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Adjuvants Bibliography

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Revised June 1998

Allison, A. (1990). Syntex Adjuvant Formulation (SAF) as an alternative to Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA). In: Adjuvants: Advances in Technology and Alternatives to Freund's (Conference Proceedings). The Animal Resources Centre and the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research, McGill University: Montreal, Quebec, pp. 19-22.
Descriptors: virus antigens, soluble antigens, animal models.

Allison, A.C. (1979). Mode of action of immunological adjuvants. Journal of the Reticuloendothelial Society 26:619-630, ISSN:0033-6890.
NAL call number: QP185 R4
Descriptors: antigen, antibody, cell-mediated immunity, T-lymphocytes, macrophages, liposomes, prophylaxis.

Allison, A.C. and N.E. Byars (1992). Syntex adjuvant formulation. Research in Immunology 143(5):519-525, ISSN:0923-2494.
NAL call number: QR180 A5
Descriptors: mouse, guinea pig, herpesvirus, vaccine pharmacodynamics, cytotoxicity, Freund's complete adjuvant.

Allison, A.C. and N.E. Byars (1991). Immunological adjuvants desirable properties and side-effects. Molecular Immunology 28(3):279-284, ISSN:0161-5890.
NAL call number: 448.3 Im62
Descriptors: human influenza virus, herpes virus, hepatitis B virus, polymer, Syntex, cell mediated immunity.

ANZCCART The impact of adjuvants (March 1994). ANZCCART News: Australian and New Zealand Council for the Care of Animals in Research and Teaching 7(1):9, ISSN:1039-9089.
NAL call number: SF405.5 A3
Descriptors: inoculation procedures, inflammation, refinement, Freund's, distress.

Bautista-Garfias C.R., et al. (Spring 1995). Effect of three immunostimulants on the resistance against Trichinella spiralis infection in mice (preliminary report). Archives of Medical Research 26(1):91-93, ISSN:0188-0128.
Descriptors: mice, Freund's complete adjuvant, Concanavalin A, Equimune, phosphate buffered saline, Trichinella spiralis, infective larvae.

Behbehani, K., D.I. Beller, and E.R. Unanue (April 1985). The effects of beryllium and other adjuvants on Ia expression by macrophages. The Journal of Immunology 134(4):2047-2049, ISSN:0022-1767.
NAL call number: 448.8 J8232
Descriptors: glycoproteins, Ia positive macrophage, mice.

Bejan, A., M. Suciu, et al. (1995). Radioimmunoanalysis of antibodies obtained by a liposomal adjuvant. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 200(6):475-482, ISSN:0236-5731.
Descriptors: radioimmunoanalysis method, rehydration vesicles, Freund's complete, adjuvant, bovine serum albumin, human transferrin, human alpha-foetoprotein rats.

Bennet, B., I.J. Check, M.R. Olsen, and R.L. Hunter (1992). A comparison of commercially available adjuvants for use in research. Journal of Immunological Methods 153:31-40, ISSN:0011-1759.
NAL call number: QR180 J6
Descriptors: TiterMax, complete Freund's adjuvant, Adjuvax, Ribi, Alhydrogel, Lipovant, rabbit, mouse, goat.

Bernstein, D.I., C.J. Harrison, et al. (January 1995). Effect of imiquimod as an adjuvant for immunotherapy of genital HSV in guinea-pigs. Vaccine 13(1):72-76, ISSN:0264-410X.
NAL call number: QR189 V32
Descriptors: guinea pigs, viral envelope proteins, glycoproteins, complete Freund's adjuvant, immunotherapy, herpes genitalis.

Bessler, W.G. and G. Jung (1992). Synthetic lipopeptides as novel adjuvants. Research in Immunology 143(5):519-525, ISSN:0923-2494.
NAL call number: QR180 A5
Descriptors: lipopeptides, nontoxic, high titers, nonpyrogenic, transient tissue irritation.

Bikour, M.H., E. Cornaglia and Y. Elazhary (1994). Comparative study of the immunostimulatory properties of different adjuvants administered with an inactivated influenza virus vaccine and evaluation of passive immunity in pigs. Immunology and Infectious Diseases 4(3):166-172, ISSN:0959-4957.
Descriptors: Quil A/Alhydrogel, Immunokinin, IgM, IgG, antibody titers.

Boersma, W.J.A., W.J.C. Bogaerts, A.T.J. Bianchi, and E. Classen (1992). Adjuvant properties of water-in-oil emulsions, evaluation of the experiment with Specol. Research in Immunology 143(5): 503-512, ISSN:0923-2494.
NAL call number: QR180 A5
Descriptors: water-in-oil emulsion, Specol, pain reduction, Freund's complete adjuvant alternative.

Bokhout, B.A., C. Van Gaalen, and Ph.J. Van der Heijden (1981). A selected water-in-oil emulsion: composition and usefulness as an immunological adjuvant. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 2:491-500, ISSN:0165-2427.
NAL call number: SF757.2 V38
Descriptors: rabbit, pig, water-in-oil emulsion, incomplete Freund's adjuvant, reducing animal number.

Bomford, R. (1980). The comparative selectivity of adjuvants for humoral and cell-mediated immunity. I. Effect on the antibody response to bovine serum albumin and sheep red blood cells to Freund's incomplete and complete adjuvants, Alhydrogel, Corynebacterium parvum, Bordetella pertussis, Muramyl dipeptide and Saponin. Clinical Experimental Immunology 39:426-434, ISSN:0009-9104.
NAL call number: QR180 C5
Descriptors: adjuvant, IgG1, IgG2, immunopotentcy.

Brewer, J.M. and J. Alexander (May 1994). Studies on the adjuvant activity of non-ionic surfactant vesicles: Adjuvant-driven IgG2a production independent of MHC control. Vaccine 12(7):613-619, ISSN:0264-410X.
NAL call number: QR189 V32
Descriptors: Balb/C mice, non-ionic surfactant vesicles, Freund's complete adjuvant.

Brewer, J.M. and J. Alexander (April 1992). The adjuvant activity of non-ionic surfactant vesicles (niosomes) on the BALB/c humoral response to bovine serum albumin. Immunology 75(4):570-575, ISSN:0165-2427.
NAL call number: 448.3 IM6
Descriptors: Freund's complete adjuvant, titer level, mouse, low toxicity, stability.

Broderson, J.R. (1990). Pathology following the usage of Freund's adjuvant. In: Adjuvants: Advances in Technology and Alternatives to Freund's (Conference Proceedings). The Animal Resources Centre and the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research, McGill University: Montreal, Quebec, pp. 7-14.
Descriptors: inflammation, innoculation site, monkey, rabbit, guinea pig, tissue necrosis, dyspnea.

Broderson, J.R. (1989). A retrospective review of lesions associated with the use of Freund's adjuvant. Laboratory Animal Science 39:400-405, ISSN:0023-6764.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: inflammation, rabbit, monkey, adjuvant, pain.

Brown, L.R., C.L. Wei, and R. Langer (October 1983). In vivo and in vitro release of macromolecules from polymeric drug delivery systems. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 72(10):1181-1185, ISSN:0022-3549.
NAL call number: 396.8 J825
Descriptors: inulin, insulin, drug delivery, release kinetics.

Brumeanu, T.D., H. Zaghouani, et al. (April 1, 1995). Derivatization with monomethoxypolyethylene glycol of Igs expressing viral epitopes obviates adjuvant requirements. Journal of Immunology 154(7):3088-3095, ISSN:0022-1767.
NAL call number: 448.8 J8232
Descriptors: in vitro and in vivo effects, Inbred BALB/C mice, polyethylene glycols, lymphocyte transformation, recombinant proteins.

Buiting, A.M.J., N. van Roojen, and E. Claassen (1992). Liposomes as antigen carriers and adjuvants in vivo. Research in Immunology 143(5):541-548, ISSN:0923-2494.
NAL call number: QR180 A5
Descriptors: biodegradable, nontoxic, humoral immune response.

Burke, R.L., C. Goldbeck, et al. (November 1994). The influence of adjuvant on the therapeutic efficacy of a recombinant genital herpes vaccine. Journal of Infectious Diseases 170(5):1110-1119, ISSN:0022-1899.
NAL call number: 448.8 J821
Descriptors: guinea pigs, vaccines, persistent virus infections genital herpes muramyl peptide derivative, MTP-PE Alum.

Byars, N.E., G. Nakano, et al. (1991). Improvement of hepatitis B vaccine by the use of a new adjuvant. Vaccine 9(5):309-318, ISSN:0264-410X.
NAL call number: QR189 V32
Descriptors: mouse, guinea-pig, Syntex adjuvant formulation, immunoglobulin G, cellular immunity.

Cabrera-Contreras, R., Plescia, O., Solotorovsky, M. and M. Lynn (June 1985). Enhancement of immunogenic activity of ribosomal preparations from Haemophilus influenzae by various adjuvants. Vaccine 3:103-108, ISSN:0264-410X.
NAL call number: QR189 V32
Descriptors: Freund's incomplete adjuvant, Hilleman's adjuvant, pertussis vaccine.

Campbell, J.B. and Y.A. Peerbaye (1992). Saponin Research in Immunology 143(5):526-530, ISSN:0923-2494.
NAL call number: QR180 A5
Descriptors: Quillaja saponaria, South American soaptree, toxic, rabies vaccine, variations in available preparation.

Cantrell, J.L.(1990). Immunological adjuvants for bioengineered antigens. In: Adjuvants: Advances in Technology and Alternatives to Freund's (Conference Proceedings). The Animal Resources Centre and the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research, McGill University: Montreal, Quebec, pp. 23-34.
Descriptors: non-toxic, non-allergenic, adjuvant systems, bioengineered antigen.

Carayanniotis, G. and B.H. Barber (1987). Adjuvant-free IgG responses induced with antigens coupled to antibodies against class II MH. Nature 327:59-61, ISSN:0028-0836.
NAL call number: 472 N21
Descriptors: mouse, monoclonal antibodies, avidin, adjuvant-free method, vaccine production.

Carlson, J.R. and G.A. Van Nest (1995). Comparison of local and systemic cytokine profiles in mice after vaccination with advanced adjuvants. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry Supplement 21A:114, ISSN:0733-1959.
NAL call number: QH506 J67 Suppl.21A
Descriptors: meeting abstract, interleukin specific immune response, influenza antigen, MF59-O adjuvant, Quil/A adjuvant.

Carter, K.K. (1990). Nitrocellulose. In: Adjuvants: Advances in Technology and Alternatives to Freund's (Conference Proceedings). The Animal Resources Centre and the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research, McGill University: Montreal, Quebec, pp. 63-66.
Descriptors: matrix, antigen capture, electrophoresis, arthritis.

Cavaillon, J.M., C. Leclerc C, and J.E. Alouf (February 15, 1983). Polyclonal antibody forming cell activation and immunomodulation of the in vitro immune response induced by streptococcal extracellular products. Cellular Immunology 76(1):200-206, ISSN:0008-8749.
NAL call number: QR180 C4
Descriptors: extracellular streptococcal products, gamma and epsilon fractions, rabbit and mouse immunoglobulins.

Cernescu C.E. (1994). AIDS vaccines and adjuvant formulations. International Journal of Immunopharmacology 16(5-6):369-379, ISSN:0192-0561.
NAL call number: QR180 I52
Descriptors: HIV vaccine, alum, cell-wall derived adjuvants, cytokines, carriers and vehicles, T-cell response, mucosal immunity.

Chapel, H.M. and P.J. August (June 1976). Report of nine cases of accidental injury to man with Freund's complete adjuvant. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 24(3):538-541, ISSN:0009-9104.
NAL call number: QR180 C5
Descriptors: inflammation, bleeding, ulcers, case reports, influenza-like illness.

Chu, C.T., T.D. Oury, et al. (February 15, 1994). Adjuvant-free in vivo targeting. Antigen delivery by alpha 2-macroglobulin enhances antibody formation. Journal of Immunology 152(4):538-545, ISSN:0022-1767.
NAL call number: 448.8 J8232
Descriptors: rabbit, alpha 2-macroglobulin, free hen egg lysozyme (HEL), T hybridoma clones, in vitro, rabbits, subcutaneous immunization, nitrocellulose paper strips.

Claassen, E., W. de Leeuw, P. de Greeve, C. Hendriksen, and W. Boersma (1992). Characteristics and practical use of new-generation adjuvants as an acceptable alternative to Freund's complete adjuvants. Research in Immunology 143:475-477, ISSN:0959-4957.
NAL call number: QR180 A5
Descriptors: antigen hydrophobicity, cytokine production, vehicles, pain.

Claassen, E., W. de Leeuw, P. de Greeve, C. Hendriksen, and W. Boersma (1992). Freund's complete adjuvant: An effective but disagreeable formula. Research in Immunology 143:478-483, ISSN:0959-4957.
NAL call number: QR180 A5
Descriptors: water-in-oil emulsions, side effects, comparisons with other adjuvants.

Claassen, I. and A. Osterhaus (1992). The iscom structure as an immune-enhancing moiety: experience with viral systems. Research in Immunology 143(5):531-541, ISSN:0923-2494.
NAL call number: QR180 A5
Descriptors: Quil-A, immune stimulating complex (iscom), production process, Herpsviridae, Hepatitis B virus, rubella, rabies.

Clemons, D.J., C. Besch-Williford, E.K. Steffen, L.K. Riley, and D.H. Moore (June 1992). Evaluation of a subcutaneously implanted chamber for antibody production in rabbits. Laboratory Animal Science 42(3):307-311, ISSN:0023-6764.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: polyclonal antibody, golf ball, titer quantity, compare with Freund's or acylamide.

Coghlan, L.G. and M. Hanausek (1990). Subcutaneous immunization of rabbits with nitrocellulose paper strips impregnated with microgram quantities of protein. Journal of Immunological Methods 129:135-138, ISSN:0011-1759.
NAL call number: QR180 J6
Descriptors: polyclonal antibodies, subcutaneous implant, antigen purity, monoclonal, inflammation, discomfort.

Cooper, P.D. (1995). Vaccine adjuvants based on gamma inulin. Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 6:559-580, ISSN:1078-0467.
NAL call number: RS380 P53 v.6
Descriptors: human and veterinary vaccines, Gamma inulin-based adjuvants, nontoxic, nonpyrogenic, Th1 immune response pathway.

Cossarini-Dunier, M. (1985). Effect of different adjuvants on the humoral immune response of rainbow trout. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 9:141-146, ISSN:0145-305X.
NAL call number: QR180 D4
Descriptors: trout, Freund's complete adjuvant, muramyl dipeptide, adjuvant combinations, titer, aquaculture.

Coughlin, R.T., A. Fattom, et al. (1995). Adjuvant activity of QS-21 for experimental E. coli 018 polysaccharide vaccines. Vaccine 13(1):17-21, ISSN:0264-410X.
NAL call number: QR189 V32
Descriptors: polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid conjugate, detoxified, lipopolysaccharide, female, ICR mice, saponin adjuvant, tree bark.

Davidson, E., and E. Prentice (1994). TiterMax an adjuvant update. Vaxcel, Inc.: Norcoss, GA, 1 videocassette (18 min.), 1/2 in.
NAL call number: Videocassette no.2038
Descriptors: alternative adjuvant, less toxic, emulsification procedures, step-by-step visual preparation.

Deeb, B.J., R.F. DiGiacomo, L.L. Kunz, and J.L. Stewart (1992). Comparison of Freund's and Ribi adjuvants for inducing antibodies to the synthetic antigen (TG)-AL in rabbits. Journal of Immunological Methods 152:105-113, ISSN:0011-1759.
NAL call number: QR180 J6
Descriptors: IgG, IgM, rabbit, Ribi, Freund's, inflammation, discomfort.

DeForge, L.E., E. Takeuchi, et al. (March 1994). Immunological priming attenuates the in vivo pathophysiological response to lipopolysaccharide. Comparison of cytokine production, tissue injury, and lethality in complete Freund's adjuvant-primed mice and in unprimed mice. American Journal of Pathology 144(3):599-611, ISSN:0002-9440.
NAL call number: 448.8 AM39
Descriptors: mice, cytokines, toxicity, complete Freund's adjuvant, leukopenia, neutropenia, interleukin-6, lipopolysaccharides, tumor necrosis factor.

Degling, L. and P. Stjarnkvist P. (1995). Biodegradable microspheres XVIII: The adjuvant effect of polyacryl starch microparticles with conjugated human serum albumin. Vaccine 13(7):629-636, ISSN:0264-410X.
NAL call number: QR189 V32
Descriptors: mice, human serum albumin, Freund's complete adjuvant, humoral and cellular immune responses, intraperitoneal immunizations.

Dempsey, P.W., M.E. Allison, et al. (January 19,1996). C3d of complement as a molecular adjuvant: bridging innate and acquired immunity. Science 271(5247):348-350, ISSN:0036-8075
NAL call number: 470 Sci2
Descriptors: antibody formation, natural antigens, Freund's adjuvant, mice, Inbred CBA, cultured tumor cells.

deSouza, J.B. and J.H. Playfair (October 1995). A novel adjuvant for use with a blood-stage malaria vaccine. Vaccine 13(14):1316-1319, ISSN:0264-410X.
NAL call number: QR189 V32
Descriptors: human malaria vaccine, Th1 and Th2 subset cytokines, therapeutic use, mice, Inbred BALB/c, C57BL, saponins, T-Lymphocytes.

Di Tommaso, A., G. Saletti (1996). Induction of antigen-specific antibodies in vaginal secretions by using a nontoxic mutant of heat-labile enterotoxin as a mucosal adjuvant. Infection and Immunity 64(3):974-979, ISSN:0019-9567.
NAL call number: QR1 I57
Descriptors: sexually transmitted diseases, nontoxic mutant LTK63, IgG, IgA, intranasal immunization.

Douce, G., C. Turcotte, et al. (February 28, 1995). Mutants of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin lacking ADP-ribosyltransferase activity act as nontoxic, mucosal adjuvants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 92(5):1644-1648, ISSN:0027-8424.
NAL call number: 500 N21P
Descriptors: site-directed mutagenesis, mucosal adjuvant BALB/c mice, enterotoxins, gastric mucosa, bacterial toxins, ADP-Ribosyltransferase.

Eldridge, J.H., J.K. Staas, T.R. Tice, and R.M. Gilley (1992). Biodegradable poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres. Research in Immunology 143(5):557-563, ISSN:0923-2494.
NAL call number: QR180 A5
Descriptors: DL-PLG microspheres, minimize inflammation, polymeric particulate adjuvants.

Erhard M., J. Kellner, R. Kuhlmann and U. Losch (1991). Influence of various adjuvants on the synthesis of specific antibodies of chicken, sheep and rabbit following immunization with a hapten. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series 38(1):21-27, ISSN:0931-184X.
NAL call number: 41.8 Z52
Descriptors: aluminum hydroxide, Freund's adjuvant, immune response, antibody production.

Ermeling, B.L., E.K. Steffen, R.E. Fish, and R.R. Hook, Jr. (April 1992). Evaluation of subcutaneous chambers as an alternative to conventional methods of antibody production in chickens. Laboratory Animal Science 42(4):402-407, ISSN:0023-6764.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: egg yolk, granuloma fluid, Freund's, plastic wiffle balls.

Espuna, E., P. Riera, et al. (1994). Activity of a non-oily adjuvant used as diluent of a lyophilized live against Aujeszky's disease. Medicina Veterinaria 11(6):359-372, ISSN:0212-8292.
Descriptors: pigs, freeze-dried vaccine, Aujeszky's disease, oil emulsion, Levamisol, pseudorabies vaccine.

European Concerted Action On Macaque Models For Aids Research (1995). Protection of macaques against simian immunodeficiency virus infection with inactivated vaccines: Comparison of adjuvants, doses and challenge, viruses. Vaccine 13(3):295-300, ISSN:0264-410X.
NAL call number: QR189 V32
Descriptors: therapeutic use of adjuvants, formaldehyde, immunization schedule, primates, Macaca fascicularis, Macaca mulatta.

Ewasyshyn, M., B. Caplan, A-M. Bonneau, and M. Klein (1990). Comparison of the immunopotentiating effects of different adjuvants on the immunogenecity of a parainfluenza virus type 3 subunit vaccine. In: Adjuvants: Advances in Technology and Alternatives to Freund's (Conference Proceedings). The Animal Resources Centre and the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research, McGill University: Montreal, Quebec, pp. 35-42.
Descriptors: guinea pig, hamster, immunogenecity, Freund's, Ribi, Syntex.

Fattom, A., X. Li, et al. (October 1995). Effect of conjugation methodology, carrier protein, and adjuvants on the immune response to Staphylococcus aureus capsular polysaccharides. Vaccine 13(14):1288-1293, ISSN:0264-410X.
NAL call number: QR189 V32
Descriptors: bacterial, vaccines, diphtheria toxoid.

Ferber, P.C., F.R. Homberger, P. Ossent, and R.W. Fischer (1997) Generation of monoclonal antibodies: Influence of the adjuvants on the immune response and the distress of the animals. [Herstellung monoklonaler antikoerper: Einfluss der adjuvanttien auf die immunantwort und die belastung der versuchstiere.] In: Ersatz- und Ergaensungsmethoden zu Tierversuchen Band iV, Forschung ohne Tierversuche 1996, H. Schöffl, H. Spielmann, and H.A. Tritthart (eds.), Springer-Verlag: Wein, New York, pp.269-274.
Descriptors: comparison study, commercial adjuvants, Poly-A-poly-U, GERBU, RIBI, Pam3, Specol, Fruend's, Titermax, subcutaneous administration, distress.

Freitas, T.V., C.L. Fortes-Diaz, C.R. Diniz, D.T. Velarde, and C.F. Freitas (1991). Immunization of horses with Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake) venom. A comparison of four different procedures. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 24(3):281-290, ISSN: 0100-879X.
NAL call number: R850 A1B72
Descriptors: Freund's complete and incomplete adjuvant, liposomes, aluminum hydroxide, antivenom, ED50, horses.

Freund, J., J. Casals, and E.P. Hismer (1937). Sensitization and antibody formation after injection of tubercle bacilli and paraffin oil. Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine 37:509-513, ISSN:0037-9727.
NAL call number: 442.9 S01
Descriptors: guinea pig, rabbit, titer, bacilli, sensitivity.

Gengoux, C. and C. Leclerc (January 1995). In vivo induction of CD4+ T cell responses by antigens covalently linked to synthetic microspheres does not require adjuvant. International Immunology 7(1):45-53, ISSN:0953-8178.
Descriptors: hen egg lysozyme, CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes hybridomas, Inbred BALB/c mice.

Gillette, R.W. (May 4, 1987). Alternatives to pristane priming for ascitic fluid and monoclonal antibody production. Journal of Immunological Methods 99(1):21-23, ISSN:0022-1759.
NAL call number: QR180 J6
Descriptors: incomplete Freund's adjuvant, hybridoma cell inoculation, proteose-peptone, thioglycollate, corn oil hybridomas, mice, Inbred BALB/c.

Giordano, J. and L.V. Rogers (1989). Peripherally administered serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonists reduce inflammatory pain in rats. European Journal of Pharmacology 170:83-86, ISSN:0014-2999.
NAL call number: QP901 E8
Descriptors: pain model, Freund's complete adjuvant, hind paw injection, drug trials, analgesic tests.

Glaser, V. (June 1,1995). Adjuvants boost safety, efficacy while lowering the costs of new vaccines. Genetic Engineering News 15(11):6-7, ISSN:0270-6377.
NAL call number: QH442 G456
Descriptors: vaccine development, Freund's, aluminum salts, MF59, glycoprotein, Ribi, nonionic surfactant vesicles, saponin Quil A.

Gonzalez, A., N.D. Greene, and B.D. Murphy (1991). Active immunization against GnRH in mice and rats: Adjuvant B, an alternative to Freund's adjuvant. Journal of Animal Science 69 (Suppl. 1):396, ISSN:0021-8812.
NAL call number: 49 J82
Descriptors: mice, rats, GnRH immunization, keyhole limpet hemocyanin.

Goodman, M.G. (1995). A new approach to vaccine adjuvants. Immunopotentiation by intracellular T-helper-like signals transmitted by loxoribine. Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 6:581-609, ISSN:1078-0467.
NAL call number: RS380 P53 v.6
Descriptors: loxoribine, B cells, T cells, NK cells, macrophages, and LAK cells, therapeutic use, guanosine, adverse effects.

Gray, G., R. McGhie, and J.A. Love (October/December 1992). Antibody production in rabbits: Reducing animal numbers. Canadian Association for Laboratory Animal Science Newsletter 26(4/5):106-110, ISSN: 0045-4354
NAL call number: SF405.5 C36
Descriptors: polyclonal antibodies, carotid cannulation, reduction of animal number.

Grubhofer, N. (January 1995). An adjuvant formulation based on N-acetylglucosaminyl-N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine with, dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride and zinc-L-proline complex as synergists. Immunology Letters 44(1):19-24, ISSN:0165-2478.
NAL call number: QR180.I53
Descriptors: mice, Inbred C3H, ternary synergistic composition, ammonium, compounds, Freund's Adjuvant, haptens.

Gupta, R.K., Jr. P. Griffin, et al. (1996). The role of adjuvants and delivery systems in modulation of immune response to vaccines. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 397:105-113, ISSN:0065-2598.
NAL call number: QP901.A33
Descriptors: cytokines, antibody isotypes, T helper cell types, aluminum adjuvants, alternative adjuvants.

Gupta, R.K., B.E. Rost, E. Relyveld, and G.R. Siber (1995). Adjuvant properties of aluminum and calcium compounds. Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 6:229-248, ISSN:1078-0467.
NAL call number: RS380 P53 v.6
Descriptors: aluminum compounds, eosinophilia, macrophages, calcium compounds.

Gupta, R.K. and G.R. Siber (October 1995). Adjuvants for human vaccines: Current status, problems and future prospects. Vaccine 13(14):1263-1276, ISSN:0264-410X.
NAL call number: QR189 V32
Descriptors: synthetic vaccines, toxicity, adverse side-effects, aluminum hydroxide, aluminum phosphate, calcium phosphate and oil emulsions, alternative adjuvants, muramyl dipeptide, monophosphoryl lipid A, liposomes, QS21, MF-59, immunostimulating complexes, biodegradable polymer, microspheres.

Gupta, R.K. and G.R. Siber (March 1994). Comparison of adjuvant activities of aluminum phosphate, calcium phosphate and stearyl tyrosine for tetanus toxoid. Biologicals 22(1):53-63, ISSN:1045-1056.
Descriptors: aluminum compounds, calcium phosphates, bacterial biosynthesis, guinea pigs, mice, IgE, IgG.

Gursel, M. and G. Gregoriadis (1995). Immunoadjuvant action of liposomes containing interleukin-2 as a co-adjuvant. Proceedings of the Controlled Release Society 22:572-573, ISSN:1022-0178.

Descriptors: mice, intramuscular drug administration, interleukin 2, liposome, immunoglobulin G.

Gustafson, G.L. and M.J. Rhodes (1992). Bacterial cell wall products as adjuvants: early interferon gamma as a marker for adjuvants that enhance protective immunity. Research in Immunology 143(5):483-488, ISSN:0923-2494.
NAL call number: QR180 A5
Descriptors: monophosphoryl lipid A, natural killer cells, bacterial immunostimulants, multiple doses, side effects.

Hanly, W.C. (January 1995). Freund's adjuvant and alternatives. BRL Bulletin 10(1):1-4.
NAL call number: IPSG6428
Descriptors: action, inflammatory response, laboratory hazard, pain, distress.

Hanly, W. C. (January 1995). UIC guidelines for the use of adjuvants in animals. BRL Bulletin 10(1):1-4.
NAL call number: IPSG6428
Descriptors: Freund's, laboratory hazard, dose, emulsion, injection site.

Hanly, W.C. (September 1994). Adjuvants and their use. Part II. BRL Bulletin 9(9):1-4.
NAL call number: IPSG6428
Descriptors: alternative adjuvants, montanide ISA, Ribi, Nitrocellulose-adsorbed protein, encapsulated antigens.

Hanly, W.C. (August 1994). Adjuvants and their use. Part I. BRL Bulletin 9(8):1-4.
NAL call number: IPSG6428
Descriptors: function, Freund's, advantages and disadvantages.

Hariharan, K., and G. Braslawsky et al. (1995). The induction of cytotoxic T cells and tumor regression by soluble antigens in adjuvant formulation. Eighty-sixth Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, March 18-22, 1995. Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 36:491, ISSN:0197-016X.
Descriptors: meeting abstract, mouse, cytotoxic, t lymphocyte, vaccination, immunotherapy.

Herbert, J.W. (1968). The mode of action of mineral-oil emulsion adjuvants on antibody production in mice. Immunology 14:301-318, ISSN:0165-2427.
NAL call number: 448.3 IM6
Descriptors: mouse, water-in-oil emulsion, ovalbumin, mechanisms, titer.

Hess, H., M.K. Gately, et al. (1996). High doses of interleukin-12 inhibit the development of joint disease in DBA/1 mice immunized with type II collagen in complete Freund's adjuvant. European Journal of Immunology 26(1):187-191, ISSN:0014-2980.
NAL call number: QR180 E87
Descriptors: collagen-induced arthritis, autoimmune joint disease, complete Freund's adjuvant, IL-12, intraperitoneal drug administration, male, mouse.

Hibma, M. and J.F. Griffin (March 1992). The effect of adjuvants on active and passive immunity in pregnant deer and their offspring. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 31(3-4): 279-287, ISSN: 0165-2427.
NAL call number: SF757.2 V38
Descriptors: IgM, IgG, Freund's complete adjuvant, diethylaminoethyl dextran, aluminum hydroxide, morbidity.

Hilgers, L.A., P.L. Platenburg, et al. (May 1994). A novel non-mineral oil-based adjuvant. II. Efficacy of a synthetic sulfolipopolysaccharide in a squalane-in-water emulsion in pigs. Vaccine 12(7):661-665, ISSN:0264-410X.
NAL call number: QR189 V32
Descriptors: sulfolipopolysaccharide, squalane-in-water emulsion, mineral-oil-in-water adjuvant, porcine vaccines.

Hilgers, L.A.T. and H. Snippe (1992). DDA as an immunological adjuvant. Research in Immunology 143(5):494-503, ISSN:0923-2494.
NAL call number: QR180 A5
Descriptors: dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide, humoral immune response, cell-mediated immune response, toxicity.

Hill, S.L., M.G. Landavere, and N.R. Rose (1996). The adjuvant effect of silicone gel and silicone elastomer particles in rats. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 210:123-137, ISSN:0070-217X.
NAL call number: QR1 C8 no.210
Descriptors: male, Harlan Sprague Dawley rats, silicone oil, silicone elastomer, antigen, bovine serum albumin, inflammatory response, injection site.

Hillam, R.P., R.P. Tengerdy, and G.L. Brown (September 1974). Local antibody production against the murine toxin of Yersina pestis in a golf ball-induced granuloma. Infection and Immunity 10(1):458-463, ISSN:0019-9567.
NAL call number: QR1 I57
Descriptors: IgG, golf ball, granuloma, titer quantity, transudate.

Hornung, R.L., D.L. Longo, et al. (1995). Induction of a CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte response to soluble antigen given together with a novel muramyl dipeptide adjuvant, N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-(beta1-4)-N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-Disoglutamine (GMDP). Therapeutic Immunology 2(1):7-14, ISSN:0967-0149
Descriptors: C57Bl/6 mice, muramyl dipeptide, ovalbumin, drug comparison, vaccine.

Hsia, J., T. Tang, M. Parrott, and K. Rogalla (November 1994). Augmentation of the immune response to influenza vaccine by acetylsalicylic acid: a clinical trial in a geriatric population. Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology 16(9):677-683, ISSN:0379-0355.
Descriptors: oral acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), safe, inexpensive, influenza vaccination, geriatric population, interleukin-2 production.

Hsieh, D.S.T., W.D. Rhine, and R. Langer (January 1983). Zero-order controlled-release polymer matrices for micro- and macromolecules. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 72(1):17-22, ISSN:0022-3549.
NAL call number: 396.8 J825
Descriptors: hemisphere, drug delivery, polymer.

Hui, G.S.N., L.Q. Tam, et al. (1991). Synthetic low-toxicity muramyl dipeptide and monophosphoryl lipid A replace Freund's complete adjuvant in inducing growth-inhibitory antibodies to the Plasmodium falciparum major merozite surface protein, gp195. Infection and Immunity 59(5):1585-1591, ISSN:0019-9567.
NAL call number: QR1 I57
Descriptors: rabbit, B30-MDP, lipophilic muramyl dipeptide derivative, LA-15-PH, Freunds's complete adjuvant, malaria vaccine, antibody production.

Hunter R., M. Olsen and S. Buynitzky (April 1991) Adjuvant activity of non-ionic block copolymers. IV. Effect of molecular weight and formulation on titer and isotype of antibody. Vaccine 9:250-256, ISSN:0264-410X.
NAL call number: QR189 V32
Descriptors: vaccines, female ICR mice, subcutaneous injection, IgG.

Hunter, R.L. and B. Bennett (1984). The adjuvant activity of non-ionic block polymer surfactants. II. Antibody formation and inflammation related to the structure of triblock and actablock copolymers. Journal of Immunology 133(6):3167-3175, ISSN:0022-1767.
NAL call number: 448.8 J8232
Descriptors: block copolymers, mouse, polyoxyethylene, polyoxypropylene, adsorptive surface.

Ibsen P.H., A. Holmet al. (1992). Induction of polyclonal antibodies to the S1 subunit of pertussis toxin by synthetic peptides coupled to Ppd: effect of conjugation method, adjuvant, priming and animal species. APMIS: Acta Pathologica Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica 100(2):159-169, ISSN:0903-4641.
Descriptors: guinea pig, mice, subcutaneous drug administration, intraperitoneal drug administration, aluminum hydroxide.

Ishihara, C., M. Miyazawa, J. Nishio, I. Azuma, and B. Chesebro (1992). Use of low toxicity adjuvants and killed virus to induce protective immunity against the Friend murine leukaemia retrovirus-induced disease. Vaccine 10(5):353-356, ISSN:0264-410X.
NAL call number: QR189 V32
Descriptors: mouse, combined adjuvant, mycobacterial cord factor, monophosphoryl lipid A, trehalose dimycolate.

Jackson L.A. and J.P. Opdebeeck (May 1995). The effect of various adjuvants on the humoral immune response of sheep and cattle to soluble and membrane midgut antigens of Boophilus microplus. Veterinary Parasitology 58(1-2):129-141, ISSN:0304-4017.
Descriptors: sheep, cattle, cattle tick, Boophilus microplus, Quil A, Freund's incomplete adjuvant, aluminium hydroxide, immunological procedures, vaccine, intramuscular drug administration.

Jennings, V.M. (1995). Review of selected adjuvants used in antibody production. ILAR Journal 37(3):119-125, ISSN:0018-9960.
NAL call number: QL55 A1I43
Descriptors: Freund's, RIBI, TiterMax, pain, distress, granuloma, arthritis.

Johnson, D.K. (1994). Adjuvant comparison in rabbits. In: Rodents and Rabbits Current Research Issues: Proceedings of a conference sponsored by SCAW and WARDS held in Washington, DC on May 21, 1993 S.M. Niemi, J.S. Venable and H.N. Guttman, eds., Scientist Center for Animal Welfare: Greenbelt Maryland, WARDS: Washington, DC, pp. 77-80.
NAL call number:SF407 R6R63 1994
Descriptors: polyclonal antibodies, complete Freunds adjuvant, TiterMax, Ribi, Adjuprime.

Johnson, D.K. (1994). Adjuvant comparison in rabbits. Science and Animal Care 5(2):2-4.
NAL call number: HV4701 S35
Descriptors: Freund's, TiterMax, Adjuprime, Ribi, Squalen, titers, clinical effects.

Johnston, B.A., H. Eisen, and D. Fry (January 1991). An evaluation of several adjuvant emulsion regimens for the production of polyclonal antisera in rabbits. Laboratory Animal Science 41(1): 15-21, ISSN:0023-6764.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: polyclonal antisera, emulsion, complete Freund's, incomplete Freund's, RIBI, Montanide ISA 50, Montanide ISA 70.

Jones, G.L., L. Spencer, R. Lord, H. Edmundson and A.J. Saul (May-June 1991). High-titer antisera production using three adjuvants and peptide conjugates derived from malarial surface antigen MSA-2. Peptide Research 4(3):138-141, ISSN:1040-5704.
Descriptors: peptide constructs, alum, Freund's adjuvant.

Jones, G.L., L. Spencer, R. Lord, and A.J. Saul (1996). Effect of context and adjuvant on the immunogenecity of recombinant proteins and peptide conjugates derived from the polymorphic malarial surface antigen MSA2. Vaccine 14(1):77-84, ISSN:0264-410X.
NAL call number: QR189 V32
Descriptors: Quackenbush mice, Freund's adjuvant, Alum, Algammulin, monoclonal antibodies, recombinant vaccines, immunization, parasites, Plasmodium falciparum, protozoa.

Kato, H., M. Shibano, et al. (1994). Relationship between hemolytic activity and adsorption capacity of aluminum hydroxide and calcium phosphate as immunological adjuvants for biologicals. Microbiology and Immunology 38(7):543-548, ISSN:0385-5600.
NAL call number: 448.8 J273
Descriptors: guinea pig, vaccine, aluminum hydroxide, calcium phosphate, immunological adjuvant, hemolytic activity.

Katz, D., S. Lehrer, O. Galan, B.E. Lachmi and S. Cohen (November 1991). Adjuvant effects of dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide, complete Freund's adjuvant and aluminium hydroxide on neutralizing antibody, anitibody-isotope and delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to Semliki Forest virus in mice. FEMS Microbiology Immunology 3(6):305-320, ISSN:0920-8534.
NAL call number: QR1 F44
Descriptors: adsorption, comparative study, immuloglobulin isotopes.

Katz, D., Inbar, I., Samina, I., Peleg, B.A., Heller, D.E. (December 1993). Comparison of dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide, Freund's complete adjuvant and mineral oil for induction of humoral antibodies, cellular immunity and resistance to Newcastle disease virus in chickens. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 7(4):303-313, ISSN:0928-8244.
NAL call number: QR180.F46
Descriptors: lipophilic quaternary amine, Newcastle disease, immune responses, Freund's complete adjuvant.

Ke, Y., R.L. Hunter, and J.A. Kapp (1995). Induction of humoral and cytolytic responses by ovalbumin in TiterMax and a new synthetic copolymer adjuvant. Vaccine Research 4(1):29-45, ISSN:1056-7909.
Descriptors: mice, TiterMax adjuvant, nonionic block copolymer,ovalbumin-P1005, adjuvant, alternatives, complete Freund's adjuvant, specific humoral and cell-mediated immune response, vaccine.

Kellner, J., M. Erhard, I. Schranner, and U. Lösch (January 1992). The influence of various adjuvants on antibody synthesis following immunization with a hapten. Biological Chemistry Hoppe-Seyler 373:51-55, ISSN:0177-3593.
NAL call number: 384 738
Descriptors: Freund's complete adjuvant, synthetic lipopeptides, aluminium hydroxide, mouse, immunostimulation.

Kim, C.K. and E.J. Jeong (1995). Development of dried liposome as effective immuno-adjuvant for hepatitis B surface antigen. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 115(2):193-199, ISSN:0378-5173.
Descriptors: hepatitis B surface antigen, trehalose, drug stability, dehydration, rehydration, particle size, immunogenicity.

Kleinau, S., H. Erlandsson, R. Holmdahl, L. Klareskog (December 1991). Adjuvant oils induce arthritis in the DA rat. I. Characterization of the disease and evidence for an immunological involvement. Journal of Autoimmunology 4(6):871-880, ISSN:0896-8411.
Descriptors: Freund's incomplete adjuvant, erosive polyarthritis, Lewis rats, mineral oil, Arlacel A, Pristane oil.

Kleinman, N.R., A.B. Kier, E. Diaconu and J.H. Lass (August 1993). Posterior paresis induced by Freund's adjuvant in guinea pigs. Laboratory Animal Science 43(4):364-366, ISSN:0023-6764.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: pain, inadvertent injection, paraspinal muscles.

Krzystyniak, K., E. Kozlowska, et al. (1995). Different T-cell activation by streptozotocin and Freund's adjuvant in popliteal lymph node (PLN.). International Journal of Immunopharmacology 17(3):189-196, ISSN:0192-0561.
NAL call number: QR180.I52
Descriptors: mouse, autoimmunity-inducing drugs, Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), footpad, BALB/c mice, subcutaneous drug administration, drug comparison, T lymphocyte.

Lachman, L.B., L. Shih, et al. (1995). Cytokine-containing liposomes as adjuvants for HIV subunit vaccines. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 11(8):921-932, ISSN:0889-2229.
Descriptors: mouse, human immunodeficiency virus vaccine, liposome, gamma interferon, interleukin 6, delayed hypersensitivity, humoral immunity, antibody titer.

Lacour, F. (1985). Polyadenylic-polyuridylic acid: biological response modifying activities in mice. In vivo organ distribution and pharmacokinetics in rabbits. Journal of Biological Response Modifiers 4:490-494, ISSN:0732-6580.
Descriptors: poly(A)-poly(U), nontoxic, interferon, breast cancer, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses.

Lacy, M.J. and E.W. Voss, Jr. (1986). A modified method to induce immune polyclonal ascites fluid in BALB/c mice using Sp2/0-Ag14 cells. Journal of Immunological Methods 87:169-177, ISSN:0022-1759.
NAL call number: QR180 J6
Descriptors: mouse, ascites fluid, Freund's complete adjuvant, Pristane, titer.

Langer, R. (1981). Polymers for the sustained release of macromolecules: Their use in a single-step method of immunization. Methods in Enzymology 73:57-75, ISSN:0076-6879.
NAL call number: QP601 M49
Descriptors: drug delivery, release kinetics, immunization.

Langer, R., L. Brown, and E. Edelman (1985). Controlled release and magnetically modulated release systems for macromolecules. Methods in Enzymology 112:399-423, ISSN:0076-6879.
NAL call number: QP601 M49
Descriptors: polymeric delivery system, biocompatability, single-step immunizations, polypeptides.

Langhein, C. and J.F. Newman (November 1987). Antibody response to bacterial antigens covalently bound to biodegradable polymerized serum albumin beads. Journal Applied Bacteriology 63(5):443-448, ISSN: 0021-8847.
NAL call number: 448.39 So12
Descriptors: vaccines, Clostridium botulinum type D toxin, Klebsiella pneumoniae, capsular polysaccharide antigen, rabbit serum, albumin beads, alternative antibody production method.

Larson, A.A., D.R. Brown, S. El-Atrash, and M.M. Walser (1986). Pain threshold changes in adjuvant-induced inflammation: A possible model of chronic pain in the mouse. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 24:49-53, ISSN:0091-3057.
NAL call number: QP901 P4
Descriptors: Freund's complete adjuvant, footpad or lumbar injections, nociception, inflammation, arthritis.

Leenaars, P.P., A.M., Hendrikson, M.A. Koedam, and E. Claassen (October 1996). Evaluation of commercially available alternatives to Freund's Complete Adjuvant in mice. In: Second World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences October 20-24, 1996, Utrecht, The Netherlands, J.B.F. van der Valk and L.F.M. van Zutphen, eds., Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA 24(Special Issue):119, ISSN:0261-1929.
NAL call number: Z7994.L3A5
Descriptors: abstract, Freund's incomplete adjuvant, Specol, Montanide, TiterMax, RIBI.

Leenaars, P.P., A. M. Hendriksen, et al. (1995). Comparison of adjuvants for immune potentiating properties and side effects in mice. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 48(1/2):123-138, ISSN:0165-2427.
NAL call number: SF757.2 V38
Descriptors: mice, Freund's complete adjuvant, water-in-oil emulsion (Specol), Lactobacillus, immune-stimulating complexes (ISCOM), saponin, Quil A, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, dorsal, administration, behavioural studies, pathological lesions, adverse effects.

Leenaars, P.P., A.M., Hendrikson, A.F. Angulo, M.A. Koedam, and E. Claassen (1994). Evaluation in rabbits of several types of adjuvant. In: Welfare and Science Proceedings of the Fifth Symposium of the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations, June 8-11, 1993, Brighton, UK John Bunyan, ed., Royal Society of Medical Press: London, pp. 155-161.
NAL call number: QL55 F43 1993
Descriptors: New Zealand White, Freund's, TiterMax, RIBI, Specol, Quil-A, side effects.

Leenaars, P.P., A.M., Hendrikson, A.F. Angulo, M.A. Koedam, and E. Claasen (1994). Evaluation of several adjuvants as alternatives to the use of Freund's adjuvant in rabbits. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 40:225-241, ISSN:0165-2427.
NAL call number: SF757.2 V38
Descriptors: Freund's, TiterMax, RIBI, Specol, titer response, inflammation.

Linblak, E.B. and J.V. Sparack (1987). Basic concepts in the application of immunological adjuvants. Scandinavian Journal of Laboratory Animal Science 14:1-13, ISSN:0901-3393.
NAL call number: QL55 S322
Descriptors: animal model, route of administration, adjuvant type.

Lindsay, D.S., R. Parton, A.C. Wardlaw (November 1994). Adjuvant effect of pertussis toxin on the production of anti-ovalbumin IgE in mice and lack of direct correlation between PCA and ELISA. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 105(3):281-288, ISSN:1018-2438.
Descriptors: Ham/ICR mice, pertussis toxin, priming dose.

Lipman, N.S., L.J. Trudel, J.C. Murphy, and Y. Sahali (April 1992). Comparison of immune response potentiation and in vivo inflammatory effects of Freund's and RIBI adjuvants in mice. Laboratory Animal Science 42(2):193-197, ISSN:0023-6764.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: Freund's, RIBI, mouse, inflammation, toxicity, bovine gamma globulin.

Lofthouse, S.A., A.E. Andrews, et al. (August 1995). Humoral and cellular responses induced by intradermally administered, cytokine and conventional adjuvants. Vaccine 13(12):1131-1137, ISSN:0264-410X.
NAL call number: QR189 V32
Descriptors: sheep, avidin muramyl dipeptide, aluminium hydroxide gel(alum), avidin, Interleukin-1, recombinant proteins, saponins, Quil A, intradermal drug administration, drug comparison.

Lygren, I., P.G. Burhol, and H.L. Waldum (January-March 1984). Production and evaluation of VIP antibodies in rabbits. Materia Medica Polona 1(51):26-29, ISSN:0025-5246.
NAL call number: R5 M3
Descriptors: New Zealand rabbits, Freund's adjuvant, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, subcutaneous injections.

Ma, J., P.A. Bulger, et al. (August 1994). Impact of the saponin adjuvant QS-21 and aluminium hydroxide on the immunogenicity of recombinant OspA and OspB of Borrelia burgdorferi. Vaccine 12(10):925-932, ISSN:0264-410X.
NAL call number: QR189 V32
Descriptors: mice, Inbred C3H, saponin adjuvant QS-21, aluminium hydroxide, Borrelia burgdorferi.

Mallon, F.M., M.E. Graichen, B.R. Conway, M.S. Landi, and H.C. Hughes (September 1991). Comparison of antibody response by use of synthetic adjuvant system and Freund complete adjuvant in rabbits. American Journal of Veterinary Research 52(9):1503-1506, ISSN:0002-9645.
NAL call number: 41.8 AM3A
Descriptors: trehalose dimycolate, monophosphoryl lipid A, rabbit, adverse effects, titers.

Masihi, K.N., W. Brehmer, W. Lange, E. Ribi, S. Schwartzman (1984). Protective effect of muramyl dipeptide analogs in combination with trehalose dimycolate against aerogenic influenza virus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections in mice. Journal of Biological Response Modifiers 3:663-671, ISSN:0732-6580.
Descriptors: MDP, antimacrophagic agents, chemiluminescence.

McClimon, L.B., Glick, B., Dick, J.W. (April/June 1994). Effect of three commercially available adjuvants on the production of antibodies to Pasteurella multocida in broilers. Avian Diseases 38(2):354-357, ISSN:0005-2086.
NAL call number: 41.8 Av5
Descriptors: poultry, incomplete Freund's, Ribi, Hunter's Titermax, vaccine.

McMurtry, J.P. and N.C. Steele (1989). Development of an avian calcitonin radioimmunoassay using synthetic chicken calcitonin as immunogen. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Comparative Biochemistry 94(B):49-51, ISSN:0305-0491.
NAL call number: QP501.C6
Descriptors: Freund's complete adjuvant, RIBI, calcitonin antibodies, guinea pigs, intradermal injections.

Mears, G.J. (1995). Effect of adjuvant on somatostatin (SRIF). antibody production in calves. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 75(3):473-475, ISSN:0008-3984. NAL call number: 41.8 C163 Descriptors: Freund's adjuvant, alhydrogel, havlogen adjuvant, antibody titers, cattle, dairy industry, pharmaceuticals.

Medina, E., S.R.Talay, G.S. Chhatwal, and C.A. Guzman (March 1998). Fibronectin-binding protein I of Streptococcus pyogenesis a promising adjuvant for antigens delivered by mucosal route. European Journal of Immunology28(3):1069-1077, ISSN:0014-2980.
NAL call number: QR180 E87
Descriptors: human vaccinology, non-toxic adjuvants, mucosal responses, fibronectin-binding protein I (Sfbl), Streptococcus pyogenes mice, ovalbumin (OVA), antigen, intranasal immunization, mice, Inbred BA L B C, Inbred C57BL.

Michelson, A.M. F. Lacour, and J. Lacour (1985). Polyadenylic Polyuridylic Acid in the Cotreatment of Cancer. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 179:1-8.
Descriptors: Poly(A).Poly(U), adjuvant, nontoxic, interferon inducer, breast cancer.

Miettinen, A. (July 1982). Nephritogenic antibodies against kidney brush border glycoproteins in rabbits injected with Freund's adjuvant. Laboratory Investigation 47(1):67-75, ISSN:0023-6837.
NAL call number: 448.8 L11
Descriptors: Freund's adjuvant, rabbits, tubular brush border antigens, rat kidney, Heymann nephritis.

Millet, P., K.K. Grady, et al. (April 1995). Use of the rhesus monkey as an experimental model to test the degree of efficacy of an anti-sporozoite peptide malaria vaccine candidate combined with copolymer-based adjuvants. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 52(4):328-335, ISSN:0002-9637.
NAL call number: 448.8 Am326
Descriptors: humoral response, synthetic peptide carrier protein, diphtheria toxoid, adverse effects, peptide, fragments.

Mohagheghpour, N., M. Dawson, et al.(1995). Glucans as immunological adjuvants. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 383(13-22), ISSN:0065-2598.
NAL call number: QP901 A33
Descriptors: rabbits, mice, tissue, interleukin 2, virus protein antibody titer, immunization, humoral immunity, lymphocyte proliferation.

Mordelet-Dambrine, M., G. Stanislas-Leguern, et al.(December 1994). Respiratory epithelial permeability in complete Freund's adjuvant rat lung granulomatosis. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 150(6 Part 1):1660-1666, ISSN:1073-449X.
NAL call number: QR180 C5
Descriptors: Wistar, rats, respiratory epithelium clearance, chemically induced granuloma.

Mukerjee, R. and U.C. Chaturvedi (December 1995). Effect of adjuvants on immunization with dengue virus-induced cytotoxic factor. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 102(3):496-500, ISSN:0009-9104.
Descriptors: Freund's incomplete adjuvant, antibody titers, tetanus toxoid, cytokines.

Murphey-Corb, M., S. Ohkawa, et al. (1994). Comparative efficacy of a whole killed SIV vaccine in combination with various adjuvants. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 10(Suppl. 2): S115, ISSN:0889-2229.
Descriptors: rhesus monkey, simian immunodeficiency virus, immune response.

Naim, J.O., K.M. Ippolito, and R.J. Lanzafame (March 1995). The effect of molecular weight and gel preparation on humoral adjuvancy of silicone oils and silicone gels. Immunological Investigations 24(3):537-547, ISSN:0882-0139.
NAL call number: QR180 I452
Descriptors: rats, breast implants, dimethylpolysiloxan, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane, silicone gel, immunoglobulins.

Nakaoka, R., Y. Tabata, and Y. Ikada (1995). Potentiality of gelatin microsphere as immunological adjuvant. Vaccine 13(7):653-661, ISSN: 0264-410X.
NAL call number: QR189 V32
Descriptors: mouse, antibody production, Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA), microsphere, phagocytosis, human immunoglobulin.

Nakashima, S. and H. Kamikawa (1984). Accelerated expansion of antibody heterogeneity by complete Freund's adjuvant during the response to bacterial amylase. Immunology 53:837-845, ISSN:0019-2805.
NAL call number: 448.3 IM6
Descriptors: mouse, Freund's, optimal dose, isoelectric focusing, antibody heterogeneity.

Neimi, S.M., J.G. Fox, L.R. Brown, and R. Langer (December 1985). Evaluation of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer as a non-inflammatory alternative to Freund's Complete Adjuvant in rabbits. Laboratory Animal Science 35(6): 609-612, ISSN:0023-6764.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: antigen delivery device, rabbits, pellet, irritation.

Nellore, R.V., P.G. Pande, et al. (September-October 1992). Evaluation of biodegradable microspheres as vaccine adjuvant for hepatitis B surface antigen. Journal of Parenteral Science and Technology 46(5):176-180, ISSN:0279-7976.
Descriptors: polyglycolic acid, immunostimulants, muramyl dipeptide, aluminum hydroxide, hepatitis B vaccine.

Nicklas, W. (October 1996). Alternatives to Freund's adjuvant. In: Second World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences October 20-24, 1996, Utrecht, The Netherlands, J.B.F. van der Valk and L.F.M. van Zutphen, eds., Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA 24(Special Issue):182, ISSN:0261-1929.
NAL call number: Z7994.L3A5
Descriptors: abstract, lipid A, muramyldipeptide, trehalose dimycolate, bacteria, synthetic nonionic block copolymers.

Nicklas, W. (1992). Aluminum salts. Research in Immunology 143(5):489-494, ISSN:0923-2494.
NAL call number: QR180 A5
Descriptors: combination with other adjuvants, human use, alumen, granulomas.

Nilsson, B.O. and A. Larsson (1992). Inert carriers for immunization. Research in Immunology 143(5):553-557, ISSN:0923-2494.
NAL call number: QR180 A5
Descriptors: non-Freund's, polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies, soluble immunogens, membranes, beads.

Olson, M.E. (April 1994). Vaccination and adjuvants. Canadian Association for Laboratory Animal Science Newsletter 28(2):42-43, ISSN: 0045-4354
NAL call number: SF405.5 C36
Descriptors: oil emulsion, mineral adjuvant, bacterial product, other adjuvants, adjuvant free immunization.

Osebold, J.W. (1982). Mechanisms of action by immunologic adjuvants. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 181:983-987, ISSN:0003-1488.
NAL call number: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: macrophages, adjuvant, delivery method, cellular response, clinical application.

Ott, G., G.L. Barchfeld, et al. (November 1995). Enhancement of humoral response against human influenza vaccine with the simple submicron oil/water emulsion adjuvant MF59. Vaccine 13(16):1557-1562, ISSN:0264-410X.
NAL call number: QR189 V32
Descriptors: squalene/H2O emulsions, muramyl peptide MTP-PE, sorbitan oleate surfactants, low toxicity components, guinea pigs, hamsters.

Ozpolat, B, X.M. Rao, M.F. Powell, L.B. Lachman (March 20, 1998). Immunoliposomes containing antibodies to costimulatory molecules as adjuvants for HIV subunit vaccines. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 14(5):409-417, ISSN:0889-2229.
Descriptors: monoclonal antibodies (Mabs), costimulatory molecules CD28 and CTLA4, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), vaccination, mice, Inbred C3H.

Park, S.J., W.H. Kim, et al. (June 1995). Adjuvant effect of polyadenylic polyuridylic acid on antibody production of recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen in mice. International Journal of Immunopharmacololgy 17(6):513-516, ISSN:0192-0561.
NAL call number: QR180.I52
Descriptors: mice, antibody production, recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen, adult BALB/c mice, adjuvants, therapeutic use, Inbred BALB/c.

Parmentier, H.K., M. Walraven, and M.G Nieuwland (February 1998). Antibody responses and body weights of chicken lines selected for high and low humoral responsiveness to sheep red blood cells. 2. Effects of separate application of Freund's Compl e te and Incomplete Adjuvant and antigen. Poultry Science 77(2):256-265, ISSN:0032-5791.
NAL call number: 47.8 Am33P
Descriptors: Mycobacterium butyricum, Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Ab titers to SRBC and BSA, decreased body weight, body growth, and percentage body growth.

Perdigon, G., S. Alvarez, et al. (1995). Comparative effect of the adjuvant capacity of Lactobacillus casei and lipopolysaccharide on the intestinal secretory antibody response and resistance to Salmonella infection in mice. Food and Agricultural Immunology 7(3):283-294, ISSN:0954-0105.
NAL call number: QR183.6 F66
Descriptors: mice, comparative study, Lactobacillus casei, lipopolysaccharide, oral adjuvants, mucosal immunity.

Powell, M.F., D.J. Eastman, et al. (February 1995). Effect of adjuvants on immunogenicity of MN recombinant glycoprotein 120 in guinea pigs. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 11(2):203-209, ISSN:0889-2229.
Descriptors: guinea pigs, Freund's adjuvant, alum, QS-21, antibody titers, HIV-1 vaccines.

Powers, D.C., P.J. Hanscome, and P.J. Pietrobon (October 1995). In previously immunized elderly adults inactivated influenza A (H1N1) virus vaccines induce poor antibody responses that are not enhanced by liposome adjuvant. Vaccine 13(14):1330-1335, ISSN:0264-410X.
NAL call number: QR189 V32
Descriptors: comparative study, human, adjuvants, vaccine, liposomes.

Preis, I. and R.S. Langer (1979). A single-step immunization by sustained antigen release. Journal of Immunological Methods 28:193-197, ISSN:0022-1759.
NAL call number: QR180 J6
Descriptors: mice, polymer pellet, implant, biocompatible.

Pruett, J.H. and P. Stromberg (May 1995). Effects of adjuvants on bovine humoral and cellular responses to hypodermin A. Veterinary Parasitology 58(1-2):143-153, ISSN:0304-4017.
Descriptors: serine protease, cattle grub, Hypoderma lineatum, complete Freund's adjuvant, delayed hypersensitivity.

Rehmani, S.F. and P.B. Spradbrow (September 1995). The influence of adjuvants on oral vaccination of chickens against Newcastle disease. Veterinary Microbiology 46(1-3):63-68, ISSN:0378-1135.
NAL call number: SF601 V44
Descriptors: DEAE-dextran, Quil-A, TiterMax, vaccine, iscoms, avridine, Newcastle disease, administration and dosage.

Rhine, W.D., D.S.T. Hsieh, and R. Langer (1980). Polymers for sustained macromolecule release: Procedures to fabricate reproducible delivery systems and control release kinetics. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 69(3):265-270, ISSN:0022-3549.
NAL call number: 396.8 J825
Descriptors: drug delivery, polymeric matrix, release kinetics.

Ribi, E. (1984). Beneficial modification of the endotoxin molecule. Journal of Biological Response Modifiers 3:1-9, ISSN:0732-6580.
Descriptors: endotoxin, toxic, lipid A, drug delivery.

Ribi, E., J. Central, and K. Tacoma (March 1985). A new immunomodulator with potential clinical applications: Monophosphoryl Lipid A, a detoxified endotoxin. Clinical Immunology Newsletter 6:33-36, ISSN: 0197-1859.
Descriptors: toxic lipid A, endotoxin, mycobacterial adjuvants.

Richens, E.R., M.F. Tungekar, and K. Behbehani (1987). Complete Freund's adjuvant has a differential amplification action on the induction of diabetes by streptozotocin in various murine strains: CFA amplifies STZ in murine diabetes. Pathology 19:351-357, ISSN:0031-3025.
Descriptors: CFA, mice, glycemia, insulitis, diabetes, STZ, pancreatic perilobular inflammation.

Roberts, M., A. Bacon, et al. (June 1995). A mutant pertussis toxin molecule that lacks ADP-ribosyltransferase activity, PT-9K/129G, is an effective mucosal adjuvant for intranasally delivered proteins. Infection and Immunity 63(6):2100-2108, ISSN:0019-9567
NAL call number: QR1.I57
Descriptors: genetically detoxified pertussis toxin, tetanus vaccine, intranasally administered, nontoxic C-terminal 50-kDa, Inbred BALB/c mice.

Robuccio, J.A., J.W. Griffith, et al. (August 1995). Comparison of the effects of five adjuvants on the antibody response to influenza virus antigen in guinea pigs. Laboratory Animal Science 45(4):420-426, ISSN:0023-6764.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: Syntex adjuvant, RIBI's adjuvant, TiterMax, adjuvant, Freund's adjuvant, aluminum phosphate adjuvant, tissue, swelling, guinea pigs, adverse effects.

Ronnberg, B., Fekadu, M. and B. Morein (1995). Adjuvant activity of non-toxic Quillaja saponaria Molina components for use in ISCOM matrix. Vaccine 13(14):1375-1382, ISSN:0264-410X.
NAL call number: QR189 V32
Descriptors: mice, toxicity, adjuvant activity, site of injection, human use, immunological procedures, subcutaneous drug administration.

Ruiloba de Leon, S., J. Gonzalez-Y-Merchand, et al. (1989). Adjuvant activity of the capsular polysaccharide of Klebsiella-pneumoniae K8 on the immune response to the tetanus toxoid vaccine. Revista Latinoamericana De Microbiologia 31(4):335-340, ISSN:0187-4640.
NAL call number: 448.8 R32
Descriptors: antibody production, capsular polysaccharide, aluminum hydroxide.

Sah, H., R. Toddywala, and Y.W. Chien (1995). Continuous release of proteins from biodegradable microcapsules and in vivo evaluation of their potential as a vaccine adjuvant. Journal of Controlled Release 35(2-3):137-144, ISSN:0168-3659.
NAL call number: RS201 C64J68
Descriptors: mouse, Freund's incomplete adjuvant, lactic/glycolic acid polymers, bovine serum albumin (BSA), aluminum hydroxide, alternative to multiple injections of antigen.

Sarkar, A.K. and M.K. Das (1984). Preparation of anti-polysaccharide antiserum using liposomes as immunological adjuvant. Immunology Letters 8:197-200, ISSN:0165-2478.
NAL call number: QR180 I53
Descriptors: lecithin, rabbit, IgM, IgG, dextran, Freund's.

Schultz, N., R. Oratz, et al. (April 1995) Effect of DETOX as an adjuvant for melanoma vaccine. Vaccine 13(5):503-508, ISSN:0264-410X.
NAL call number: QR189 V32
Descriptors: cell wall skeleton, therapeutic use, alum compounds, aluminum sulfate.

Schwarzkopf, C. and B. Thiele (October 1996). Chicken IGY: Efficacy of alternative adjuvants compared to FCA. In: Second World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences October 20-24, 1996, Utrecht, The Netherlands, J.B.F. van der Valk and L.F.M. van Zutphen, eds., Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA 24(Special Issue):1120, ISSN:0261-1929.
NAL call number: Z7994.L3A5
Descriptors: immunized laying hens, egg yolk, adverse side effects, ABM system, Gerbu adjuvant, TiterMax, lipopeptide Pam-3-Cys, Specol.

Schwarzkopf, C. and B. Thiele (1996). Effectivity of alternative adjuvants in comparison to Freund's complete adjuvant. Alternativen zu Tierexperimenten: ALTEX 13 (Supplement 96):22-25, ISSN: 0946-7785.
Descriptors: TiterMax, ABM-N, ABM-S, Gerbu, White Leghorn hens, chinchilla bastard rabbits.

Sedlik C., R. Perraut, et al. (1996). Antigens linked to synthetic microspheres induce immune responses in primates in the absence of adjuvant. Immunobiology 195(1):105-118, ISSN:0171-2985.
NAL call number: QR180.Z4
Descriptors: mice, synthetic microspheres, Saimiri sciureus, immunoglobulins, new antigen formulation, immunological adjuvant, antibody production.

Shahin, R., M. Leef, et al. (1995). Adjuvanticity and protective immunity elicited by Bordetella pertussis antigens encapsulated in poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres. Infection and Immunity 63(4):1195-1200, ISSN:0019-9567.
NAL call number: QR1.I57
Descriptors: mouse, Bordetella pertussis antigens, biodegradable, poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres, parenteral, intranasal, subcutaneous, drug administration, antibody specificity.

Shahum, E. and H.M. Therien (January 1995). Liposomal adjuvanticity: effect of encapsulation and surface-linkage on antibody production and proliferative response. International Journal of Immunopharmacology 17(1):9-20, ISSN:0192-0561.
NAL call number: QR180.I52
Descriptors: liposomal antigens, conalbumin, immunoglobulin production, lymphokine production , intraperitoneal, intravenous, and subcutaneous injections, vitro versus vivo, mice.

Shehadeh, N., F. Calcinaro, et al. (March 19, 1994). Effect of adjuvant therapy on development of diabetes in mouse and man. Lancet (England) 343(8899):706-707, ISSN:0140-6736.
NAL call number: 448.8 L22
Descriptors: mice, Inbred NOD, type 1 diabetes, Freund's complete adjuvant, vaccine.

Siegel, R.A. and R. Langer (1984). Controlled release of polypeptides and other macromolecules. Pharmaceutical Research 1984:2-10.
Descriptors: polymers, drug delivery, magnetism, bioerosion, release kinetics.

Skea, D.L. and B.H. Barber (1992). Adjuvant-independent induction of immune responses by antibody-mediated targeting of protein and peptide antigens. Research in Immunology 143(5):568-572, ISSN:0923-2494.
NAL call number: QR180 A5
Descriptors: monoclonal antibodies, antigen-presenting cells, immunotarget, adjuvant-independent delivery, immunoconjugates, rabbit.

Smith R.E., A.M. Donachie, F.H. McLaren and A.M. Mowat (1998). Preservation of mucosal and systemic adjuvant properties of ISCOMS in the absence of functional i nterleukin-4 or interferon-gamma. Immunology 93(4):556-562, ISSN:0019-2805.
NAL call number: 448.3 IM6
Descriptors: non-viable vaccine vectors, mucosal, oral and parenteral administration, interleukin-4 (IL-4), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), ovalbumin (OVA), immune stimulating complexes (ISCOMS).

Smith, D.E., M.E. O'Brien, et al. (December 1992). The selection of an adjuvant emulsion for polyclonal antibody production using a low-molecular-weight antigen in rabbits. Laboratory Animal Science 42(6):599-601, ISSN:0023-6764.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: Freund's adjuvant (CFA), incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA), RIBI, TiterMax.

Solange, A. (January 12, 1995). Potential adjuvants for synthetic vaccines. I. Modulators of macrophage activation. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids 75(1):51-58, ISSN:0009-3084.
NAL call number: QP751 C4
Descriptors: human study, cultured cells, glycopeptidolipids, muramyl dipeptide, gamma interferon.

Soltysik, S., J.Y. Wu, et al. (1995). Structure/function studies of QS-21 adjuvant: assessment of triterpene aldehyde and glucuronic acid roles in adjuvant function. Vaccine 13(15):1403-1410, ISSN:0264-410X.
NAL call number: QR189 V32
Descriptors: QS-21 derivatives, T-lymphocytes, Saponins, Triterpenes, glucuronidase, lymphocyte transformation, mice, Inbred C57BL, ovalbumin, cytotoxic drug.

Srinivas, G.R., C.O. Chichester, et al. (March 1994). Production of type II collagen specific monoclonal antibodies. Immunological Investigations 23(2):85-98, ISSN:0882-0139.
NAL call number: QR180.I452
Descriptors: mice, collagen immunology, hybridomas, polyreactive antibodies.

Stahl-Henning, C. and G. Rossi G., et al. (1995). Protection of macaques against simian immunodeficiency virus infection with inactivated vaccines: Comparison of adjuvants, doses and challenge viruses. Vaccine 13(3):295-300, ISSN:0264-410X.
NAL call number: QR189 V32
Descriptors: inactivated virus, vaccine, immunological adjuvant, simian immunodeficiency virus, acquired immune deficiency, monkey.

Steiner, J.W., B. Langer, and D.L. Schwartz (1960). The local and systemic effects of Freund's adjuvant and its fractions. Archives of Pathology 70:424-434.
NAL call number: 448.8 AR26
Descriptors: granuloma, lesions, rabbit, mycobacteria, Freund's complete adjuvant.

Stewart-Tull, D. (October 1996). Refinement to the use of adjuvants in the production of polyclonal antibodies. In: Second World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences October 20-24, 1996, Utrecht, The Netherlands, J.B.F. van der Valk and L.F.M. van Zutphen, eds., Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA 24(Special Issue):118, ISSN:0261-1929.
NAL call number: Z7994.L3A5
Descriptors: abstract, high titers, animal species, route of administration, antigen per dose, cytotoxicity.

Stieneker, F., G. Kersten, et al. (January 1995). Comparison of 24 different adjuvants for inactivated HIV-2 split whole virus as antigen in mice. Induction of titres of binding antibodies and toxicity of the formulations. Vaccine 13(1):45-53, ISSN:0264-410X.
NAL call number: QR189 V32
Descriptors: humoral immune response, NMRI mouse, toxicity, lethal side-effects, polymethylmethacrylate nanoprticles, aluminum compounds, Freund's complete and incomplete adjuvants, fumed silica (Aerosil).

Stills, Jr., H.F. and M.Q. Bailey (April 1991). The use of Freund's complete adjuvant. Lab Animal 20(4):25-30, ISSN:0093-7355.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L33
Descriptors: Freund's, antigens, lesions, injection site, pain, emulsion, distress.

Suckow M.A. and F.A. Douglas (1997). Polyclonal antibody production.In: The Laboratory Rabbit: A Volume in the Laboratory Animal Pocket Reference Series CRC Press, Inc.: Boca Raton, F L, pp. 96-99, ISBN:0-8493-2561-7.
NAL call number: SF407 R6S83 1997
Descriptors: polyclonal antibody production, lesions, adjuvants, Freund's complete adjuvant, Ribi, TiterMax, aluminum hydroxide, antibody collection.

Sugimoto, M., K. Ohishi, et al. (1995). Oligomannose-coated liposomes as an adjuvant for the induction of cell-mediated immunity. FEBS Letters 363(1-2):53-56, ISSN:0014-5793.
NAL call number: QR180.I452
Descriptors: ovalbumin-reconstituted liposomes, mice, delayed-type footpad swelling, oligomannose coated liposomes, cell-mediated immunity, subcutaneous drug administration.

Suzue, K. and R.A. Young (January 15,1996). Adjuvant-free hsp70 fusion protein system elicits humoral and cellular immune responses to HIV-1 p24. Journal of Immunology 156(2):873-879, ISSN:0022-1767.
NAL call number: 448.8 J8232
Descriptors: heat shock proteins, bacterial and parasitic pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, humoral and cellular immunity, vaccines, synthetic immunology, mice, Inbred BALB/c.

Tagliabue, A., P. Ghiara, and D. Boraschi (1992). Non-inflammatory peptide fragments of IL1 as safe new-generation adjuvants. Research in Immunology 143(5):563-568, ISSN:0923-2494.
NAL call number: QR180 A5
Descriptors: human use, safe, nontoxic, no inflammation, cytokine.

Tamura, S., A. Yamanaka, et al. (April 1994). Synergistic action of cholera toxin B subunit (and Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin B subunit). and a trace amount of cholera whole toxin as an adjuvant for nasal influenza vaccine. Vaccine 12(5):419-426, ISSN:0264-410X.
NAL call number: QR189 V32
Descriptors: Balb/c mice, Escherichia coli immunology, intranasal vaccine inoculation of Cholera Toxin, IgA, IgG.

Tamura, M., Y.C. Yoo, et al. (January 1995). Effects of muramyl dipeptide derivatives as adjuvants on the induction of antibody response to recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen. Vaccine 13 (1):77-82, ISSN:0264-410X.
NAL call number: QR189 V32
Descriptors: mice, Inbred BALB/c, alum, acetylmuramyl alanyl isoglutamine derivatives, immunization, intraperitoneal injections, subcutaneous, recombinant proteins.

Taylor, C.E. (September 1995). Cytokines as adjuvants for vaccines: Antigen-specific responses differ, from polyclonal responses. Infection and Immunity 63(9):3241-3244, ISSN:0019-9567.
NAL call number: QR1.I57
Descriptors: antibody isotype, polyclonal response, B lymphocytes, epitopes, cytokines.

Tochikubo, K., M. Isaka, Y. Yasuda, et al. (1998). Recombinant cholera toxin B subunit acts as an adjuvant for the mucosal and systemic responses of mice to muc osally co-administered bovine serum albumin. Vaccine 16(2-3):150-155, ISSN:0264-410X.
NAL call number: QR189 V32
Descriptors: mucosal adjuvant, recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (rCTB), intranasal or oral co-administration of bovine serum albumin (BSA).

Trauger, R.J., A.E. Daigle, et al. (1995). Safety and immunogenicity of a gp120-depleted, inactivated HIV-1 immunogen: results of a double-blind, adjuvant controlled trial. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 10(Suppl. 2):S74-S82, ISSN:1077-9450.
Descriptors: incomplete Freund's adjuvant(IFA), humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses, lymphocyte transformation, vaccines.

Turanek, J., M. Toman, et al. (February 1994). Adjuvant effect of liposomes and adamantylamide dipeptide on antigenicity of entrapped synthetic peptide derived from HIV-1 transmembrane region glycoprotein gp41. Immunology Letters 39(2):157-161, ISSN:0165-2478.
NAL call number: QR180 I53
Descriptors: mouse, adamantylamide dipeptide (AdDP), liposomes, Freund's complete adjuvant, aluminum hydroxide (AL).

Vaitukaitis, J.L. (1981). Production of antisera with small doses of immunogen: Multiple intradermal injections. Methods in Enzymology 73:47-52, ISSN:0076-6879.
NAL call number: QP601 M49
Descriptors: high affinity antibody, sensitivity, water-in-oil emulsion, intradermal.

Verheul, A.F.M. and H. Snippe (1992). Non-ionic block polymer surfactants as immunological adjuvants. Research in Immunology 143(5):512-519, ISSN: 0923-2494.
NAL call number: QR180 A5
Descriptors: low toxicity, synthetic compounds, haptenated proteins, liposomes, vaccine formulation, route of administration, side effects.

Verma, I., P. Pancholi and G.K. Khuller (1995). Comparative study of the adjuvanticity of FIA and phosphatidylcholine liposomes for purified mycobacterial RNA. Journal of Liposome Research 5(2): 227-240, ISSN:0898-2104.
Descriptors: mycobacterial antigens, mycobacterium tuberculosis, immune response, mouse, vaccination, liposome.

Vogel, F.R. (1995). The role of adjuvants in retroviral vaccines. International Journal of Immunopharmacology 17(2):85-90, ISSN:0192-0561.
NAL call number: QR180.I52
Descriptors: subunit antigens, alum adjuvants, novel adjuvants, detoxified lipid A, emulsions, liposomes, biodegradable microspheres, muramyl peptides, saponins, cytotoxic T-cell.

Vogel, F.R. and C.R. Alving (1995). Adjuvants and novel vaccines: Conference summary. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 11(10):1277-1278, ISSN:0889-2229.
Descriptors: genetic engineering, immunodeficiency virus vaccine, antibody response, virus particle.

Von Blomberg-Van der Flier, M., R.J. Scheper, G.H. Boerrigter, L. Polak (1984). Induction of contact sensitivity to a broad variety of allergens with haptenized macrophages. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 83(2):91-95, ISSN:0022-202X.
NAL call number: 448.8 J8292
Descriptors: guinea pigs, ulceration, granuloma, Freund's complete adjuvant alternative.

Wagland, B.M., S.J. McClure, et al. (1996). Effect of Freund's adjuvants on guinea pigs infected with, or vaccinated against, Trichostrongylus colubriformis. International Journal for Parasitology 26(1):85-90, ISSN:0020-7519.
Descriptors: antibody titres, intraperitoneal injection eosinophilia, gastrointestinal nematodes, trichostrongylus colubriformis, antibody titer.

Warren, H.S., F.R. Vogel, and L.A. Chedid (1986). Current states of immunological adjuvants. Annual Review of Immunology 4:369-388, ISSN:0732-0582.
NAL call number: QR180 A55
Descriptors: nonbacterial adjuvants, bacterial adjuvants, monokines, lymphokines, muramyl dipeptides, liposomes, Freund's, aluminum compounds.

Westbrook, S.L., V. Bundoora, and G.H. McDowell (1994). Immunization of lambs against somatotropin release inhibiting factor to improve productivity: comparison of adjuvants. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 45(8):1693-1700, ISSN: 0004-9409.
NAL call number: 23 Au783
Descriptors: lambs, growth rate, live weight gain, body composition, backfat, wool production.

Whittington, R.J., B.L. Munday, et al. (1994). Humoral and peritoneal cell responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to ovalbumin, Vibrio anguillarum and Freund's complete adjuvant following intraperitoneal and bath immunisation. Fish and Shellfish Immunology 4(7):475-488, ISSN:1050-4648.
NAL call number: QL638.97.F55
Descriptors: humoral immune response, ovalbumin, Vibrio anguillarum, intraperitoneal administration, Freund's complete adjuvant.

Wiedermann, U., B. Jahn-Schmid, R. Fritsch, et al. (1998). Effects of adjuvants on the immune response to allergens in a murine model of allergen inhalation: C holrea toxin induces a Th1-like response to Bet v 1, the major birch pollen allergen. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 111(1):144-151, ISSN:0009-9104.
NAL call number: QR180 C52
Descriptors: inhalant allergens, aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)-3), cholera toxin (CT), comparison, mucosal adjuvant.

Wilkie, B. (1990). Preparation of antigen for immunization using L-Tyrosine or Di-Tyrosine adjuvants. In: Adjuvants: Advances in Technology and Alternatives to Freund's (Conference Proceedings). The Animal Resources Centre and the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research, McGill University: Montreal, Quebec. pp. 61.
Descriptors: materials, methods, results, Freund's alternative.

Woodard, L.F. (May 1989). Adjuvant activity of water-insoluble surfactants. Laboratory Animal Science 39(3):222-225, ISSN:0023-6764.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: IgG antibody production, Avridine, Freund's, nonionic surfactant, oil-in-water emulsions.

Wynne, C.R. (1974). The evaluation of hydrocortisone antibodies produced in rabbits and sheep. I. Radioimmunoassay. Immunology 26(1):97-113, ISSN:0019-2805.
NAL call number: 448.3 IM6
Descriptors: Freund's adjuvant, hydrocortisone hemisuccinate conjugate, dose response, rabbits, sheep.

Yokochi, T., Y. Inoue, et al. (1995). Strong adjuvant action of Klebsiella O3 lipopolysaccharide and its inhibition of systemic anaphylaxis. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 10(3-4): 181-184, ISSN:0928-8244.
Descriptors: IgM, IgG, Salmonella Minnesota, mouse, allergy, inflammatory disease.


Zeidner, N.S. and D.L. Belasco (October 1995). Gliding bacterial adjuvant stimulates feline cytokines in vitro and antigen-specific IgG in vivo. Vaccine 13(14):1294-1299, ISSN:0264-410X.
NAL call number: QR189 V32
Descriptors: comparative study, cytokines, IgG, helminth, cats, lymphocyte transformation, macrophages, T lymphocytes.


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