Juncus effusus yielded two new phenanthrene derivatives, dehydroeffusol and dehydroeffusal. Their structures were determined by spectral data. 366 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 A phenolic glycoside from Hypoxis obtusa. Msonthi, J.D.; Toyota, M.; Marston, A.; Hostettmann, K. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1990. Phytochemistry v. 29 (12): p. 397-3979; 1990. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Malawi; Hypoxidaceae; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Molecular conformation; Phenolic compounds; Glycosides Abstract: A new phenolic glycoside was isolated from Hypoxis obtusa, together with the known compounds acuminoside, hypoxoside and nyasoside. In the new glycoside, 2,5- dihydroxybenzyl alcohol and 3-hydroxy-2,6-dimethoxybenzoic acid moieties are linked to glucose at the C-1 and C-6 positions respectively. 367 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Phenolics from Colchicum decaisnei. Al-Tel, T.H.; Zarga, M.H.A.; Sabri, S.S.; Feroz, M.; Fatima, N.; Shah, Z.; Atta-ur-Rahman Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (9): p. 3081-3085; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Jordan; Colchicum; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Phenolic compounds; Hypotension; Hypertension Abstract: Coichicum decaisnei has yielded three new compounds, namely, dibenzo[b,f][1,5]dioxocin,4,6- dimethoxy-3,7-dimethyl coumarin and 3-O-demethyl-N-desacetyl-N- formyl-beta-lumicolchicine, as well as the first report of 2- hydroxy-3-methoxy benzoic acid from a natural source. 368 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Phenylacetic acid derivatives and a thioamide glycoside from Entada phaseoloides. Dai, J.; Kardono, L.B.S.; Tsauri, S.; Padmawinata, K.; Pezzuto, J.M.; Kinghorn, A.D. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (11): p. 3749-3752; 1991. Part 3 in the series 'Studies on Indonesian Medicinal Plant'. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Indonesia; Medicinal plants; Seeds; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Phenylacetic acide; Derivatives; Thioamides; Glycosides; Cytotixic compounds; Plant extracts; Entada Abstract: Three new compounds, 2-hydroxy-5-butoxyphenylacetic acid, 2-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-5-butoxyphenyl-acetic acid, and entadamide A-beta-D-glucopyranoside, in addition to the new natural product 2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid methyl ester, have been isolated and characterized from seeds of Entada phaseoloides collected in Indonesia. None of these compounds was found to demonstrate significant cytotoxicity for cultured human cancer cells, but 2-hydroxy-5- butoxyphenylacetic acid and 2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid methyl ester gave ED50 values of 1.0 and 1.7 micrograms ml-1, respectively, with cultured P-388 cells. 369 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Phenylpropanoid and iridoid glycosides from Pedicularis striata. Zimin, L.; Zhongjian, J. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (4): p. 1341-1344; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Gansu; Pedicularis; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Propionic acid; Glycosides; Iridoid glycosides Abstract: A new phenylpropanoid glycoside, pedicularioside A, and five known glycosides, acteoside, isoacteoside, decaffeoylacteoside, echinacoside and 8-acetylharpagide, were isolated from whole plants of Pedicularis striata. On the basis of spectral and chemical evidence, pedicularioside A was shown to be 1'-O-beta-D-(3,4-dihydroxy-beta-phenyl)-ethyl-4'-O- caffeoyl-beta-D-apiosyl -(1 leads to 3')-alpha-L-rhamnosyl-(1 leads to 6')-glucopyranoside. 370 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Phytochemical screening of a Warao pharmacopoeia employed to treat gastrointestinal disorders. Wilbert, W.; Haiek, G. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Aug. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 34 (1): p. 7-11; 1991 Aug. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Venezuela; Gastrointestinal diseases; Traditional medicines; Screening Abstract: A three-year medical-ethnobotanical investigation among the Warao of the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela documented a pharmacopoeia of 100 plant species represented 45 families. Warao phytotherapists manipulate these plants in diverse manners to produce 259 remedies of various complexities to treat 52 classes of diseases/disorders. National health statistics indicate that gastrointestinal disease ranks as a principal cause of morbidity and mortality in this part of the country. Ten plant species, specifically employed by the Indians against these disorders, were subjected to phytochemical screening. Test results are listed together with the ethnoepidemiological protocol that governs the selection and administration of these medicinal plants in Warao society. 371 NAL Call. No.: RS164.P59 Phytotherapy research PTR. London : Heyden & Son,; 1987-9999. PTR. Phytotherapy research. v. : ill. ; 30 cm; 1987-9999. Description based on: Vol. 3, no. 1 (Feb. 1989); title from cover. An international journal devoted to medical and scientific research on plants and plant products. Publisher: Wiley, (June 1990-). Language: English; English Descriptors: Materia medica, Vegetable; Botany, Medical; Medicinal plants 372 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Pinocembrine: a bioactive flavanone from Teloxys graveolens. Camacho, M. del R.; Sanchez, B.; Quiroz, H.; Contreras, J.L.; Mata, R. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Mar. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 31 (3): p. 383-389; 1991 Mar. Part 16 in the series "Chemical Studies of Mexican Plants Used in Traditional Medicine". Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Chenopodiaceae; Fasciola hepatica; Ascaridia galli; Medicinal plants; Brine; Shrimps; Plant extracts; Traditional medicines; Flavanols Abstract: Bioactivity directed fractionation of the acetone extract of Teloxys graveolens (Willd.) Weber (Chenopodiaceae), using the brine shrimp lethality test, led to the isolation of 5,7- dihydroxyflavanone (pinocembrine) (LC50 = 4.25 microgram/ml) as the only active compound. Pinocembrine also exhibited fasciolicide, ovicide and larvicide activities on newly excysted Fasciola hepatica, on infective eggs of Ascaridi galli and on stage three larvae of Stomoxys calcitrans, respectively. 373 NAL Call. No.: SB293.C33 1990 Plantas medicinales cultivo y formas de preparacion [Medicinal plants, cultivation and modes of preparation]. Cabrera, Rosa; Mantilla, Justo Cusco, Peru : IEDSAM,; 1990. 30, [1] p. : ill. ; 22 cm. (Cuaderno de capacitacion popular ; no. 37). Includes bibliographical references (p. [31]). Language: Spanish Descriptors: Herbs; Medicinal plants; Materia medica, Vegetable; Organic gardening 374 NAL Call. No.: QK99.A1F34 1916 Plantas medicinales y sus aplicaciones por Manuel E. Falcon .. [Medicinal plants and their applications]. Falcon, Manuel E. Lima : Sanmarti y Ca.,; 1916. 160, xxii p. ; 21 cm. Presented to Library by F. W. Pennell. Dedication by author to Dr. D. Manuel Beltroy above prologue. Language: Spanish Descriptors: Botany, Medical; Botany; Materia medica, Vegetable 375 NAL Call. No.: TP360.B562 Plant-derived antibacterials are ready to join fight against plaque and cavities. Englewood, N.J. : Technical Insights, Inc; 1991 Dec. Industrial bioprocessing v. 13 (12): p. 5; 1991 Dec. Language: English Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Antibacterial properties 376 NAL Call. No.: RS164.E28 Plants and traditional medicine. Case of Panama. Gupta, M.P. Orlando, Fla. : Academic Press; 1990. Economic and medicinal plant research / edited by H. Wagner, Hiroshi Hikino, Norman R. Farnsworth. v. 4 p. 95-122; 1990. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Panama; Medicinal plants; Traditional medicines; Medical treatment 377 NAL Call. No.: RS160.I47 Plants in Kano Ethnomedicine; screening for antimicrobial activity and alkaloids. Hussain, H.S.N.; Deeni, Y.Y. Lisse, Netherlands : Swets & Zeitlinger; 1991 Feb. International journal of pharmacognosy v. 29 (1): p. 51-56; 1991 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Nigeria; Medicinal plants; Ethnobotany; Plant extracts; Alkaloids; Antibacterial properties; Antifungal properties; Screening 378 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Plants in the traditional medicine of the Ubaye Valley. Novaretti, R.; Lemordant, D. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1990 Aug. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 30 (1): p. 1-34; 1990 Aug. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: France; Medicinal plants; Traditional medicines; Flora; Nomenclature; Medicinal properties; Uses; Therapy; Pharmacology Abstract: The study of the traditional pharmacopoeia in the Ubaye Valley (in the Alpes de Haute Provence department) enabled us to draw up a table showing 136 medicinal plants, their vernacular names, their suitable parts, the instructions for use, the medical purposes and the principal pharmacological and therapeutical properties. This study points out the close connection between plants, pathology and the living conditions of an agro-sylvo-pastoral civilization. 379 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal infections. 1. screening of 38 plant extracts of anticandidal activity. Caceres, A.; Jauregui, E.; Herrera, D.; Logemann, H. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Jul. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 33 (3): p. 277-283; 1991 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Guatemala; Candida albicans; Infections; Medicinal plants; Plant extracts; Traditional medicines; Antiinfective agents 380 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 1. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts. Caceres, A.; Lopez, B.R.; Giron, M.A.; Logemann, H. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Mar. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 31 (3): p. 263-276; 1991 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Guatemala; Dermatophytes; Plant extracts; Medicinal properties; In vitro; Bioassays; Traditional medicines Abstract: Skin infections are common diseases in developing countries, of which dermatophytoses are of particular concern in the tropics, especially in infants. Through ethnobotanical surveys and literature review 100 plants were detected as being used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytoses. Of these, 44 plants were screened for in vitro activity against the most common dermatophytes (Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum). Results showed that aqueous extracts from 22 of the plants tested inhibit one or more of the dermatophytes. The most commonly inhibited dermatophytes were E. floccosum (43.2%), T. rubrum (36.0%), and T. mentagrophytes (31.8%); the less inhibited were M. canis (22.7%) and M. gypseum (24.0%). Plants of American origin which exhibited anti-dermatophyte activity were: Byrsonima crassifolia, Cassia grandis, Cassia occidentalis, Diphysa carthagenensis, Gliricidia sepium, Piscidia piscipula, Sambucus mexicana, Smilax regelii, Solanum americanum and Solanum nigrescens. Fungicidal and fungistatic activities as well as the minimal inhibitory concentration were demonstrated. These results provide a scientific basis for the use of these plants for the treatment of dermatophyte infections in man. 381 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. 1. Screening of 84 plants against enterobacteria. Caceres, A.; Cano, O.; Samayoa, B.; Aguilar, L. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1990 Aug. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 30 (1): p. 55-73; 1990 Aug. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Guatemala; Escherichia coli; Salmonella enteritidis; Salmonella typhi; Shigella dysenteriae; Shigella flexneri; Gastrointestinal diseases; Medicinal plants; Plant extracts; In vitro; Ethnobotany; Antibacterial properties Abstract: Gastrointestinal disorders are important causes of morbidity in developing countries. Natural healing is the traditional way of treating these diseases in Guatemala. Ethnobotanical surveys and literature reviews showed that 385 plants from 95 families are used in Guatemala for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The activity of 84 of the most commonly used plants was screened in vitro against five enterobacteria pathogenic to man (enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhi Shigella dysenteriae and Shigella flexneri). Results indicate that 34 (40.48%) plants inhibit one or more of the enterobacteria tested. The most commonly inhibited bacterium was S. typhi (33.73%) and the most resistant was E. coli (7.35%). The plants of American origin which exhibited the best antibacterial activity were: Byrsonima crassifolia, Diphysa robinioides, Gnaphalium stramineum, Guazuma ulmifolia, Psidium guajava, Sambucus mexicana, Simarouba glauca, Smilax lundelii Spondias purpurea and Tagetes lucida. These results indicate a scientific basis for use of these medicinal plants for attacking enterobacterial infections in man. 382 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of respiratory diseases. 1. Screening of 68 plants against gram-positive bacteria. Caceres, A.; Alvarez, A.V.; Ovando, A.E.; Samayoa, B.E. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Feb. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 31 (2): p. 193-208; 1991 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Guatemala; Medicinal plants; Plant extracts; Antibacterial properties; Gram positive bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Streptococcus pyogenes; Respiratory diseases; Screening Abstract: Respiratory ailments are important causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Ethnobotanical surveys and literature reviews conducted in Guatemala during 1986-88 showed that 234 plants from 75 families, most of them of American origin, have been used for the treatment of respiratory ailments. Three Gram-positive bacteria causing respiratory infections (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes) were used to screen 68 of the most commonly used plants for activity. Twenty-eight of these (41.2%) inhibited the growth of one or more of the bacteria tested. Staphylococcus aureus was inhibited by 18 of the plant extracts, while 7 extracts were effective against Streptococcus pyogenes. Plants of American origin which exhibited antibacterial activity were: Gnaphalium viscosum, Lippia alba, Lippia dulcis, Physalis philadelphica, Satureja brownei, Solanum nigrescens and Tagetes lucida. These preliminary in vitro results provide scientific basis for the use of these plants against bacterial respiratory infections. 383 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Plants used in traditional medicine in Eastern Tanzania. V. Angiosperms (Passifloraceae to Sapindaceae). Chhabra, S.C.; Mahunnah, R.L.A.; Mshiu, E.N. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 May. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 33 (1/2): p. 143-157; 1991 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Tanzania; Angiosperms; Medicinal plants; Traditional medicines Abstract: Sixty-one Angiosperms (Passifloraceae to Sapindaceae) are listed, which are used by traditional healers in five regions of Eastern Tanzania, namely, Coast, Dar es Salaam, Kilimanjaro, Morogoro and Tanga. For each species listed, the botanical name, vernacular name, collection number, locality, habit, distribution and medicinal uses are given. Additionally, information from the literature on medicinal uses, chemical constituents and pharmacological effects are also provided. 384 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Plicatin A and B, two phenolic cinnamates from Psoralea plicata. Rasool, N.; Qasim Khan, A.; Malik, A. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1990. Phytochemistry v. 29 (12): p. 3979-3981; 1990. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Pakistan; Psoralea; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Phenolic compounds; Cinnamic acid; Derivatives Abstract: Two new phenolic cinnamates, plicatin A and plicatin B, have been isolated from Psoralea plicata. Structures have been assigned to these through chemical and spectroscopic studies. 385 NAL Call. No.: 450 P697 Polyhydroxylated triterpenes from Eriobotrya japonica. Zhong Liang, Z.; Aquino, R.; De Feo, V.; De Simone, F.; Pizza, C. Stuttgart, W. Ger. : Georg Thieme Verlag; 1990 Jun. Planta medica v. 56 (3): p. 330-332; 1990 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: China; Eriobotrya japonica; Plant extracts; Medicinal plants; Triterpene acids; Leaves 386 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 A polyoxygenated steroid from Lasiosphaera nipponica. Takaishi, Y.; Adachi, R.; Murakami, Y.; Ohashi, T.; Nakano, K.; Tomimatsu, T. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Jan. Phytochemistry v. 31 (1): p. 243-246; 1992 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Japan; Basidiomycetes; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Steroids; Ergosterol; Derivatives Abstract: A new polyoxygenated ergosterol derivative, as well as three known steroids and a calvatic acid derivative were isolated from Lasiosphaera nipponica. The structures of these compounds were established by chemical and spectroscopic means. 387 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Polyphenols of Acacia raddiana. El-Mousallamy, A.M.D.; Barakat, H.H.; Souleman, A.M.A.; Awadallah, S. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (11): p. 3767-3768; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Egypt; Medicinal plants; Leaves; Chemical composition; Flavonoids; Glycosides; Polyphenols; Ellagic acid; Tannins; Acacia raddiana Abstract: Together with three known galloylglucoses and six known flavonol glycosides, a new hydrolysable tannin was isolated from the leaves of Acacia raddiana. Degradative studies, in conjunction with 1H, 13CNMR and MS analysis, have shown that the new hydrolysable ellagitannin is 1,3-di-O-galloyl-4,6-(-)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-beta- glucopyranose. The known compounds are 1-O-galloyl-beta- glucopyranose, 1,6-di-O-galloyl-beta-glucopyranose, 1,3,6-tri-O-galloyl-beta- glucopyranose, isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside, quercetin 3-O- rutinoside, quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside, quercetin 3-O- glucosylgalactoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside and quercetin 3-O- galactoside. 388 NAL Call. No.: 442.8 L62 Possible participation of endogenous opioid peptides on the mechanism involved in analgesia induced by vouacapan. Duarte, I.D.G.; Ferreira-Alves, D.L.; Nakamura-Craig, M. Elmsford, N.Y. : Pergamon Press; 1992. Life sciences v. 50 (12): p. 891-897; 1992. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Seeds; Plant extracts; Opioid peptides; Analgesics; Mode of action; Rats; Mice Abstract: The involvement of opioid peptides in the mechanism of action of vouacapan, a new experimental compound extracted from seeds of Pterodon poligalaeflorus Benth, was investigated both in mice utilizing acetic acid writhing response and in rats utilizing inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan and modified Randall-Selitto method. Vouacapan, in both models, caused a dose-dependent analgesia when injected p.o., s.c. and i.p. The analgesic effect was partially blocked by naloxone, nalorphine and n-methyl-nalorphine. Significant tolerance to analgesic effect was observed following repeated administration of vouacapan or morphine. On the last day of treatment, cross administration revealed symmetrical and asymmetrical cross-tolerance between vouacapan and morphine, in rats and mice, respectively. We conclude that a release of endorphins could be involved in the analgesic mechanism of vouacapan in both models studied. 389 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Post- coital antifertility activity of Ruta graveolens in female rats and hamsters. Gandhi, M.; Lal, R.; Sankaranarayanan, A.; Sharma, P.L. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Aug. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 34 (1): p. 49-59; 1991 Aug. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Plant extracts; Contraceptives; Folk medicine; Rats; Hamster; Ruta graveolens Abstract: Different preparations of Ruta graveolens were administered orally to female rats (Days 1-10 post coition) and female hamsters (Days 1-6 post coition). The powdered root (CDR), aerial parts (CDA) and the aerial parts aqueous extract (AEA) all showed potential anticonceptive activity in rats. Limited administration on selected days of CDA showed uniformly lesser activity than with 10-day treatment. Sequentially prepared petroleum ether and methanol extracts of CDA were as active as CDA itself. The benzene and chloroform extracts were toxic and inactive. Rutin, a known chemical constituent of the plant, was found to be inactive. None of the above preparations showed activity in hamsters. 390 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Postcoital contraceptive action in rats of a hexane extract of the aerial parts of Ferula jaeschkeana. Prakash, A.O.; Pathak, S.; Mathur, R. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Sep. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 34 (2/3): p. 221-234; 1991 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ferula; Plant extracts; Contraceptives; Pregnancy; Rats; Traditional medicines Abstract: The hexane extract of Ferula jaeschkeana aerial parts was studied at an oral dose of 25 mg/kg per day for its postcoital effects in pregnant rats. Ovaries of treated rats remained in a cyclic state rather than undergoing pregnancy as demonstrated by constant ovulation accompanied by newly formed corpora lutea. Follicles were present in different stages of development. Uterine histoarchitecture of treated rats appeared non-receptive for implantation. No decidcoma were observed on day 5 of pregnancy and the luminal epithelium remained unresponsive. Uterus was non-oedematous and lumen was considerably wider. Administration of the extract caused increases in the protein and glycogen content of ovary and uterus, while the activity of acid phosphatase remained essentially unchanged and the activity of alkaline phosphatase was increased. The volume of uterine fluid in the treated rats was increased considerably on day 5 post coitum. It appears that the histological and biochemical modifications in the ovary and uterus of treated pregnant rats do not support the preparation of uterus for implantation. 391 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Prenylated xanthones from Garcinia livingstonei. Sordat-Diserens, I.; Rogers, C.; Sordat, B.; Hostettmann, K. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Jan. Phytochemistry v. 31 (1): p. 313-316; 1992 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: South Africa; Garcinia; Medicinal plants; Roots; Bark; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Xanthones; Antifungal properties; Cladosporium cucumerinum; Cytotoxic compounds; Antineoplastic agents; Carcinoma Abstract: Five prenylated xanthones have been isolated from the root bark of Garcinia livingstonei of which four are novel natural products. The xanthone, 12b-hydroxy-des-D-garcigerrin A was previously isolated from G. gerrardii. Structure elucidation was achieved by a combination of one- and two- dimensional NMR spectroscopic techniques, mass spectroscopy and chemical methods. Two compounds are fungicidal against Cladosporium cucumerinum, a plant pathogenic fungus, whereas a third shows growth inhibitory activity against human colon carcinoma cell lines. 392 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Prenylated xanthones from Garcinia opaca. Goh, S.H.; Jantan, I.; Gray, A.I.; Waterman, P.G. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Apr. Phytochemistry v. 31 (4): p. 1383-1386; 1992 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Malaysia; Garcinia; Medicinal plants; Leaves; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Xanthones Abstract: Macluraxanthone, 1,3,5-trihydroxy-6', 6'-dimethylpyrano(2',3':6,7)-4-(1,1-dimethylprop-2- enyl)xanthone and two new prenylated xanthones, 1,3,5- trihydroxy-6', 6'-dimethylpyrano(2',3':6,7)-2-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-4-(1, 1- dimethylprop-2-enyl)xanthone and 4", 5"-dihydro-1,5-dihydro-1,5-dihydroxy-6',6'-dimethylpyrano(2', 3':6,7)-2-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-4"4",5"-trimethylfurano(2", 3":3,4)xanthone, have been isolated from the leaf extract of Garcinia opaca. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of 2D NMR and other spectroscopic techniques. 393 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Prenylflavonoids and a pyranodihydrobenzoxanthone from Artocarpus communis. Lin, C.N.; Shieh, W.L. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (5): p. 1669-1671; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Taiwan; Artocarpus altilis; Medicinal plants; Roots; Bark; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Flavonoids Abstract: From the root bark of Artocarpus communis, two new prenylflavonoids, cycloartomunin and dihydrocycloartomunin, and a new pyranodihydrobenzoxanthone, cycloartomunoxanthone, were isolated and characterized. 394 NAL Call. No.: LB2300.C5 Primates and other animals use wild plants for medicinal purposes, researchers discover. McDonald, K. Washington, D.C. : Chronicle of higher education :.; 1992 Feb19. The chronicle of higher education v. 38 (24): p. A9, A12; 1992 Feb19. Language: English Descriptors: Vernonia amygdalina; Ficus; Medicinal plants; Antiparasitic agents; Behavior 395 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Probable mechanism of hypoglycemic activity of bassic acid, a natural product isolated from Bumelia sartorum. Naik, S.R.; Barbosa Filho, J.M.; Dhuley, J.N.; Deshmukh, V. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 May. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 33 (1/2): p. 37-44; 1991 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Bumelia; Medicinal plants; Roots; Bark; Plant extracts; Blood sugar; Diabetes; Hypoglycemic agents; Rats Abstract: Bassic acid, an unsaturated triterpene acid isolated from an ethanol extract of Bumelia sartorum rootbark, elicited significant hypoglycemic activity in alloxan-diabetic rats and altered the pattern of glucose tolerance in these animals. In addition, bassic acid treatment increased significantly the glucose uptake process and glycogen synthesis in isolated rat diaphragm. Bassic acid treatment increased plasma insulin levels significantly in alloxan- diabetic rats. It is suggested that the hypoglycemia activity of bassic acid may be mediated through enhanced secretion of insulin from the pancreatic beta-cells. 396 NAL Call. No.: RS164.E28 Problems and prospects in the registration of traditional plant remedies. Schmidt, A.M. Orlando, Fla. : Academic Press; 1990. Economic and medicinal plant research / edited by H. Wagner, Hiroshi Hikino, Norman R. Farnsworth. v. 4 p. 161-168; 1990. Language: English Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Traditional medicines; Registration 397 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Proceedings of the First International Congress on Ethnopharmacology, Strasbourg, France, 5-9 June, 1990. Rivier, L. (ed.); Anton, R. (ed.) Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Apr. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 32 (1/3): 269 p.; 1991 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Pharmacology; Traditional medicines; Medicinal plants; Medicinal properties 398 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Production of emetine and cephaeline from cell suspension and excised root cultures of Cephaelis ipecacuanha. Jha, S.; Sahu, N.P.; Sen, J.; Jha, T.B.; Mahato, S.B. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (12): p. 3999-4003; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Cephaelis ipecacuanha; Medicinal plants; Cell suspensions; Roots; In vitro culture; Emetine; Biosynthesis; Alkaloids; Biochemical pathways Abstract: Production of the ipecac alkaloids, emetine and cephaeline was studied in cell suspension and excised root cultures of Cephaelis ipecacuanha. A two-stage cell suspension culture was developed for enhanced accumulation of the alkaloids. In the first-stage, suspension cultures were established in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium containing 2,4-D and NAA which was suitable for cell growth and the second-stage culture system was composed of MS medium containing IBA, IAA and 6% sucrose which favoured alkaloid production. The production of emetine and cephaeline was greatly increased in the two-stage culture method compared to the single-stage culture. Optimal alkaloid synthesis was obtained in excised root culture of the plant in medium composed of half-strength MS salts, IBA (0.25 mg l-1) and 2% sucrose. A discernible higher accumulation of cephaeline in two- stage cell suspension culture as well as in excised root culture in comparison to that of the three-year-old roots was attained. 399 NAL Call. No.: 472 N42 Prospectors for tropical medicines. Joyce, C. London, Eng. : New Science Publications; 1991 Oct19. New scientist v. 132 (1791): p. 36-40; 1991 Oct19. Language: English Descriptors: Costa Rica; Tropical forests; Diversity; Medicinal plants 400 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Protective effects of TJ-960 herbal mixture on hippocampal neuron damage induced by cobalt focus in the cerebral cortex of rats. Sugaya, E.; Ishige, A.; Sekiguchi, K.; Yuzurihara, T.; Iizuka, S.; Sugimoto, A.; Takeda, S.; Wakui, Y.; Ishihara, K.; Aburada, M. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Aug. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 34 (1): p. 13-19; 1991 Aug. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Drug formulations; Traditional medicines; Epilepsy; Cobalt; Neurons; Electroencephalography; Rats Abstract: In the cobalt focus experimental epilepsy model, severe hippocampal neuron damage occurs with marked EEG changes. The effects of TJ-960, a herbal medicine formulation, were studied on neuron damage in the CA1 area of rat hippocampus. Continuous oral administration of TJ-960 from one month prior to the cobalt application showed almost complete protection against hippocampal neuron damage induced by cobalt application to the cerebral cortex. TJ-960 also completely inhibited to EEG changes as well as the brain edema induced by cobalt application. 401 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Purpurenol, a highly oxygenated coumarin from Pterocaulon purpurascens. Debenedetti, S.L.; Nadinic, E.L.; Coussio, J.D.; Kimpe, N. de; Feneau-Dupont, J.; Declarco, J.P. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (8): p. 2757-2758; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Argentina; Pterocaulon; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Coumarin Abstract: A new 5,6,7,8-tetraoxygenated coumarin, named purpurenol, was isolated from aerial parts of Pterocaulon purpurascens. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of the spectral data and was confirmed by X-ray analysis. 402 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 A pyridine alkaloid from Ceropegia juncea. Adibatti, N.A.; Thirugnanasambantham, P.; Kulothungan, C.; Viswanathan, S.; Kameswaran, L.; Balakrishna, K.; Sukumar, E. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (7): p. 2449-2450; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: India; Asclepiadaceae; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Pyridine alkaloids Abstract: Cerpegin, a new pyridine alkaloid, has been isolated from Ceropegia juncea together with lupeol. Based on spectroscopic methods the structure of this alkaloid has been elucidated as 3,4-dioxo-1,1,5-trimethyl-1,3,4,5-tetrahydrofuro-[3,4-c]- pyridine. 403 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Senecio argunensis. Liu, K.; Roder, E. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (4): p. 1303-1305; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: China; Senecio; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Pyrrolizidine alkaloids Abstract: The alkaloids, senecionine; integerrimine, seneciphylline, otosenine, erucifoline and a new pyrrolizidine alkaloid 21-hydroxyintegerrimine were isolated from Senecio argunensis. The structure of the latter has been elucidated by 300 MHz NMR analysis. 404 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Senecio integrifolius var. fauriri. Roeder, E.; Liu, K. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (5): p. 1734-1737; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: China; Senecio; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Stereochemistry; Pyrrolizidine alkaloids Abstract: A new water-soluble pyrrolizidine alkaloid quaternary salt, N-methyl-O(7), O(9)-diangeloyl-1-hydroxyl platynecinium chloride, a new saturated pyrrolizidine alkaloid, O(7)-angeloylturneforcidine, a new saturated otonecine pyrrolizidine, 1,2-dihydrosenkirkine, a known alkaloid, O(7)-angeloylheliotridine and its N-oxide were isolated from Senecio integrifolius var. fauriri. The structures of the alkaloids and their stereochemistry have been elucidated by NMR analysis. 405 NAL Call. No.: RS164.E28 Qinghaosu (Artemisinin) as an antimalarial drug. Trigg, P.I. Orlando, Fla. : Academic Press; 1985. Economic and medicinal plant research / edited by H. Wagner, Hiroshi Hikino, Norman R. Farnsworth. p. v. 3 p. 19-55; 1985. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Qinghaosu; Medicinal plants 406 NAL Call. No.: 450 P697 Quantitative determination of allicin and alliin from garlic by HPLC. Iberl, B.; Winkler, G.; Muller, B.; Knobloch, K. Stuttgart, W. Ger. : Georg Thieme Verlag; 1990 Jun. Planta medica v. 56 (3): p. 320-326; 1990 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Allium sativum; Bulbs; Plant extracts; Garlic; Hplc; Quantitative analysis; Medicinal plants 407 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Quassinoids from Picrasma javanica. Koike, K.; Ishii, K.; Mitsunaga, K.; Ohmoto, T. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (3): p. 933-936; 1991. Part 6 in the series 'Constituents from Picrasma javanica.'. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Indonesia; Picrasma; Medicinal plants; Leaves; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Quassinoids Abstract: Three new bitter principles, the des-4-methylated picrasane type quassinoids, javanicins H, I and J, were isolated from leaves of Picrasma javanica. The structures were determined by spectroscopic data and chemical evidence. 408 NAL Call. No.: SB351.H5H365 Recent herbal literature. Chadwick, A. Amherst, Mass. : Massachusetts Cooperative Extension Service; 1990. The Herb, spice and medicinal plant digest v. 8 (3): p. 6; 1990. Bibliography. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Culinary herbs; Medicinal plants; Bibliographies 409 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Relaxant effect of the volatile oil of Rosmarinus officinalis on tracheal smooth muscle. Aqel, M.B. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 May. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 33 (1/2): p. 57-62; 1991 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Rosmarinus officinalis; Plant extracts; Muscle relaxants; Smooth muscle; Trachea; Rabbits; Guinea pigs; Contraction; Folk medicine Abstract: The effects of the volatile oil of Rosmarinus officinalis leaves on the tracheal smooth muscle of rabbit and guinea pig were tested in vitro using isolated tracheal strips. The volatile oil of R. officinalis leaves inhibited the contractions of rabbit tracheal smooth muscle induced by acetylcholine stimulation and the contractions of guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle induced by histamine stimulation. Also, the volatile oil inhibited the contractions of rabbit and guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle induced by high potassium (K+) solution. This inhibition was dose-dependent and reversible. Furthermore. the volatile oil inhibited the contractions of rabbit and guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle induced by acetylcholine and histamine stimulation, respectively, in Ca2+-free solution. These data suggest that the volatile oil of R. officinalis leaves has a calcium antagonistic property. 410 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Relaxant effects of Ferula sinaica root extract on rabbit and guinea pig smooth muscle. Aqel, M.B.; Al-Khalil, S.; Afifi, F.; Al-Eisawi, D. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Mar. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 31 (3): p. 373-381; 1991 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ferula; Roots; Plant extracts; Smooth muscle; Rabbits; Guinea pigs; Medicinal plants; Muscle relaxants Abstract: The effects of an ethanol extract of Ferula sinaica roots on the smooth muscles of rabbit and guinea pig were tested in vitro using isolated segments of intestine, trachea and aorta. The extract inhibited the spontaneous movements of rabbit jejunum and guinea pig ileum and acetylcholine-induced contractions. The extract also inhibited the contractions of rabbit tracheal smooth muscle induced by acetylcholine stimulation and the contractions of guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle induced by histamine stimulation. Furthermore, the extract inhibited the contractions of rabbit aorta induced by norepinephrine stimulation. These inhibitions were concentration-dependent and reversible. 411 NAL Call. No.: RS160.I47 The relaxing effect of an aqueous extract of Glaucium arabicum on uterine smooth muscle of rat and guinea pig. Al-Khalil, S.; Afifi, F.U.; Aqel, M. Lisse, Netherlands : Swets & Zeitlinger; 1991. International journal of pharmacognosy v. 29 (4): p. 241-244; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Glaucium; Medicinal plants; Medicinal properties; Plant extracts; Inhibition; Muscle contraction; Smooth muscle; Uterus; Rats; Guinea pigs; Oxytocin; Calcium ions; Ion transport 412 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Repertory of standard herbal drugs in the Moroccan pharmacopoea. Bellakhdar, J.; Claisse, R.; Fleurentin, J.; Younos, C. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Dec. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 35 (2): p. 123-143; 1991 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Morocco; Medicinal plants; Medicinal properties; Uses; Traditional medicines; Geographical distribution; Nomenclature Abstract: The traditional uses of plants for medicine were studied in Morocco. To this date, 231 medicinal plants belonging commonly to the Moroccan pharmacopoea have been identified and are presented in a table with the vernacular name in Arabic and/or Berber, the ecological distribution, the useful part and the medicinal use. The study of the main therapeutic indications of the medicinal plantsgives a clear picture of the health problems which are treated by traditional medicine in Morocco. 413 NAL Call. No.: A00110 Researcher find cancer treatment in rare pacific tree. San Francisco, Calif. : The Chronical Publishing Co; 1991 May13. San Francisco chronicle. p. A2; 1991 May13. Language: English Descriptors: Taxus baccata; Drug therapy; Medicinal plants; Alkaloids; Neoplasms 414 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 A reticuloendothelial system-activating glycan from the roots of Astragalus membranaceus. Tomoda, M.; Shimizu, N.; Ohara, N.; Gonda, R.; Ishii, S.; Otsuki, H. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Jan. Phytochemistry v. 31 (1): p. 63-66; 1992 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Astragalus; Roots; Plant composition; Polysaccharides; Medicinal plants; Reticuloendothelial system Abstract: From the hot water extract of the roots of Astragalus membranaceus, a glycan, designated as AMem-P, has been isolated by treatment with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide followed by column chromatography on Toyopearl HW60F and Con A-Sepharose columns. Chemical and spectroscopic studies established that the glycan possesses mainly alpha-1,2-linked L- rhamno-alpha(-1,4-linked D-galacturonan structure. Terminal and alpha-1,5-linked L-arabino-furanose, terminal, beta-1,3-, beta-1,4- and beta-1,6-linked and 3,6-branched D-galactose, and 2,4-branched L-rhamnose residues were also identified as the component sugar units. The glycan showed remarkable reticuloendothelial system-potentiating activity in the carbon clearance test. 415 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Ritualistic use of holly Ilex guayusa by Amazonian Jivaro Indians. Lewis, W.H.; Kennelly, E.J.; Bass, G.N.; Wedner, H.J.; Elvin-Lewis, M.P.; Fast W, D. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 May. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 33 (1/2): p. 25-30; 1991 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ecuador; Peru; Ilex; Men; Caffeine; Stimulants; Cultural behavior; Vomiting; Folk medicine; Mountain areas Abstract: In Amazonian Peru and Ecuador leaf decoctions of rainforest holly Ilex guayusa with high caffeine concentrations are used as a morning stimulant. After daily ingestion, ritualistic vomiting by male Achuar Indians, better known as Jivaros, reduces excessive caffeine intake, so that blood levels of caffeine and biotransformed dimethylxanthines do not cause undesirable CNS and other effects. Emesis is learned and apparently not due to emetic compounds. 416 NAL Call. No.: RS164.E28 The role of plants and traditional medicine in primary health care in Ghana. Boye, G.L.; Ampofo, O. Orlando, Fla. : Academic Press; 1990. Economic and medicinal plant research / edited by H. Wagner, Hiroshi Hikino, Norman R. Farnsworth. v. 4 p. 27-37; 1990. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ghana; Medicinal plants; Traditional medicines; Health care 417 NAL Call. No.: RS164.E28 The role of plants and traditional medicine in primary health care in Ghana. Boye, G.L.; Ampofo, O. Orlando, Fla. : Academic Press; 1990. Economic and medicinal plant research / edited by H. Wagner, Hiroshi Hikino, Norman R. Farnsworth. v. 4 p. 27-37; 1990. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ghana; Medicinal plants; Traditional medicines; Health care 418 NAL Call. No.: RS164.E28 The role of traditional medicine in the primary health-care systems of China. Peigen, X. Orlando, Fla. : Academic Press; 1990. Economic and medicinal plant research / edited by H. Wagner, Hiroshi Hikino, Norman R. Farnsworth. v. 4 p. 17-26; 1990. Language: English Descriptors: China; Health care; Organizations; Health services; Traditional medicines; Medicinal plants 419 NAL Call. No.: RS164.E28 The role of traditional medicine in the primary health-care systems of China. Peigen, X. Orlando, Fla. : Academic Press; 1990. Economic and medicinal plant research / edited by H. Wagner, Hiroshi Hikino, Norman R. Farnsworth. v. 4 p. 17-26; 1990. Language: English Descriptors: China; Health care; Organizations; Health services; Traditional medicines; Medicinal plants 420 NAL Call. No.: R856.A4B5 Root reactors developed. San Francisco, Calif. : Deborah J. Mysiewicz; 1991 Sep12. BioEngineering news v. 12 (37): p. 2; 1991 Sep12. Language: English Descriptors: U.S.A.; Bioreactors; Cell culture; Medicinal plants; Root exudates 421 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Rubescensin D, a diterpenoid from Rabdosia rubescens. Sun, H.D.; Zhou, Q.; Fujita, T.; Takeda, Y.; Minami, Y.; Maronaka, T.; Lin, Z.; Shen, X. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Apr. Phytochemistry v. 31 (4): p. 1418-1419; 1992 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Henan; Plectranthus; Medicinal plants; Leaves; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Diterpenoids; Antineoplastic agents Abstract: A new diterpenoid of novel structure, rubescensin D, was isolated from Rabdosia rubescens and the structure determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis with emphasis on 2D NMR data, as well as chemical evidence. 422 NAL Call. No.: GV191.6.I52 1989 A rural perspective of agricultural and small woodlot income alternatives. Hankins, A.G. Morgantown, W.Va. : West Virginia University Extension Service; 1990. Conference proceedings : Income Opportunities for the Private Landowner Through Management of Natural Resources and Recreational Access / edited by William N. Grafton ... [et al.].. p. 93-104; 1990. (Rural development publication :). Conference held April 9-12, 1989, Wheeling, W.Va. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Woodlands; Land management; Natural resources; Resource management; Profits; Decision making; Rural areas 423 NAL Call. No.: 470 SCI24 The sacred turnip. Cowen, R. Washington, D.C. : Science Service :.; 1991 May18. Science news v. 139 (20): p. 316-317; 1991 May18. Language: English Descriptors: Alberta; Montana; Psoralea esculenta; Brassica campestris; Ethnobotany 424 NAL Call. No.: 470 SCI24 The sacred turnip. Cowen, R. Washington, D.C. : Science Service :.; 1991 May18. Science news v. 139 (20): p. 316-317; 1991 May18. Language: English Descriptors: Alberta; Montana; Psoralea esculenta; Brassica campestris; Ethnobotany 425 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Salviandulines A and B two secoclerodane diterpenoids from Salvia lavanduloides. Ortega, A.; Cardenas, J.; Toscano, A.; Maldonado, E.; Aumelas, A.; Van Calsteren, M.R.; Jankowski, C. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (10): p. 3357-3360; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Mexico; Stereochemistry; Diterpenoids; Spectral analysis; Medicinal plants; Salvia Abstract: Two novel 9,10-secoclerodane diterpenoids, salviandulines A and B, were isolated from aerial parts of Salvia lavanduloides. Their structures were established by high resolution NMR and X-ray diffraction analysis. 426 NAL Call. No.: RS164.E28 Samoan ethnopharmacology. Cox, P.A. Orlando, Fla. : Academic Press; 1990. Economic and medicinal plant research / edited by H. Wagner, Hiroshi Hikino, Norman R. Farnsworth. v. 4 p. 123-139; 1990. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Health care; Medicine; Medicinal plants 427 NAL Call. No.: 475 J824 Sanguinarine levels in biological samples by high-performance liquid chromatography. Reinhart, P.; Harkrader, R.; Wylie, R.; Yewey, G.; Van Horne, K.C. Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers; 1991 Oct04. Journal of chromatography v. 570 (2): p. 425-434; 1991 Oct04. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Macleaya microcarpa; Macleaya cordata; Sanguinaria canadensis; Plant extracts; Alkaloids; Medicinal plants; Pharmaceutical products; Hplc 428 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Saponins from Deutzia corymbosa. Malaviya, N.; Pal, R.; Khanna, N.M. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (8): p. 2798-2800; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: India; Deutzia; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Triterpenoid saponins Abstract: Two new saponins were isolated from Deutzia corymbosa and characterized as: echinocystic acid-3-O-[alpha-L- arabinopyranosyl(1 leads to 4)]alpha-L-arabinopyranoside and echinocystic acid-3-O-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl(1 leads to 4)-alpha-L- rhamnopyranosyl(1 leads to 4)]alpha-L-arabinopyranoside. Umbellferone and sitosterol-beta-D-glucoside were also isolated and characterized. 429 NAL Call. No.: 381 J825N Scientists mobilize to increase supply of anticancer drug taxol. Borman, S. Washington, D.C. : American Chemical Society; 1991 Sep02. Chemical and engineering news v. 69 (35): p. 11-18; 1991 Sep02. Language: English Descriptors: U.S.A.; Canada; USDA; Medicinal plants; Forestry practices; Biotechnology; Taxus baccata 430 NAL Call. No.: 286.8 N488 Scientists seeking possible wonder drugs in tea. Brody, J.E. New York, N.Y. : H.J. Raymond & Co. :.; 1991 Mar14. The New York times. p. B7; 1991 Mar14. Language: English Descriptors: Camellia sinensis; Flavanols; Medicinal plants 431 NAL Call. No.: Q1.S37 Scientists take wide variety of approaches to taxol studies. Joyce, L. Philadelphia, Pa. : Institute for Scientific Information :.; 1991 Dec09. The scientist v. 5 (24): p. 15, 20, 22; 1991 Dec09. Language: English Descriptors: Taxus baccata; Medicinal plants; Research support; Cultivars; Cell culture; Tissue culture 432 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Screening for reproductive toxicity in rats for a decoction of Himathanthus sucuuba stem bark. Oliveira Guerra, M. de; Peters, V.M. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Sep. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 34 (2/3): p. 195-199; 1991 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Brazil; Screening; Postnatal development; Prenatal developement; Rats; Teratogens; Toxicity; Reproductive behavior; Medicinal plants; Apocynaceae Abstract: In order to evaluate the toxic potential of a Himathanthus sucuuba stem bark decoction, pregnant rats were treated from day 6 to day 15 of pregnancy with the decoction (40 mg per rat, twice a day) or distilled water (1.0 ml, twice a day) by gastric intubation. Half of the animals were killed on day 20 of pregnancy with the other half allowed to deliver. Maternal and fetal data suggest low reproductive toxicity and teratogenic potentiality and suggest that the beverage may be safe for human use in the treatment of gastritis and haemorrhoids. 433 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Screening of Artemisia absinthium for antimalarial effects on Plasmodium berghei in mice: a preliminary report. Zafar, M.M.; Hamdard, M.E.; Hameed, A. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1990 Sep. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 30 (2): p. 223-226; 1990 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Artemisia absinthium; Plant extracts; Plasmodium berghei; Antimalarials; Folk medicine; Mice 434 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Screening of medicinal plants from Yunnan Province in southwest China for antiviral activity. Yip, L.; Pei, S.; Hudson, J.B.; Towers, G.H.N. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Aug. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 34 (1): p. 1-6; 1991 Aug. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Yunnan; Traditional medicines; Cell cultures; Ethnobotany; Medicinal properties; Plant extracts; Antiviral properties; Medicinal plants Abstract: In an ethnopharmacological screening of medicinal plants used in Yunnan province of China, ethanol extracts from 31 plant species were assayed for inhibition of murine cytomegalovirus and Sindbis virus infections. Parallel assays were carried out with and without exposure to UVA radiation to test for photo-mediation of activity. Antiviral activity was observed with 16 of the plant extracts. Eight plant extracts have been selected for further studies, with the objective of characterizing the antiviral constituents. 435 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Screening of plants used in south Brazilian folk medicine. Alice, C.B.; Vargas, V.M.F.; Silva, G.A.A.B.; Siqueira, N.C.S. de; Schapoval, E.E.S.; Gleye, J.; Henriques, J.A.P.; Henriques, A.T. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Dec. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 35 (2): p. 165-171; 1991 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Brazil; Tannins; Triterpene acides; Sterols; Saponins; Anthraquinones; Flavonoids; Coumarins; Alkaloids; Mutagens; Screening; Plant extracts; Folk medicine; Medicinal plants Abstract: Thirty-seven of medicinal plants used in folk phytotherapy were chemically screened for alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, saponins, sterols and/or triterpense an tannins. Seven of these were also screened for the presence of mutagenic activity using the Ames test (Salmonella/microsome). 436 NAL Call. No.: TP248.13.B54 Scripps takes monoclonal production from cell culture to seed bed. New York : McGraw-Hill :.; 1991 Apr15. Biotechnology newswatch v. 11 (8): p. 12; 1991 Apr15. Language: English Descriptors: California; Nicotiana tabacum; Transgenics; Monoclonal antibodies; Medicinal plants; Crops; Agrobacterium tumefaciens 437 NAL Call. No.: QK1.A28 Sea- buckthorn, Hippophae--a pickle plant from Central Himalaya. Negi, K.S.; Pant, K.C.; Gaur, R.D. Meerut, India : Society for Advancement of Botany; 1990 Dec. Acta botanica Indica v. 18 (2): p. 274-275; 1990 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: India; Hippophae; Hippophae rhamnoides; Geographical distribution; Wild plants; Ethnobotany 438 NAL Call. No.: 450 P697 Secoiridoid glucosides isolated from Gentiana gelida. Calis, I.; Ruegger, H.; Chun, Z.; Sticher, O. Stuttgart, W. Ger. : Georg Thieme Verlag; 1990 Aug. Planta medica v. 56 (4): p. 406-409; 1990 Aug. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Gentiana; Secoiridoids; Glucosides; Plant extracts; Medicinal plants 439 NAL Call. No.: RS160.I47 Secondary metabolites of intergeneric hybrids of the anthocercideae, family Solanaceae. El Imam, Y.M.A.; Evans, W.C.; Haegi, L.; Ramsey, K.P.A. Lisse, Netherlands : Swets & Zeitlinger; 1991. International journal of pharmacognosy v. 29 (4): p. 263-267; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Solanaceae; Duboisia; Secondary metabolites; Alkaloids; Pyridine alkaloids; Tropane alkaloids; Hybrids; Intergeneric hybridization; Medicinal plants 440 NAL Call. No.: S421.H4 1990 Seed to civilization the story of food., New ed.. Heiser, Charles Bixler, Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press,; 1990. 228 p. : ill., maps ; 25 cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. Language: English Descriptors: Agriculture; Food; Food crops; Ethnobotany; Ethnozoology Abstract: The book is about ethnobiology, the study of plants and animals in relation to humans. Covers basic food plants and animals, where and when they were first domesticated and how and why they are used for food as well as for other purposes. Specific plants covered are seeds, meats, grasses, sugar, legumes, starchy staples, coconut, and sunflower and cotton oils. 441 NAL Call. No.: QK99.M6L5 1988 Seleccion de plantas medicinales de Mexico [Selection of medicinal plants from Mexico]., 1a ed.. Linares Mazari, Edelmira; Flores Penafiel, Beatriz; Bye, Robert A. Mexico ; Puerto Rico : Noriega Editores : Editorial Limusa,; 1988. 125 p. : ill., maps ; 26 cm. Includes indexes. Includes bibliographical references (p. 115-116). Language: Spanish; Spanish Descriptors: Medicinal plants 442 NAL Call. No.: QK99.M6L5 1988 Seleccion de plantas medicinales de Mexico [Selection of medicinal plants from Mexico]., 1a ed.. Linares Mazari, Edelmira; Flores Penafiel, Beatriz; Bye, Robert A. Mexico ; Puerto Rico : Noriega Editores : Editorial Limusa; 1988. 125 p. : ill., maps ; 26 cm. Includes indexes. Includes bibliographical references (p. 115-116). Language: Spanish; Spanish Descriptors: Medicinal plants 443 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Selection of traditional medicines for study. Nguyen Xuan Dung; Do Tat Loi Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Apr. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 32 (1/3): p. 57-70; 1991 Apr. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Ethnopharmacology, June 5-9, 1990, Strasbourg, France. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Vietnam; Traditional medicines; Medicinal plants; Classification; Chemical composition 444 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Should we set a place for diet in ethnopharmacology?. Etkin, N.L.; Ross, P.J. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Apr. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 32 (1/3): p. 25-36; 1991 Apr. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Ethnopharmacology, June 5-9, 1990, Strasbourg, France. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Nigeria; Medicinal plants; Foods; Diet; Pharmacology; Medicinal properties Abstract: Ethnopharmacologic inquiry is most evincibly pursued by addressing "medicinals" across the divers contexts through which populations gain exposure to the material of their pharmacopoeia. Attention to multiple categories of use advances our comprehension of indigenous health care by providing a framework for laboratory investigations that explore the bioactive potential of the materia medica to influence the occurrence and expression of disease, and that determine how those physiologic outcomes may be further mediated by the context-specific vicissitudes of preparation, combination and consumption. Consideration of the dietary contexts of local "medicines" is central to this wider perspective. 445 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Similarities between various systems of traditional medicine. Considerations for the future of ethnopharmacology. Vogel, H.G. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Dec. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 35 (2): p. 179-190; 1991 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: China; India; Europe; History; Philosophy; Traditional medicines Abstract: Traditional medicine using herbal drugs exist in every part of the world. The major areas are Chinese, Indian and European traditions. The philosophiies of these traditional medicines have some resemblance to each other but differ widely from modern Western medicine. In view of the progress of Western medicine not only new synthetic drugs but also herbal drugs have to fulfill the international requirements on quality, safety and efficacy. Herbal drugs have the advantage of being available for patients in the geographical area of the special traditional medicine. The development procedure of herbal drugs for world-wide use has to be different from that of synthetic drugs. 446 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Sociopolitical, economical and ethical issues in medicinal plant research. Elisabetsky, E. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Apr. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 32 (1/3): p. 235-239; 1991 Apr. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Ethnopharmacology, June 5-9, 1990, Strasbourg, France. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Brazil; Developing countries; Drugs; Medicinal plants; Research; Cooperation; Politics; Economics; Ethics Abstract: Medicinal plant research may be pursued with several goals: the understanding of a native medical system, the elucidation of the rational basis for the medicinal use of a certain plant species, the development of low cost phytotherapeutics, the discovery of prototypic drugs, and so on. More often than not, the research project starts with the collection of indigenous medical knowledge in various parts of the world and generates a dissertation, a scientific paper or a drug. Usually, indigenous knowledge was crucial to the development of such products; nevertheless, indigenous groups tend not to benefit from the achievements of research. Ethnopharmacology involves a series of sociopolitical, economic and ethical dilemmas, at various levels. Most research projects involve more than one country (e.g., field work in a remote part of an underdeveloped country). Frequently host country scientists, visiting scientists, and informants disagree about these dilemmas. As a result, such research efforts are perceived as scientific imperialism: scientists are accused of stealing plant materials and appropriating traditional plant knowledge for financial profit and/or professional advancement. Many governments, as well as indigenous societies are increasingly reluctant to permit such research. Increasingly, funding for field work utilizing indigenous informants is coming from industry. Historically, neither native populations nor host countries have shared to a significant extent the financial benefits from any drug that reaches the market. Unless these issues are amply discussed and fairly resolved, medicinal plant research runs the risk of serving ethically questionable purposes. 447 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Spathodic acid: a triterpene acid from the stem bark of Spathodea campanulata. Ngouela, S.; Nyasse, B.; Tsamo, E.; Sondengam, B.L.; Connolly, J.D. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1990. Phytochemistry v. 29 (12): p. 3959-3961; 1990. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Cameroon; Spathodea campanulata; Medicinal plants; Stems; Bark; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Triterpene acids Abstract: A new triterpene acid, spathodic acid and the sistosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside were isolated from the stem bark of Spathodea campanulata. The structure of the new compound was established by chemical and spectral analysis. 448 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Spermacoceine, a bis-indole alkaloid from Borreria verticillata. Balde, A.M.; Pieters, L.A.; Gergely, A.; Wray, V.; Claeys, M.; Vlietinck, A.J. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (3): p. 997-1000; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Guinea; Borreria verticillata; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Indole alkaloids Abstract: A new bis-indole alkaloid, spermacoceine, was isolated from the aerial parts of Borreria verticillata. Its structure was established from spectroscopic data. In addition, the known indole alkaloids, borrerine, borreverine and isoborreverine, were obtained. 449 NAL Call. No.: SB319.2.N6G84 Spices and herbs for the home garden. Herrera, E. Las Cruces, NM : The Service; 1990 Oct. Guide H - New Mexico State University, Cooperative Extension Service (221): 3 p.; 1990 Oct. Language: English Descriptors: New Mexico; Culinary herbs; Domestic gardens; Medicinal plants; Irrigation; Thinning; Drying 450 NAL Call. No.: 80 AC82 Spices, aromatic and medicinal plants trade in Eastern Ethiopia. Letchamo, W.; Storck, H. Wageningen : International Society for Horticultural Science; 1991 May. Acta horticulturae (270): p. 247-253; 1991 May. Paper presented at the "First International Symposium on Horticultural Economics in Developing Countries," July 16-23, 1989, Alemaya, Ethiopia. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ethiopia; Spices; Aroma; Plants; Medicinal plants; Marketing 451 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 A spirostanol glycoside from Cestrum nocturnum. Ahmad, V.U.; Baqai, F.T.; Fatima, I.; Ahmad, R. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (9): p. 3057-3061; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Pakistan; Cestrum nocturnum; Medicinal plants; Leaves; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Steroid saponins; Glycosides Abstract: A new steroidal saponin named nocturnoside A has been isolated from the methanolic extract of the fresh leaves of Cestrum nocturnum and has been characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy to be 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1 leads to 3)-beta-D- glucopyranosyl(1 leads to 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl[(3 leads to 1)- beta-D-xylopyranosyl](1 leads to 4)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl](25R)-spirost-5-ene-2 alpha,3 beta-diol. 452 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 A spirostanol glycoside from Yucca aloifolia. Kishor, N.; Sati, O.P.; Sakakibara, J.; Kaiya, T. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Feb. Phytochemistry v. 31 (2): p. 706-707; 1992 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: India; Yucca aloifolia; Inflorescences; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Medicinal plants; Steroid saponins Abstract: From an ethanolic extract of the inflorescence of Yucca aloifolia a new spirostanol glycoside has been isolated and characterized as 3-O-[(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 leads to 3)-beta- D-xylopyranosyl(1 leads to 2)) (beta-D- glucopyranosyl(1 leads to 3))-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1 leads to 3)- beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-25R,5alpha-spirostan-2 alpha,3 beta-diol. 453 NAL Call. No.: RS164.E28 The status of traditional sino-Japanese (Kampoh) medicine currently practised in Japan. Terasawa, K. Orlando, Fla. : Academic Press; 1990. Economic and medicinal plant research / edited by H. Wagner, Hiroshi Hikino, Norman R. Farnsworth. v. 4 p. 57-70; 1990. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Japan; Traditional medicines; Medical treatment; Medicinal plants 454 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Stemodane diterpenoids from Stemodia chilensis. Chamy, M.C.; Piovano, M.; Garbarino, J.A.; Gambaro, V. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (5): p. 1719-1721; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Chile; Stemodia; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Diterpenoids; Derivatives Abstract: From the aerial parts of Stemodia chilensis a previously known diterpenoid, 2-deoxy stemodinone, and four new natural substances, 19-acetyloxy-stemodan-13 alpha-ol, 17- acetyloxy-stemodan-13 alpha-ol, stemodan-]3 alpha, 14 alpha-diol and stemodan-13 alpha-17-diol, have been isolated. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. 455 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Steroidal alkaloids from leaves of Buxus sempervirens. Atta-Ur-Rahman; Ahmed, D.; Saif, E.; Jamal, S.A.; Choudhary, M.I.; Sener, B.; Turkoz, S. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (4): p. 1295-1298; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Turkey; Buxus sempervirens; Medicinal plants; Leaves; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Steroid alkaloids; Nomenclature Abstract: Leaves of Buxus sempervirens of Turkish origin have yielded three new steroidal alkaloids, (+)-sempervirine, (- )-31-acetyl-cyclomicrophylline-A and (-)-benzoylbuxidienine. Two known bases (+)-buxamine-C and (+)-buxabenzamidienine have also been isolated for the first time from this plant. The structures have been determined on the basis of spectroscopic studies. A revised nomenclature system using 'buxane' as the parent skeleton is proposed. 456 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Steroidal alkaloids from leaves of Buxus sempervirens. Atta-Ur-Rahman; Ahmed, D.; Saif, E.; Jamal, S.A.; Choudhary, M.I.; Sener, B.; Turkoz, S. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (4): p. 1295-1298; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Turkey; Buxus sempervirens; Medicinal plants; Leaves; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Steroid alkaloids; Nomenclature Abstract: Leaves of Buxus sempervirens of Turkish origin have yielded three new steroidal alkaloids, (+)-sempervirine, (- )-31-acetyl-cyclomicrophylline-A and (-)-benzoylbuxidienine. Two known bases (+)-buxamine-C and (+)-buxabenzamidienine have also been isolated for the first time from this plant. The structures have been determined on the basis of spectroscopic studies. A revised nomenclature system using 'buxane' as the parent skeleton is proposed. 457 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Steroidal saponins from Diuranthera major. Li, X.C.; Wang, Y.F.; Wang, D.Z.; Yang, C.R. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1990. Phytochemistry v. 29 (12): p. 3899-3901; 1990. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: China; Liliaceae; Medicinal plants; Steroid saponins; Roots; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition Abstract: In addition to chloromaloside A, three new steroidal saponins, diuranthosides A-C, were isolated from the fresh roots of Diuranthera major. On the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analysis, the structures of diuranthosides A-C were established as neotigogenin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(l links to 2)-[beta-D- xylopyranosyl(1 links to 3)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 links to 4)- beta-D-galactopyranoside, neohecogenin 3-O-beta-D- glucopyranosyl(1 links to 3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl(l links to 3)- [beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 links to 2)]-beta-D- glucopyranosyl(l links to 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside and neohecogenin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 links to 3)-beta-D- glucopyranosyl(l links to 2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1 links to 3)- beta-D-xylopyranosyl(l links to 3)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(l links to 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside, respectively. 458 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Steroidal saponins from the rhizomes of Polygonatum orientale. Yesilada, E.; Houghton, P.J. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (10): p. 3405-3409; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Turkey; Polygonatum; Rhizomes; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Steroid saponins; Glycosides Abstract: Two steroidal compounds were isolated from the fresh rhizomes of Polygonatum orientate and their structures elucidated as sceptrumgenin 3-O-beta-D-lycotetraoside, akyrogenin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 leads to 3)-[beta-D- glucopyranosyl-(1 leads to 2)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 leads to 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (spiroakyroside), on the basis of physical and chemical investigations. 459 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Steroidal saponins from the rhizomes of Smilax menispermoidea. Ju, Y.; Jia, Z.J. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Apr. Phytochemistry v. 31 (4): p. 1349-1351; 1992 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Gansu; Smilax; Rhizomes; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Steroid saponins Abstract: Four steroidal saponins were isolated from the dried rhizomes of Smilax menispermoidea. One of them is new and its structure was established as (25S)spirost-5-en-3- beta,17-alpha-triol-3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 leads to 2)] [alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 leads to 4)]-beta-D- glucopyranoside using spectrometry and chemical methods, as well as comparison with three known steroidal saponins, dioscin, methyl protodioscin and pseudoprotodioscin. 460 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Steroids and triterpenoids from Rosa laevigata. Fang, J.M.; Wang, K.C.; Cheng, Y.S. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (10): p. 3383-3387; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: China; Rosa; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Triterpenoids; Phytosterols; Ursolic acid; Derivatives Abstract: An acetone extract of aerial parts of Rosa laevigata was found to contain 16 components, including derivatives of ursolic, euscaphic and oleanolic acids as well as glucosides of sterols. Among them, 2 alpha-methoxyursolic acid, 11 alpha-hydroxytormentic acid, tormentic acid 6- methoxy-beta-glucopyranosyl ester and stigmasta-3 alpha,5 alpha-diol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside are new compounds. Their structures were established by chemical and spectral methods. 461 NAL Call. No.: QK83.T35 The strangest plants in the world. Talalaj, S.; Talalaj, D.; Talalaj, J. Melbourne : Hill of Content,; 1991. 166 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 24 cm. Includes index. Language: English Descriptors: Plants; Plants; Medicinal plants 462 NAL Call. No.: 450 P697 Structures of angular pyranocoumarins of Bai-Hua Qian-Hu, the root of Peucedanum praeruptorum. Takata, M.; Shibata, S.; Okuyama, T. Stuttgart, W. Ger. : Georg Thieme Verlag; 1990 Jun. Planta medica v. 56 (3): p. 307-311; 1990 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Peucedanum; Roots; Plant extracts; Medicinal plants; Coumarins 463 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Studies of Abrus precatorius seeds. I. Uterotonic activity of seed oil. Nwodo, O.F.C. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Mar. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 31 (3): p. 391-394; 1991 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Abrus precatorius; Folk medicine; Seed oils; Uterus; Rats; Guinea pigs; Ileum; Medicinal properties; Plant extracts 464 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Studies on Abrus precatorius seeds. II. Antidiarrhoeal activity. Nwodo, O.F.C.; Alumanah, E.O. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Mar. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 31 (3): p. 395-398; 1991 Mar. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Abrus precatorius; Seeds; Plant extracts; Diarrhea; Folk medicine; Rats 465 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Studies on the anti-ulcer activity of a Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf extract in experimental animals. Pal, S.; Nag Chaudhuri, A.K. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 May. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 33 (1/2): p. 97-102; 1991 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Bryophyllum; Leaves; Plant extracts; Duodenal ulcer; Rats; Guinea pigs; Traditional medicines Abstract: A methanolic fraction from an extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum leaves was found to possess significant anti- ulcer activity in nine different experimental animals models. Premedication tests in rats revealed that the extract possessed significant protective action against the gastric lesions induced by aspirin, indomethacin, serotonin, reserpine, stress and ethanol. Significant protection with extract treatment was observed to occur for aspirin-induced ulcer in pylorus-ligated rats and for histamine-induced duodenal lesions in guinea pigs. Significant enhancement of the healing process was also found to occur in acetic acid- induced chronic gastric lesions in rats. 466 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Studies on the constituents of Aconitum species. IX. The pharmacological properties of pyro-type aconitine alkaloids, components of processed aconite powder 'Kako-bushi-matsu': analgesic, antiinflammatory and acute toxic activities. Murayama, M.; Mori, T.; Bando, H.; Amiya, T. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Dec. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 35 (2): p. 159-164; 1991 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Japan; China; Analgesics; Antiinflammatory agents; Toxic substances; alkaloids; Mice; Traditional medicines; Aconitum Abstract: Eight pyro-type aconitine alkaloids contained in the processed aconite powder 'Kako-bushi-matsu were studied for their analgesic, antiinflammatory and acute toxic actions. All these compounds showed significant analgesic and antiinflammatory actions. Among the pyro-type alkaloids was lower than that of each of the parent alkaloids, aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine and jesaconitine. However, pyro- type aconitine alkaloids had very low toxicity, and the decreasing rates of the toxicity in changing from the parent alkaloids to the pyro-type aconitine alkaloids were much larger than those relating to the analgesic activity. Eight pyro- type aconitine alkaloids were found to inhibit the carrageenin-induced hind paw edema at 2 to 6 h after the carrageenin subplantar injection. Consequently, it was demonstrated that the pyro-type aconitine alkaloids produced through the processing of raw aconite roots. 'Bushi' have a role in the medicinal effects of the processed aconite powder 'Kako-bushi- matsu. 467 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Study of Costus lucanusianus: plant juice, fraction combinations and pharmacologic estimation of natural product total activity. Foungbe, S.; Kouassi, G.; Kablan, J.B.; Marcy, R. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Jul. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 33 (3): p. 221-226; 1991 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Plant extracts; Thin layer chromatography; Duodenum; Uterus; Rats; Folk medicine; Abortion; Costus Abstract: The juice of Costus lucanusianus fresh stems was split by chromatography using pharmacological measurements on duodenum and uterus to follow activity. The concentration- effect curves of the parent juice and the active fraction alone or associated with other fractions were analysed according to classical methds used for combination drugs. Results show that the active fraction is potentialised by two groups of fractions which are without intrinsic activity. 468 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 A sulphated triterpenoid saponin from Schefflera octophylla. Sung, T.V.; Adam, G. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (8): p. 2717-2720; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Schefflera; Medicinal plants; Leaves; Chemical composition; Spectral analysis; Triterpenoid saponins Abstract: Dried leaves of Schefflera octophylla afforded a new sulphated triterpene glycoside. From spectroscopic data and chemical transformations the structure of the new constituent was determined as 3-epi-betulinic acid 3-O- sulphate 28-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 leads to 4)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1 leads to 6)]-beta-D- glucopyranoside. 469 NAL Call. No.: 450 EC7 A sweetmeat plant, a perfume plant and their weedy relatives: a chapter in the history of Cyperus esculentus L. and C. rotundus L. Negbi, M. Bronx, N.Y. : New York Botanical Garden; 1992 Jan. Economic botany v. 46 (1): p. 64-71; 1992 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Mediterranean countries; Cyperus esculentus; Cyperus rotundus; Ethnobotany; History; Archaeology; Tubers; Root crops; Essential oil plants; Perfumery; Weed biology; Crop plants as weeds; Domestication 470 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Swertane triterpenoids from Swertia chirata. Chakravarty, A.K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Das, B. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (12): p. 4087-4092; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: India; Swertia chirata; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Triterpenoids; Biosynthesis; Biochemical pathways Abstract: Two novel triterpenes belonging to swertane skeleton, besides gammacer-16-en-3 beta-ol and 21 alpha H- hop-22(29)-en-3 beta-ol, of rare occurrence have been isolated from Swertia chirata, along with some common triterpenoids. Their structures were established on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence. 471 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Systematic and medicinal reasoning in Mitla folk botany. Messer, E. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 May. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 33 (1/2): p. 107-128; 1991 May. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Mexico; Medicinal plants; Folk medicine; Medicinal properties; Ethnobotany; Pharmacology; Traditional medicines Abstract: This paper reviews cognitive, symbolic, systematic botanical, and biochemical bases of plant classification, and analyzes their interrelationships in the medicinal folk botany of Mitla, Oaxaca, Mexico. It evaluates the "pharmacological wisdom" of the local population, along with their symbolic use of the environment, to show how they construct medicinal plant classifications which follow a folk logic, but often conform as well to modern botanical classifications based on the principles of systematic botany or chemistry. Working from both the chemical data and the folk categories, the analysis suggests the local Zapotec population systematically selected plants which foam for symbolic reasons to treat illnesses of the "soul" and identifies their underlying chemical constituents and medicinal qualities. Other correspondences between chemical, medicinal and reputed folk qualities are also suggested. 472 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Tabernaemontana crassa as a traditional local anesthetic agent. Agwu, I.E.; Akah, P.A. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1990 Aug. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 30 (1): p. 115-119; 1990 Aug. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Frogs; Tabernaemontana crassa; Medicinal plants; Folk medicine; Local anesthetics; Reflexes 473 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Tannins from Hippophae rhamnoides. Yoshida, T.; Tanaka, K.; Chen, X.M.; Okuda, T. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (2): p. 663-666; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: China; Hippophae rhamnoides--fruit--tannins-- leaves--chemical composition--flavonoids--spectral analysis-- medicinal plants Abstract: Two new hydrolysable tannins, hippophaenins A and B, along with two flavonoids, six hydrolysable tannins and four C-glycosidic ellagitannins, have been isolated from leaves of Hippophae rhamnoides. Two polyphenols were also isolated from its fruits. 474 NAL Call. No.: R856.A4B5 Taxol cultured. San Francisco, Calif. : Deborah J. Mysiewicz; 1991 Jul04. BioEngineering news v. 12 (28): p. 4; 1991 Jul04. Language: English Descriptors: U.S.A.; Medicinal plants; Tissue culture; Taxus baccata 475 NAL Call. No.: R856.A4B5 Taxol news. San Francisco, Calif. : Deborah J. Mysiewicz; 1992 Mar16. BioEngineering news v. 13 (11): p. 5-6; 1992 Mar16. Language: English Descriptors: U.S.A.; Taxus; Legislation; Medicinal plants 476 NAL Call. No.: QH442.B5 Taxol out of the woods. Edgington, S.M. New York, N.Y. : Nature Publishing Company; 1991 Oct. Bio/technology v. 9 (10): p. 933-934, 936, 938; 1991 Oct. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Bark; Plant products; Medicinal plants; Neoplasms; Taxus 477 NAL Call. No.: 284.28 W15 Taxol production can be increased, researchers say. Tanouye, E. New York, N.Y. : Dow Jones; 1992 Apr15. The Wall Street journal. p. B5; 1992 Apr15. Language: English Descriptors: Montana; Taxus; Medicinal plants 478 NAL Call. No.: A00066 Taxol puzzle: why did congress pass the Technology Transfer Act?. Washington, D.C. : Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association; 1991 Aug05. PMA newsletter v. 33 (30): p. 2-4; 1991 Aug05. Language: English Descriptors: Taxus baccata; Technology transfer; Public domain; Medicinal plants 479 NAL Call. No.: SB299.P3E4 Taxonomic, nomenclatural and ethnobotanic notes on elaeis. Schultes, R.E. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia : Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia; 1990 Jun. Elaeis v. 2 (1): p. 172-187; 1990 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Elaeis guineensis; Elaeis oleifera; Taxonomy; Nomenclature; Synonyms; Synonymy; Ethnobotany; Uses; Geographical distribution; Fruits; Plant morphology 480 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Terpenoids from Pentatropis spiralis. Rasool, N.; Ahmad, V.U.; Malik, A. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (4): p. 1331-1332; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Pakistan; Asclepiadaceae; Medicinal plants; Chemical analysis; Spectral analysis; Terpenoids Abstract: A new acyclic diterpene ester, cis-phytyl-1- palmitate has been isolated together with squalene, psi- taraxasterol and taraxasterol, their structures have been elucidated through chemical and spectroscopic methods. 481 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Tetracyclic triterpenoids from Trichilia prieuriana leaves. Olugbade, T.A. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (2): p. 698-700; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Trichilia--medicinal plants--leaves--chemical composition--triterpenoids--spectral analysis Abstract: Two new triterpenoids isolated from the leaves of Trichilia prieuriana were established to be 12-acetyloxy-3-oxotirucalla-7,24-dien-21,23-oxide (prieurone) and 29-hydroxy-prieurone by spectroscopic methods. 482 NAL Call. No.: TX392.A1V44 This cold and flu season, try the world's oldest medicine: Ephedra. Castleman, M. Mt. Morris, Ill. : Vegetarian Times; 1991 Oct. Vegetarian times (170): p. 79-80, 82-85; 1991 Oct. Language: English Descriptors: Ephedra; Respiratory disorders Abstract: Ephedra, a herbal decongestant, is generally regarded as one of the world's oldest medicines. The author believes that when used judiciously, ephedra will calm the mind as it stimulates the body. 483 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Three chalcones from Senecio pseudotites. D'Agostino, M.; De Feo, V.; De Simone, F.; Pizza, C. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (7): p. 2440-2441; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Peru; Senecio; Medicinal plants; Chalcones; Spectral analysis Abstract: Two new natural products, okanin 4-methyl ether 3'-O- beta-D-(6"-acetyl)glucopyranoside and okanin 4'-O-beta-D-(3",4",6"-triacetyl)glucopyranoside, and a known compound, okanin 4-methyl ether 3'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, have been isolated from the methanolic extract of Senecio pseudotites and identified on the basis of spectral data. 484 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Three neolignans from the roots of Piper capense. Green, T.P.; Galinis, D.L.; Wiemer, D.F. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (5): p. 1649-1652; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Zimbabwe; Piper; Medicinal plants; Roots; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Lignans Abstract: Three new lignans have been isolated from the roots of the African shrub Piper capense, and characterized by means of spectroscopic studies and, in one case, a single crystal X-ray analysis. These compounds include a new 8.O.3'-neolignan, further distinguished by an uncommon 1,3,5-trisubstituted ring system, and two dihydrobenzofuranoid neolignans. 485 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Three triterpenoid saponins from Triplostegia grandiflora. Ma, W.G.; Wang, D.Z.; Zeng, Y.L.; Yang, C.R. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (10): p. 3401-3404; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Dipsacaceae; Medicinal plants; Roots; Chemical composition; Triterpenoid saponins Abstract: Three new triterpenoid saponins named triploside A-C were isolated from the roots of Triplostegia grandiflora, and characterized as oleanolic acid 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1 leads to 4)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1 leads to 3)-beta-D- xylopyranosyl(1 leads to 4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 leads to 3)- beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1 leads to 3)-alpha-L- rhamnopyranosyl(1 leads to 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside, oleanolic acid 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1 leads to 3)-beta-D- xylopyranosyl(1 leads to 4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 leads to 3)- beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1 leads to 3)-alpha-L- rhamnopyranosyl(1 leads to 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside, and oleanolic acid 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 leads to 3)-beta-D- xylopyranosyl(1 leads to 3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 leads to 2)- alpha-L-arabinopyranoside, respectively. 486 NAL Call. No.: S494.5.B563C87 Tissue culture of medicinal plants: morphogenesis, direct regeneration and somatic embryogenesis. Sarasan, V.; Nair, G.M. Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1991. Current plant science and biotechnology in agriculture (12): p. 237-240; 1991. In the series analytic: Horticulture -- New Technologies and Applications / edited by J. Prakash and R. L. M. Pierik. Proceedings of an International Seminar on New Frontiers in Horticulture, November 25-28, 1990, Bangalore, India. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Piper longum; Hemidesmus indicus; Micropropagation; Somatic embryogenesis; Organogenesis; Shoot tip culture 487 NAL Call. No.: 286.8 N488 To preserve their health and heritage, Arizona Indians reclaim ancient foods. Brody, J.E. New York, N.Y. : H.J. Raymond & Co. :.; 1991 May21. The New York times. p. B5, B10; 1991 May21. Language: English Descriptors: Arizona; Ethnobotany; Disease prevention; Protein sources; Desert plants; Seed banks; Nutrition research 488 NAL Call. No.: 284.28 W15 Tobacco plants become assembly lines for scientists producing new chemicals. Bishop, J.E. New York, N.Y. : Dow Jones; 1991 May14. The Wall Street journal. p. B1, B8; 1991 May14. Language: English Descriptors: North Carolina; Nicotiana tabacum; Tobacco mosaic tobamovirus; Genetic engineering; Medicinal plants 489 NAL Call. No.: 391.8 T66 Toxicities of trichosanthin and alpha-momorcharin, abortifacient proteins from Chinese medicinal plants, on cultured tumor cell lines. Tsao, S.W.; Ng, T.B.; Yeung, H.W. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1990. Toxicon v. 28 (10): p. 1183-1192; 1990. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Trichosanthes kirilowii; Plant proteins; Toxins; Cytotoxicity; Cell lines; Carcinoma Abstract: Trichosanthin and alpha-momorcharin are abortifacient proteins extracted from Chinese medicinal herbs. Study of their in vitro cytotoxicities showed that the two proteins selectively injured choriocarcinoma and melanoma cells. Hepatoma cells represented the most resistant cell line among the various cell lines investigated. Cytotoxicity profiles of trichosanthin and alpha-momorcharin differed from those of anti-cancer drugs which interfere with DNA metabolism such as cisplatin, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil. Radioactive precursor incorporation studies suggested that the two abortifacient proteins inhibited cellular protein synthesis. The marked decrease in secretion of human chorionic gonadotrophin and progesterone by choriocarcinoma cells after treatment with the proteins could be attributed mainly to loss of cells. 490 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Toxicity studies in mice of ethanol extracts of Foeniculum vulgare frit and Ruta chalepensis aerial parts. Shah, A.H.; Qureshi, S.; Ageel, A.M. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Sep. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 34 (2/3): p. 167-172; 1991 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ruta chalepensis; Plant extracts; Medicinal properties; Toxicity; Mice; Folk medicine; Foeniculum vulgare Abstract: Acute (24-h) and chronic (90-day) oral toxicity studies on the ethanolic extracts of Foeniculum vulgare fruit and Ruta chalepensis aerial parts were carried out in mice. Acute dosages were 0.5, 1.0 and 3 g/kg while the chronic dosage was 100 mg/kg per day of extract. All external morphological, haematological and spermatogenic changes, in addition to body and vital organ weights were recorded. The extracts caused no significant acute or chronic mortality as compared to controls during this investigation. The treated male mice gained significant weight during chronic treatment while a loss or no significant change in weight was noticed in the female mice treated with the same extracts. Haematological studies revealed a significant fall in RBC level of R. chalepensis-treated animals. Both the extracts failed to show spermatotoxic effects. 491 NAL Call. No.: RS160.I47 Traditional medicinal plants of Brunei Darussalam, I. Bukit Udal. Holdsworth, D. Lisse, Netherlands : Swets & Zeitlinger; 1991. International journal of pharmacognosy v. 29 (4): p. 245-250; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Brunei; Medicinal plants; Medicinal properties; Ethnobotany; Surveys; Pharmaceutical products; Folk medicine; Traditional medicines 492 NAL Call. No.: RS160.I47 Traditional medicinal plants of Brunei Darussalam. II. Sengkurong. Haji Mohiddin, M.Y. bin; Chin, W.; Holdsworth, D. Lisse, Netherlands : Swets & Zeitlinger; 1991. International journal of pharmacognosy v. 29 (4): p. 252-258; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Brunei; Medicinal plants; Medicinal properties; Ethnobotany; Surveys; Pharmaceutical products; Folk medicine; Traditional medicines 493 NAL Call. No.: RS160.I47 Traditional medicinal plants of rarotonga, Cook Islands. II. Holdsworth, D.K. Lisse, Netherlands : Swets & Zeitlinger; 1991 Feb. International journal of pharmacognosy v. 29 (1): p. 71-79; 1991 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Cook Islands; Medicinal plants; Ethnobotany; Medicinal properties; Traditional medicines 494 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Traditional medicinal plants of Thailand XVII. biologically active constituents of Plumeria rubra. Hamburger, M.O.; Cordell, G.A.; Ruangrungsi, N. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Jul. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 33 (3): p. 289-292; 1991 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Thailand; Plumeria rubra; Plant extracts; Medicinal plants Abstract: The compounds 1-6 were isolated from the heartwood of Plumeria rubra, following bioactivity-directed fractionation. Plumericin 1 and isoplumericin 2 displayed molluscicidal, cytotoxic and antibacterial activity, 4- hydroxyacetophenone 3 was weakly cytotoxic, whereas the reamining glycosidic isolates (plumieride, 4; 13-O- coumaroylplumieride, 5; protoplumericine A, 6) were inactive in all test systems. 495 NAL Call. No.: RS164.E28 Traditional medicine and medicinal plants in Thailand. Bunyapraphatsara, N. Orlando, Fla. : Academic Press; 1990. Economic and medicinal plant research / edited by H. Wagner, Hiroshi Hikino, Norman R. Farnsworth. v. 4 p. 141-159; 1990. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Thailand; Traditional medicines; Health care; Medicinal plants 496 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Traditional medicine in Turkey. I. Folk medicine in Northeast Anatolia. Sezik, E.; Tabata, M.; Yesilada, E.; Honda, G.; Goto, K.; Ikeshiro, Y. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Dec. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 35 (2): p. 191-196; 1991 Dec. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Turkey; Medicinal plants; folk Medicine; Traditional medicines; Medicinal properties; Nomenclature; Medicinal plants 497 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Traditional medicine of Baja California Sur (Mexico). III. Carnosol: a diterpene antibiotic from Lepechinia hastata. Encarnacion Dimayuga, R.; Keer Garcia, S.; Halfdan Nielsen, P.; Christophersen, C. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Jan. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 31 (1): p. 43-48; 1991 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Mexico; Lepechinia hastata; Medicinal plants; Traditional medicines; Uterine diseases; Infections; Diterpenes; Antibiotics Abstract: The medicinal plant Lepechinia hastata, used as a remedy against uterine infections in Baja California Sur (Mexico), was shown to contain carnosol as the main diterpenoid secondary metabolite. Carnosol has potent in vitro antimicrobial activity. Detailed spectroscopical properties of carnosol are presented. 498 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Traditional methods used in the treatment of ophthalmic diseases among the Turkana tribe in north west Kenya. Loewenthal, R.; Pe'er, J. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Jul. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 33 (3): p. 227-229; 1991 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Kenya; Medicinal plants; Traditional medicines; Tribes; Eye diseases 499 NAL Call. No.: TP360.B562 Trends, forecasts, and analysis: back to nature for chemicals and drugs. Englewood, N.J. : Technical Insights, Inc; 1991 Oct. Industrial bioprocessing. p. 3; 1991 Oct. Language: English Descriptors: Costa Rica; U.S.A.; Medicinal plants; Forest resources; Tropical forests; Research support 500 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Triacylbenzenes and long-chain volatile ketones from Cochlospermum tinctorium rhizome. Diallo, B.; Vanhaelen-Fastre, R.; Vanhaelen, M. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (12): p. 4153-4156; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Guinea; Dicotyledons; Medicinal plants; Rhizomes; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Volatile compounds; Ketones Abstract: The composition of the volatile fraction from Cochlospermum tinctorium rhizome was investigated by GC and GC-MS; among 11 constituents detected, eight were identified as straight chain ketonic compounds. In addition, five triacylbenzenes were isolated from a petrol extract of the rhizome, separated by HPLC and identified by their spectral data. 501 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Triterpene glycosides from Schefflera octophylla. Sung, T.V.; Steglich, W.; Adam, G. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (7): p. 2349-2356; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Vietnam; Schefflera; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Triterpenoids; Glycosides Abstract: In addition to 3-epi-betulinic acid, three triterpene glycosides were isolated from leaves of Schefflera octophylla. The structures of the glycosides have been determined as 28-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 leads to 4)-O-beta-D- glucopyranosyl(1 leads to 6)-]-beta-D-glucopyranosides of 3 alpha- hydroxy-lup-20(29)-ene-23,28-dioic acid, 3 alpha,11 alpha- dihydroxy-lup-20(29)-ene-23,28-dioic acid and 3-epi- betulinic acid by spectroscopic data and chemical transformations. The last two compounds were found for the first time in the plant kingdom. 502 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Triterpene saponins from the roots of Ampelozizyphus amazonicus. Brandao, M.G.L.; Lacaille-Dubois, M.A.; Teixera, M.A.; Wagner, H. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Jan. Phytochemistry v. 31 (1): p. 352-354; 1992 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Brazil; Rhamnaceae; Medicinal plants; Roots; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Triterpenoid saponins Abstract: A new triterpene saponin was isolated from the roots of Ampelozizyphus amazonicus together with the known 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-20-O-alpha-L- rhamnopyranosyljujubogenin and the known triterpenes melaleucic acid, 3 beta,27 alpha-dihydroxylup-20(29)-en-28 beta-oic acid, betulinic acid, betulin, lupeol. The structure of this saponin was elucidated as 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1 leads to 2)alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl]-20-O-alpha-L- rhamnopyranosyljujubogenin by spectral analysis and chemical transformations. 503 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Triterpenes from Cedrela odorata. Campos, A.M.; Oliveira, F.S.; Machado, M.I.L.; Braz-Filho, R.; Matos, F.J.A. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (4): p. 1225-1229; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Brazil; Cedrela odorata; Heartwood; Essential oils; Bark; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Triterpenoids; Sesquiterpenoids; Medicinal plants Abstract: From the ethanolic extract of the heartwood of Cedrela odorata were isolated gedunin, 3 beta-O-beta-D- glucopyranosyl-24-methyllenecholesterol, oleanonic acid, sitosterol, n-octacosanol and a new triterpene threo-23,24,25- trihydroxytirucall-7-en-3-one. Structural determinations of these compounds were made by spectrometric data. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil identified the sesquiterpenoids alpha-copaene, beta-elemene, alpha-muurolene, calamenene, guayazulene, dihydroguayazulene, torreyol, gamma-muurolene and alpha-cubebene. 504 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Triterpenes from Maytenus ilicifolia. Itokawa, H.; Shirota, O.; Ikuta, H.; Morita, H.; Takeya, K.; Itaka, Y. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (11): p. 3713-3716; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Roots; Bark; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Triterpenoids; Plant extracts; Cytotoxic compounds; Biosynthesis; Biochemical pathways; Maytenus Abstract: Two new friedelane-type triterpenes, D:A-friedoolean-24-al-3-en-3-ol-2-on-29-oic acid and D:A-friedoolean-1-en-29-ol-3-one, named as cangoronine and ilicifoline respectively, in addition to seven known friedelane-, pristimerin- and tingenone-type triterpenes have been isolated from Maytenus ilicifolia. The structures were established by spectroscopic and X-ray analyses. The cytotoxic activities of these compounds are also reported. 505 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Triterpenes from Mucuna birdwoodiana. Ding, Y.; Yang, C.R.; Nohara, T. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (11): p. 3703-3707; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Stems; Spectral analysis; Medicinal plants; Chemical composition; Triterpenoids; Glycosides; Mucuna Abstract: Methanolic extracts of the stalks of Mucuna birdwoodiana on acid hydrolysis and subsequent methylation with diazomethane provided four triterpene sapogenols. On the other hand, investigation of glycosides after methylation of the same extract led to the isolation of four triterpene glycosides. On the basis of chemical and spectral evidence, their structures were characterized as methyl asiatate, methyl maslinate, two new sapogenots, methyl 1 beta,2 alpha,3 beta,23-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en 28-oate (mucunagenin a), its urs-12-en isomer (mucunagenin b), 3-O-(6-O-methyl-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl) methyl asiatate 3-O- [alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl(1 leads to 2)]-6-O-methyl-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl methyl maslinate, 3-O- [alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl(1 leads to 2)]-6-O-methyl-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl methyl asiatate and 3-O- (6-O-methyl-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl) asiatic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside. 506 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 A triterpenoid and its saponin from Phytolacca esculenta. Yi, Y.H. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (12): p. 4179-4181; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Shanxi; Phytolacca acinosa; Medicinal plants; Roots; Chemical composition; Triterpenoid saponins Abstract: A new triterpenoid, esculentagenin, and its glycoside, esculentoside M, were isolated from the roots of Phytolacca esculenta and characterized as 11-oxo-3-O- methyloleanata-12-en-2 beta,3 beta,23-trihydroxy-28-oic acid and 3- O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1 leads to 4)-beta-D- xylopyranosyl]-28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl -11-oxo-30-methyloleanate-12-en-2 beta,3 beta,28- trihydroxy-28-oic acid by spectral and chemical evidence. 507 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 A triterpenoid glycoside from Menyanthes trifoliata. Janeczko, Z.; Sendra, J.; Kmiec, K.; Brieskorn, C.H. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1990. Phytochemistry v. 29 (12): p. 3885-3887; 1990. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Poland; Menyanthes trifoliata; Rhizomes; Chemical composition; Triterpenoids; Glycosides; Molecular conformation; Medicinal plants Abstract: The structure of menyanthoside, one of the main saponin of Menyanthes trifoliata rhizomes, was established to be 3- O-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl(1 leads to 4) beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl]-28-O-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl(1 leads to 6) beta-D-glucopyranosyl]betulinic acid. 508 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Triterpenoid glycosides from the bark of Mimosa tenuiflora. Jiang, Y.; Massiot, G.; Lavaud, C.; Teulon, J.M.; Guechot, C.; Haag- Berrurier, M.; Anton, R. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (7): p. 2357-2360; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Mexico; Mimosa; Medicinal plants; Bark; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Triterpenoids; Saponins; Oleanolic acid Abstract: Two new saponins were isolated from Mimosa tenuiflora and their structures established as 3-O-([(a-L- rhamnopyranosyl (1 leads to 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 leads to 3))-(alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 leads to 4))-beta-D- xylopyranosyl-(1 leads to 2)]-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 leads to 4)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-28-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl oleanolic acid and 3-O-([(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 leads to 2)- beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 leads to 3))-(alpha-L- arabinopyranosyl-(1 leads to 4))beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 leads to 2)]-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 leads to 4)]-beta-D- glucopyranosyl) oleanolic acid. 509 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 A triterpenoid saponin from polycarpone loeflingiae. Bhandari, S.P.S.; Agrawal, P.K.; Garg, H.S. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1990. Phytochemistry v. 29 (12): p. 3889-3892; 1990. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: India; Caryophyllaceae; Medicinal plants; Chemical composition; Triterpenoid saponins; Molecular conformation Abstract: A new triterpenoid saponin, polycarponoside A, isolated from the aerial parts of Polycarpone loeflingiae was characterized as 3 beta-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-(l leads to 2), alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1 leads to 4)-[alpha-L- arabinopyranosyl-(1 leads to 4)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-olean-11, 13(18)-diene-16 alpha, 23,28- triol on the basis of 13C NMR spectroscopic and chemical degradation studies. 510 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Triterpenoid saponins from Sophora subprostrata. Sakamoto, S.; Kuroyanagi, M.; Ueno, A.; Sekita, S. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Apr. Phytochemistry v. 31 (4): p. 1339-1342; 1992 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sophora subprostrata; Medicinal plants; Roots; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Triterpenoids; Saponins Abstract: From Sophora subprostrata Radix, the roots of Sophora subprostrata, six triterpenoidal saponins having soyasapogenol A, B, sophoradiol and kuzusapogenol A as aglycones, were isolated as their methyl esters. The structure of a new saponin was established to be 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 leads to 2)-D- galactopyranosyl(1 leads to 2)-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl] kuzusapogenol A methyl ester by means of 1H and 13CNMR spectroscopy and chemical evidence. 511 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Triterpenoid saponins from Triplostegia grandiflora. Ma, W.G.; Wang, D.Z.; Zeng, Y.L.; Yang, C.R. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Apr. Phytochemistry v. 31 (4): p. 1343-1347; 1992 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: China; Dipsacaceae; Medicinal plants; Roots; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Triterpenoid saponins; Oleanolic acid Abstract: Four new oleanane triterpenoid saponins named triplosides D-G were isolated from the roots of Triplostegia grandiflora. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical degradation and spectral evidence. The saponins investigated were: oleanolic acid 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1 leads to 4)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1 leads to 3)-beta-D-xylo- pyranosyl(1 leads to 4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 leads to 3)-beta- D-xylopyranosyl(1 leads to 3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 leads to 2)-beta-D-xylopyranoside, oleanolic acid 3-O-beta-D- glucopyranosyl(1 leads to 6)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1 leads to 4)]- beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 leads to 3)-beta-D- xylopyranosyl(1 leads to 4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 leads to 3)- beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1 leads to 3)-alpha-L- rhamnopyranosyl (1 leads to 2)-beta-D-xylopyranoside, oleanolic acid 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1 leads to 3)-beta-D- xylopyranosyl (1 leads to 4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 leads to 3)- beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1 leads to 3)-alpha-L- rhamnopyranosyl(1 leads to 2)-beta-D-xylopyranoside and oleanolic acid 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 leads to 3)- beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1 leads to 3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 leads to 2)-beta-D-xylopyranoside, respectively. All of them have a common aglycone and are monodesmosides. 512 NAL Call. No.: 450 P697 Triterpenoidal constituents of Diploclisia glaucescens. Bandara, B.M.R.; Jayasinghe, U.L.B.; Karunaratne, V.; Wannigama, G.P.; Bokel, M.; Kraus, W.; Sotheeswaran, S. Stuttgart, W. Ger. : Georg Thieme Verlag; 1990 Jun. Planta medica v. 56 (3): p. 290-292; 1990 Jun. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Sri lanka; Glycosides; Triterpenoids; Medicinal plants; Plant extracts; Menispermaceae 513 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Triterpenoids and their glycosides from the bark of Schefflera octophylla. Sung, T.V.; Lavaud, C.; Porzel, A.; Steglich, W.; Adam, G. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Jan. Phytochemistry v. 31 (1): p. 227-231; 1992 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Schefflera; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Triterpenoids; Glycosides Abstract: A new triterpene and its glycosides were isolated from the bark of Schefflera octophylla together with asiatic acid and asiaticoside. Based on spectroscopic data, especially 2DNMR, and chemical transformations the structures of the new compounds were determined as 3 alpha-hydroxy-urs-12-ene-23,28-dioic acid and 3 alpha-hydroxy-urs-12-ene-23,28-dioic acid 28-O-[alpha-L- rhamnopyranosyl (1 leads to 4)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 leads to 6)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside. For the first time asiaticoside was isolated from a plant other than Centella asiatica. 514 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Triterpenoids from Poria cocos. Tai, T.; Akahori, A.; Shingu, T. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (8): p. 2796-2797; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Japan; Poria; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Triterpenoids Abstract: Two new triterpenoids, poricoic acid A and B were isolated from the surface layer of Poria cocos. The structures of poricoic acid A and B were elucidated to be 16 alpha-hydroxy-3,4-secolanosta-4(28),7,9(11),24(31)- tetraen-3,21-d ioic acid, and 16 alpha-hydroxy-3,4- secolanosta-4(28),7,9(11),24-tetraen-3,21-dioic acid, respectively. 515 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Triterpenoids in bud exudates of Fijian Gardenia species. Davies, N.W.; Miller, J.M.; Naidu, R.; Sotheeswaran, S. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Jan. Phytochemistry v. 31 (1): p. 159-162; 1992 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Fiji; Gardenia; Plant composition; Buds; Exudates; Triterpenoids; Medicinal plants; Molecular conformation Abstract: Five out of the nine bud exudates of Fijian Gardenia species examined contained triterpenoids. Three new triterpenoids have been characterized. They are: 9,19- cyclolanostane-3,24-dione; 9,19-cyclolanost-24-ene-3,23-dione; 4-nor-9,19-cyclolanost-24- ene-3,23-dione. 516 NAL Call. No.: 286.8 N488 Tropical forests found more valuable for medicine than other uses. Dold, C. New York, N.Y. : H.J. Raymond & Co. :.; 1992 Apr28. The New York times. p. B8; 1992 Apr28. Language: English Descriptors: Belize; Tropical forests; Medicinal plants; Conservation; Forest management 517 NAL Call. No.: QK99.I5L45 1978 Tumbuhan obat [Medical plants]. Lembaga Biologi Nasional Bogor : Proyek Sumber Daya Ekonomi, Lembaga Biologi Nasional, LIPI,; 1978. 126 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. (LBN (Series) ; 11. SDE (Series) ; 53.). Language: Indonesian; Indonesian Descriptors: Medicinal plants 518 NAL Call. No.: 470 SCI24 Turning plants into antibody factories. Washington, D.C. : Science Service :.; 1989 Nov18. Science news v. 136 (21): p. 334; 1989 Nov18. Language: English Descriptors: Nicotiana tabacum; Genetic engineering; Medicinal plants; Disease resistance 519 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Two dinorditerpenoids from Ricinodendron heudelotii. Kimbu, S.F.; Keumedjio, F.; Sondengam, L.B.; Connolly, J.D. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (2): p. 619-621; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Cameroon; Ricinodendron heudelotii--medicinal plants--stems--roots--bark--chemical composition-- diterpenoids--spectral analysis Abstract: Two dinorditerpenoids, heudelotinone [12-hydroxy-3- oxo-9(10 leads to 20)-abeo-16,17-dinor- abieta-1(2),8,10(20,11,13-pentaene] and 1,2- dihydroheudelotinol [3 beta,12-dihydroxy-9(10 leads to 20)- abeo-16,17-dinor-abieta-8,10(20),11,13-tetraene] and three known compounds E-ferulic acid octacosylate, 3- methylmethylorsellinate and lupeol were isolated from the stem bark and roots of Ricinodendron heudelotii. The structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic and chemical methods. 520 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Two flavonol glycosides from seeds of Camellia sinensis. Sekine, T.; Arita, J.; Yamaguchi, A.; Saito, K.; Okonogi, S.; Morisaki, N.; Iwasaki, S.; Murakoshi. I. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (3): p. 991-995; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Thailand; Camellia sinensis; Medicinal plants; Seeds; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Flavonols; Glycosides Abstract: Two novel flavonol triglycosides, camelliaside A and B, have been isolated from seeds of Camellia sinensis. The structures were determined to be kaempferol 3-O-[2-O-beta-D- galactopyranosyl-6-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl] -beta-D- glucopyranoside and kaempferol 3-O-[2-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-6-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl] -beta-D- glucopyranoside on the basis of spectroscopic, chemical and enzymatic studies. These types of interglycosidic linkages, Gal(1 leads to 2)[Rha(1 leads to 6)]Glc and Xyl(1 leads to 2)[Rha(1 leads to 6)]Glc, have not been reported previously in flavone and flavonol glycosides. 521 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Two lupin alkaloids from Sophora griffithii. Atta-ur-Rahman; Pervin, A.; Perveen, S.; Nasir, H.; Hasan, N. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (3): p. 1001-1003; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Pakistan; Sophora--medicinal plants--leaves-- spectral analysis--chemical composition--quinolizidine alkaloids Abstract: Two new tricyclic quinolizidine lupin alkaloids, sophorasine A and sophorasine B, were isolated from leaves of Sophora griffithii. Their structures were determined by HOHAHA and other spectroscopic methods. 522 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Two lupin alkaloids from Sophora griffithii. Atta-ur-Rahman; Pervin, A.; Perveen, S.; Nasir, H.; Hasan, N. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (3): p. 1001-1003; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Pakistan; Sophora; Medicinal plants; Leaves; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Quinolizidine alkaloids Abstract: Two new tricyclic quinolizidine lupin alkaloids, sophorasine A and sophorasine B, were isolated from leaves of Sophora griffithii. Their structures were determined by HOHAHA and other spectroscopic methods. 523 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Two phenolic derivatives from Euphorbia kansui. Ding, Y.L.; Jia, Z.J. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Apr. Phytochemistry v. 31 (4): p. 1435-1436; 1992 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Gansu; Euphorbia; Medicinal plants; Roots; Chemical composition; Phenolic compounds; Derivatives Abstract: From the acetone extract of the roots of Euphorbia kansui, two new phenolics were identified as 1,1-bis(2,6-dihydroxy-3-acetyl-4-methoxyphenyl)methane and methyl (2,4-dihydroxy-3-formyl-6-methoxy)phenyl ketone. Five known compounds were characterized: 24-methylenecycloartenol, beta-amyrin acetate, sitosterol, sitosterol glucoside and sucrose. 524 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Two phenylpropanoid glycosides from Leonurus glaucescens. Calis, I.; Ersoz, T.; Tasdemir, D.; Ruedi, P. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Jan. Phytochemistry v. 31 (1): p. 357-359; 1992 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Turkey; Leonurus; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Propionic acid; Glycosides Abstract: Two new phenylpropanoid glycosides, leonosides A and B, and two known glycosides lavandulifolioside and verbascoside, were isolated from the aerial parts of Leonurus glaucescens. On the basis of chemical and spectral evidence, leonosides A and B were shown to be beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethyl-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 leads to 2)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 leads to 3)-4-O- feruloyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside and beta-(3-hydroxy, 4- methoxyphenyl)-ethyl-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 leads to 2)- alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 leads to 3)-4-O-feruloyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, respectively. 525 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Two phthalides from Ligusticum chuangxiong. Naito, T.; Katsuhara, T.; Niitsu, K.; Ikeya, Y.; Okada, M.; Mitsuhashi, H. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Feb. Phytochemistry v. 31 (2): p. 639-642; 1992 Feb. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: China; Ligustrum; Rhizomes; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Phthalides Abstract: Two novel phthalides, (E)-senkyunolide E and senkyunolide N, along with the 18 phthalides including senkyunolide H and senkyunolide J, were isolated from the rhizomes of Ligusticum chuangxiong. On the basis of spectral analyses and chemical methods the structures of (E)- senkyunolide E and senkyunolide N were proved to be (E)- (9RS)-3-butylidene-9-hydroxyphthalide and (3S,6S,7S)-3- butyl-4,5-dihydro-6,7-dihydroxyphthalide, respectively. The absolute configuration of senkyunolide J was also established by spectral analyses and chemical methods; the conformational structure of senkyunolide H was studied by X-ray diffraction analysis. 526 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Type A proanthocyanidins from Prunus spinosa. Gonzalez, A.G.; Irizar, A.C.; Ravelo, A.G.; Fernandez, M.F. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Apr. Phytochemistry v. 31 (4): p. 1432-1434; 1992 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Spain; Prunus spinosa; Medicinal plants; Branches; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Anthocyanidins Abstract: Two proanthocyanidins were isolated from the branches of Prunus spinosa and identified as the known compounds, mahuannin A and ent-epiafzelechin-(2-alpha leads to 7,4- alpha leads to 8)-epicatechin. The structures were identified from spectroscopic data and CD studies. Hitherto undescribed derivatives are described and the 13CNMR data were analysed using C-H bidimensional correlations and selective INEPT techniques. 527 NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69 An update on antimicrobials: new uses, modifications, and developments. Dow, S.W.; Papich, M.G. Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Co; 1991 Jul. Veterinary medicine v. 86 (7): p. 707-711, 714-715; 1991 Jul. Second of series. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Dogs; Cats; Antiinfective agents; Traditional medicines 528 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Ursane triterpenoids from Nepeta eriostachia. Bhandari, S.P.S.; Garg, H.S.; Agrawal, P.K.; Bhakuni, D.S. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1990. Phytochemistry v. 29 (12): p. 3956-3958; 1990. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: India; Nepeta; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Triterpenoids Abstract: From the aerial parts of Nepeta eriostachiya two rare ursane triterpenoids, 2 alpha,3 alpha-dihydroxyurs-12- en-28-oic acid and 2 alpha,3 beta-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, together with a new triterpene, nepetoic acid identified as 2 alpha-methoxy-3 beta-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid were isolated as their methyl esters. Their structures were established by chemical and spectroscopic means. 529 NAL Call. No.: 450 EC7 The use of Mountain-apple (Syzygium malaccense) in a prehistoric Hawaiian domestic structure. Weisler, M.; Murakami, G.M. Bronx, N.Y. : New York Botanical Garden; 1991 Apr. Economic botany v. 45 (2): p. 282-285; 1991 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Hawaii; Syzygium; Old and fossil wood; Archaeological material; Archaeology; Ethnobotany; Building timbers 530 NAL Call. No.: RS164.E28 Use of plant drugs in Indian traditional systems of medicine an their relevance to primary health care. Satyavati, G.V. Orlando, Fla. : Academic Press; 1990. Economic and medicinal plant research / edited by H. Wagner, Hiroshi Hikino, Norman R. Farnsworth. v. 4 p. 39-56; 1990. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: India; Medicinal plants; Traditional medicines; Health care 531 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Uses and bioassays in Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae): a compilation. II. The subgenus Phyllanthus. Unander, D.W.; Webster, G.L.; Blumberg, B.S. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Sep. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 34 (2/3): p. 97-133; 1991 Sep. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Traditional medicines; Folk medicine; Bioassays; Literature reviews; Medicinal properties; Uses; Ethnobotany; Taxonomy; Phyllanthus Abstract: References to either indigenous uses or the results of controlled assays are numerous for species of Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae). These citations have been arranged by subgenus, subsection and species and will be published in four parts, including (Part IV) analysis, discussion and conclusions concerning apparent clustering of some uses or effects within taxa. This paper (Part II) covers the subgenus Phyllanthus. 532 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Vedelianin, a hexahydroxanthene derivatives isolated from Macaranga vedeliana. Thoison, O.; Hnawia, E.; Gueritte- Voegelein, F.; Sevenet, T. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Apr. Phytochemistry v. 31 (4): p. 1439-1442; 1992 Apr. Part 140 in the series 'Plants of New Caledonia'. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: New caledonia; Macaranga; Medicinal plants; Leaves; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Stilbenes; Derivatives Abstract: A methanolic extract of the leaves of Macaranga vedeliana furnished a new hexahydroxanthene derivative, vedelianin, which can be considered as a substituted cyclized geranyistilbene. 533 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Vermilutin, a xanthone from Penicillium vermiculatum. Proksa, B.; Uhrin, D.; Adamcova, J.; Fuska, J. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1992 Apr. Phytochemistry v. 31 (4): p. 1442-1444; 1992 Apr. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Penicillium; Mycelium; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Xanthones; Cytotoxic compounds Abstract: Vermilutin, 8-formyl-1-hydroxy-6-methyl-4-(3-methylbut-1-enyl)xanthone, was isolated from the mycelium of Penicillium vermiculatum and its structure deduced from spectral data. Vermilutin and its acetate inhibited the biochemical function of in vitro grown P388 lympholeukemic cells. 534 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 Vicoside A, a 28-nortriterpenoid glucoside from Vicoaindica. Vasanth, S.; Madras, India; Kundu, A.B.; Panda, S.K.; Patra, A. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (9): p. 3053-3055; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: India; Compositae; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Triterpenoids; Glucosides Abstract: Vicoside A, a new 28-nortriterpenoid glucoside has been isolated from the alcohol extract of the aerial parts of Vicoa indica and its structure was elucidated as 2 beta,3 beta,16 beta,23-tetrahydroxy-17 beta-formyloxy-28-norolean-12-ene 3-O-beta-D-glucopyransoside by spectral data and chemical conversions. 535 NAL Call. No.: SB298.J66 Volatiles of Ocimum basilicum traditionally grown in Israel. Aromatic plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. VIII. Fleisher, Z.; Fleisher, A. Wheaton, Ill. : Allured Publishing Company; 1992 Jan. Journal of essential oil research : JEOR v. 4 (1): p. 97-99; 1992 Jan. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Israel; Ocimum basilicum; Plant composition; Chemical composition; Essential oils; Volatile compounds; Chemical analysis; Linalool; Cinnamic acid; Ethnobotany Abstract: Ocimum basilicum L. traditionally used as a condiment by Sephardic Jews, particularly Yemenites, belongs almost exclusively to a linalool-methyl cinnamate type. Using GC/MS as the method of analysis, 63 constituents were identified in the oil of O. basilicum and its water-soluble fraction. 536 NAL Call. No.: Q1.D57 Weed on parole. Weiss, J. Jr Los Angeles, Calif. : Time, Inc. :.; 1992 Mar. Discover v. 13 (3): p. 28; 1992 Mar. Language: English Descriptors: North Carolina; Nicotiana tabacum; Tobacco mosaic tobamovirus; Medicinal plants; Biotechnology 537 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 What are the legal requirements for the use of phytopharmaceutical drugs in France?. Artiges, A. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Apr. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 32 (1/3): p. 231-234; 1991 Apr. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Ethnopharmacology, June 5-9, 1990, Strasbourg, France. Language: English Descriptors: France; Europe; Drugs; Medicinal plants; Regulations; Law; Quality; Licenses; European communities 538 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 What are the possibilities and limits of therapy with European native drugs in modern clinical medicine?. Reuter, H.D. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Apr. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 32 (1/3): p. 187-193; 1991 Apr. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Ethnopharmacology, June 5-9, 1990, Strasbourg, France. Language: English Descriptors: Europe; Medicinal plants; Drug therapy; Pharmacology; Medicinal properties; Traditional medicines Abstract: Concerning therapy with European native drugs in modern clinical medicine, a clear distinction has to be made between its possibilities and limits on a scientific basis and its possibilities and limits according to the present position of phytotherapy in the different countries of the European Community. On a scientific basis phytopharmaceuticals are used for therapy in a variety of diseases in the clinic as well as in medical practice. The clinical use of phytopharmaceuticals is limited by the kind of acute and severe diseases predominantly treated in the hospital. These diseases require immediate measures with strong acting pharmaceuticals. In the practice of the general practitioner indications for phytopharmaceuticals in principle are the same as in the hospital. The relatively more frequent use of phytopharmaceuticals by the practitioner is related to the fact that he is mainly concerned with mild health disturbances and diseases and chronic sufferings which are destined for treatment with herbal medicines. 539 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 What is ethnobotany today?. Prance, G.T. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Apr. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 32 (1/3): p. 209-216; 1991 Apr. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Ethnopharmacology, June 5-9, 1990, Strasbourg, France. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Ethnobotany; Ecology; Interdisciplinary research; Peasant farming; Indigenous knowledge; Folk medicine Abstract: A review is given of contemporary ethnobotany. Emphasis is placed on the interdisciplinary nature of the subject and most progress is made when botanists, anthropologists, ecologists, chemists, etc. work in close collaboration. Ethnoecology, the study of the management systems of indigenous peoples, is particularly important for its application to the creation of sustainable use systems in the tropics. This must include the study of peasant agriculturalists who have adapted many techniques from cultures that have long been extinct. Quantitative studies of the extent to which rainforest Indians use the forest have provided many data useful for conservation. The study of indigenous medicines is leading to the discovery of new medicines and agrochemicals. When commercial benefit is gained from products derived from information obtained from indigenous peoples. It is essential to ensure that they and their countries benefit from the royalties. There is a great urgency for further ethnobotanical research before indigenous cultures and natural habitats are destroyed. 540 NAL Call. No.: aS21.R44A7 What's happening with natural compounds. Duke, J.A. Beltsville, Md. : The Service; 1991 Jun. ARS - U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (92): p. 299-318; 1991 Jun. Paper presented at the "Workshop on Biological Control of Postharvest Diseases of Fruits and Vegetables," September 12-14, 1990, Sheperdstown, West Virginia. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Plant products 541 NAL Call. No.: 500 IL6 Why do medical sciences need tropical rain forests?. Soejarto, D.D.; Gyllenhaal, C.; Lewandowski, C.; Farnsworth, N.R. Springfield, Ill. : The Academy; 1991. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science v. 84 (1/2): p. 65-76; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Forest resources; Medical research; Medicinal plants; Medicine; Plant products; Primates; Problem analysis; Problem solving; Drugs; Tropical rain forests 542 NAL Call. No.: GN476.73.J64 With bitter herbs they shall eat it chemical ecology and the origins of human diet and medicine.. Chemical ecology and the origins of human diet and medicine Johns, Timothy, Tucson : University of Arizona Press,; 1990. xviii, 356 p. ill., map ; 24 cm. (Arizona studies in human ecology). Series statement from label on page facing t.p. Includes bibliographical references (p. [305]-338) and index. Language: English Descriptors: Ethnobotany; Food, Prehistoric; Plant toxins; Medicine, Primitive Abstract: This book traces the history of biological and cultural methods of human subsistence. The text attempts to examine two distinct parts of the natural world, human and plant, by combining two academic disciplines, ethnobotany and chemical ecology. The author presents a theoretical model that offers more generalizable insights into the interactions of humans and plant chemicals. The model is developed primarily from the domestication of the potato and its implications. 543 NAL Call. No.: RS160.J6 Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of Chilean Myrtaceae. Theoduloz, C.; Pacheco, P.; Schmeda-Hirschmann, G. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1991 Jul. Journal of ethno-pharmacology v. 33 (3): p. 253-255; 1991 Jul. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: Chile; Myrtaceae; Xanthine oxidase; Folk medicine; Medicinal properties; Plant extracts; Inhibition Abstract: Twenty-one Myrtaceae collections belonging to 10 species, 5 of which are used Chilean folk medicine, were assayed for inhibitory activity towards the enzyme xanthine oxidase. Most leaf and stem extract were devoid of activity or showed a weak inhibitory effect. Chilean ethnobotanical data on the species are linked to the astringent properties of Myrtaceae and their use for treating wounds and diarrhea. The results show the advantage of using proper plant selection criteria when searching for new drugs to treat human gout. 544 NAL Call. No.: 450 P5622 A xanthone from Swertia chirayita. Asthana, R.K.; Sharma, N.K.; Kulshreshtha, D.K.; Chatterjee, S.K. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991. Phytochemistry v. 30 (3): p. 1037-1039; 1991. Includes references. Language: English Descriptors: India; Swertia; Medicinal plants; Spectral analysis; Chemical composition; Xanthones; Hypoglycemic agents Abstract: The structure of new xanthone from Swertia chirayita has been established as 1,5-dihydroxy-3,8-dimethoxy xanthone (chiratol) on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence. Two other xanthones, i.e. swerchirin (1,8- dihydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy xanthone) and 7-O-methyl swertianin (1,8- dihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxy xanthone) have been isolated. Swerchirin was identified as the hypoglycaemic principle of the plant. 545 NAL Call. No.: SB608.M38K3 1988 Yao yung chih wu ping ch'ung hai fan chih = Yaoyongchiwubingchonghaifangzhi [Disease and pest control of medicinal plants].. Yaoyongzhiwubingchonghaifangzhi, Ti 1 pan.. Kao, Ch'i-ch'ao; Wu, Chen-t'ing; Ch'eng, Hsin-hsia Ho-fei shih : An-hui k'o hsueh chi shu ch'u pan she : Hsin hua shu tien ching hsiao; 1988. 9, 207 p. : ill. ; 19 cm. Language: Chinese Descriptors: Medicinal plants 546 NAL Call. No.: Q1.D57 Yews in trouble. Hanson, B. Los Angeles, Calif. : Time, Inc. :.; 1992 Jan. Discover v. 13 (1): p. 55; 1992 Jan. Language: English Descriptors: Taxus media; Medicinal plants; Biotechnology; Cell culture; Usda Author Index Abdel-Al, M.H. 178 Aber, J.D. 82 Acock, B. 77, 111, 157 Acock, M.C. 77, 111, 157 Albergoni, F.G. 119 Allen, L.H. Jr 2, 15, 26, 64, 88, 118, 148, 149, 160 Allen, S.G. 10, 29 Alm, D.M. 112 Alpert, P. 169 Alsbury, J. 166 Alscher, G. 132 Amthor, J.S. 146 Anderson, M.G. 10 Anderson, R.J. 98 Andersson, N.E. 104 Andreeva, T.F. 49 Aranda, X. 116 Arnone, J.A. III 51 Arp, W.J. 73, 100 Artus, N.N. 171 Ashenden, T.W. 102 Aussenac, G. 39 Azcon-Bieto, J. 23, 116 Baameur, A. 19 Baille, A. 87 Baker, J.T. 2, 15, 26, 64, 149 Balazsovits, J. 75 Barlow, E.W. 101 Barlow, E.W.R. 92 Barr, A.G. 97 Batal, K.M. 88 Baxter, R. 102 Bazzaz, F.A. 11, 136 Beeson, R.C. Jr 3, 4, 28, 42, 75 Behaeghe, T. 65, 71 Besford, R.T. 57, 85 Bhattacharya, N.C. 27, 109, 113, 138, 178 Bhattacharya, S. 27, 109, 113, 138 Bhekasut, P. 163 Bolger, T.P. 117 Boone, M.Y.L. 114 Boote, K.J. 15, 64, 149 Bowes, G. 2, 26, 91, 118, 148 Brewer, H.L. 88 Brown, K.R. 17 Brown, R.H. 78 Bunce, J.A. 145 Byrd, G.T. 78 Campagna, M.A. 107 Campbell, W.J. 148 Cannell, G.R. 167 Caporn, S.J.M. 34, 72 Carrier, P. 89 Caulfield, F. 145 Chagvardieff, P. 89 Challa, H. 45, 122 Chaudhuri, U.N. 152 Chen, J.J. 81 Cherkanova, N.N. 49 Clay, K. 59 Coleman, J.S. 11 Conroy, J.P. 92, 101 Cortazar, V.G. de 90 Cournac, L. 89 Critten, D.L. 135 Crofts, A.R. 112 Cure, J.D. 7, 128 Dansereau, B. 75 Dayan, E. 122 Del Castillo, D. 77 Delgado, B. 127 Delgado, E. 116 Delwiche, C.F. 96 Desjardins, Y. 94 Dimon, B. 89 Domroese, J. 168 Drake, B.G. 13, 53, 100 Dubois, D. 80 Dugal, A. 103 Eamus, D. 110 Enoch, H.Z. 20 Eymery, F. 63 Farrar, J.F. 69 Feldman, R.S. 165 Ferris, D.M. 38 Figueira, A. 99 Fink, D. 105 Fitzpatrick, A.H. 16 Fosberg, M.A. 84 Fowler, D. 167 Frederick, J.R. 112 French, C.J. 142, 154, 166 Gagnon, S. 75 Gardistrom, P. 120 Ghosh, P.P. 109 Gijzen, H. 43, 46, 159 Goldammer, J.G. 84 Gordon, J.C. 51 Gosselin, A. 3, 4, 42, 94, 103 Gowda, P. 178 Goyal, A. 172 Graham, M.E.D. 28, 97 Greenway, H. 163, 164 Greyson, R.I. 162 Grise, D. 165 Grodzinski, B. 106 Grulke, N. 33 Guehl, J.M. 39 Gutteridge, S. 176 Hadley, P. 55 Hand, D.W. 57, 86, 150 Hannah, M.A. 150 Hanninen, H. 40 Harley, P.C. 123 Hartz, T.K. 19, 155 Hashimoto, Y. 44 Hastings, S.J. 33 He, H. 117 Heine, P.R. 129 Heissner, A. 134, 168 Hendrix, D.L. 21, 105 Henry, L.T. 130 Heuverlink, E. 45 Hicklenton, P.R. 137 Highsmith, M. 170 Hildmann, H. 168 Hileman, D.R. 109, 178 Hobbie, J.E. 82 Hocking, P.J. 18, 58 Hodges, H.F. 138 Hogan, K.P. 140 Holt, D.B. 19, 155 Hori, Y. 14 Hosny, A.A. 178 Houter, G. 159 Huluka, G. 178 Hunt, R. 150 Idso, S.B. 10, 29, 41, 83, 95, 158 Imada, S. 14 Impens, I. 65, 71 Ismail, M.S. 178 Israel, D.W. 7, 128 Ito, T. 126 Jackson, D.M. 6 Janick, J. 99 Jarvis, P.G. 60, 61 Jiao, J. 106 Johnson, R.C. 38 Johnson, R.H. 156 Jones, H.G. 174 Jones, J.W. 35, 88, 122, 149, 160 Jones, P. 35, 88, 149 Jones, P.H. 160 Kader, A.A. 147 Kanemasu, E.T. 117, 152 Kaplan, A. 8, 125 Kauffman, H. 37 Kaushal, P. 39 Kawaguchi, A. 56 Kelly, D.W. 137 Kerbel, E.L. 147 Kesketh, J.D. 112 Keulen, H. van 122 Keys, A.J. 176 Kimball, B.A. 10, 29, 41, 95, 98, 158, 178 King, K.M. 97 Kirkham, M.B. 117, 152 Koning, A.N.M. de 115 Kramer, D.M. 112 Krug, H. 132, 141 Kuehny, J.S. 131 Kupkanchankul, T. 164 Lam, J.J. Jr 6 Lamarre, M. 94 Lara, C. 127 Laugel, F. 64 Lawlor, D.J. 117 Lawlor, D.W. 70 Lawrence, W.T. 33 Leadley, P.W. 13, 47 Lieman-Hurwitz, J. 125 Lincoln, D.E. 156 Livermore, D.A. 55 Lohou, A. 89 Long, S.P. 53, 124 Loreto, F. 96 Ludwig, L.J. 85 Lynch, B. 178 Maevskaya, S.N. 49 Mann, W. 141 Maor, Z. 125 Marek, L.F. 25 Margolis, H.A. 9, 107 Markert, A. 168 Marks, S. 59, 66 Marre, E. 119 Marre, M.T. 119 Martinez, F. 125 Massacci, A. 174 Matamala, R. 24 Mauney, J. 105 Mauney, J.R. 36, 98 Mazur, M. 92 McKee, I.F. 68 McKinion, J.M. 138, 178 Medrano, H. 116 Melillo, J.M. 82 Meyer, C.P. 18, 58 Milham, P.J. 92, 101 Mishoe, J.W. 160 Mitchell, R.A.C. 70 Miyachi, S. 30 Moroni, A. 119 Mousseau, M. 20 Muchow, R.C. 177 Musser, R.L. 109 Nadelhoffer, K.J. 82 Neal, A.M. 150 Nederhoff, E.M. 43, 46, 115, 159 Nelson, P.V. 32, 131 Nijs, I. 65, 71 Nobel, P.S. 79, 90 Norby, R.J. 21, 93 Nordenbrock, C. 26 Nosberger, J. 80 O'Neill, E.G. 93 Oda, Y. 50 Oechel, W.C. 33 Ohnuma, E. 56 Ort, D.R. 112 Osmond, C.B. 76 Palazon, J. 116 Palmqvist, K. 120 Pareddy, D.R. 162 Parry, M.A.J. 176 Pasternak, D. 111 Patterson, R.P. 67 Peet, M.M. 31, 32, 131 Peltier, G. 63 Penuelas, J. 23, 24 Pharr, D.M. 31, 32 Pinter, P.J. Jr 98 Potvin, C. 74 Price, C. 84 Prior, S.A. 67 Prudhomme, T.I. 33 Radoglou, K.M. 60, 61 Rafarel, C.R. 102 Ramazanov, Z.M. 120 Raper, C.D. Jr 130 Rastetter, E.B. 82 Raven, J.A. 139 Reddy, K.R. 138 Reddy, V.R. 77, 157 Reed, M.L. 101 Reekie, E.G. 136, 137 Reinhold, L. 125 Rey, P. 63 Reynolds, J.F. 47, 123 Richardson, S.G. 144 Richter, D.D. 129 Rickman, R.W. 114 Riechers, G. 33 Rijsdijk, A.A. 43, 115 Rind, D. 84 Rochefort, L. 11 Rogers, H.H. 67 Romani, R.J. 147 Rowland-Bamford, A.J. 2, 15, 26 Roy, B.L. 35 Roy, J. 169 Ruffy, T.W. Jr 7 Rufty, T.W. Jr 6, 128 Ryan, M.G. 82 Sage, R.F. 1 Samuelsson, G. 120 Sasek, T.W. 54, 62 Sato, N. 56 Schonfeld, M. 38 Schwarz, N. 22 Schwarz, R. 125 Seemann, J.R. 1 Seginer, I. 133 Senger, H. 172 Setter, T.L. 163, 164 Severson, R.F. 6 Seyama, N. 14 Sharkey, T.D. 1, 96, 161 Sharp, R.E. 144 Shaver, G.R. 82 Shina, G. 133 Shishido, Y. 14 Simon, J.P. 74 Sinclair, T.R. 177 Sinha, N.K. 178 Sionit, N. 67 Smith, A.P. 140 Smittle, D.A. 88 Snook, M.E. 6 Spalding, M.H. 5, 25 Stitt, M. 151 Strain, B.R. 22, 54, 62, 66, 74, 113, 123, 129, 153 Sullivan, J.H. 108 Sung, J.M. 81 Suzuki, K. 5 Takatu, T. 56 Teramura, A.H. 108 Thielmann, J. 172 Thomas, R.B. 123, 129, 153 Thompson, G.B. 68 Thornley, J.H.M. 167 Thurtell, G.W. 97 Tibbits, T.W. 175 Tibbitts, T.W. 16 Titus, J.E. 165 Tolbert, M.E.M. 27 Tolbert, N.E. 172 Torre, A. de la 127 Tripp, K.E. 31, 32 Trudel, M.J. 3, 4, 42 Tsuija, M.J. 106 Tsuzuki, M. 30, 56 Valle, R.R. 160 Van Bavel, C.H.M. 143 Vanderveer, P.J. 161 Vegter, J. 46 Vegter, J.G. 43 Vermeulen, P.C.M. 121, 159 Vessey, J.K. 130 Vezina, L.P. 9 Voevudskaya, S.Yu 49 Vu, J.C.V. 118 Wall, G.W. 138 Wallace, I. 163 Wallick, K. 12 Wang, Y.F. 144 Warembourg, F.R. 169 Waters, I. 163 Weber, S. 168 Weber, W. 168 Weinstein, D.A. 173 Wheeler, R.M. 16, 175 Whipkey, A. 99 Whisler, F.D. 114 Whitmore, S.C. 48 Williams, M.L. 69 Willits, D.H. 31, 32, 131 Windisch, K. 168 Winzeler, M. 80 Wise, R.R. 112 Withers, A.C. 85 Woltering, E.J. 52 Wong, S.C. 76 Wood, W.A. 34 Woodward, F.I. 11, 68 Wullschleger, S.D. 21 Ye, H. 129 Yelle, S. 3, 4, 42, 103 Yi, Y. 44 Zinnen, T.M. 12 Ziska, L.H. 108, 140 Subject Index Abortion 467 Abrus precatorius 463, 464 Acacia concinna 20 Acacia gerrardii 124 Acacia nilotica 124 Acacia raddiana 387 Acanthaceae 20 Acetylcholine 152 Achillea 53 Achyranthes aspera 185 Aconitum 346, 466 Aconitum albo-violaceum 136 Acupuncture 348 Adenylate cyclase 280 Adhatoda vasica 22 Adverse effects 72, 210 Aflatoxins 20, 315 Aframomum melegueta 148 Africa 194, 197 Agave cantala 21 Agriculture 440 Agrobacterium tumefaciens 436 Alberta 304, 423, 424 Albizia 17 Albizia lebbek 17 Aldoses 253 Algae 173 Alkaloids 2, 23, 24, 26, 27, 33, 58, 88, 103, 106, 120, 130, 136, 164, 281, 305, 311, 312, 321, 329, 364, 377, 398, 413, 427, 435, 439, 466 Alkynes 14 Allelopathins 28 Allelopathy 28 Allergic reactions 35 Allium 268 Allium rubellum 268 Allium sativum 142, 317, 406 Alloxan 185 Alstonia boonei 42, 43 Alstonia scholaris 58 Amanita muscaria 180, 198 Amaranthus 219 Ambrosia 32 American indians 143, 290, 338, 354 Amino acid sequences 105 Anacardiaceae 278 Analgesics 33, 34, 197, 316, 388, 466 Analysis 151, 255 Ananas 119 Andaman and nicobar Islands 173 Andhra pradesh 56, 178, 193 Anesthesia 360 Anethum sowa 146 Angelica keiskei 96 Angiosperms 173, 383 Animals 346 Annonaceae 23, 75 Antagonists 182 Anthelmintics 99, 212 Anthocyanidins 64, 188, 526 Anthraquinones 5, 36, 60, 435 Antibacterial plants 37, 99 Antibacterial properties 37, 99, 148, 305, 375, 377, 381, 382 Antibiotics 10, 497 Anticholesteremic agents 97 Antidiarrhea agents 172 Antifungal plants 99 Antifungal properties 99, 148, 377, 391 Antihypertensive agents 41, 157 Antiinfective agents 379, 527 Antiinflammatory agents 33, 42, 43, 44, 45, 109, 197, 466 Antimalarials 4, 46, 48, 49, 51, 88, 433 Antimicrobial properties 50, 53, 54, 109, 361 Antineoplastic agents 58, 63, 164, 258, 296, 302, 391, 421 Antiparasitic agents 394 Antiprotozoal agents 295 Antipyretics 56 Antiviral agents 89, 164 Antiviral properties 302, 434 Aorta 152, 153, 157 Apocynaceae 26, 432 Application 198 Application methods 299 Applied research 238 Archaeological material 529 Archaeology 469, 529 Argentina 401 Arizona 487 Aroma 156, 450 Aromatherapy 287 Aromatic plants 117 Arrhythmia 160 Artemisia 162 Artemisia absinthium 433 Arthristis 42 Arthritis 43, 45 Artocarpus altilis 393 Arunachal pradesh 342 Ascaridia galli 372 Asclepiadaceae 402, 480 Ascorbic acid 146 Asia 180 Asimina triloba 279 Aspergillus flavus 20, 315 Aspergillus ochraceus 315 Asthma 6, 362 Astragalus 211, 414 Astringents 356 Azadirachta indica 91, 181 Bacillus cereus 148 Bacillus subtilis 54 Bacteria 305 Bark 3, 17, 24, 25, 43, 46, 52, 57, 120, 124, 130, 131, 197, 278, 285, 320, 344, 354, 363, 391, 393, 395, 447, 476, 503, 504, 508 Basidiomycetes 386 Bavaria 118 Begonia 67 Behavior 394 Belize 68, 516 Benzoquinone 70 Benzyl isothiocyanate 37 Bibliographies 408 Bidens pilosa 109 Bihar 315 Bile 270 Bioassays 28, 58, 76, 380, 531 Biochemical pathways 98, 130, 135, 398, 470, 504 Biocides 279 Bioreactors 347, 420 Biosynthesis 63, 95, 98, 135, 232, 236, 308, 398, 470, 504 Biotechnology 256, 262, 291, 358, 429, 536, 546 Birth control 87, 193 Blacks 233 Blood pressure 228, 360, 363 Blood sugar 79, 185, 227, 395 Boerhavia diffusa 80 Bone fractures 264 Bone mineralization 264 Boraginaceae 264 Borreria ocymoides 305 Borreria verticillata 448 Botanical composition 223 Botanical drug industry 292 Botanical gardens 175 Botanists 161 Botany 181, 374 Botany, Economic 94, 144, 335 Botany, Medical 209, 216, 306, 371, 374 Branches 75, 526 Brassica campestris 423, 424 Brazil 1, 47, 59, 115, 116, 199, 237, 340, 363, 432, 435, 446, 502, 503 Bridelia 48 Brine 372 Brunei 491, 492 Bryophyllum 465 Buds 515 Building timbers 529 Bulbs 221, 256, 321, 406 Bumelia 395 Bupleurum falcatum 184, 355 Buxus sempervirens 455, 456 Cacopa 83 Caesalpinia 20 Caffeic acid 236 Caffeine 166, 415 Calcium 157 Calcium ions 157, 411 California 135, 436 Callilepis laureola 251 Callus 86, 95 Camellia sinensis 430, 520 Cameroon 200, 314, 447, 519 Canada 429 Candida albicans 54, 148, 379 Caprae 328 Carbachol 39 Carbohydrate metabolism 237 Carbon tetrachloride 184, 210 Carboxylic acids 255 Carcinogenesis 356 Carcinogens 356 Carcinoma 57, 391, 489 Cardiac glycosides 33, 305, 346 Carex--stilbenes--medicinal plants--roots--chemical composition--spectral analysis--antimicrobial properties--rhizomes 260 Carex--stilbenes--rhizomes--roots--chemical composition--stereochemistry--spectral analysis--medicinal plants--antimicrobial properties 345 Caribbean 238 Carminatives 172 Carrageenan 42 Carvone 146 Caryophyllaceae 509 Cassava 112 Cassia 60 Cassia didymobotrya 303 Cassia fistula 20 Cassine 3 Catechin 124 Catha edulis 364 Cats 360, 527 Cedrela odorata 503 Celastraceae 37 Cell culture 167, 256, 262, 420, 431, 546 Cell cultures 291, 434 Cell lines 489 Cell suspensions 95, 236, 303, 398 Cells 323 Centella asiatica 133 Central America 238 Central nervious system 115 Cephaelis ipecacuanha 398 Cestrum nocturnum 451 Chalcones 96, 483 Checklists 176 Chemical analysis 2, 480, 535 Chemical composition 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 29, 30, 36, 60, 61, 63, 64, 69, 70, 71, 73, 75, 77, 96, 98, 101, 103, 106, 113, 114, 116, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 126, 129, 130, 131, 132, 135, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 162, 163, 189, 194, 195, 199, 221, 226, 243, 244, 245, 248, 250, 257, 258, 261, 269, 272, 273, 274, 276, 277, 278, 281, 282, 285, 286, 302, 303, 307, 309, 311, 312, 314, 320, 321, 325, 337, 339, 340, 344, 352, 364, 365, 366, 367, 368, 369, 386, 387, 391, 392, 393, 401, 402, 403, 404, 407, 421, 428, 443, 447, 448, 451, 452, 454, 455, 456, 457, 459, 460, 468, 470, 484, 485, 500, 501, 502, 503, 504, 505, 506, 507, 508, 509, 510, 511, 513, 514, 520, 522, 523, 524, 525, 526, 528, 532, 533, 534, 535, 544 Chemical properties 32 Chemistry 181, 182 Chemotaxonomy 113, 280 Chenopodiaceae 372 Chile 454, 543 China 26, 29, 87, 100, 125, 136, 139, 158, 159, 162, 189, 195, 220, 311, 325, 334, 385, 403, 404, 418, 419, 445, 457, 460, 466, 473, 511, 525 Chionodoxa 221 Cholesterol 278 Cholinergic mechanisms 39, 155 Chromolaena 28 Chromones 101 Cinnamic acid 125, 384, 535 Cirsium japonicum 14 Cissus 190, 277 Cistus 188 Citrinin 20, 315 Citrus aurantiifolia 305 Citrus fruits 9 Citrus hassaku 9 Cladosporium cucumerinum 391 Classification 443 Clerodendrum colebrookianum 104 Clitoria 177 Clitoria ternatea 177 Cloning 105 Cnidium 101 Cobalt 400 Cocculus 106 Coelenterata 328 Cola nitida 305 Colchicum 367 Coleus forskohlii 232 Colombia 24, 307 Colon 39 Commiphora 81 Compensation 231 Compositae 165, 309, 534 Computer simulation 187 Confectionery 179 Conservation 82, 170, 205, 231, 331, 516 Contraceptives 40, 389, 390 Contraction 39, 152, 409 Cook Islands 493 Cooperation 446 Coptis 113 Corchorus 30 Correlation 54 Corydalis 329 Coscinium fenestratum 228 Costa Rica 231, 399, 499 Costus 467 Cotton 154 Coumarin 31, 55, 113, 114, 401 Coumarins 9, 70, 121, 312, 330, 435, 462 Crop husbandry 283 Crop plants as weeds 469 Crop production 119, 223, 283, 310 Crop yield 146 Crops 436 Croton zehntneri 115, 155 Cuba 362 Cucurbitaceae 116, 340 Cucurbitacins 116, 340 Culinary herbs 118, 206, 313, 408, 449 Cultivars 431 Cultural behavior 166, 415 Cultural heritage 238 Culture media 232 Cyanides 112 Cyanogenic glycosides 37 Cymbopogon citratus 316 Cyperus esculentus 469 Cyperus rotundus 83, 469 Cyprus 107, 227 Cytochrome p-450 159 Cytotixic compounds 368 Cytotoxic compounds 75, 99, 121, 258, 391, 504, 533 Cytotoxicity 46, 285, 489 Databases 90 Decision making 422 Demography 246 Derivatives 9, 12, 70, 113, 132, 164, 236, 309, 321, 325, 368, 384, 386, 454, 460, 523, 532 Dermatitis 328 Dermatophytes 361, 380 Desert plants 487 Desiccation 62 Determination 125 Deuteromycotina 20 Deutzia 428 Developing countries 246, 446 Developmental stages "98 Diabetes 185, 253, 395 Diarrhea 154, 464 Dicotyledons 62, 500 Dictionaries, Polyglot 94 Diet 300, 444 Digitalis 341 Digitalis purpurea 128 Dihydrocarvone 146 Diopamine 155 Dipeptides 132 Dipsacaceae 485, 511 Disaccharides 62, 85 Disease prevention 210, 487 Disease resistance 518 Diseases 198 Diterpenes 135, 162, 187, 258, 334, 497 Diterpenoids 13, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 163, 232, 325, 349, 421, 425, 454 Diuresis 360 Diuretics 142 Diversity 74, 82, 92, 170, 231, 399 Dna polymerase 86 Dogs 142, 228, 527 Domestic gardens 449 Domestication 469 Dominican republic 259 Dosage 235 Dosage effects 346 Dracunculus medinensis 212 Drought resistance 62, 91 Drug formulations 83, 400 Drug therapy 90, 413, 538 Drug toxicity 33, 44 Drugs 128, 239, 240, 265, 271, 280, 301, 322, 323, 329, 347, 446, 537, 541 Drying 449 Drying methods 156 Duboisia 439 Duodenal ulcer 465 Duodenum 467 Dye plants 177, 356 Dyes 356 Dysoxylum 123 Echinocactus 179 Ecology 539 Economic impact 145 Economics 446 Ecuador 166, 272, 415 Edible species 67, 171, 173, 222, 268 Educational programs 175 Egypt 120, 191, 321, 387 Elaeis guineensis 42, 43, 479 Elaeis oleifera 479 Electroencephalography 400 Electrophoresis 255 Elisa 308 Ellagic acid 29, 387 Emetine 398 Entada 368 Enzyme activity 164 Enzyme inhibitors 86, 353 Enzymes 149, 159 Ephedra 364, 482 Epilepsy 83, 400 Epimedium 273, 326 Epiphytes 176 Equations 347 Eragrostis ferruginea 138 Ergosterol 386 Ergot 346 Eriobotrya japonica 385 Eriogonum 304 Ervatamia 25 Escherichia coli 54, 105, 148, 381 Essences and essential oils 65 Essential oil plants 35, 469 Essential oils 28, 35, 37, 53, 99, 107, 146, 148, 201, 316, 503, 535 Esterases 164 Esters 244, 323 Estrogenic properties 40 Ethanol 149 Ethics 446 Ethiopia 250, 450 Ethnic groups 174, 180, 198, 233 Ethnobotany 67, 68, 81, 82, 104, 119, 144, 161, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 183, 192, 193, 197, 202, 212, 217, 222, 223, 234, 242, 267, 268, 283, 290, 310, 319, 335, 338, 342, 343, 354, 356, 361, 363, 377, 381, 423, 424, 434, 437, 440, 469, 471, 479, 487, 491, 492, 493, 529, 531, 535, 539, 542 Ethnography 143 Ethnozoology 217, 440 Eugenia uniflora 28 Euodia 46 Euphorbia 29, 258, 523 Euphorbiaceae 48, 140, 280, 323, 346 Europe 445, 537, 538 European communities 537 Eurycoma longifolia 4 Evaluation 265 Experimental diabetes 79 Extractants 112 Extraction 147, 347 Exudates 111, 515 Eye diseases 498 Family planning 193 Fasciola hepatica 372 Fatty Acides 10 Females 40, 87 Fermentation 256 Ferocactus 179 Fertility agents 87 Ferula 152, 390, 410 Fiber plants 119, 173, 177 Ficus 354, 394 Field tests 78, 208 Fiji 123, 515 Flacourtia 85 Flacourtiaceae 359 Flavanols 372, 430 Flavones 99, 282, 339 Flavonoids 12, 23, 75, 147, 187, 190, 191, 221, 255, 326, 387, 393, 435 Flavonols 6, 189, 520 Flora 176, 290, 378 Flours 112 Flow 147 Flowers 64, 77, 339 Fodder 222 Fodder plants 171, 222 Foeniculum vulgare 201, 490 Foliar spraying 146 Folk culture 338 Folk medicine 41, 44, 47, 53, 56, 80, 87, 104, 111, 115, 154, 155, 158, 166, 169, 174, 178, 185, 192, 193, 198, 217, 227, 228, 229, 238, 239, 251, 270, 298, 299, 300, 316, 327, 338, 341, 359, 362, 389, 409, 415, 433, 435, 463, 464, 467, 471, 472, 490, 491, 492, 496, 531, 539, 543 Fomes 338 Fomes fomentarius 198 Food 440 Food advertising 204 Food analysis 342 Food and nutrition controversies 72, 204 Food crops 67, 268, 337, 440 Food preparation 204 Food purchasing 66 Food quality 66 Food safety 186 Food storage 66 Food supplements 342 Food wastes 256 Food, Prehistoric 542 Foods 444 Forest management 516 Forest resources 499, 541 Forest trees 363 Forestry practices 429 France 378, 537 Frogs 472 Fruit 123 Fruit crops 337 Fruits 21, 98, 146, 179, 222, 276, 315, 479 Fumaria 329 Fungi 315 Furans 69, 199 Fusarium oxysporum 315 Galactose 355 Gallic acid 29, 124, 304 Ganoderma applanatum 61 Ganoderma lucidum 98 Gansu 69, 245, 369, 459, 523 Garcinia 391, 392 Garcinia kola 305 Gardenia 360, 515 Gardenia lucida 10 Gardening 118 Garlic 406 gas chromatography 107 Gas chromatography 201 Gastric ulcer 59 Gastrointestinal diseases 370, 381 Gelsemium 352 Gelsemium--medicinal plants--spectral analysis--chemical composition--indole alkaloids 351 Gene banks 100 Gene expression 105 Genes 105 Genetic engineering 78, 208, 291, 358, 488, 518 Genetic resources 161 Gentiana 438 Geographical distribution 32, 81, 119, 176, 242, 268, 283, 412, 437, 479 German democratic republic 265 German federal republic 265 Ghana 23, 42, 43, 103, 264, 416, 417 Ghee 83 Ginger 203 Ginkgo biloba 182, 187, 204 Glaucium 153, 411 Glechoma hederacea 280 Glucose 237 Glucosides 63, 116, 282, 320, 340, 438, 534 Glucuronic acid 12 Glycosides 7, 18, 21, 41, 71, 162, 189, 191, 229, 251, 263, 273, 326, 366, 368, 369, 387, 451, 458, 501, 505, 507, 512, 513, 520, 524 Glycyrrhiza glabra 315 Glycyrrhiza uralensis 55, 218, 253 Gnetum 129 Government organizations 90 Gram negative bacteria 361 Gram positive bacteria 361, 382 Greece 188 Growth 86, 95 Guangxi 129, 257, 351, 352 Guatemala 174, 310, 379, 380, 381, 382 Guatteria 24 Guinea 448, 500 Guinea pigs 152, 153, 228, 362, 409, 410, 411, 463, 465 Gwailior Forest Division (India) 297 Gymnosperms 173 Gypsophila paniculata 195 Habitats 81 Hallucinogens 363 Hamster 389 Handicrafts 354 Haplophyllum tuberculatum 2 Harvesting 206 Haryana 267 Hawaii 529 Healing 99 Health 247 Health beliefs 348 Health care 350, 416, 417, 418, 419, 426, 495, 530 Health foods 186 Health hazards 72, 207 Health promotion 186, 204 Health services 418, 419 Heart 160 Heart diseases 203, 362 Heartwood 85, 140, 503 Heilongjiang 226 Helminths 361 Hemidesmus indicus 486 Henan 421 Hepatitis b virus 86 Hepatotoxins 159, 211, 230 Herbal teas 72, 147, 207 Herbals 217 Herbs 127, 213, 336, 357, 373 Herbs--Cancer 266 Hernandia 151 Hippophae 437 Hippophae rhamnoides 437 Hippophae rhamnoides--fruit--tannins--leaves--chemical composition--flavonoids--spectral analysis--medicinal plants 473 Historical records 220 History 76, 81, 118, 128, 176, 234, 301, 341, 354, 356, 445, 469 Holarrhena 95, 315 Home food preparation 66 Home gardens 35, 223 Horticulturists 134 Hplc 125, 187, 406, 427 Human immunodeficiency virus 89, 333 Humic acids 111 Hybrids 439 Hydnocarpus 20 Hymenolepis diminuta 17 Hypericum 132, 189 Hypertension 41, 104, 229, 362, 367 Hypoglycemia 185 Hypoglycemic agents 227, 395, 544 Hypotension 228, 326, 367 Hypoxidaceae 366 Hyptis 272 Ileum 153, 463 Ilex 166, 415 In vitro 48, 89, 380, 381 In vitro culture 86, 398 Incidence 315 India 7, 11, 22, 30, 52, 85, 95, 104, 111, 114, 248, 261, 320, 339, 343, 402, 428, 437, 445, 452, 470, 509, 528, 530, 534, 544 Indian ocean Islands 242 Indians of North America 202, 319 Indians of South America 169 Indigenous knowledge 231, 539 Indigofera suffruticosa 270 Indigofera tinctoria 270 Indole alkaloids 25, 157, 285, 352, 448 Indonesia 61, 368, 407 Induced abortion 193 Induction 86, 159, 236 Industrial applications 222 Industrialization 246 Infections 379, 497 Inflorescences 452 Information services 66 Inhibition 153, 237, 411, 543 Inhibitors 253 Inonotus 198 Insecticidal plants 29, 140 Insulin 237 Insulin secretion 237 Interdisciplinary research 539 Intergeneric hybridization 439 International comparisons 300 Intestines 152 Intraperitoneal injection 235 Introduced species 220, 222 introduction 222 Inula 6 Inventories 241 Ion transport 411 Ipomoea 242 Ipomoea pes-caprae 328 Iridaceae 243, 249 Iridoid glycosides 244, 245, 261, 369 Iridoids 243 Iris 243 Irrigation 449 Isoflavones 248, 249, 250 Isolation 349 Isolation techniques 225, 251 Isoquinoline alkaloids 24, 131 Israel 535 Ivory coast 130, 131 Jammu and kashmir 171 Japan 5, 39, 55, 96, 101, 113, 196, 243, 244, 253, 256, 276, 345, 386, 453, 466, 514 Jejunum 153 Jordan 367 Juices 9 Juncus effusus 365 Juniperus sabina 15 Kadsura 126, 257 Kaempferol 7 Kaurene 137, 163 Kenya 252, 498 Keto acids 10 Ketones 22, 194, 500 Korea democratic people's republic 137 Korea republic 138 Krameria 274 Labiatae 163, 245 Lactones 85, 165, 320 Lactuca sativa 28 Land management 422 Law 265, 537 Laxatives 172 Learning 158 Least squares 290 Leaves 1, 7, 11, 12, 15, 16, 24, 25, 62, 71, 73, 75, 103, 114, 137, 182, 227, 264, 324, 330, 332, 334, 339, 349, 359, 385, 387, 392, 407, 421, 451, 455, 456, 465, 468, 522, 532 Legislation 74, 271, 475 Leonurus 524 Lepechinia hastata 497 Lethal dose 360 Leucas 269 Leukemia 57 Leukocytes 270 Licenses 82, 271, 537 Lignans 1, 15, 63, 85, 194, 199, 257, 272, 273, 274, 356, 484 Ligularis 69 Ligustrum 525 Liliaceae 457 Limnophila 99 Limnophila heterophylla 99 Limonoi ds 181 Limonoids 276 Linalool 535 Linum 63 Lipid peroxidation 159 Lipids 112, 277 Literature reviews 76, 172, 180, 241, 291, 299, 531 Liver 80, 184, 210, 211 Liver cells 159 Liver diseases 149 Lobelia 72 Local anesthetics 472 Lupins 281 Macaranga 532 Macleaya cordata 427 Macleaya microcarpa 427 Madagascar 46 Madia 283 Malaria 47, 50, 52 Malawi 366 Malaysia 4, 25, 392 Males 87, 150, 278 Malva sylvestris 12 Mammals 323 Man 212, 264 Mannitol 360 Mansonia altissima 160 Manufacture 354 Maori (New Zealand people) 144 Market economics 145 Market regulations 265 Marketing 265, 450 Marketing techniques 317 Mass spectrometry 225 Materia medica, vegetable 102 Materia medica, Vegetable 102, 110, 202, 284, 292, 297, 298, 336, 371, 373, 374 Mathematical models 347 Maytenus 59, 286, 504 Medical botanists 134 Medical research 90, 541 Medical services 300 Medical treatment 66, 204, 220, 350, 376, 453 Medicinal plant 168 Medicinal plants 1-7, 9-16, 18-20, 22, 24-31, 33-38, 44, 47, 49-52, 54-58, 60-67, 69-71, 73-79, 82, 85-89, 91-106, 108, 112-114, 116, 118, 120-126, 129-133, 135-141, 145-146, 148-149, 152, 153, 157-159, 162-165, 167, 172-174, 177-178, 186-196, 199-206, 208-210, 212-214, 216, 218, 220-221, 226, 230-233, 235, 237-238, 241-251, 253, 256-258, 261-265, 267-269, 271-277, 279, 281-282, 284-287, 289-297, 299, 301-304, 306-309, 311-315, 317-318, 320-322, 324-326, 329-334, 336-337, 339-340, 343-344, 347, 349-350, 352-353, 355-356, 358, 360, 362, 365-369, 371-373, 375-379, 381-388, 391-399, 401-408, 410-414, 416-422, 425-432, 434-436, 438-439, 441-444, 446-462, 468, 470-472, 474-478, 480, 483-485, 488, 491-518, 520, 522-526, 528, 530, 532-534, 536-538, 540-541, 544-546 Medicinal plants--Aromatic plants--Plant cell culture--Materia medica, Vegetable 288 Medicinal properties 6, 33, 47, 52, 59, 67, 79, 87, 99, 104, 128, 142, 148, 151, 153, 158, 160, 172, 173, 174, 177, 178, 179, 181, 182, 192, 193, 210, 212, 214, 222, 241, 242, 264, 267, 295, 296, 299, 305, 310, 337, 346, 347, 356, 360, 362, 378, 380, 397, 411, 412, 434, 444, 463, 471, 490, 491, 492, 493, 496, 531, 538, 543 Medicine 220, 300, 426, 541 Medicine, Primitive 542 Mediterranean countries 469 Melanoma 57 Melastomataceae 230 Melothria 149, 230 Memory 158 Men 166, 415 Menispermaceae 33, 103, 512 Mental disorders 327 Mentha piperita 201 Menyanthes trifoliata 507 Metabolic detoxification 159 Metabolites 62, 64, 98, 303, 321 Methylation 218, 355 Mexico 54, 60, 122, 161, 165, 179, 278, 309, 350, 354, 425, 471, 497, 508 Mice 33, 34, 40, 45, 46, 47, 50, 52, 57, 80, 154, 155, 158, 159, 210, 270, 327, 360, 388, 433, 466, 490 Microbial contamination 20, 315 Micropropagation 232, 291, 486 Microsomes 159 Migrant agricultural workers 127 Millingtonia hortensis 339 Mimosa 508 Misinformation 186, 204 Missouri 31 Mitogens 196 Mode of action 388 Molecular conformation 14, 162, 263, 320, 344, 366, 507, 509, 515 Molluscicidal properties 32 Momordica charantia 34, 333 Monoclonal antibodies 308, 358, 436 Monoterpenes 201, 263, 309 Montana 423, 424, 477 Moraceae 200, 363 Moringa oleifera 222, 310, 361 Morocco 412 Mountain areas 166, 268, 343, 415 Mozambique 48 Mucuna 505 Mulches 313 Muscle contraction 153, 411 Muscle relaxants 409, 410 Mutagens 435 Mycelium 98, 533 Myrcente 316 Myrtaceae 543 Naphthalene 320 Naphthoquinone 199 Native plants for cultivation 144, 335 Natural resources 422 Navajo Indians 319 Nematicidal plants 99 Nematicidal properties 324 Nematode control 324 Nematode infections 212 Neoplasms 57, 58, 90, 413, 476 Nepal 192 Nepeta 528 Neurons 400 Neutralization 328 Neutrophils 235 New caledonia 532 New Mexico 449 Nicotiana tabacum 78, 208, 436, 488, 518, 536 Nicotine 143 Nigeria 28, 112, 305, 324, 327, 337, 377, 444 Nomenclature 224, 241, 242, 378, 412, 455, 456, 479, 496 Norepinephrine 152 North America 290, 304, 338 North Carolina 208, 488, 536 Nuclear magnetic resonance 2, 225 Nucleotide sequences 105 Nurseries 205 Nutrients 271 Nutrition 300 Nutrition research 487 Nutritive value 342 Nuts 43 Obituaries 161 Oceania 242 Ochna 344 Ochratoxins 315 Ochrosia elliptica 280 Ocimum basilicum 535 Oilseed plants 222, 283 Ointments 148 Old and fossil wood 529 Oleanolic acid 508, 511 Opioid peptides 388 Oregon 93 Organelles 251 Organic gardening 373 Organizations 418, 419 Organogenesis 486 Orthosiphon aristatus 236, 349 OssificationI 264 Oxidation 130 Oxidoreductases 353 Oxygen 225 Oxytocin 411 Pachysandra--medicinal plants--spectral analysis--steroid alkaloids 254 Pacific states of U.S.A. 283 Paeonia 125 Paeonia anomala 263 Paeonia lactiflora 353 Pakistan 6, 70, 106, 269, 282, 384, 451, 480, 521, 522 Panama 376 Panax pseudoginseng 332 Pancratium 321 Pancreas islets 237 Paper 354 Patents 82 Pathogens 305 Peasant farming 539 Pedicularis 369 Penicillium 533 Penicillium citrinum 20 Perfumery 81, 469 Pericarp 18 Peru 166, 176, 223, 415, 483 Pesticidal properties 91 Peucedanum 121, 462 Phaeophyta 302 Pharmaaceutical products 79 Pharmaceutical products 33, 50, 52, 104, 153, 159, 177, 178, 192, 193, 220, 224, 231, 246, 267, 299, 356, 427, 491, 492 Pharmaceutical proteins 105 Pharmacodynamics 112, 234 Pharmacognosy 239 Pharmacology 32, 90, 142, 143, 159, 181, 182, 197, 229, 234, 238, 239, 240, 247, 280, 327, 346, 359, 361, 362, 363, 364, 378, 397, 444, 471, 538 Phellandrene 99 Phellinus 198 Phellodendron 270 Phellodendron amurense 276 Phenanthrene 321, 365 Phenol 255 Phenolic compounds 146, 366, 367, 384, 523 Phenols 88, 278 Phenylacetic acide 368 Philosophy 445 Phosphatidylinositols 323 Phthalides 525 Phyllanthus 86, 230, 531 Phyllanthus urinaria 86 Phytolacca acinosa 16, 168, 506 Phytosterols 23, 304, 460 Picrasma 407 Pilocarpus 330 Piper 194, 484 Piper attenuatum 11 Piper betle 20 Piper guineense 28 Piper longum 486 Pituitary 280 Plant anatomy 283 Plant breeding 161 Plant composition 58, 62, 349, 353, 414, 515, 535 Plant conservation 108 Plant density 97 Plant ecology 119 Plant extract 42 Plant Extracts 16 Plant extracts 17, 21, 27, 28, 31, 33, 34, 39, 40, 43, 45, 46, 47, 48, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 79, 80, 86, 89, 104, 109, 115, 125, 133, 149, 150, 152, 153, 155, 162, 168, 182, 184, 185, 187, 196, 200, 210, 211, 224, 228, 229, 230, 237, 240, 246, 249, 251, 253, 255, 264, 278, 295, 304, 305, 326, 327, 328, 330, 332, 334, 356, 359, 360, 361, 363, 368, 372, 377, 379, 380, 381, 382, 385, 388, 389, 390, 395, 406, 409, 410, 411, 427, 433, 434, 435, 438, 462, 463, 464, 465, 467, 490, 494, 504, 512, 543 Plant fibers 119 Plant introduction 222 Plant morphology 32, 119, 283, 479 Plant names, Popular 94 Plant oils 9 Plant physiology 76 Plant products 117, 133, 220, 303, 323, 476, 540, 541 Plant protein 333 Plant proteins 105, 489 Plant toxins 542 Plantago ovata 97 Plants 65, 90, 171, 450, 461, 461 Plants, Useful 215 Plasmodium berghei 47, 50, 52, 433 Plasmodium falciparum 46, 47, 49, 51, 88 Plasmodium malariae 88 Plasmodium ovale 88 Plasmodium vivax 88 Platelets 55 Plectranthus 137, 421 Pluchea 45 Plumeria rubra 494 Podophyllum 63 Podophyllum peltatum 63 Pods 222 Poetry 118 Poisonous plants 25, 171, 344, 346 Poland 507 Politics 446 Polygalacturonase 218 Polygonatum 458 Polyphenols 147, 387 Polysaccharides 218, 347, 355, 414 Poria 514 Portugal 302 Postnatal development 432 Powders 363 Pratylenchus zeae 324 Pregnancy 390 Premna 244 Prenatal developement 432 Preventive medicine 300 Primates 541 Primula 282 Problem analysis 541 Problem solving 541 Processing 354 Product development 167, 256 Profits 422 Program development 246 Propionic acid 23, 369, 524 Protein kinase 323 Protein sources 487 Protozoa 295 Protozoal infections 295 Prunus spinosa 64, 526 Pseudomonas aeruginosa 148 Psoralea 70, 384 Psoralea esculenta 423, 424 Pterocarpus santalinus 79 Pterocaulon 401 Public domain 478 Public health 300 Pulping 354 Purgatives 154 Purification 116, 353 Pyridine alkaloids 402, 439 Pyrrolizidine alkaloids 403, 404 Qinghaosu 225, 405 Quality 537 Quantitative analysis 95, 406 Quassinoids 4, 57, 407 Queensland 242 Quinolizidine alkaloids 281, 522 Quinones 88 Rabbits 152, 153, 185, 227, 409, 410 Rain forests 82, 331 Rajasthan 212 Rapid methods 308 Rates 40, 79, 359 Rats 17, 34, 39, 41, 42, 43, 56, 58, 59, 80, 83, 115, 149, 150, 155, 157, 159, 160, 184, 197, 228, 229, 237, 264, 270, 278, 280, 316, 360, 362, 388, 389, 390, 395, 400, 411, 432, 463, 464, 465, 467 Rauvolfia vomitoria 42, 43 Receptors 323 Recombinant DNA 105 Reflexes 472 Regenerative ability 98, 232 Regional surveys 174, 362 Registration 396 Regression analysis 290 Regulation 313 Regulations 72, 240, 537 Reproductive behavior 432 Research 246, 446 Research projects 175, 238 Research support 91, 431, 499 Resedaceae 191 Resins 81 Resource management 422 Respiratory diseases 382 Respiratory disorders 482 Restriction mapping 105 Reticuloendothelial system 414 Reviews 159 Rhamnaceae 502 Rhamnose 189 Rhamnus 41, 229, 320 Rhinovirus 89 Rhizomes 69, 243, 458, 459, 500, 507, 525 Ricinodendron heudelotii 519 Ricinus communis 40 Risk 247 River valleys 343 Rocks 111 Root crops 469 Root exudates 420 Roots 3, 4, 5, 14, 25, 29, 36, 42, 43, 45, 57, 60, 96, 103, 116, 122, 131, 138, 139, 141, 150, 165, 168, 184, 194, 195, 211, 218, 226, 250, 258, 263, 274, 281, 285, 311, 312, 314, 315, 327, 340, 344, 355, 391, 393, 395, 398, 410, 414, 457, 462, 484, 485, 502, 504, 506, 510, 511, 523 Rosa 460 Rosa davurica 226 Rosmarinus officinalis 409 Rubia 5 Rubiaceae 259, 280 Rubus idaeus 156 Rudbeckia 31 Rural areas 233, 422 Rural industry 354 Ruta chalepensis 312, 490 Ruta graveolens 389 Rutoside 255 Salmonella enteritidis 381 Salmonella typhi 381 Salsola 250 Salvia 13, 36, 135, 141, 227, 307, 425 Salvia miltiorrhiza 139 Salvia officinalis 201 Salvia pratensis 150 Sambucus nigra 255 Sanguinaria canadensis 427 Sapindus 18 Sapium 7 Saponaria 195 Saponins 37, 73, 133, 168, 184, 200, 332, 360, 435, 508, 510 Sassafras 72 Saudi arabia 150 Saussurea lappa 83 Schefflera 71, 73, 468, 501, 513 Schizonts 50 Schumanniophyton problematicum 327 Screening 50, 54, 76, 308, 315, 370, 377, 382, 432, 435 Scrophularia 261 Scrophulariaceae 84 Secoiridoids 438 Secondary metabolites 308, 439 Seed banks 487 Seed certification 206 Seed cleaners 206 Seed crops 206 Seed germination 310 Seed oils 10, 222, 463 Seed production 97 Seedling growth 28 Seeds 20, 40, 257, 315, 368, 388, 464, 520 Semiarid climate 179 Senecio 403, 404, 483 Separation 133 Serine proteinases 164 Sesquiterpenes 18, 69 Sesquiterpenoid lactones 31, 32, 77, 307 Sesquiterpenoids 23, 165, 503 Setaria italica 114 Sex 150 Sexual behavior 150 Shanxi 506 Shigella dysenteriae 381 Shigella flexneri 381 Shoot tip culture 232, 486 Shrimps 372 Siberia 180, 198 Sichuan 141, 163 Simaroubaceae 57 Sleep 360 Smilax 210, 459 Smooth muscle 152, 153, 157, 409, 410, 411 Solanaceae 308, 439 Solanum 337 Solanum incanum 252 Somalia 81, 241 Somatic embryogenesis 486 Sophora 281, 521, 522 Sophora subprostrata 510 Sopubia delphinifolia 248 Sorbitol 253 South Africa 205, 233, 391 South America 143, 170, 283 South asia 242 Southern Africa 301 Southern Africia 3 Sowing date 97 Sowing rates 97 Spain 15, 526 Spasms 197 Spathodea campanulata 447 Species 290, 337 Species diversity 223 Spectral analysis 1, 3-6, 9, 12-13, 15, 18, 21-22, 25-26, 29-30, 36, 60-61, 63-64, 69-70, 73, 75, 85, 95-96, 101, 103, 106, 113-114, 116, 120-123, 126, 129, 131-132, 135-141, 163, 165, 188-189, 191, 194-195, 199, 221, 226, 243-245, 248, 250, 257-258, 261, 263, 269, 272-274, 276-277, 281-282, 285-286, 302, 307, 309, 311, 314, 321, 339-340, 352, 365-369, 384, 386, 391-393, 401-404, 407, 421, 425, 428, 447-448, 451-452, 454-460, 468, 470, 480, 483-484, 500-505, 508, 510-511, 513-514, 520, 522, 524-526, 528, 532-534, 544 Spectral data 349, 353 Spices 450 Sri lanka 230, 512 Standardization 224 Staphylococcus aureus 54, 148, 382 Stemodia 454 Stems 23, 120, 126, 130, 199, 228, 244, 286, 320, 334, 447, 505 Stephania cepharanthea 311 Stereochemistry 64, 98, 130, 258, 353, 404, 425 Steroid alkaloids 95, 455, 456 Steroid saponins 451, 452, 457, 458, 459 Steroids 386 Sterols 435 Stevia 122 Stilbenes 129, 211, 532 Stimulant plants 171 Stimulants 150, 166, 180, 415 Storage 20, 315 Streptococcus faecalis 54 Streptococcus pneumoniae 382 Streptococcus pyogenes 382 Strychnos 315, 346 Strychnos gossweileri 285 Strychnos henningsii 197 Sucrose 62 Sulfur 225 Sumatra 299 Supplements 271 Surfactants 18 Surveys 178, 192, 491, 492 Swertia 544 Swertia chirata 470 Swertia japonica 39 Symphytum officinale 72 Symptoms 198 Synonyms 181, 241, 242, 479 Synonymy 479 Synthesis 164 Syzygium 529 Tabebuia 199 Tabernaemontana crassa 472 Taiwan 121, 286, 393 Tanacetum 77 Tannins 29, 33, 226, 356, 387, 435 Tanzania 49, 51, 383 Taxonomy 32, 242, 479, 531 Taxus 19, 38, 334, 475, 476, 477 Taxus baccata 92, 93, 167, 262, 413, 429, 431, 474, 478 Taxus media 546 Tea 156 Technology transfer 478 Temperature 147, 313 Teratogens 432 Terminology 242 Terpenoids 88, 273, 302, 353, 480 Testing 89 Teucrium 107, 325 Textiles 354 Thailand 75, 172, 281, 328, 494, 495, 520 Thalictrum 27 Therapy 143, 378 Thin layer chromatography 133, 467 Thinning 449 Thioamides 368 Thymelaeaceae 346 Thymol 99 Thymus serpyllum 201 Tillandsia 176 Tissue culture 431, 474 Tobacco 143 Tobacco mosaic tobamovirus 78, 488, 536 Tonga 214 Totonac indians 217 Toxic extracts 309 Toxic substances 186, 346, 466 Toxicity 72, 112, 159, 210, 270, 432, 490 Toxicology 32, 181, 359 Toxins 489 Trachea 152, 153, 409 Traditional medicines 17, 32, 39-40, 42, 45-46, 48, 54, 59, 83, 88, 104, 107, 109, 128, 142, 150-151, 158, 160, 178, 184, 192-193, 197, 205, 211-212, 214, 230, 233, 238, 241, 246-247, 278, 294, 301, 322, 328, 348, 350, 361-362, 364, 370, 372, 376, 378-380, 383, 390, 396-397, 400, 412, 416-419, 434, 443, 445, 453, 465-466, 471, 491-493, 495-498, 527, 530-531, 538 Transcription 86 Transduction 323 Transgenics 358, 436 Trauma 211 Treatment 50 Trees 354 Triacylglycerol lipase 164 Tribes 498 Tribulus 315 Trichilia 481 Trichosanthes kirilowii 105, 333, 489 Triphyophyllum peltatum 130, 131 Trisaccharides 73 Triterpene acides 435 Triterpene acids 61, 272, 385, 447 Triterpenoid saponins 195, 269, 346, 428, 468, 485, 502, 506, 509, 511 Triterpenoids 3, 16, 30, 37, 71, 73, 98, 122, 123, 277, 286, 314, 460, 470, 501, 503-505, 507-508, 510, 512-515, 528, 534 Tropane alkaloids 308, 439 Tropical forests 363, 399, 499, 516 Tropical rain forests 68, 541 Tubers 251, 469 Turkey 13, 27, 312, 329, 455, 456, 458, 496, 524 U.S.A. 19, 74, 90, 100, 231, 262, 420, 429, 474, 475, 499 U.S.S.R. 201 Ulcers 359 Uncaria 157 Unido 246 Ursolic acid 460 Urticaceae 314 Usage 180 USDA 429 Usda 546 Uses 241, 341, 378, 412, 479, 531 Uterine diseases 497 Uterus 411, 463, 467 Uttar pradesh 21, 80, 268 Vacuoles 251 Vandalism 93 Vegetables 337 Venezuela 119, 274, 370 Venoms 328 Vernonia amygdalina 394 Veterinary medicine 169 Vietnam 73, 322, 443, 501 Virola pavonis 1 Virucides 89 Volatile compounds 37, 500, 535 Vomiting 166, 415 Weed biology 469 Weed control 313 Western australia 97 Western Samoa 151 Wild flowers 65 Wild foods 179, 310 Wild plants 342, 437 Wood 79, 199, 314 Woodlands 422 World food problems 300 Wounds 99 Xanthine oxidase 543 Xanthones 391, 392, 533, 544 Xinjiang 263 Yeast extracts 236 Yeasts 361 Yield components 97 Yucca aloifolia 452 Yunnan 18, 84, 126, 254, 434 Zaire 285 Zearalenone 315 Zimbabwe 62, 140, 344, 484 Ziziphus spina-christi 120

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