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Housing, Husbandry, and Welfare of Beef Cattle

Animal Welfare Information Center
United States Department of Agriculture
National Agricultural Library

ISSN: 1052-5378

Quick Bibliography Series, QB 95-16
January 1985 - March 1995

389 citations from AGRICOLA
March 1995

Updated by: Information Resources on Beef Cattle Housing, Care and Welfare

Compiled By:
D'Anna J.B. Jensen
Animal Welfare Information Center, Information Centers Branch
National Agricultural Library, Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture
10301 Baltimore Ave., Beltsville, Maryland 20705-2351


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National Agricultural Library Cataloging Record:

 Jensen, D'Anna J.B.
   Housing, husbandry, and welfare of beef cattle.
   (Quick bibliography series ; 95-16)
   1. Beef cattle--Bibliography. I. Title.
 aZ5071.N3 no.95-16
 

Search Strategy

 Set    Description
 
 S1     (BEEF OR FEEDER(W)CATTLE OR STOCK?(W)CATTLE OR
        LIVESTOCK) AND (BOVINE OR BOS OR COW?? OR BULL?? OR
        STEER?? OR HEIFER? OR CALF OR CALVE?? OR CATTLE OR
        HERD?? OR PRODUCTION)
 S2     S1 AND SH=(L100 OR L300 OR N100)
 S3     S2 AND (HOUS? OR FACILIT? OR STRUCT? OR PEN?? OR
        STALL?? OR CONFINE? OR STANCHION?? OR FREE(W)STALL?? OR
        PARLOR?? OR FEEDLOT??)
 S4     S1 AND STRESS?
 S5     S4 NOT SH=L500
 S6     S1 AND (WELFARE OR WELL(W)BEING OR HUMANE OR HANDL? OR
        CARE)
 S7     (S3+S5+S6)
 S8     S7 AND PY=1985:1995
 S9     RD (unique items)
 

 1                                    NAL Call. No.: 107.6 H682
 Development of experimental methods for air environment in
 livestock buildings. I. Filtration method for measuring
 bacterial aerosol concentration Hoshiba, S.; Tanaka, T.;
 Dohkoshi, J.
 Sapporo : Hokkaido Daigaku Nogaku-bu; 1985.
 Hokkaido Daigaku Nogaku-bu hobun kiyo; Memoirs of the Faculty
 of Agriculture, Hokkaido University v. 14 (4): p. 370-375.
 ill; 1985.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  Japanese
 
 Descriptors: Barns; Air spora; Bacteria; Filtration
 
 
 2                                   NAL Call. No.: 290.9 Am32P
 1990's technology for 1970's poultry and livestock buildings.
 Tucker, T.A.; Latz, G.I. II
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers,; 1991. Paper / (913020): 11 p.; 1991.  Paper
 presented at the "1991 International Summer Meeting sponsored
 by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers," June
 23-26, 1991, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal housing; Poultry housing; Environment;
 Lighting; Water; Feeding; Egg collectors
 
 
 3                                      NAL Call. No.: SF51.F69
 Agricide the hidden crisis that affects us all.
 Fox, Michael W.,
 New York : Schocken Books,; 1986.
 xv, 194 p. [10] p. of plates : ill. ; 21 cm.  Includes index. 
 Bibliography: p. 185-189.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; United States; Animal industry; United
 States; Livestock factories; United States; Animals, Treatment
 of; United States; Agriculture; United States; Agricultural
 industries; United States; Agricultural ecology; United
 States; Agricultural pollution; United States; Food industry
 and trade; United States; Diet; United States; Animal welfare
 
 
 4                                      NAL Call. No.: SF601.B6
 Agricultural engineering.
 Schwarm, M.A.
 Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Publishing
 Company; 1992 Nov. Agri-Practice v. 13 (10): p. 25-27; 1992
 Nov.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kansas; Beef cattle; Farm buildings;
 Shelterbelts; Animal housing; Fencing
 
 
 5                                      NAL Call. No.: 101 M144
 Agricultural structures in the future.
 Barrington, S.
 Anne de Bellevue, Quebec : Macdonald Ext. Serv., Faculty of
 Agric, Macdonald Campus of McGill Univ; 1986 Nov.
 Macdonald journal v. 47 (4): p. 35; 1986 Nov.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Livestock housing; Environment; Stress
 
 
 6                         NAL Call. No.: Videocassette no.1131
 Animal agriculture myths & facts..  Animal agriculture, myths
 and facts Animal agriculture, myths & facts
 Animal Industry Foundation
 Arlington, Va. The Foundation,; 1990.
 1 videocassette (18 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. + 1 pamphlet.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal industry; Farmers; Livestock; Animal
 welfare
 
 Abstract:  Features farmers showing cow/calf and feedlot
 cattle production, as well as turkey, hog, veal and egg
 production.
 
 
 7                                   NAL Call. No.: TD224.I6W37
 Animal agriculture's effect on water quality: pastures and
 feedlots. Sutton, A.L.
 West Lafayette, Ind. : School of Agriculture; 1990 Jul.
 Water quality (7): 3 p.; 1990 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Indiana; Animal wastes; Water quality; Livestock
 farming; Feedlots; Water pollution; Agricultural law
 
 
 8                                      NAL Call. No.: SF207.B4
 Animal behavior and welfare--the challenge to intensive
 production. Williams, C.M.
 Bryan, Tex. : Lang Printing; 1988.
 Beef cattle science handbook v. 22: p. 61-64; 1988.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Intensive livestock farming; Animal behavior;
 Animal welfare; Public relations; Code of practice
 
 
 9                                      NAL Call. No.: TP368.I7
 Animal behaviour and environment in the dark-cutting condition
 in beef--a review.
 Tarrant, P.V.
 Dublin : An Foras Taluntais; 1989.
 Irish journal of food science and technology v. 13 (1): p.
 1-21; 1989. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Animal behavior; Environment;
 Slaughter; Muscle tissue; Ph; Glycogen; Food quality
 
 Abstract:  Dark cutting or high-pH meat is a persistent
 quality defect found in all meat species. Caused by a lack of
 normal acidification of meat during rigor development, dark-
 cutting is a direct consequence of low muscle glycogen at
 slaughter. Glycogen breakdown in muscle may be rapidly
 triggered by increased circulating adrenaline or by strenuous
 muscular activity. In addition, glycogen is slowly depleted
 during starvation. Any behaviour and environmetal
 circumstances that trigger one or more of these glycogen
 breakdown mechanisms will cause dark-cutting if the stress is
 allowed to persist for sufficient time. Mounting activity is
 the behaviour most closely associated with muscle glycogen
 depletion and dark-cutting in beef. This behaviour is
 stimulated by social regrouping, as in mixed penning of young
 bulls, and also by oestrus in groups of females. Lairage
 modifications aimed at reducing mounting activity during the
 preslaughter period have been successful. Short-haul road
 transport is not associated with dark-cutting in beef but
 there is evidence that some lambs may be affected, even by
 relatively short journeys. Long-haul road transport resulted
 in small increases in beef final pH and these may be reversed
 by resting and feeding before slaughter. Fasting did not cause
 dark-cutting in beef or lamb; however, it lowered muscle
 glycogen reserves, thus rendering an animal more susceptible
 to dark-cutting from additional sources of stress. Fasting
 also inhibited muscle glycogen resynthesis during recovery
 after stress. There is a good theoretical basis, although
 little experimental evidence, to link cold exposure with dark-
 cutting meat. The use of beta-agonists as growth promoters may
 increase the incidence of dark-cutting meat unless a
 sufficient withdrawal period before slaughter is observed.
 Rates of glycogen resynthesis are slower in ruminants than in
 monogastrics, probably due to the lower availability of
 glucose in ruminants. Although drug interventions were
 unsucces
 
 
 10                                    NAL Call. No.: SF55.C2A5
 Animal care livestock and poultry on today's farm.
 Kolkman, John
 Edmonton, Alberta : Christian Farmers, Federation of Alberta,;
 1987. 23 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.  Cover title.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Poultry
 
 
 11                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.V535
 Animal handling.
 Grandin, T.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders Company; 1987 Jul.
 The Veterinary clinic of North America : food animal practice
 v. 3 (2): p. 323-338. ill; 1987 Jul.  In the series analytic:
 Farm animal behavior / edited by E.O. Price.  Literature
 review.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Handling; Stress; Movements;
 Facilities; Animal behavior
 
 
 12                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V6456
 Animal housing as perceived by the animal.
 Webster, A.J.F.
 London : Wright; 1989.
 The Veterinary annual (29): p. 1-8; 1989.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Animal housing; Perception; Animal
 welfare; Litter; Animal diseases; Hygiene; Stress;
 Psychological needs
 
 
 13                                  NAL Call. No.: S494.5.E547
 Animal housing: solar application.
 DeShazer, J.A.; Bodman, G.R.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier; 1991.
 Energy in world agriculture v. 4: p. 233-253; 1991.  In the
 series analytic: Energy in World Agriculture / edited by B.F.
 Parker.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal housing; Solar heating; Solar energy;
 Heating systems; Livestock; Ventilation; Solar collectors
 
 
 14                                     NAL Call. No.: SF191.F5
 Animal performance and carcass characteristics of beef steers
 finished without backgrounding versus backgrounding prior to
 finishing.
 Bertrand, J.E.; Johnson, D.D.
 Gainesville, Fla. : The Service; 1988.
 Florida beef cattle research report - Florida Cooperative
 Extension Service, University of Florida. p. 144-150; 1988.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Brahman; Crossbreds; Steers; Nutrition;
 Pasture management; Feedlots; Winter; Carcass quality;
 Dressing percentage
 
 
 15                                    NAL Call. No.: 100 SO82S
 Animal stress research tied to 'making a living'.
 Thomson, J.; Parsons, J.; Males, J.
 Brookings, S.D. : The Station; 1992.
 South Dakota farm & home research - South Dakota, Agricultural
 Experiment Station v. 43 (3): p. 5-7; 1992.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South Dakota; Livestock farming; Stress factors;
 Environmental factors; Animal diseases; Disease control;
 Agricultural research
 
 
 16                                      NAL Call. No.: S1.A375
 Animal welfare.
 Elliot, J.I.
 Ottawa : Agrican Publishers, Inc; 1986.
 Agrologist v. 15 (2): p. 10-11. ill; 1986.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Canada; Animal welfare; Intensive livestock
 farming; Animal husbandry; Livestock sector; Philosophy
 
 
 17                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 N483
 Animal welfare considerations--pastoral animals.
 Kilgour, R.
 Wellington : New Zealand Veterinary Association; 1985 Apr. New
 Zealand veterinary journal v. 33 (4): p. 54-57; 1985 Apr. 
 Literature review.  Includes 34 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New Zealand; Animal welfare; Pastoralism;
 Livestock farming
 
 
 18                                     NAL Call. No.: 50.9 R24
 Animal welfare--how to respond.
 Conklin, D.H.; Kauffman, R.G.; Calkins, C.R.
 Chicago, Ill. : National Live Stock and Meat Board; 1990.
 Proceedings - Annual Reciprocal Meat Conference of the
 American Meat Science Association (43rd): p. 21-30; 1990. 
 Meeting held on June 10-13, 1990, Mississippi State, MS.
 Includes discussion, p. 22-30.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal welfare; Beef production; Veal calves
 
 
 19                                    NAL Call. No.: 58.8 AG83
 Animal-tending controls fine tune environmental conditions.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1988 Nov. Agricultural engineering v. 69 (7): p.
 6-9. ill; 1988 Nov.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Environmental control; Equipment; Livestock;
 Animal housing; Ventilation; Temperature; Humidity;
 Evaporative cooling
 
 
 20                                    NAL Call. No.: 281.8 C16
 The application of multivariate stochastic dominance criteria
 to agricultural economic problems.
 Jeffrey, S.R.; Eidman, V.R.
 Ottawa : Canadian Agricultural Economics and Farm Management
 Society; 1991 Jul.
 Canadian journal of agricultural economics; Revue Canadienne
 d'economie rurale v. 39 (2): p. 193-209; 1991 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Minnesota; Dairy farming; Structural change;
 Risk; Multivariate analysis; Stochastic processes; Livestock
 numbers; Crop mixtures; Land use; Simulation models
 
 
 21                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.V535
 Arthropod-induced stress in livestock.
 Campbell, J.B.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders Company; 1988 Nov.
 The Veterinary clinic of North America : food animal practice
 v. 4 (3): p. 551-555; 1988 Nov.  In the series analytic:
 Stress and disease in cattle / edited by J.L. Howard. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sheep; Cattle; Stress; Arthropod pests; Diptera
 
 
 22                                     NAL Call. No.: SF191.K4
 Artificial inseminationfor the beef herd.
 Nichols, C.; Absher, C.; Miksch, D.; Heersche, G.; Gay, N.
 Lexington, Ky., The Service; 1986 Sep.
 ASC - University of Kentucky, Cooperative Extension Service
 v.): 5 p. ill; 1986 Sep.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Artificial insemination; Estrus;
 Synchronization; Semen; Handling; Costs; Returns
 
 
 23                                  NAL Call. No.: SF55.A785L9
 ASEAN Food Handling Project by D.J. Lyons..  Handling of
 livestock and livestock products in ASEAN 1978 to 1989
 Lyons, D. J.
 Kuala Lumpur : ASEAN Food Handling Bureau,; 1990.
 vi, 48 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.  "A review of the activities and
 achievements of the livestock components of the ASEAN Food
 Handling Project of the ASEAN-Australia Economic Co-operation
 Program"--P. i.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock projects; Livestock; Animal products
 
 
 24                             NAL Call. No.: HV4708.A874 1990
 ASPCA update veal calf facts..  Veal calf facts
 American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals New
 York, N.Y. : American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to
 Animals, [1990?]; 1990.
 1 sheet : ill. ; 28 cm.  Caption title.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal welfare; Veal industry
 
 
 25                                   NAL Call. No.: HV4704.A77
 Assessing pain by studuing posture, activity and function.
 Loeffler, K.
 Brussels : Directorate-General for Agriculture, Coordination
 of Agricultural Res; 1986.
 Assessing pain in farm animals : proceedings of a workshop
 held in Roslin, Scotland, 25 and 26 October 1984 / edited by
 I.J.H. Duncan, V. Molony. p. 49-57; 1986. (EUR ; 9742 EN). 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Pain; Assessment; Locomotion; Posture;
 Animal behavior; Scales; Animal welfare
 
 
 26                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 An assessment of carbon dioxide stunning in pigs.
 Gregory, N.G.; Moss, B.W.; Leeson, R.H.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1987 Nov28.
 The Veterinary record v. 121 (22): p. 517-518; 1987 Nov28. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Abattoirs; Carbon dioxide; Stunning;
 Vocalization; Anesthesia; Reflexes; Carcass quality; Animal
 welfare; Stress
 
 
 27                                   NAL Call. No.: HV4704.A77
 Assessment of pain in animals : epistemological comments.
 Zayan, R.
 Brussels : Directorate-General for Agriculture, Coordination
 of Agricultural Res; 1986.
 Assessing pain in farm animals : proceedings of a workshop
 held in Roslin, Scotland, 25 and 26 October 1984 / edited by
 I.J.H. Duncan, V. Molony. p. 1-15; 1986. (EUR ; 9742 EN). 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Pain; Assessment; Animal welfare;
 Consciousness
 
 
 28                             NAL Call. No.: HV4704.A54 1987b
 The assessment of welfare in diseased farm animals.
 Jackson, P.G.G.
 London : The Foundation, [1987?]; 1987.
 The proceedings of the BVA Animal Welfare Foundations' [sic]
 fifth symposium : entitled Animal disease--a welfare problem?
 : held on 18 November 1987 / edited by T.E. Gibson ; assistant
 editor, D.A. Paterson. p. 42-47; 1987. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal welfare; Livestock; Animal diseases;
 Veterinarians; Animal housing; Pain; Disease control
 
 
 29                                   NAL Call. No.: 100 C12CAG
 At present, livestock production more favorable in Imperial
 Valley. Guerrero, J.N.; Peterson, N.; Calderon, J.; Plasencia,
 A.; Gonzalez, R.A. Oakland, Calif. : Division of Agriculture
 and Natural Resources, University of California; 1991 Sep.
 California agriculture v. 45 (5): p. 18-21; 1991 Sep.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Cattle husbandry; Production costs;
 Feedlots; Comparisons; Costs; Dairies
 
 
 30                                   NAL Call. No.: HV4701.A34
 The attainment of humane housing for farm livestock.
 Wood-Gush, D.G.M.
 Boston : Martinus Nijhoff Publishers; 1985.
 Advances in animal welfare science. p. 47-55. ill; 1985. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal husbandry; Animal welfare; Animal housing;
 Livestock
 
 
 31                                     NAL Call. No.: 58.8 J82
 Automatic chemical applicators for cattle.
 McPhee, J.E.; Hirst, D.J.
 London : Academic Press; 1992 Jul.
 Journal of agricultural engineering research v. 52 (3): p.
 215-227; 1992 Jul. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Australia; Cattle; Chemical treatment; Parasites;
 Control methods
 
 Abstract:  Mustering and other cattle management operations
 are a significant cost for beef producers on extensive
 properties in northern Australia. As a result, a range of
 cattle handling equipment has been developed which uses animal
 behaviour patterns to simplify some tasks. Two "animal-
 powered" devices were developed to automatically apply
 parasite control chemicals to cattle as they passed through
 one-directional spear gates. Both applicators were based on
 wheel-driven pumps, and dispensed chemicals in proportion to
 the length of contact between the device and the animal's
 body. Application rates were within 10% of existing
 recommendations for animals in the most common weight range of
 250-500 kg. The applicators were simple to install and remove,
 allowing easy transfer between sites.
 
 
 32                                 NAL Call. No.: S544.3.K4K42
 Beef cattle corrals and handling facilities.
 Burris, R.; Absher, C.; McNeill, S.; Turner, L.
 Lexington : The Service; 1986 Apr.
 ID - University of Kentucky, Cooperative Extension Service
 v.): 7 p. ill; 1986 Apr.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Chutes; Layout and planning
 
 
 33                                    NAL Call. No.: SF207.B39
 Beef cattle handling facilities.
 Saskatchewan, Family Farm Improvement Branch
 Regina, Canada : Saskatchewan Agriculture, Family Farm
 Improvement Branch, [1985?]; 1985.
 9 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.  Cover title.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Handling; Equipment and supplies
 
 
 34                                    NAL Call. No.: SF13.M3A5
 Beef cattle handling facilities.
 Thrift, F.A.
 College Park, Md. : Cooperative Extension Service, University
 of Maryland; 1992 Nov.
 Animal agriculture update newsletter / v. 7 (6): p. 5; 1992
 Nov.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Handling machinery
 
 
 35                                    NAL Call. No.: aZ5071.N3
 Beef cattle housing and facilities--Jaunary 1979 - August
 1990. Swanson, J.C.
 Beltsville, Md. : The Library; 1990 Nov.
 Quick bibliography series - U.S. Department of Agriculture,
 National Agricultural Library (U.S.). (91-20): 12 p.; 1990
 Nov.  Bibliography.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Cattle housing; Cattle manure;
 Slatted floors
 
 
 36                                  NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32P
 Beef cattle housing in Quebec climate.
 Marquis, A.; Godbout, S.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1989.
 Paper - American Society of Agricultural Engineers (89-4027):
 10 p.; 1989. Paper presented at the 1989 International Summer
 Meeting sponsored by the American Agricultural Engineers and
 the Canadian Society of Agricultural Engineering, June 25-28,
 1989, Quebec, Canada.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Quebec; Beef cattle; Animal housing; Farm
 buildings
 
 
 37                                   NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Beef cattle performance on slotted floors: manger space
 allotment. Morrison, S.R.; Zinn, R.A.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1985.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche
 collection) (fiche no. 85-4522): 6 p. ill; 1985.  Paper
 presented at the 1985 Winter Meeting of the American Society
 of Agricultural Engineers. Available for purchase from: The
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950
 Niles Road, St. Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order
 Dept. at (616) 429-0300 for information and prices.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Cattle housing; Housing density;
 Slatted floors; Performance testing; Mangers; Space
 requirements
 
 
 38                                    NAL Call. No.: 100 M69MI
 Beef cattle study mimics real world of producers.
 Broadway, R.
 Mississippi State, Miss. : The Station; 1992 Feb.
 MAFES research highlights - Mississippi Agricultural and
 Forestry Experiment Station v. 55 (2): p. 5; 1992 Feb.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mississippi; Beef cattle; Breeding programs;
 Feedlots; Liveweight gain
 
 
 39                                   NAL Call. No.: aS21.R44A7
 Beef facilities and management at MARC.
 Hays, W.G.; Ross, G.S.
 Clay Center, Neb. : U.S. Department of Agriculture,
 Agricultural Research Service; 1993 May.
 ARS / (71): p. 1-2; 1993 May.  In the series analytic: Beef
 research progress report no. 4.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Agricultural research; Management
 
 
 40                                NAL Call. No.: SF206.B4 1987
 Beef housing and equipment handbook., 4th ed..
 Midwest Plan Service
 Ames, Iowa : Midwest Plan Service, 1987; 1987.
 1 v. (various pagings) : ill. ; 28 cm.  Cover title.  MWPS-6. 
 Includes index.  Bibliography: p. 13.1..
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Housing; Handbooks, manuals, etc;
 Beef cattle; Equipment and supplies; Handbooks, manuals, etc
 
 
 41                                  NAL Call. No.: HD1775.A2A5
 Beef industry faces complex issues.
 Powell, B.
 Auburn, Ala. : The Service; 1992.
 Alabama agribusiness - Auburn University, Alabama Cooperative
 Extension Service v. 30 (4): p. 1-3; 1992.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Beef production; Food industry;
 Environmental protection; Animal welfare; Food safety;
 Consumer attitudes
 
 
 42                               NAL Call. No.: aHD9433.U52D83
 Beefpacking and processing plants computer-assisted cost
 analysis. Duewer, Lawrence A.; Nelson, K. E.
 United States, Dept. of Agriculture, Commodity Economics
 Division Washington, DC : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic
 Research Service, Commodity Economics Division ; Rockville, MD
 : ERS-NASS [distributor,; 1991. v, 71 p. : ill. ; 28 cm. (ERS
 staff report ; no. AGES 9115.).  Cover title. April 19 91. 
 Includes bibliographical references (p. 28).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef industry; Packing-houses; Slaughtering and
 slaughter-houses; Food processing plants
 
 
 43                                     NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Behavior of cattle in pens exposed to +/-500 kV DC
 transmission lines. Ganskopp, D.; Raleigh, R.; Schott, M.;
 Bracken, T.D.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1991 Apr.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 30 (1/2): p. 1-16; 1991
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Animal behavior; Power lines;
 Exposure; Electric current; Stray voltage; Noise
 
 
 44                                       NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Behavioral and physiological effects of freeze or hot-iron
 branding on crossbred cattle.
 Lay, D.C. Jr; Friend, T.H.; Randel, R.D.; Bowers, C.L.;
 Grissom, K.K.; Jenkins, O.C.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1992
 Feb. Journal of animal science v. 70 (2): p. 330-336; 1992
 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Branding; Freezing; Blood plasma;
 Epinephrine; Heart rate; Norepinephrine; Hydrocortisone;
 Stress; Skin temperature; Pain; Animal welfare
 
 Abstract:  Twenty-seven crossbred calves (1/2 Simmental, 1/4
 Hereford, 1/4 Brahman) averaging 257 +/- 11 d of age were
 either hot-iron-branded (H), freeze-branded (F), or sham-
 branded (S). Calves were blocked for temperament, weight, and
 sex and were randomly assigned to day and order in which
 treatments were applied. To reduce stress from handling at
 treatment time, each calf was herded through the squeeze chute
 daily for 5 d before the experiment. Jugular cannulas were
 inserted in each calf 1 d before application of treatment.
 Blood samples and heart rate measures were obtained at -5, -3,
 0, .5, 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 min after application of the
 treatments. Mean concentrations of plasma epinephrine (EPI)
 were higher for H calves at time .5 min than for either S or F
 calves (P = .10). To account for individual differences,
 prebranding heart rates and hormone concentrations were
 subtracted from subsequent samples and were also used to
 calculate a proportion for each subsequent sample. Analyses of
 subtracted values found that EPI concentrations were greater
 for H calves than for either S or F calves (P = .007) at .5
 min postbranding. No other differences were found for the
 subtracted analyses. Analyses of proportion data also revealed
 that H calves had greater EPI than did either S or F calves (P
 = .027) at .5 min postbranding. Only three animals vocalized
 during branding, one H calf and two F calves. Despite the 5-d
 acclimation period, handling and restraint elevated plasma
 cortisol concentrations and heart rate. Because restraint
 elevated physiological indicators of stress, possible
 treatment differences may have been masked. The greater
 epinephrine response experienced by H calves indicates a
 higher momentary pain sensation than that experienced by
 either S or F calves.
 
 
 45                                  NAL Call. No.: 100 OK4 (3)
 Behavioral patterns of feedlot steers.
 Hicks, R.B.; Owens, F.N.; Gill, D.R.
 Stillwater, Okla. : The Station; 1989 Jun.
 Miscellaneous publication - Agricultural Experiment Station,
 Oklahoma State University (127): p. 94-105; 1989 Jun. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Steers; Crossbreds; Feeding
 behavior; Liveweight gains; Diurnal variation
 
 
 46                                     NAL Call. No.: 23 AU792
 The behaviour and bruising of cattle during transport at
 different space allowances.
 Eldridge, G.A.; Winfield, C.G.
 Melbourne : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research
 Organization; 1988.
 Australian journal of experimental agriculture v. 28 (6): p.
 695-698; 1988. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Australia; Beef cattle; Transport of animals;
 Animal behavior; Bruising; Distance travelled; Abattoirs;
 Handling; Spacing; Space requirements; Carcass quality
 
 
 47                                  NAL Call. No.: HD1773.A3N6
 A bioeconomic analysis of bovine respiratory disease complex.
 Nyamusika, N.; Spreen, T.H.; Rae, O.; Moss, C.
 Manhattan, Kan. : Department of Agricultural Economics, Kansas
 State University; 1994 Jan.
 Review of agricultural economics v. 16 (1): p. 39-53; 1994
 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Cabt; Beef cattle; Calf production;
 Bovine respiratory syncytial virus; Disease control;
 Vaccination; Returns; Economic analysis; Mathematical models;
 Mortality; Liveweight gain; Agricultural regions; Probability
 
 Abstract:  Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex (BRDC) is an
 important disease affecting both beef and dairy cattle
 produced in confinement operations. A bioeconomic model of
 BRDC is developed for a typical Midwestern feedlot. Using
 vaccine efficacy rates found in the veterinary science
 literature, significant returns to vaccination are estimated.
 
 
 48                                       NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 A bioeconomic model for comparing beef cattle genotypes at
 their optimal economic slaughter end point.
 Amer, P.R.; Kemp, R.A.; Buchanan-Smith, J.G.; Fox, G.C.;
 Smith, C. Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal
 Science; 1994 Jan. Journal of animal science v. 72 (1): p.
 38-50; 1994 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Genotypes; Feedlots; Optimization;
 Econometric models; Slaughter
 
 Abstract:  A bioeconomic model of a feedlot was developed for
 the comparison of beef cattle genotypes under specified
 management and marketing conditions. The optimization behavior
 of commercial feedlot managers is incorporated into the model
 using optimum economic rotation theory. The days spent in the
 feedlot (rotation) by a group of animals are derived using
 this theory so as to maximize an objective function.
 Differences among breeds in the present value of profits from
 a single rotation, expressed per animal, represent the
 expected price premium paid for a feeder animal of a
 particular breed. Feed requirements and growth rates for a
 genotype are predicted over time for a specified diet from
 estimated mature size. Estimates of carcass fatness over time
 as a function of the energy content of the diet and estimates
 of dressing percentage over time are used for each genotype. A
 base model is described that incorporates biological
 parameters estimated for 11 breeds from a major breed
 comparison experiment and uses prices of inputs and outputs
 for Ontario feedlots. Sensitivity of the model to these
 biological and economic assumptions is shown. When breeds are
 compared at constant days fed, weight, or fat depth slaughter
 points, rankings are inconsistent, relative to those when each
 breed is slaughtered at its optimal economic point. The model
 can be used to establish appropriate slaughter end points for
 comparing beef cattle breeds and crosses and to evaluate
 breeding objectives for feedlot traits in genetic improvement
 programs.
 
 
 49                         NAL Call. No.: Videocassette no.199
 Biotechnology briefing Technology Transfer and Assessment
 Staff ; David Berkowitz [and] Daniel Jones..  Technology
 Transfer and Assessment Staff seminars on Biotechnology
 Jones, Daniel; Cross, H. Russell; Bolt, Douglas J.; Wall,
 Robert; Hansen, J.; Barbeito, Manuel
 United States, Food Safety and Inspection Service, Technology
 Transfer and Assessment Staff
 Washington : D.C.? : USDA, The Staff,; 1987.
 6 videocassettes (VHS) (317 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. + 1
 brief sheet. "Tuesday, March 17, 1987, Room 4434, South
 Building"--Brief sheet.  Brief sheet title.  Title on
 container: Technology Transfer and Assessment Staff seminars
 on biotechnology.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Biotechnology; Congresses; Genetic engineering;
 Congresses; Animals; Inspection; United States; Animal welfare
 
 
 50                                       NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Blood and serum components and organ weights in steers, bulls
 and zeranol-implanted bulls.
 Doornenbal, H.; Tong, A.K.W.; Newman, J.A.; Murray, N.L.;
 Mears, G.J. Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal
 Science; 1987 Feb. Journal of animal science v. 64 (2): p.
 489-496; 1987 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Bulls; Steers; Zeranol; Blood composition;
 Organs; Castration; Growth; Carcass quality; Stress
 
 
 51                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 SO8
 Blood biochemical parameters and meat pH of feedlot cattle
 slaughtered on arrival or after overnight rest at an abattoir.
 Grosskopf, J.F.W.; Meltzer, D.G.A.; Van Den Heever, L.W.;
 Collett, F.A.; Van Rensburg, J.J.; Mulders, M.S.; Lombard,
 M.S.
 Pretoria : The Association; 1988 Sep.
 Journal of the South African Veterinary Association v. 59 (3):
 p. 149-152; 1988 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle; Feedlots; Slaughter; Blood chemistry; Ph;
 Beef; Abattoirs; Rest; Summer; Winter; Brahman; Stress
 
 
 52                                     NAL Call. No.: 100 N27M
 Calving and stress hormones of calves.
 Rainforth, L.; Knott, M.; Clemens, E.
 Lincoln, Neb. : The Station; 1990 Oct.
 MP - University of Nebraska, Agricultural Experiment Station
 (56): p. 13-15; 1990 Oct.  In the series analytic: 1991 Beef
 Cattle Report.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dystocia; Heifers; Calves; Dams (mothers);
 Calving; Stress; Maternal effects; Epinephrine; Transfer;
 Fetus; Blood plasma; Catecholamines; Gastrin
 
 
 53                                       NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Carcass traits and the occurrence of dark cutters in pregnant
 and nonpregnant feedlot heifers.
 Kreikemeier, K.K.; Unruh, J.A.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1993
 Jul. Journal of animal science v. 71 (7): p. 1699-1703; 1993
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kansas; Cabt; Beef cows; Bred heifers; Heifers;
 Pregnancy; Dark cutting meat; Carcass composition; Carcass
 quality
 
 Abstract:  The objective of this study was to determine
 whether the occurrence of dark cutters and selected carcass
 traits differ between pregnant and nonpregnant feedlot
 heifers. Feedlot heifers (n = 8,292) were identified at
 slaughter as being either nonpregnant, pregnant with a
 moderate-sized fetus (midgestation), or pregnant with a large
 fetus (late gestation). This was based on visual appraisal of
 a gravid uterus at the evisceration table. After chilling (24
 to 72 h), carcass data were collected. Cattle originated from
 23 different commercial feedyards located within a 350-km
 radius of a commercial slaughter facility located in southwest
 Kansas. Across slaughter lots, the incidence of pregnancy
 varied from 0 to 25% with an overall mean of 4.74%. Carcass
 traits of heifers with moderate or large fetuses did not
 differ (P > .15). Compared with carcasses from nonpregnant
 heifers, carcasses from pregnant heifers were 4.5 kg lighter
 (P < .01), had .11 cm more fat thickness (P < .01), and
 exceeded the number of carcasses that graded Choice or Prime
 by 6% (P < .01). Carcasses from pregnant heifers had higher
 maturity scores (P < .01) and there was no incidence of dark
 cutters (P < .01) compared with a 1.7% incidence of dark
 cutters in carcasses from nonpregnant heifers. Any economical
 advantage in the pregnant heifers due to their higher
 percentage of Choice carcasses and lower incidence of dark
 cutters may be offset by their increased carcass fat thickness
 and lower dressing percentage.
 
 
 54                                   NAL Call. No.: HV4701.A34
 Cardiac arrest stunning of livestock and poultry.
 Grandin, T.
 Boston : Martinus Nijhoff Publishers; 1985.
 Advances in animal welfare science. p. 1-30; 1985.  Literature
 review. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Poultry; Heart diseases; Pain; Animal
 welfare; Stunning; Immobilization
 
 
 55                                   NAL Call. No.: SF196.U5C3
 The Care and handling of beef animals in the United States
 today a position paper.
 American National CattleWomen
 Englewood, CO : American National CattleWomen, [1988?]; 1988.
 21 leaves ; 29 cm.  Bibliography: leaves 19-20.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; United States; Animals, Treatment
 of; United States
 
 
 56                                  NAL Call. No.: 275.29 M58B
 Cattle behavior during handling & corral design for beef cow
 herds. Grandin, T.
 East Lansing, Mich. : The Service; 1991 Dec.
 Extension bulletin E - Cooperative Extension Service, Michigan
 State University (2996): 10 p.; 1991 Dec.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cows; Fencing; Animal behavior; Vision
 
 
 57                         NAL Call. No.: Videocassette no.422
 Cattle handling and transportation produced for the USDA
 Office of Transportation by the Livestock Conservation
 Institute..  Livestock handling guide Livestock trucking guide
 Grandin, Temple; Hoke, Karl E.
 United States, Dept. of Agriculture, Office of Transportation,
 Livestock Conservation Institute
 Amarillo, Tex. : The Institute,; 1988.
 1 videocassette (18 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. + 2 booklets.
 (Livestock handling & transportation).  VHS format.  Booklets
 are entitled Livestock handling guide and Livestock trucking
 guide.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle; Handling; Cattle; Transportation; Cattle;
 Behavior; Animal welfare
 
 
 58                                     NAL Call. No.: 23 AU783
 Cattle handling at abattoirs. I. The effects of rest and
 resting conditions before slaughter and of electrical
 stimulation of carcasses on carcass weight and muscle
 properties.
 Wythes, J.R.; Shorthose, W.R.; Powell, V.H.
 Melbourne : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research
 Organization; 1988.
 Australian journal of agricultural research v. 39 (1): p.
 87-95; 1988. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Queensland; Cattle; Abattoirs; Handling;
 Bruising; Stress; Rest; Slaughter; Carcasses; Carcass weight;
 Muscles; Electrical treatment; Stimulation; Carcass quality;
 Physico-chemical properties
 
 
 59                                     NAL Call. No.: 23 AU783
 Cattle handling at abattoirs. II. The effects of rest in
 transit and duration of the resting period before slaughter on
 carcass weight, bruising and muscle properties.
 Wythes, J.R.; Arthur, R.J.; Dodt, R.M.; Shorthose, W.R.
 Melbourne : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research
 Organization; 1988.
 Australian journal of agricultural research v. 39 (1): p.
 97-107; 1988. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Queensland; Cattle; Abattoirs; Handling;
 Transport of animals; Bruising; Stress; Rest; Slaughter;
 Carcasses; Carcass weight; Muscles; Carcass quality; Physico-
 chemical properties
 
 
 60                                     NAL Call. No.: 23 AU783
 Cattle handling at abattoirs. III. The effects of feeding, and
 of different feeds, during the resting period before slaughter
 on liveweight, carcasses and muscle properties.
 Wythes, J.R.; Round, P.J.; Johnston, G.N.; Smith, P.C.
 Melbourne : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research
 Organization; 1989.
 Australian journal of agricultural research v. 40 (5): p.
 1099-1109; 1989. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Queensland; Beef cattle; Brahman; Hereford;
 Shorthorn; Feeding; Alfalfa hay; Rice straw; Liveweight;
 Abattoirs; Carcass weight; Dressing percentage; Meat quality;
 Muscle tissue
 
 
 61                                     NAL Call. No.: 23 AU792
 Cattle temperaments in extensive beef herds in northern
 Queensland. 1. Factors affecting temperament.
 Fordyce, G.; Dodt, R.M.; Wythes, J.R.
 Melbourne : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research
 Organization; 1988.
 Australian journal of experimental agriculture v. 28 (6): p.
 683-687; 1988. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Queensland; Beef cattle; Shorthorn; Brahman;
 Herds; Temperament; Animal behavior; Age; Growth rate;
 Pregnancy; Handling; Cattle husbandry; Management
 
 
 62                                     NAL Call. No.: 23 AU792
 Cattle temperaments in extensive beef herds in northern
 Queensland. 2. Effect of temperament on carcass and meat
 quality.
 Fordyce, G.; Wythes, J.R.; Shorthose, W.R.; Underwood, D.W.;
 Shepherd, R.K. Melbourne : Commonwealth Scientific and
 Industrial Research Organization; 1988.
 Australian journal of experimental agriculture v. 28 (6): p.
 689-693; 1988. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Queensland; Beef cattle; Steers; Cows;
 Temperament; Herds; Carcass quality; Meat quality; Stress; Ph;
 Flavors; Tenderness; Water holding capacity; Keeping quality
 
 
 63                                  NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32P
 Characterizing livestock stress "by the numbers".
 Hahn, G.L.; Chen, Y.R.; Nienaber, J.A.; Eigenberg, R.A.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1990.
 Paper - American Society of Agricultural Engineers (90-4508):
 13 p.; 1990. Paper presented at the "1990 International Winter
 Meeting sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers," December 18-21, 1990, Chicago Illinois.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Feed intake; Thermoregulation; Fractionation;
 Cattle
 
 
 64                                   NAL Call. No.: aS21.R44A7
 Characterizing stress in feeder cattle.
 Hahn, G.L.; Nienaber, J.A.
 Clay Center, Neb. : U.S. Department of Agriculture,
 Agricultural Research Service; 1993 May.
 ARS / (71): p. 146-148; 1993 May.  In the series analytic:
 Beef research progress report no. 4.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle; Feedlots; Heat stress; Body temperature;
 Environmental temperature; Feed intake; Methodology
 
 
 65                                    NAL Call. No.: 60.18 J82
 Chemically mediated interactions between woody plants and
 browsing mammals. Bryant, J.P.; Reichardt, P.B.; Clausen, T.P.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1992 Jan.
 Journal of range management v. 45 (1): p. 18-24; 1992 Jan. 
 Paper presented at the "Symposium on Ingestion of Poisonous
 Plants by Livestock," February 15, 1990, Reno, Nevada. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mammals; Herbivores; Plant composition; Secondary
 metabolites; Woody plants; Browsing; Forage; Defense
 mechanisms; Tannins; Environmental factors; Digestion;
 Browsing damage; Regrowth
 
 Abstract:  A diverse array of secondary metabolites deters
 feeding by mammals on woody plants. However, not all secondary
 metabolites are equally deterrent and the potencies of these
 substances as antifeedants is related to their structures.
 Although the physiological reason underlying deterrence by
 secondary metabolites is not well understood, the available
 evidence indicates that toxicity is more important than
 digestion inhibition. Resource limitation influences the
 production of secondary metabolites by woody plants. Species
 that are adapted to unproductive habitats are more chemically
 defended than species that are adapted to productive habitats.
 Resource limitation also affects the phenotypic expression of
 chemical defense with nutrient stress favoring increased
 production of carbon-based secondary metabolites and reduced
 production of nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites. Light
 stress has the opposite effects on the production of these
 substances. Herbivory by mammals also affects the chemical
 defenses of woody plants. In some cases browsing results in
 increased defense and in others decreased defense. Three
 circumstances under which browsing by mammals can change the
 chemical defenses of woody plants are discussed.
 
 
 66                                    NAL Call. No.: SF207.M25
 Choosing a beef bull hill farming 86 Bala, Gwynedd, June 4-5
 1986. Mathewson, G. K.
 Great Britain, Agricultural Development and Advisory Service
 Aberystwyth? : ADAS,; 1986.
 10 p. ; 21 cm.  Cover title.  Bibliography: p. 10.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Bulls; Animal welfare
 
 
 67                            NAL Call. No.: SF85.4.A9G72 1985
 Codes of conduct for grazing animal welfare: the graziers'
 view. Peart, W.J.
 Indooroopilly, QLD : Australian Veterinary Association
 (Queensland Division); 1985.
 Grazing Animal Welfare Symposium : proceedings of a symposium
 held at the Bardon Professional Development Centre, Brisbane,
 on April 26th and 27th, 1985 / [editors: Brian L. Moore and
 Peter J. Chenoweth]. p. 170-173; 1985.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Australia; Livestock; Animal production; Animal
 husbandry; Grazing; Drought; Ethics; Animal welfare
 
 
 68                                     NAL Call. No.: 101 AL1A
 Cold weather calving: metabolic heat production and
 thermostability. Young, B.A.; Okamoto, M.; Robinson, J.B.;
 Christopherson, R.J. Edmonton : The Faculty; 1986.
 Agriculture & forestry bulletin - Alberta University. Faculty
 of Extension (special issue): p. 11-13; 1986.  Paper presented
 at the 65th Annual Feeders' Day Report, July, 1986, University
 of Alberta, Canada.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Calves; Beef cattle; Cold stress; Losses; Heat
 production; Metabolism; Heat stability; Newborn animals
 
 
 69                                 NAL Call. No.: 275.29 SO85C
 Cold weather care of calves.
 Brookings, S.D. : The Service; 1987 Dec.
 South Dakota D.H.I.A. news - South Dakota State University,
 Cooperative Extension Service. p. 3; 1987 Dec.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South Dakota; Calves; Cold stress; Livestock
 housing; Weaning
 
 
 70                                     NAL Call. No.: SF601.B6
 Comparison of ceftiofur with various antibiotic-
 sulfadimethoxine combinations for the treatment of
 undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease. Hansen, D.E.;
 Campbell, C.B.; Boyle, J.M.; Stefanides, N.; Whitsett, D.;
 Williams, G.
 Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Publishing
 Company; 1993 Mar. Agri-Practice v. 14 (3): p. 13-17; 1993
 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oregon; Beef cattle; Respiratory diseases;
 Antibiotics; Sulfadimethoxine; Feedlots
 
 
 71                                  NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32P
 Comparison of fresh air inlets in small livestock rooms.
 Turnbull, J.E.; Kains, F.I.; Wolynetz, M.S.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1989.
 Paper - American Society of Agricultural Engineers (89-4522):
 24 p.; 1989. Paper presented at the 1989 International Winter
 Meeting, December 12-15, 1989, New Orleans, Louisiana. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ventilation; Animal housing; Pigs
 
 
 72                                   NAL Call. No.: SF207.B442
 Comparison of intensive and conventional grazing management of
 two forage species. II. Postweaning feedlot performance of
 steers.
 Fisher, J.C.; Bolze, R.P.; Loerch, S.C.
 Wooster, Ohio : The Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural
 Research and Development Center; 1990 Mar.
 Ohio beef cattle research & industry report (90-2): p.
 124-131; 1990 Mar. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ohio; Beef cattle; Feedlots; Fattening
 performance; Postweaning interval; Compensatory growth;
 Grazing; Liveweight; Dry matter; Creep feeding
 
 
 73                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 AN55
 A comparison of the early behaviour of intensively and
 extensively reared calves.
 Kerr, S.G.C.; Wood-Gush, D.G.M.
 Neston, South Wirral, England : British Society of Animal
 Production; 1987 Oct.
 Animal production v. 45 (pt.2): p. 181-190; 1987 Oct. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Calves; Animal behavior; Intensive livestock
 farming; Extensive livestock farming; Calf housing; Animal
 welfare
 
 
 74                                   NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 A computer program for designing livestock ventilation
 systems. House, H.K.; Huffman, H.E.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1987.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche
 collection) (fiche no. 87-4039): 13 p.; 1987.  Paper presented
 at the 1987 Summer Meeting of the American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers. Available for purchase from: The
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950
 Niles Road, St. Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order
 Dept. at (616) 429-0300 for information and prices.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Computer applications; Animal housing;
 Ventilation; Systems; Design; Heating systems
 
 
 75                                       NAL Call. No.: HD1.A3
 Computer simulation of monitoring herd productivity under
 extensive conditions: sampling error of herd size and offtake
 rate. Baptist, R.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1987.
 Agricultural systems v. 24 (3): p. 199-210; 1987.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Extensive livestock farming;
 Pastoralism; Herds; Herd structure; Productivity; Computer
 simulation; Animal husbandry; Culling; Herd size
 
 
 76                                NAL Call. No.: SF1.F64 no.97
 Construction and operation of medium-sized abattoirs in
 developing countries. Veall, Frederick
 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
 Rome : Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
 Nations,; 1992. xiii, 199 p. : ill. ; 30 cm. (FAO animal
 production and health paper ; 97).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Slaughtering and slaughter-houses; Livestock
 
 
 77                             NAL Call. No.: 100 N465R no.587
 Consumer acceptance of beef from animals fed various levels of
 feed concentrate in feedlot diets.
 New Mexico State University, Agricultural Experiment Station
 Las Cruces, N.M. : New Mexico State University, Agricultural
 Experiment Station,; 1986.
 28 p. ; 28 cm. (Western regional publication ; 7 Research
 report ; 587). Caption title.  Bibliography: p. 17.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Feeding and feeds; Food preferences;
 Consumers' preferences
 
 
 78                                   NAL Call. No.: HV4701.A34
 Contribution to a concept of behavioral abnormality in farm
 animals under confinement.
 Luescher, U.A.; Hurnik, J.F.
 Boston : Martinus Nijhoff Publishers; 1986-1987.
 Advances in animal welfare science. p. 67-76; 1986-1987. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Abnormal behavior; Livestock housing;
 Housing density; Phylogeny; Ontogeny
 
 
 79                                 NAL Call. No.: aHD9001.N275
 Controversy over livestock growth hormones continues.
 Blayney, D.P.; Fallert, R.F.; Shagam, S.D.
 Washington, D.C. : Commodity Economics Division, Economic
 Research Service, USDA; 1991 Oct.
 FoodReview v. 14 (4): p. 6-9; 1991 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Somatotropin; Food and nutrition
 controversies; Food safety; Food biotechnology; Farm
 structure; Surpluses; Animal welfare
 
 Abstract:  At the forefront of biotechnology in animal
 agriculture is the experimental use of somatotropin, growth
 hormones that occur naturally in animals. The safety, positive
 and negative implication surrounding the controversy over the
 use of bovine somatotropin use for milk production are
 discussed.
 
 
 80                              NAL Call. No.: SF207.B67  1993
 Corrals for handling beef cattle.
 Borg, Robert
 Edmonton : Publishing Branch, Alberta Agriculture, Food and
 Rural Development,; 1993.
 91 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.  "Agdex 420/723-1"--Cover.  Includes
 bibliographical references (p. 91).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Cattle pens
 
 
 81                                  NAL Call. No.: aHD1401.J68
 Cost, supply, and farm structure: a pedagogical note.
 Teigen, L.D.
 Washington, D.C : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research
 Service : [Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O., distributor], 1987-;
 1993.
 Journal of agricultural economics research v. 45 (1): p.
 27-32; 1993. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Cabt; Dairy farms; Production costs;
 Production functions; Marginal analysis; Structural change;
 Economic dualism; Livestock numbers
 
 Abstract:  Starting with an individual firm and its quadratic
 production function, this paper derives all related functions:
 marginal and average cost, supply, profit, and input demand.
 Since derivatives in other functions correspond to parameters
 of the quadratic, the results generalize. Explicit aggregation
 from firm to market shows that properly specified aggregate
 functions depend on firm numbers. To illustrate the results,
 marginal and average cost functions for several dairy farms
 are drawn to scale, noting that large farms get more output
 per cow than small farms. Juxtaposing the cost curves with
 trends in dairy farms by size shows the link between firm-
 level profit and structural change.
 
 
 82                             NAL Call. No.: 1 Ag84Te no.1704
 Costs of retail beef-handling systems a modeling approach.
 Duewer, Lawrence A.
 United States, Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service
 Washington, D.C. : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic
 Research Service : [Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O.,
 distributor],; 1985.
 v, 55 p. ; 28 cm.. (Technical bulletin / United States. Dept.
 of Agriculture ; no. 1704).  Cover title.  Distributed to
 depository libraries in microfiche. "June 1985"--P. i. 
 Bibliography: p. 29.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Data processing; Beef packers; Data
 processing
 
 
 83                                 NAL Call. No.: S544.3.K4K42
 Creep grazing for beef calves.
 Rice, H.B.; Absher, C.; Turner, L.
 Lexington : The Service; 1987 Apr.
 ID - University of Kentucky, Cooperative Extension Service
 (76): 4 p. ill., maps; 1987 Apr.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kentucky; Calves; Beef cattle; Creep grazing;
 Fences; Stocking rate; Gates
 
 
 84                              NAL Call. No.: SF75.2.C84 1988
 El Cuidado de los animales  [Care of livestock]., 1. ed..
 Mexico, D.F. : Arbol editorial,; 1988.
 192, [1] p. : ill. ; 21 cm.
 
 Language:  Spanish
 
 Descriptors: Livestock
 
 
 85                               NAL Call. No.: KF27.A366 1988
 Dairy Production Termination Enforcement Act of 1988 hearing
 before the Subcommittee on Livestock, Dairy, and Poultry of
 the Committee on Agriculture, House of Representatives, One
 Hundredth Congress, second session, on H.R. 3870, March 2,
 1988.
 United States. Congress. House. Committee on Agriculture.
 Subcommittee on Livestock, Dairy, and Poultry
 Washington, [D.C.] : U.S. G.P.O. : For sale by the Supt. of
 Docs., Congressional Sales Office, U.S. G.P.O.,; 1988; Y 4.Ag
 8/1:100-59. iii, 41 p. : forms ; 24 cm.  Distributed to some
 depository libraries in microfiche.  Serial no. 100-59.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Dairying; Economic aspects; United States; Milk
 production; Government policy; United States; Dairy laws;
 United States
 
 
 86                                   NAL Call. No.: HV4701.A34
 The definition, current knowledge and implementation of
 welfare for farm animals--a personal view.
 Kilgour, R.
 Boston : Martinus Nijhoff Publishers; 1985.
 Advances in animal welfare science. p. 31-46; 1985.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Poultry; Animal welfare;
 Implementation of research; Guidelines
 
 
 87                         NAL Call. No.: Videocassette no.844
 Dehorning beef cattle produced by Ron Davis and Fred Nelson.
 Davis, Ron; Nelson, Fred
 Vocational Education Productions, Da-Nel Productions
 California? : Da-Nel Productions ; [San Luis Obispo, Calif.?]
 : Vocational Education Productions,; 1985.
 1 videocassette (25 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in.  VHS.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dehorning; Animal welfare
 
 
 88                                   NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Design and contruction effects on cattle waterer energy use.
 Anderson, V.L.; Johnson, D.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1987.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche
 collection) (fiche no. 87-4081): 17 p. ill; 1987.  Paper
 presented at the 1987 Summer Meeting of the American Society
 of Agricultural Engineers. Available for purchase from: The
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950
 Niles Road, St. Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order
 Dept. at (616) 429-0300 for information and prices.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock housing; Drinkers; Design; Performance
 testing; Electrical energy; Energy consumption
 
 
 89                                 NAL Call. No.: SF779.5.A1B6
 The design of feeding barriers and managers and its effect on
 incidence of injuries and feed wastage.
 Cermak, J.
 Stillwater, Okla. : American Association of Bovine
 Practitioners; 1988 Nov. The Bovine practitioner (23): p.
 74-75; 1988 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Heifers; Dairy cows; Beef bulls; Managers; Animal
 feeding; Barriers; Design; Injuries; Incidence; Feeds; Wastage
 
 
 90                            NAL Call. No.: S671.M47 no.73/85
 The Design of livestock buildings for natural ventilation the
 theoretical basis and a rational design method.
 Down, M. J.
 University of Melbourne, Dept. of Civil and Agricultural
 Engineering Parkville, Vic., Australia : University of
 Melbourne, Department of Civil and Agricultural Engineering,;
 1985.
 ix, 112 p. : ill. ; 29 cm. (Agricultural engineering report,
 no. 73/85). RR/AGR/03/85.  September 1985.  Bibliography: p.
 111-112.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Housing; Ventilation
 
 
 91                                   NAL Call. No.: SF85.A1R32
 Does Sahelian pastoral development include range management?.
 Greenwood, G.B.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1986 Dec.
 Rangelands v. 8 (6): p. 259-264. ill; 1986 Dec.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sahel; Livestock; Pastoralism; Development; Range
 management; Animal production; Technology transfers;
 Production structure; Pastoral society; Land capability
 
 
 92                                       NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Dose-response effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin
 implants on feedlot performance in steers.
 Dalke, B.S.; Roeder, R.A.; Kasser, T.R.; Veenhuizen, J.J.;
 Hunt, C.W.; Hinman, D.D.; Schelling, G.T.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1992
 Jul. Journal of animal science v. 70 (7): p. 2130-2137; 1992
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Steers; Somatotropin; Dosage
 effects; Insulin-like growth factor; Growth; Performance;
 Carcass composition; Blood serum
 
 Abstract:  One hundred twenty crossbred beef steers averaging
 377 kg were used in a 2 X 4 factorial experiment to determine
 the dose-response effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin
 (rbST) implants on growth performance and carcass
 characteristics. The implant dosages were 0 (sham), 40, 80, or
 160 mg/wk administered s.c. in the tailhead region on a weekly
 basis throughout the experiment. The steers were fed a high-
 concentrate diet, which contained either a degradable (DP;
 soybean meal) or an escape (EP; corn gluten and blood meal)
 protein source. No dietary protein effect or dietary protein X
 rbST level interactions were detected. Recombinant bST
 decreased both DMI (P < .10) and feed/gain (P < .05) in a
 linear dose-dependent manner. Dosage of rbST did not
 significantly affect (P > .10) ADG or final weight of the
 steers. Recombinant bST decreased backfat depth (P < .10),
 marbling score (P < .05), and quality grade (P < .10) and
 increased yield grade (P < .10) in a linear dose-dependent
 manner. Soft tissue composition of the 9-10-11th rib section
 was altered (P < .01) by rbST administration in a linear dose-
 dependent manner. The percentage of protein in the rib section
 was increased by 9.4% and fat was decreased by 11.8% at the
 160 mg/wk rbST level compared with the sham-implanted steers.
 Recombinant bST did not affect (P > .10) dressing percentage,
 hot carcass weight, kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, or
 longissimus muscle area. Serum insulin-like growth factor I
 (IGF-I) concentrations in the steers exhibited a linear
 response to dosage of rbST (P < .01). These data indicate that
 rbST is an efficacious method of improving feedlot performance
 and partitioning nutrient deposition in feedlot steers.
 
 
 93                                     NAL Call. No.: 58.8 J82
 Double rail restrainer conveyor for livestock handling.
 Grandin, T.
 London : Academic Press; 1988 Dec.
 Journal of agricultural engineering research v. 41 (4): p.
 327-338. ill; 1988 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sheep; Calves; Livestock; Handling; Slaughtering
 equipment; Conveyors; Restraint of animals; Stunning;
 Automatic control; Agricultural engineering
 
 
 94                                  NAL Call. No.: 290.9 Am32P
 Double rail restrainer for handling beef cattle.
 Grandin, T.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers,; 1991. Paper / (915004): 15 p.; 1991.  Paper
 presented at the "1991 International Summer Meeting sponsored
 by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers," June
 23-26, 1991, Albuquerque, New Mexico.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Slaughter; Restraint of animals
 
 
 95                                   NAL Call. No.: 280.8 J822
 Dynamic animal economics.
 Rosen, S.
 Ames, Iowa : American Agricultural Economics Association; 1987
 Aug. American journal of agricultural economics v. 69 (3): p.
 547-557; 1987 Aug. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle husbandry; Herd structure; Livestock
 number; Supply response; Inventories; Pigs; Cobweb models
 
 
 96                                       NAL Call. No.: HD1.A3
 An economic and environmental assessment of alternative
 forage-resource production systems: a goal-programming
 approach.
 Fiske, W.A.; D'Souza, G.E.; Fletcher, J.J.; Phipps, T.T.;
 Bryan, W.B.; Prigg, E.C.
 Oxford : Elsevier Applied Science; 1994.
 Agricultural systems v. 45 (3): p. 259-270; 1994.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: West Virginia; Cabt; Beef cattle; Calf
 production; Profitability; Risk; Environmental impact;
 Algorithms; Production structure; Decision making
 
 
 97                                       NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Economic evaluation of heterosis and culling policies for
 lifetime productivity in Hereford, Angus, Shorthorn, and
 crossbred cows. Nunez-Dominguez, R.; Dickerson, G.E.; Cundiff,
 L.V.; Gregory, K.E.; Koch, R.M. Champaign, Ill. : American
 Society of Animal Science; 1992 Aug. Journal of animal science
 v. 70 (8): p. 2328-2337; 1992 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cows; Heterosis; Culling; Herd structure;
 Economic evaluation; Heifers; Crossbreds; Breed differences;
 Costs; Female fertility
 
 Abstract:  Experimental lifetime performance data obtained
 from 156 straightbred Hereford, Angus, and Shorthorn and 172
 first-cross heifers were used to estimate heterosis for
 economic efficiency in a 100-cow herd at age equilibrium under
 three culling policies and at terminal ages from 6 to 12 yr.
 All nonpregnant heifers and cows > 9 yr of age were culled.
 The culling policy for removal of nonpregnant cows from second
 parity through 9 yr of age were 1) no culling, 2) after two
 consecutive years (actual), and 3) all (imposed). Efficiency
 was calculated as input cost per unit of output value. A 10-yr
 average was used for costs of replacement heifers, cow units,
 and the ratio of calf-cull cow prices (PR), plus higher and
 lower PR. Input included costs for both cow units and
 purchased replacements. Output value included both weaned
 calves and cull cows. Optimum terminal age was mainly a
 function of PR: 9 yr for average and high PR, but 6 through 9
 yr when PR was low, regardless of culling policy or breed
 groups. Efficiency differences among culling policies were
 small for high or average PR, but more culling for infertility
 was beneficial when PR was low. Estimated reductions in unit
 costs of output value under any culling policy or terminal age
 were approximately 6% from crossbred cows plus another 6% from
 crossbred calves, or a total of 12% from specific three-breed
 crossing of these British breeds. Cost reductions would be
 somewhat less for rotation crossbreeding but greater for
 mating smaller crossbred cows with sires of superior growth-
 carcass breeds.
 
 
 98                                 NAL Call. No.: 100 C71S (3)
 The economics of fed beef production in Colorado.
 Madsen, A.G.; Gee, C.K.
 Fort Collins : The Station; 1986 Jan.
 Technical bulletin - Colorado State University Experiment
 Station (86-2): 32 p.; 1986 Jan.  Includes statistical data.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Colorado; Beef production; Cattle fattening;
 Feedlots; Facilities; Equipment; Economic analysis
 
 
 99                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 C163
 The effect of age and method of castration on plasma cortisol
 in beef calves. King, B.D.; Cohen, R.D.H.; Guenther, C.L.;
 Janzen, E.D.
 Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada; 1991 Jun.
 Canadian journal of animal science v. 71 (2): p. 257-263; 1991
 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Calves; Beef cattle; Castration; Age differences;
 Hydrocortisone; Blood plasma; Stress; Liveweight gain
 
 
 100                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Effect of an implant of trenbolone acetate and estradiol on
 growth, feed efficiency, and carcass composition of Holstein
 and beef steers. Perry, T.C.; Fox, D.G.; Beermann, D.H.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1991
 Dec. Journal of animal science v. 69 (12): p. 4696-4702; 1991
 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Steers; Trenbolone; Estradiol; Liveweight gain;
 Feed conversion; Breed differences; Carcass composition;
 Sensory evaluation
 
 Abstract:  The effects of an implant of 140 mg of trenbolone
 acetate and 28 mg of estradiol (TBA + E2) on performance and
 carcass composition were evaluated with 72 individually fed
 steers. Holstein (n = 24), Angus (n = 24), and Angus X
 Simmental (n = 24) steer calves were allocated by breed and
 implant treatment to either an individual feeding pen (n = 36)
 or an electronic feeding door in a group pen (three pens with
 12 animals per pen). Intake and refusal of the 85% concentrate
 diet were recorded daily. Animals were slaughtered when
 ultrasonic attenuation values of the longissimus muscle at the
 12th rib reached .55, which is correlated with low Choice
 marbling. At slaughter, complete carcass measurements were
 taken and the right side of each carcass was separated into
 boneless wholesale cuts. Implanting with TBA + E2 improved (P
 < .01) daily gain and feed efficiency. Daily gain was
 increased 17, 26, and 21% in Holstein, Angus, and crossbred
 steers, respectively. The implant increased overall daily
 protein and fat accretion 23%. Carcass conformation and
 dressing percentage were not affected (P > .05) by TBA + E2
 treatment. Implantation with TBA + E2 had little effect on
 yield of wholesale boneless cuts when expressed as a
 percentage of carcass weight but increased absolute weight as
 a small degree of marbling by 6 to 40 kg.
 
 
 101                                     NAL Call. No.: 472 N21
 Effect of animal husbandry on herbivore-carrying capacity at a
 regional scale. Oesterheld, M.; Sala, O.E.; McNaughton, S.J.
 London : Macmillan Magazines Ltd; 1992 Mar19.
 Nature v. 356 (6366): p. 234-236; 1992 Mar19.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South America; Range management; Cattle; Sheep;
 Animal husbandry; Grazing effects
 
 Abstract:  All significant properties of the herbivore trophic
 level, including biomass, consumption and productivity, are
 significantly correlated with primary productivity across a
 broad range of terrestrial ecosystems. Here we show that
 livestock biomass in South American agricultural ecosystems
 across a 25-fold gradient of primary productivity exhibited a
 relationship with a slope essentially identical to unmanaged
 ecosystems, but with a substantially greater y-intercept.
 Therefore the biomass of herbivores supported per unit of
 primary productivity is about an order of magnitude greater in
 agricultural than in natural ecosystems, for a given level of
 primary production. We also present evidence of an increase in
 livestock body size with primary productivity, a pattern
 previously characterized in natural ecosystems. To our
 knowledge this is the first quantitative documentation at a
 regional scale of the impact of animal husbandry practices,
 such as herding, stock selection and veterinary care, on the
 biomass and size-structure of livestock herds compared with
 native herbivores.
 
 
 102                                    NAL Call. No.: SF191.F5
 Effect of backgrounding regime on animal performance and
 carcass characteristics of beef steers finished for various
 periods in the feedlot. Prichard, D.L.; Bertrand, J.E.;
 Johnson, D.D.
 Gainesville, Fla. : The Service; 1988.
 Florida beef cattle research report - Florida Cooperative
 Extension Service, University of Florida. p. 177-183; 1988.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Brahman; Steers; Autumn; Pasture
 management; Feedlots; Hay; Concentrates; Secale cereale;
 Lolium perenne; Trifolium; Carcass quality; Performance
 
 
 103                                  NAL Call. No.: 99.8 F7623
 The effect of cattle grazing on ponderosa pine regeneration.
 Kingery, J.L.; Graham, R.T.
 Ottawa : Canadian Institute of Forestry; 1991 Jun.
 The Forestry chronicle v. 67 (3): p. 245-248; 1991 Jun.  Paper
 presented at the First Conference on Agroforestry in North
 America, August 1989, Guelph, Ontario.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Idaho; Pinus ponderosa; Agroforestry;
 Silvopastoral systems; Cattle; Grazing effects; Forest
 plantations; Seedlings; Browsing damage; National forests
 
 Abstract:  During the summer and fall of 1982, a study was
 established on the Nez Perce National Forest in central Idaho
 to assess the effects of cattle grazing on the performance of
 a new ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) plantation. Three
 study sites were located in a Douglas-fir/ninebark
 (Pseudotsuga menziesii/Physocarpus malvaceus) habitat type.
 Results after six years showed that livestock use can
 influence tree seedling establishment. Mortality and damage to
 tree seedlings from cattle resulted primarily from trampling
 rather than from browsing. Five and one-half percent of the
 seedlings were damaged by cattle, of which 3.6% died. Browsing
 by deer and elk caused the most growth loss. Overall damage
 was greatest from non-animal causes. Seedling quality at the
 time of planting, handling of the seedling, and droughty
 conditions during the first two years of the study contributed
 to this type of damage. Overall performance of the tree
 seedlings were relatively poor. Total mortality to tree
 seedlings resulting from all sources of damage was 43.6% for
 the grazed treatment and 25.3% for the non-grazed treatment.
 
 
 104                                    NAL Call. No.: SF191.F5
 Effect of diet on animal performance, fat composition of
 subcutaneous adipose and liver tissue of beef cattle.
 Hidiroglou, N.; McDowell, L.R.; Johnson, D.D.
 Gainesville, Fla. : The Service; 1988.
 Florida beef cattle research report - Florida Cooperative
 Extension Service, University of Florida. p. 118-128; 1988. 
 Includes statistical data.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Brahman; Crossbreds; Steers; Feedlots;
 Performance; Carcass quality; Subcutaneous fat; Unsaturated
 fatty acids; Liver; Lipids; Oleic acid
 
 
 105                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 The effect of fasting, transit plus fasting, and
 administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone on the source
 and amount of weight loss by feeder steers of different ages.
 Phillips, W.A.; Juniewicz, P.E.; VonTungeln, D.L.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1991
 Jun. Journal of animal science v. 69 (6): p. 2342-2348; 1991
 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Steers; Weight losses; Fasting;
 Transport; Corticotropin; Excretion; Stress; Age differences
 
 Abstract:  Two trials (winter and summer) were conducted to
 determine effects of fasting and transportation and
 adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTED) administration on the
 amount and source of weight lost by feeder steers. Sixteen
 steers, in each of two experiments, were adapted to metabolism
 status for 10 d, were fed medium-quality hay at 2.1% of BW for
 3 d, and then were subjected to either fasting alone or
 fasting plus transit for 48 h. In Exp. 1 steers were randomly
 assigned to treatments. In Exp. 2 steers were blocked by age
 (OLD or YOUNG) and assigned to treatments. Fecal and urinary
 excretions accounted for 65 and 38% of the total weight lost
 in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. Fasting plus transit did not
 consistently increase the amount of weight lost compared with
 fasting alone but increased (P < .01) plasma glucose
 concentrations. Injection of ACTH before either fasting alone
 or fasting plus transit increased (P < .05) the amount of
 weight lost as feces. Steers in the OLD group lost more weight
 during transit and fasting but regained the lost weight faster
 (P < .01) during the recovery period than did steers in the
 YOUNG group. Injecting YOUNG steers with ACTH before fasting
 alone or fasting plus transit increased plasma fibrinogen (P <
 .10) and serum glucose (P < .05) concentrations more than ACTH
 injections in OLD steers. Although fasting and transit elicit
 mobilization of body nutrients and resulted in a loss of BW,
 these effects were quickly reversed during the post-stress
 period.
 
 
 106                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Effect of genotype on basal and ACTH stimulated cortisol
 response in beef steers during weaning and transit stress.
 Zavy, M.T.; Phillips, W.A.; Juniewicz, P.E.; VonTungeln, D.L.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1988.
 Journal of animal science v. 66 (suppl.1): p. 234-235; 1988. 
 Paper presented at the 80th Annual Meeting of the American
 Society of Animal Science, held July 19-22, 1988, New
 Brunswick, New Jersey.  Includes abstract.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Stress; Weaning; Genotypes; Cortisol
 
 
 107                                 NAL Call. No.: 100 OK4 (3)
 Effect of heat stress on early embryonic development and
 survival in the beef cow.
 Biggers, B.G.; Buchanan, D.S.; Wettemann, R.P.; Zavy, M.T.;
 Geisert, R.D. Stillwater : The Station; 1986 May.
 Miscellaneous publication - Agricultural Experiment Station,
 Oklahoma State University (118): p. 303-307; 1986 May.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cows; Heat stress; Embryonic development;
 Survival
 
 
 108                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Effect of heat stress on early embryonic development in the
 beef cow. Biggers, B.G.; Geisert, R.D.; Wetteman, R.P.;
 Buchanan, D.S. Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal
 Science; 1987 May. Journal of animal science v. 64 (5): p.
 1512-1518; 1987 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cows; Embryonic development; Heat stress;
 Embryo mortality; Pregnancy
 
 
 109                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Effect of implant sequence and dose on feedlot cattle
 performance. Mader, T.L.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1994
 Feb. Journal of animal science v. 72 (2): p. 277-282; 1994
 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Steers; Zeranol; Performance;
 Controlled release; Dosage effects; Feed conversion;
 Estradiol; Progesterone; Trenbolone; Postweaning interval;
 Body weight; Liveweight gain; Feed intake; Dressing
 percentage; Body fat; Carcass quality; Carcass yield
 
 Abstract:  Studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of
 delayed implanting or the use of a low-dose implant followed
 by a higher-dose implant in feedlot cattle. In the first
 study, 150 steers were allotted to 15 pens (three
 pens/treatment) and assigned to a nonimplant treatment
 (control), a single zeranol (36 mg) implant (R), or a double
 zeranol implant (DR) administered at the start of a 140-d
 finishing period, or a single zeranol implant administered at
 the start of an 80-d growing period, followed by a single (RR)
 or double (RDR) zeranol implant administered at the start of
 the finishing period. Steers managed under the DR, RR, and RDR
 implant schemes had greater (P < .10) finishing period gains
 and intakes than the control steer group. However, only DR and
 RDR steer groups had improved (P < .10) finishing period feed
 conversions compared with control steers. In combined growing
 and finishing periods, the RDR steer group displayed the
 lowest (P = .12) feed:gain ratio. In a second trial, conducted
 concurrently to the zeranol trial, steers that did not receive
 an initial implant containing 20 mg of estradiol benzoate plus
 200 mg of progesterone (S) but were subsequently implanted
 twice, once at the start of the finishing period and again 80
 d later, had a lower (P < .11) finishing period feed:gain
 ratio (6.08 vs 6.51) than steers implanted all three times. In
 a third trial, implanting steers with one-half S vs S, at the
 start of a 92-d growing period, resulted in improved (P < .05)
 gain (1.63 vs 1.54 kg/d) and feed: gain ratio (5.86 vs 6.27)
 in the subsequent finishing period, in which both groups
 received S, but not over the entire feeding period. Compared
 with using S alone, as a finishing phase implant, no
 differences were found in performance or carcass quality from
 using S in combination with trenbolone acetate. Delayed
 implanting or using a low-dose implant during an initial
 feeding period provides performance enhancement in subsequent
 feeding periods; however, benefits are not great enough to
 consistently show significant performance benefits over the
 entire growing and finishing period.
 
 
 110                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Effect of initial restraint, weaning, and transport stress on
 baseline and ACTH-stimulated cortisol responses in beef calves
 of different genotypes. Zavy, M.T.; Juniewicz, P.E.; Phillips,
 W.A.; VonTungeln, D.L. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary
 Medical Association; 1992 Apr. American journal of veterinary
 research v. 53 (4): p. 551-557; 1992 Apr. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Calves; Beef cattle; Zebu; Stress; Restraint of
 animals; Weaning; Transport of animals; Hydrocortisone; Blood
 plasma; Corticotropin; Breed differences
 
 Abstract:  The productivity and well-being of animals can be
 substantially affected by stress. This is particularly true in
 the case of beef calves that are subjected to a multitude of
 stressors over a short period during the first year of life.
 Perhaps the most often studied stress-responsive variable has
 been blood corticosteroid concentrations. Factors such as age,
 gender, genetics, and degree of prior experience, can
 influence how an animal perceives and responds to a given
 stressor. Few studies have tried to control these variables,
 and accordingly, many conflicting results have been published
 regarding the impact of various stressors on cortisol
 response. We measured baseline plasma cortisol concentration
 over a 44-day study in Bos indicus and Bos taurus calves.
 Plasma cortisol values in Bos indicus calves were higher
 (32.60 +/- 0.66 ng/ml) than values in calves of Bos taurus
 (25.81 +/- 0.76) breeding. A precipitous decrease in cortisol
 concentration was observed 7 days after transport stress in
 all calves. Baseline cortisol concentration did not provide
 any indication of the intensity of the various stressors.
 However, significant differences were readily observed after
 ACTH administration. On the basis of cortisol secretion,
 stresses of transport and weaning were similar and were the
 most stressful to calves, regardless of genotype.
 
 
 111                                   NAL Call. No.: 49.9 AU72
 Effect of level of handling on meat quality of cattle of two
 breed types. McIntyre, B.L.; Ryan, W.J.
 Sydney : Pergamon Press; 1986.
 Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production v.
 16: p. 267-270; 1986.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Aberdeen-angus; Shorthorn; Handling;
 Stress; Electrical treatment; Meat quality; Ph; Tenderness
 
 
 112                                 NAL Call. No.: 100 OK4 (3)
 The effect of mass medication on health and performance of
 newly arrived stocker cattle.
 Gill, D.R.; Smith, R.A.; Hicks, R.B.; Ball, R.L.
 Stillwater : The Station; 1986 May.
 Miscellaneous publication - Agricultural Experiment Station,
 Oklahoma State University (118): p. 260-268; 1986 May. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Calves; Drug therapy; Stress; Morbidity
 
 
 113                                    NAL Call. No.: TX373.M4
 Effect of mixing male sex types of cattle on their meat
 quality and stress-related parameters.
 Mohan Raj, A.B.; Moss, B.W.; Rice, D.A.; Kilpatrick, D.J.;
 McCaughey, W.J.; McLauchlan, W.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1992.
 Meat science v. 32 (4): p. 367-386; 1992.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Meat quality; Male animals
 
 
 114                                  NAL Call. No.: QP251.A1T5
 The effect of postweaning level of dietary energy on sex drive
 and semen quality of young beef bulls.
 Mwansa, P.B.; Makarechian, M.
 Stoneham, Mass. : Butterworth-Heinemann; 1991 Jun.
 Theriogenology v. 35 (6): p. 1169-1178; 1991 Jun.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef bulls; Beef breeds; Semen characters;
 Ejaculate volume; Scrotum; Size; Spermatozoa; Motility; Sexual
 behavior; Mating behavior; Libido; Bull feeding; Energy
 content; Digestible energy
 
 Abstract:  Two postweaning feeding trials were conducted on
 112 bull calves from a beef synthetic breed group to examine
 the effects of postweaning level of dietary energy and change
 in the level of energy on sex drive and semen quality of young
 bulls in 1988 and 1989. Within each year, the test period was
 168 d, which was divided in two periods of 77 d and separated
 by a 14-d adjustment period. Within each year the bulls were
 randomly assigned to eight pens. The pen population was
 balanced with respect to age and weight of bulls. Bulls in
 four of the pens were fed a high concentrate diet while those
 in the remaining four pens were fed a low concentrate diet
 consisting of one half of the high diet plus hay ad libitum in
 the first period. After the adjustment period, the diets of
 four pens of bulls were reversed from high to low or from low
 to high resulting in high-high, high-low, low-high and low-low
 dietary treatments. The year was a significant (P<0.05) source
 of variation for all the components of libido score except for
 number of services achieved. The effect of energy on
 components of libido and libido score was not significant
 (P>0.05). Bulls on high-high had significantly larger scrotal
 circumference but exhibited poorer semen characteristics than
 their contemporaries on high-low, low-high and low-low diets.
 Even though feeding of high energy diet throughout the feedlot
 test period showed a positive effect on scrotal circumference,
 its effect on semen quality was negative. It was found that
 feeding a low energy diet in either half of the feedlot test
 period may prevent the detrimental effects of prolonged high
 energy feeding on semen characteristics of young beef bulls.
 
 
 115                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Effect of pre- and postweaning zeranol implant on steer calf
 performance. Mader, T.L.; Clanton, D.C.; Ward, J.K.;
 Pankaskie, D.E.; Deutscher, G.H. Champaign, Ill. : American
 Society of Animal Science; 1985 Sep. Journal of animal science
 v. 61 (3): p. 546-551; 1985 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Steers; Zeranol; Implantation; Postweaning
 interval; Preweaning period; Stress; Carcass quality
 
 
 116                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Effect of preslaughter experience on behaviour, plasma
 cortisol and muscle pH in farmed red deer.
 Smith, R.F.; Dobson, H.
 London : The Association; 1990 Feb17.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 126 (7): p. 155-158; 1990 Feb17.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cervus elaphus; Slaughter; Stress; Animal
 behavior; Cortisol; Blood plasma; Muscles; Ph; Venison
 
 
 117                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V643
 Effect of pre-slaughter handling on the behaviour and blood
 composition of beef cattle.
 Cockram, M.S.; Corley, K.T.T.
 London : Bailliere Tindall; 1991 Sep.
 British veterinary journal v. 147 (5): p. 444-454; 1991 Sep. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Slaughter; Handling; Blood
 composition; Animal behavior; Abattoirs
 
 Abstract:  The pre-slaughter handling, behaviour and blood
 composition of beef cattle at slaughter was studied in a
 commercial slaughterhouse. The main problems identified were
 the routine use of driving instruments and delays caused by
 stoppages in the slaughter line. The plasma concentration of
 cortisol at the time of slaughter was positively correlated
 with the time spent standing still and with the time spent in
 the pre-stun pen. The plasma activity of creatine kinase was
 positively correlated with the time spent in the race, but no
 correlations between creatine kinase and physical activity in
 the race were found. The plasma concentration of glucose was
 positively correlated with the time spent trotting and the
 number of times that struggling occurred. The proportions of
 cattle struggling, vocalizing and defaecating were greatest
 when they were confined in the race and pre-stun pen. Cattle
 kept overnight in the lairage had a greater concentration of
 free fatty acids at the time of slaughter than those
 slaughtered on the day of arrival. There were no other
 significant differences in either the blood compositon or the
 handling and behaviour of cattle kept overnight in the
 lairage, compared with those slaughtered on the day of
 arrival. Some of the handling problems observed were caused by
 incorrect design of the handling facilities. There should be
 some means of removing cattle from a race if delays are
 encountered and some means of handling the cattle in the race
 other than by using an electrical goad. The optimal dimensions
 of races and passageways to prevent crowding and turning
 around should be assessed at the design stage. Non-slip floors
 are essential.
 
 
 118                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.B6
 The effect of previous experiences on livestock behavior
 during handling. Grandin, T.
 Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Publishing
 Company; 1993 Apr. Agri-Practice v. 14 (4): p. 15-20; 1993
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Colorado; Cattle; Sheep; Animal behavior;
 Veterinary medicine; Handling; Chutes; Hydraulic equipment;
 Restraint of animals
 
 
 119                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Effect of soybean hull:soy lecithin-soapstock mixture on
 ruminal digestion and performance of growing beef calves and
 lactating dairy cattle. Shain, D.H.; Sindt, M.H.; Grant, R.J.;
 Klopfenstein, T.J.; Stock, R.A. Champaign, Ill. : American
 Society of Animal Science; 1993 May. Journal of animal science
 v. 71 (5): p. 1266-1275; 1993 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Calves; Soybean husks; Soybean
 soapstock; Lectins; Rumen digestion; Crude protein; Protein
 digestion; Maize; Diet; Nutrient content; Feed intake; Milk
 yield; Milk composition; Volatile fatty acids; Energy balance;
 Body condition
 
 Abstract:  Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the
 effect of a soybean hull, soy lecithin, and soapstock mixture
 on ruminal fiber and protein digestion, growth efficiency of
 beef calves, and lactational performance of dairy cattle. An
 initial mixing experiment determined that a 4:1 ratio (DM
 basis) of soy lecithin:soapstock could be added to soybean
 hulls at 15% (wt/wt, DM basis); this mixture had acceptable
 mixing and handling characteristics. Dietary addition of a
 mixture of 85% soybean hulls, 12% soy lecithin, and 3%
 soapstock (DM basis; SLS) to provide 0, 3, 5, or 7%
 supplemental fat resulted in a linear (P < .01) decrease in in
 situ rate of ruminal NDF digestion with no effect on rate of
 CP digestion. Daily gain, DMI, and feed efficiency (kilograms
 of gain/kilogram of DMI) of growing beef calves were not
 affected (P > .10) as graded levels of SLS replaced corn
 grain. However, as graded levels of SLS replaced soybean
 hulls, daily gain and feed efficiency increased linearly (P <
 .01). Based on the results of these trials, Holstein dairy
 cattle were fed four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets
 that contained either high levels of nonfiber carbohydrates
 (43%) and no added fat, 1% ruminally inert fat, a 6% level of
 SLS, or a 12% SLS level (all on DM basis). Efficiency of 4%
 fat-corrected milk production (kilograms of milk/kilogram of
 DMI) was greatest for cows fed SLS at 6% of dietary DM. The
 SLS mixture was an excellent source of fiber and vegetable
 fat, comparable in feeding value to corn grain, for inclusion
 in the diets of beef calves and dairy cows.
 
 
 120                                   NAL Call. No.: SF207.S68
 Effect of straw and newspaper bedding on cold season feedlot
 performance in two housing systems.
 Birkelo, C.P.; Lounsbery, J.
 Brookings, SD : Animal and Range Sciences Dept., Agricultural
 Experiment Station, Cooperative Extension Service, South
 Dakota State Unviersity, [1986?-; 1992 Aug.
 South Dakota beef report (92-11): p. 42-45; 1992 Aug.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South Dakota; Cabt; Beef cattle; Feedlots;
 Litter; Straw; Newspapers; Cold tolerance; Liveweight gain;
 Animal housing
 
 
 121                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.B6
 The effect of stressors like rumen overload and induced
 abortion on BRD in feedlot cattle.
 Edwards, A.J.
 Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Publishing
 Company; 1989 Mar. Agri-Practice v. 10 (2): p. 10-11, 14-15;
 1989 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nebraska; Kansas; Beef cattle; Feedlots; Stress;
 Rumen; Abortion; Respiratory diseases; Viruses; Pasteurella
 haemolytica; Pasteurella multocida
 
 
 122                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 C163
 The effect of the stress of weaning and transport on white
 blood cell patterns and fibrinogen concentration of beef
 calves of different genotypes. Phillips, W.A.; Juniewicz,
 P.E.; Zavy, M.T.; Von Tungeln, D.L. Ottawa : Agricultural
 Institute of Canada; 1989 Jun.
 Canadian journal of animal science v. 69 (2): p. 333-340; 1989
 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Calves; Beef cattle; Zebu cattle; Genotypes;
 Stress; Weaning; Transport of animals; Leukocytes; Fibrinogen
 
 
 123                               NAL Call. No.: aS21.A8U5/ARS
 Effect of winter nutrition level and bahia and perennial
 peanut pasture on performance of growing cattle.
 Kunkle, W.E.; Palmer, A.Z.; Spreen, T.H.; Hammond, A.C.;
 Butts, W.T. Jr; Williams, M.J.; Baker, F.S. Jr
 Washington, D.C. : The Service; 1989.
 Reprints - U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural
 Research Service [114]: p. A/19-A/27; 1989.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Cattle; Animal nutrition; Feedlots;
 Grazing; Paspalum notatum; Arachis glabrata; Liveweight gains;
 Carcass quality; Winter
 
 
 124                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.B6
 The effect of zeranol and trenbolone acetate and estradiol and
 trenbolone acetate on carcass and performance parameters of
 finishing steers. 1. Thornsberry, R.M.
 Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Publishing
 Company; 1993 May. Agri-Practice v. 14 (5): p. 29-32; 1993
 May.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Missouri; Beef cattle; Zeranol; Estradiol;
 Trenbolone; Implantation; Feedlots; Carcass quality; Fattening
 performance
 
 
 125                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Effects of 84-, 112- and 140-day postweaning feedlot
 performance tests for beef bulls.
 Brown, A.H. Jr; Chewning, J.J.; Johnson, Z.B.; Loe, W.C.;
 Brown, C.J. Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal
 Science; 1991 Feb. Journal of animal science v. 69 (2): p.
 451-461; 1991 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef bulls; Size; Carcass weight; Growth rate;
 Liveweight gain; Growth curve; Performance testing; Breeders'
 associations; Cooperative services; Duration; Breed
 differences; Objectives; Analysis of variance
 
 Abstract:  Changes in performance traits in beef cattle over
 the last 30 yr necessitate the reevaluation of central testing
 procedures to ensure that they are cost effective and
 appropriate for current test objectives. The objective of this
 study was to evaluate the potential for reducing the length of
 evaluation from 140 d to either 112 or 84 d. Data evaluated
 were postweaning feedlot performance test records (collected
 from 1977 to 1986) on 1,830 individually fed bulls. Bulls
 representing 13 breeds (n > 25 per breed) were evaluated in
 the University of Arkansas Cooperative Bull Tests at
 Fayetteville, Hope, and Monticello, Arkansas. Models were fit
 for ADG, daily feed intake (FI) and feed conversion (FCONV)
 from d 1 to d 140 (ADG1-140, FI1-140 and FCONV1-140,
 respectively) and from d 1 to d 112 (ADG1-112, FI1-112 and
 FCONV1-112, respectively). Models fit for ADG1-140, FI1-140,
 and FCONV1-140 using information up to d 112 had R2 of .90,
 .99, .88, and .94, respectively, and using information up to d
 84 had R2 of .82, .94, and .80, respectively. Spearman rank
 correlation coefficients (all P < .0001) were .93 for ADG1-140
 and ADG1-112, .93 for ADG1-112 and ADG1-84, .99 for FI1-140
 and FI1-112, .91 for FCONV1-140 and FCONV1-112, and .90 for
 FCONV1-112 and FCONV1-84. These coefficients indicate that
 bulls ranked similarly for performance traits at 84, 112, and
 140 d. If the primary objective of central station testing is
 to evaluate ADG during the linear phase of growth, and if
 testing procedures are those currently recommended by the Beef
 Improvement Federation, then feeding bulls beyond 112 d has no
 advantage because the information upon which selection
 decisions are made is similar at both 112 and 140 d.
 
 
 126                                    NAL Call. No.: TX373.M4
 The effects of castration, preslaughter stress and zeranol
 implants on beef. 1. The texture of loin steaks from bovine
 males.
 Jeremiah, L.E.; Newman, J.A.; Tong, A.K.W.; Gibson, L.L.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1988.
 Meat science v. 22 (2): p. 83-101; 1988.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Bovidae; Male animals; Castration; Zeranol;
 Transport; Stress; Steaks; Texture
 
 
 127                                    NAL Call. No.: TX373.M4
 The effects of castration, preslaughter stress and zeranol
 implants on beef. 2. Cooking properties and flavor of loin
 steaks from bovine males. Jeremiah, L.E.; Newman, J.A.; Tong,
 A.K.W.; Gibson, L.L.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1988.
 Meat science v. 22 (2): p. 103-121; 1988.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Bovidae; Male animals; Castration; Zeranol;
 Transport; Stress; Steaks; Cooking; Flavors
 
 
 128                                  NAL Call. No.: SF207.B442
 Effects of dietary energy source and creep feeding on calf
 performance after feedlot arrival.
 Loerch, S.C.; Fluharty, F.L.
 Wooster, Ohio : The Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural
 Research and Development Center; 1992 Mar.
 Ohio beef cattle research & industry report (92-1): p. 53-56;
 1992 Mar.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ohio; Beef cattle; Calves; Feedlots; Creep
 feeding; Fattening performance; Growth; Silage; Postweaning
 interval
 
 
 129                             NAL Call. No.: KF27.S638 1988d
 Effects of drought on agribusiness and rural economy hearing
 before the Subcommittee on Energy and Agriculture of the
 Committee on Small Business, House of Representatives, One
 Hundredth Congress, second session, Washington, DC, July 13,
 1988.
 United States. Congress. House. Committee on Small Business.
 Subcommittee on Energy and Agriculture
 Washington [D.C.] : U.S. G.P.O. : For sale by the Supt. of
 Docs., Congressional Sales Office, U.S. G.P.O.,; 1988; Y 4.Sm
 1:100-55. iii, 93 p. : ill., 1 map ; 24 cm.  Distributed to
 some depository libraries in microfiche.  Serial no. 100-55.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Droughts; Economic aspects; United States;
 Livestock; United States; Effect of drought on; Plants, Effect
 of drought on; United States
 
 
 130                                  NAL Call. No.: SF207.B442
 Effects of energy level and protein source on performance and
 rumen function of newly arrived feedlot steers.
 Fluharty, F.L.; Loerch, S.C.
 Wooster, Ohio : The Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural
 Research and Development Center; 1990 Mar.
 Ohio beef cattle research & industry report (90-2): p.
 109-123; 1990 Mar. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ohio; Beef cattle; Feedlots; Protein sources;
 Rumen digestion; Fattening performance; Growth; Energy;
 Soybeans; Maize; Blood meal; Silage
 
 
 131                                   NAL Call. No.: 49.9 AU72
 The effects of fasting and cold stress on dark-cutting and
 bruising in cattle. Warner, R.D.; Eldridge, G.A.; Barnett,
 J.L.; Halpin, C.G.; Cahill, D.J. Sydney : Pergamon Press;
 1986.
 Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production v.
 16: p. 383-386; 1986.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Fasting; Cold stress; Meat quality;
 Bruising; Ph; Color
 
 
 132                                  NAL Call. No.: SF207.B442
 Effects of fat level, protein level and protein source on
 performance of newly arrived feedlot steers.
 Fluharty, F.L.; Loerch, S.C.
 Wooster, Ohio : The Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural
 Research and Development Center; 1991 Mar.
 Ohio beef cattle research & industry report (91-2): p. 1-11;
 1991 Mar. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ohio; Beef cattle; Feedlots; Protein sources;
 Protein uptake; Fat absorption; Blood meal; Soybeans; Urea;
 Fattening performance; Growth
 
 
 133                                    NAL Call. No.: SF191.F5
 Effects of feedlot environment, implants and vitamin A on the
 performance of crossbred steers fed during the summer.
 Baker, F.S. Jr; Kunkle, W.E.; Palmer, A.Z.; Wakeman, D.L.
 Gainesville, Fla. : The Service; 1988.
 Florida beef cattle research report - Florida Cooperative
 Extension Service, University of Florida. p. 129-137; 1988. 
 Includes statistical data.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Steers; Cattle fattening; Cattle feedlot
 soils; Concrete; Shading; Pens; Implantation; Weight gain;
 Feed conversion efficiency; Carcass quality; Summer; Dressing
 percentage
 
 
 134                                  NAL Call. No.: SF207.B442
 Effects of FermWay on feedlot cattle performance.
 Loerch, S.C.
 Wooster, Ohio : The Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural
 Research and Development Center; 1991 Mar.
 Ohio beef cattle research & industry report (91-2): p. 12-17;
 1991 Mar.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ohio; Beef cattle; Feedlots; Biofermal; Fattening
 performance; Growth; Silage; Maize
 
 
 135                                    NAL Call. No.: TP368.I7
 The effects of handling, transport, slaughter and chilling on
 meat quality and yield in pigs--a review.
 Tarrant, P.V.
 Dublin : Teagasc; 1989.
 Irish journal of food science and technology v. 13 (2): p.
 79-107; 1989. Literature review.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ireland; Pigs; Handling; Transport; Slaughter;
 Chilling; Meat yield; Food quality
 
 
 136                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 The effects of long-term individual vs. group housing on the
 sexual behavior of beef bulls.
 Price, E.O.; Wallach, S.J.R.; Silver, G.V.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1990 Oct.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 27 (4): p. 277-285; 1990
 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef bulls; Cattle housing; Groups; Sexual
 behavior; Reproductive performance
 
 
 137                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.B6
 Effects of lonophore management programs on performance of
 feedlot cattle. Malcolm, K.J.; Branine, M.E.; Galyean, M.L.
 Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Publishing
 Company; 1992 Jul. Agri-Practice v. 13 (7): p. 7-8, 12-14, 16;
 1992 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New Mexico; Beef cattle; Ionophores; Feedlots;
 Fattening performance; Rotation
 
 
 138                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Effects of nutrient deficiencies and excesses on reproductive
 efficiency of livestock.
 Dunn, T.G.; Moss, G.E.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1992
 May. Journal of animal science v. 70 (5): p. 1580-1593; 1992
 May.  Literature review.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle; Sheep; Grazing; Retinol; Protein intake;
 Nutrition; Estrous cycle; Reproductive efficiency; Lh; Plane
 of nutrition; Gnrh; Literature reviews
 
 Abstract:  Successful reproduction is dependent on a host of
 macro- and micronutrients and ceases well before an animal
 expires from deficiency of a particular nutrient. This review
 focuses on the functional roles phosphorus, vitamin A and
 beta-carotene, protein, and energy play in reproductive
 processes. Although it is not known whether deficiencies of
 these nutrients limit reproduction through common or discrete
 mechanisms, appropriate quantities of these nutrients are
 required for optimal reproduction. Mechanisms through which
 nutritional status is perceived by the hypothalamic-pituitary-
 gonadal axis remain unclear but seem to impinge on
 hypothalamic regions that selectively regulate production and
 release of pituitary trophic hormones. Body condition, or
 degree of fatness, seems to be the most reliable indicator of
 well-being of an animal, and when coupled with changes in BW,
 provides a useful method to assess reproductive potential.
 
 
 139                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Effects of placing cattle on feed at two-month intervals and
 housing on feedlot performance and carcass grades.
 Pusillo, G.M.; Hoffman, M.P.; Self, H.L.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1991
 Feb. Journal of animal science v. 69 (2): p. 443-450; 1991
 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Feedlots; Cattle housing; Seasonal
 variation; Feed intake; Liveweight gain; Feed conversion
 efficiency; Carcass yield; Carcass quality
 
 Abstract:  A 5-yr study was conducted involving the placement
 of yearling steers on feed at 2-mo intervals under three
 different housing systems. A total of 3,571 steers (180 pens)
 initially average 318 kg was used. Evaluations were made for
 DM intake ADG, feed efficiency (FE), carcass quality (QG), and
 yield grades (YG). Cattle were assigned to either an open lot
 with overhead shelter (S), an open lot without overhead
 shelter (NS), or an open-front confinement building (C). Each
 treatment consisted of two lots of 20 steers each per interval
 per trial. Corn grain provided 85% of the energy; the
 remainder was supplied by corn silage arid protein supplement.
 Cattle were fed 140 to 180 d to achieve an average slaughter
 weight of 500 kg. The main effects of year (Y), month (M), and
 housing (H) affected DM intake, ADG, FE, and final live weight
 (P <.01). The interactions for Y X M, M X H and Y X M X H
 affected ADG (P <.05). Month and H affected hot carcass weight
 (P < .01). Year affected YG, and year and month affected QG (P
 < .01). Month effects on DM intake and ADG indicated that
 cattle started in May had the highest intake and ADG (P < .05)
 and that cattle started in November had the lowest (P < .05)
 DMI and ADG. Month effects on FE indicated that cattle were
 most efficient when placed on feed during March, May, and July
 (5.82, 5.72, and 5.66 kg DM/kg gain; P < .05). Housing effects
 indicated that S cattle had the highest DM intake, ADG, and FE
 (7.79, 1.29, and 6.15 kg; P < .05) and that C had the lowest
 DM intake and ADG (6.97 and 1.09 kg; P < .05). Body
 composition, as determined by YG and QG, was relatively
 unaffected by the season or housing. These results indicate
 that starting time on feed and housing system significantly
 influenced cattle feedlot performance without influencing body
 composition.
 
 
 140                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Effects of preconditioning on performance of beef calves
 before and after entering the feedlot.
 Peterson, E.B.; Strohbehn, D.R.; Ladd, G.W.; Willham, R.L.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1989
 Jul. Journal of animal science v. 67 (7): p. 1678-1686; 1989
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Calves; Creep feeding; Castration;
 Polling; Vaccination
 
 
 141                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Effects of preconditioning on pre- and post-shipment
 performance of feeder calves.
 Pritchard, R.H.; Mendez, J.K.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1990
 Jan. Journal of animal science v. 68 (1): p. 28-34; 1990 Jan. 
 This record corrects ID No. 90013323 which was incorrectly
 entered as issue 19.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Calves; Beef cattle; Adaptation; Conditioning;
 Transport of animals; Feedlots; Weight losses; Fattening
 performance; Beef production
 
 
 142                                  NAL Call. No.: SF207.B442
 Effects of protein level and protein source on performance of
 newly arrived feedlot steers.
 Fluharty, F.L.; Loerch, S.C.
 Wooster, Ohio : The Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural
 Research and Development Center; 1992 Mar.
 Ohio beef cattle research & industry report (92-1): p. 57-73;
 1992 Mar. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ohio; Beef cattle; Calves; Feedlots; Protein
 sources; Fattening performance; Growth; Nutrient requirements;
 Crude protein; Soybeans; Blood meal; Postweaning interval;
 Urea
 
 
 143                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin and dietary energy
 intake on growth, secretion of luteinizing hormone, follicular
 development, and onset of puberty in beef heifers.
 Hall, J.B.; Schillo, K.K.; Fitzgerald, B.P.; Bradley, N.W.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1994
 Mar. Journal of animal science v. 72 (3): p. 709-717; 1994
 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Heifers; Somatotropin; Energy intake; Lh; Hormone
 secretion; Age; Puberty; Follicles; Body weight; Liveweight
 gain; Height; Blood plasma; Insulin; Blood sugar; Urea
 
 Abstract:  The effects of dietary energy and recombinant
 bovine somatotropin (bST) on pattern of LH release, follicular
 development, and onset of puberty were studied in 40 Angus
 heifers. At 7 mo of age, heifers were assigned to a 2 X 2
 factorial experiment; the main effects were dietary energy
 (high [HDE]: 14.15 Mcal of ME/d or moderate [MDE]: 10.84 Mcal
 of ME/d) and somatotropin (bST; 350 mg every 2 wk or vehicle).
 Beginning at 9 mo of age, heifers were observed twice daily
 for estrous activity. From 10.5 to 12 mo of age, five heifers
 from each treatment group were selected for weekly ultrasound
 examination of ovarian structures and biweekly sequential
 blood sampling to determine concentrations of LH. Somatotropin
 treatment altered intermediary metabolism in a manner
 consistent with enhanced accretion of lean tissue and
 decreased deposition of fat. The HDE heifers were younger (P <
 .001) at puberty than the MDE heifers, but BW at puberty was
 not different among treatment groups. Age and body weight at
 puberty were not affected by bST. Frequency of LH pulses
 increased within the 10.5 to 12 mo of age sampling window in
 HDE-treated heifers but not in MDE heifers (dietary energy X
 month of age; P < .02). Secretion of LH was unaffected by bST.
 Ovaries of bST-treated heifers tended (P < .09) to have fewer
 follicles > 5 mm in diameter than those of vehicle-treated
 heifers. We conclude that chronic treatment with bST did not
 alter age at puberty or pattern of LH release in heifers and
 that even modest differences in energy intake influence the
 timing of the prepubertal increase in pulsatile LH release.
 
 
 144                                  NAL Call. No.: SF207.B442
 Effects of restricting intake of high energy diets on the
 performance of feedlot cattle.
 Loerch, S.C.
 Wooster, Ohio : The Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural
 Research and Development Center; 1990 Mar.
 Ohio beef cattle research & industry report (90-2): p. 98-108;
 1990 Mar. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ohio; Beef cattle; Feedlots; Concentrates;
 Monensin; Feed supplements; Protein sources; Fattening
 performance; Growth
 
 
 145                                  NAL Call. No.: SF207.B442
 Effects of roughage level and timing of roughage inclusion on
 performance of feedlot cattle.
 Loerch, S.C.; Fluharty, F.L.
 Wooster, Ohio : The Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural
 Research and Development Center; 1992 Mar.
 Ohio beef cattle research & industry report (92-1): p. 36-44;
 1992 Mar. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Feedlots; Roughage; Fattening
 performance; Maize; Silage
 
 
 146                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Effects of shipping, handling, adrenocorticotropic hormone,
 and epinephrine on alpha-tocopherol content of bovine blood.
 Sconberg, S.; Nockels, C.F.; Bennett, B.W.; Bruynickx, W.;
 Blancquaert, A.M.B.; Craig, A.M.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1993 Aug. American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (8):
 p. 1287-1293; 1993 Aug. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Alpha-tocopherol; Stress; Transport
 of animals; Handling; Corticotropin; Epinephrine; Blood
 plasma; Erythrocytes; Neutrophils; Creatine kinase; Enzyme
 activity; Blood sampling
 
 Abstract:  In 2 studies, plasma, erythrocyte, and neutrophil
 alpha-tocopherol concentrations were monitored in beef cattle
 after shipping, handling, and sample collection. On the basis
 of alpha-tocopherol results, an additional 2 studies were
 designed to measure the effects of administration of
 adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and epinephrine on the
 alpha-tocopherol concentration in the aforementioned blood
 constituents and on creatine kinase (CK) activity in Holstein
 calves. In the first of these studies, 15 beef cattle that had
 recently arrived at the feedlot consumed feed supplemented
 daily with 1,000 IU of dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate. Values for
 initial blood samples indicated that CK activity was high.
 Although plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration indicated that
 vitamin supplementation was adequate, RBC and neutrophil
 alpha-tocopherol values were generallynondetectable. After 4
 weeks of supplementation, plasma alpha-tocopherol
 concentration increased (P < 0.05), and neutrophil and RBC
 alpha-tocopherol values became measurable in most of the
 cattle. In the second study, 6 beef heifers had decreased (P <
 0.05) plasma, RBC, and neutrophil alpha-tocopherol values
 after multiple periods of handling and blood sample
 collection. In the third and fourth studies, 10 tamed Holstein
 heifer calves, 5 of which were administered ACTH and
 epinephrine to simulate stress effects on blood alpha-
 tocopherol concentrations and CK activity. In study 3, the
 vitamin E-adequate heifers had increased blood CK (P < 0.001)
 activity and cortisol (P < 0.01) concentration, and decreased
 (P < 0.05) neutrophil alpha-tocopherol concentration after
 hormone injections. In study 4, when vitamin E-deficient
 calves received the aforementioned hormones, CK activity
 increased (P < 0.05) and RBC alpha-tocopherol concentration
 decreased (P < 0.05), whereas plasma and neutrophil values did
 not change. These results indicate that shipping and handling,
 or the stress paradigm of ACTH and epinephrine injections, may
 reduce the alpha-tocopherol content of plasma, RBC, and
 neutrophils while increasing plasma CK activity, which
 indicates membrane destruction.
 
 
 147                                NAL Call. No.: SF779.5.A1B6
 Effects of slatted flooring on claw shape in intensively
 housed fattening beef cattle.
 Murphy, P.A.; Hannan, J.
 Stillwater, Okla. : American Association of Bovine
 Practitioners; 1987 Nov. The Bovine practitioner (22): p.
 133-135. ill; 1987 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Cattle fattening; Slatted floors;
 Intensive livestock farming; Cattle housing; Hoof and claw
 diseases; Lameness; Abrasion
 
 
 148                                   NAL Call. No.: SB599.J69
 Effects of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) and heat stress on
 weight gain and feed conversion of feeder cattle.
 Campbell, J.B.; Catangui, M.A.; Thomas, G.D.; Boxler, D.J.;
 Davis, R. Clemson, SC : South Carolina Entomological Society,
 c1984-; 1993 Jul. Journal of agricultural entomology v. 10
 (3): p. 155-161; 1993 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle; Stomoxys calcitrans; Heat stress; Weight
 gain; Feed conversion
 
 
 149                                    NAL Call. No.: 421 J822
 Effects of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) and heat stress on
 weight gain and feed efficiency of feeder cattle.
 Wieman, G.A.; Campbell, J.B.; Deshazer, J.A.; Berry, I.L.
 Lanham, Md. : Entomological Society of America; 1992 Oct.
 Journal of economic entomology v. 85 (5): p. 1835-1842; 1992
 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nebraska; Cattle breeds; Crossbreds; Stomoxys
 calcitrans; Adverse effects; Bites; Crowding; Heat stress;
 Liveweight gain; Pens; Screens
 
 Abstract:  Cattle respond to the feeding of stable flies,
 Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), by bunching to protect their front
 legs. This bunching can increase heat stress which indirectly
 accounts for much of the reduction in cattle weight gains. We
 used fly-screened, self-contained feedlot pens which allowed
 regulation of fly populations feeding on cattle. The indirect
 fly effects (bunching and heat stress) accounted for 71.5% of
 the reduced weight gain. The direct effect of the biting flies
 and energy loss involved in fighting flies accounted for 28.5%
 of the reduced weight gain.
 
 
 150                                  NAL Call. No.: 389.79 M76
 Effects of stress and organic probiotics on the performance of
 weaned beef calves.
 Ansotegui, R.; Clark, C.; Wiley, S.; Gray, D.
 Bozeman, Mont. : Animal and Range Science Dept. and Montana
 Cooperative Extension Service, Montana State University,
 Bozeman, in cooperation with the Montana Feed Association,;
 1992.
 Proceedings of the ... Montana Livestock Nutrition Conference
 (45): p. 10.1-10.4.; 1992.  Meeting held January 30-31, 1992,
 Bozeman, Montana. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Montana; Cabt; Calves; Liveweight gain; Rumen
 bacteria; Stress; Cost benefit analysis; Transport
 
 
 151                                    NAL Call. No.: SF961.A5
 The effects of stress on the immunology of the stocker calf.
 Von Tungeln, D.L.
 Stillwater, Okla. : The Association; 1985, reprinted 1986.
 Proceedings ... annual convention - American Association of
 Bovine Practitioners 1986). (18th): p. 109-112; 1985,
 reprinted 1986.  Includes 18 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Calves; Stress; Immunology;
 Environment; Transport; Hematology; Metabolism; Cortisol;
 Glucocorticoids
 
 
 152                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Effects of synthetic hormone implants, singularly or in
 combinations, on performance, carcass traits, and longissimus
 muscle palatability of Holstein steers.
 Apple, J.K.; Dikeman, M.E.; Simms, D.D.; Kuhl, G.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1991
 Nov. Journal of animal science v. 69 (11): p. 4437-4448; 1991
 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Steers; Synthetic hormones; Feed conversion;
 Performance; Controlled release; Feed intake; Carcass yield;
 Muscles; Skinning; Beef; Shear strength; Tenderness; Sensory
 evaluation
 
 Abstract:  Seventy-two Holstein steers averaging 182 kg were
 assigned randomly to one of six treatment groups: 1)
 nonimplanted controls (C); 2) implanted with 36 mg of zeranol
 (Z); 3) implanted with 20 mg of estradiol benzoate and 200 mg
 of progesterone (EP); 4) implanted with 140 mg of trenbolone
 acetate (TBA); 5) implanted with 140 mg of trenbolone acetate
 plus 20 mg of estradiol benzoate and 200 mg of progesterone
 (TBA + EP); and 6) implanted with 140 mg of trenbolone acetate
 plus 36 mg of zeranol (TBA + Z). Each treatment group
 consisted of three replications of four animals per pen, which
 were implanted on d 0, 56, 112, and 168. Masculinity and
 muscling scores were assigned at 24 h preslaughter. Hide
 removal difficulty was scored by a plant supervisor. Quality
 and yield grade data were obtained at 24 h postmortem.
 Longissimus muscle (LM) steaks were removed and cooked for
 Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) determinations and sensory panel
 (SP) evaluations. Over the entire feeding period (249 d), TBA
 + EP steers had higher (P < .05) ADG than TBA + Z, TBA, and C
 steers. All treatments had higher (P < .05) ADG than C, with
 the exception of TBA. The only feed efficiency differences
 were those following the 168-d implant time, when TBA steers
 were more (P < .05) efficient than TBA + Z or C steers. The
 TBA + EP and TBA + Z steers were more (P < .05) masculine and
 their hides were more (P < .05) difficult to remove than those
 of EP and C steers. Carcass weights of TBA + EP steers were
 heavier (P < .05) than those of TBA or C steers. The TBA + EP
 steers had larger (P < .05) LM areas than Z, TBA, and C
 steers. Also, TBA + EP steers tended (P = .07) to have lower
 numerical yield grades than EP, Z, or C steers. Even though
 mean marbling scores and quality grades were similar (P > .05)
 among treatment groups, only 50% of TBA + EP carcasses graded
 low Choice or higher, compared with 100, 75, 82, 90, and 83%
 for C, TBA, Z, EP, and TBA + Z carcasses, respectively. The
 only meat palatability
 
 
 153                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 C163
 The effects of the stress of weaning and transit on
 performance and metabolic profile of beef calves of different
 genotypes.
 Phillips, W.A.; Juniewicz, P.E.; Zavy, M.T.; Von Tungeln, D.L.
 Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada; 1987 Dec.
 Canadian journal of animal science v. 67 (4): p. 991-999; 1987
 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Calves; Genotypes; Weaning; Stress;
 Transport of animals; Body weight; Metabolism
 
 
 154                                 NAL Call. No.: 100 OK4 (3)
 Effects of Tilmicosin or Ceftiofur on health and performance
 of shipping stressed stocker cattle.
 Smith, R.A.; Van Koevering, M.T.; Gill, D.R.; Ball, R.L.
 Stillwater, Okla. : The Station; 1991 Jun.
 Miscellaneous publication - Agricultural Experiment Station,
 Oklahoma State University (134): p. 152-155; 1991 Jun. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle; Transport; Respiratory diseases; Drug
 effects
 
 
 155                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 C163
 Effects of transport and electrolyte supplementation on ion
 concentrations, carcass yield and quality in bulls.
 Schaefer, A.L.; Jones, S.D.M.; Tong, A.K.W.; Young, B.A.
 Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada; 1990 Mar.
 Canadian journal of animal science v. 70 (1): p. 107-119; 1990
 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef bulls; Electrolytes retention; Electrolytes;
 Ions; Supplementary feeding; Transport of animals; Stress;
 Beef quality; Carcass yield
 
 
 156                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 The effects of twinning and maternal experience on maternal-
 filial social relationships in confined beef cattle.
 Price, E.O.; Smith, V.M.; Thos, J.; Anderson, G.B.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.; 1986 May.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 15 (2): p. 137-146; 1986
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Hereford; Calves; Dams (mothers);
 Maternal behavior; Twins; Attachment behavior; Milk production
 
 
 157                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 The effects of two shipping treatments on the carcass
 characteristics of bulls implanted with zeranol and
 unimplanted steers.
 Jones, S.D.M.; Newman, J.A.; Tong, A.K.W.; Martin, A.H.;
 Robertson, W.M. Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal
 Science; 1986 Jun. Journal of animal science v. 62 (6): p.
 1602-1608; 1986 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Bulls; Steers; Zeranol; Implantation; Carcass
 composition; Transport of animals; Stress; Carcass quality
 
 
 158                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Effects of zeranol implantation and late castration on sexual,
 agonistic and handling behavior in male feedlot cattle.
 Baker, A.M.; Gonyou, H.W.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1986
 May. Journal of animal science v. 62 (5): p. 1224-1232; 1986
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef bulls; Zeranol; Implantation; Castration;
 Agonistic behavior; Sexual behavior
 
 
 159                       NAL Call. No.: 18 D4825T Nr.241 1986
 Effektive Bewirtschaftung von Stallen und Anlagen der Milch-
 und Rinderproduktion unter besonderer Beachtung der Nutzung
 der Mikroelektronik und verbesserter Verfahren der
 Produktionskontrolle Vortrage einer wissenschaftlichen Tagung,
 veranstaltet vom Institut fur Rinderproduktion Iden-Rohrbeck
 aus Anlass des 65. Geburtstages seines Direktors Professor Dr.
 sc. Hans Kleiber, vom 18. bis 20. September 1985 in Iden 
 [Effective management of barns and milk and cattle production
 installations with particular attention to the use of
 microelectronics and improved production control methods]., 1.
 Aufl..
 Kleiber, Hans,
 Institut fur Rinderproduktion Iden-Rohrbeck (Akademie der
 Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR)
 Berlin : Die Akademie,; 1986.
 144 p. : ill. ; 21 cm. (Tagungsbericht / Akademie der
 Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der Deutschen Demokratischen
 Republik ; Nr. 241).  Cover title.  Summaries in English,
 German, and Russian.  Includes bibliographies.
 
 Language:  German
 
 Descriptors: Kleiber, Hans 1920-; Cattle; Congresses; Cattle;
 Housing; Environmental engineering; Congresses; Dairying;
 Technological innovations; Congresses; Beef industry;
 Technological innovations; Congresses
 
 
 160                                 NAL Call. No.: S494.5.E547
 Electricity used in farmstead operations.
 McFate, K.L.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier; 1989.
 Energy in world agriculture v. 3: p. 121-142; 1989.  In the
 series analytic: Energy in World Agriculture / edited by K.L.
 McFate.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Farming; Electricity; Electrical energy; Electric
 heaters; Milking; Dairy equipment; Ventilation; Fans; Fodder
 crops; Handling; Heating; Cooling; Dairy farming; Beef cattle;
 Pig farming; Poultry farming; Brood care; Grain drying;
 Vegetables; Storage
 
 
 161                                  NAL Call. No.: SF601.V535
 Environmental factors and calving management practices that
 affect neonatal mortality in the beef calf.
 Townsend, H.G.G.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders Company; 1994 Mar.
 The Veterinary clinics of North America. Food animal practice
 v. 10 (1): p. 119-126; 1994 Mar.  In the series analytic:
 Perinatal mortality in beef herds / edited by T.R. Kasari and
 S.E. Wikse.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Calves; Beef cattle; Newborn animals; Perinatal
 mortality; Etiology; Environmental factors; Cattle husbandry;
 Calving season; Timing; Herd structure; Cattle housing;
 Prevention; Disease control
 
 
 162                                    NAL Call. No.: 58.9 IN7
 The environmental requirements of livestock.
 Bruce, J.M.
 Silsoe : Institution of Agricultural Engineers; 1987.
 The Agricultural engineer v. 42 (4): p. 137-140; 1987. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock housing; Environmental factors; Space
 requirements; Animal welfare
 
 
 163                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Estimation of the water requirement for beef production in the
 United States. Beckett, J.L.; Oltjen, J.W.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1993
 Apr. Journal of animal science v. 71 (4): p. 818-826; 1993
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Beef cattle; Beef production; Water use;
 Irrigated pastures; Water policy; Water intake; Feeds; Water
 requirements
 
 Abstract:  A static model of developed water use for U.S.
 cattle production was constructed on a spreadsheet. Water use
 included that consumed directly by various classes of animals,
 water applied for irrigation of crops that are consumed by the
 cattle, water applied to irrigated pasture, and water used to
 process animals at marketing. Government statistics were
 consulted for numbers of cattle and crop production. The most
 recent statistics available for numbers of cattle and crops in
 individual states were used. On January 1, 1992, a total of
 33.8 million beef cows and 5.7 million replacement heifers
 were in U.S. breeding herds, 12 million animals were on feed,
 and approximately 28 million animals were fed annually. Thus,
 the U.S. beef cattle herd produced 6.9 billion kg of boneless
 beef. Beef cattle directly consumed 760 billion L of water per
 year. Feedlot cattle were fed various grain and roughage
 sources corresponding to the regions in which they were fed.
 Feeds produced in a state were preferentially used by cattle
 in that state with that state's efficiency; any additional
 feedstuffs required used water at the national efficiency.
 Irrigation of crop feedstuffs for beef cattle required 12,991
 billion L of water. Irrigated pasture for beef cattle
 production required an additional 11,243 billion L of water.
 Carcass processing required 79 billion L of water. The model
 estimates 3,682 L of developed water per kilogram of boneless
 meat for beef cattle production in the United States. The
 model was most sensitive to the dressing percentage and
 percentage of boneless yield in carcasses of feedlot cattle
 (62 and 66.7, respectively). A 10% change in either of these
 parameters resulted in a corresponding 8.6% change in the
 water required for beef production. A 10% increase in the
 number of animals on feed resulted in a decrease in the amount
 of water per kilogram of boneless beef by 5.2%. Changes in
 irrigated pasture management would also be an effective means
 of decreasing the w
 
 
 164                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Estrous behavior in confined beef cows.
 Hurnik, J.F.; King, G.J.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1987
 Aug. Journal of animal science v. 65 (2): p. 431-438; 1987
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cows; Estrous behavior; Estrus;
 Progesterone; Blood
 
 
 165                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3
 Euthanasia and slaughter of livestock.
 Grandin, T.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1994 May01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 209
 (9): p. 1354-1360; 1994 May01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Euthanasia; Slaughter; Methodology;
 Animal welfare; Slaughtering equipment; Electrical treatment;
 Efficacy; Carbon dioxide; Stress; Animal behavior; Blood;
 Restraint of animals
 
 
 166                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 Evaluating beef cattle operations for stress-management
 procedures. Nash, D.; Pollreisz, J.P.
 Lawrenceville, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company;
 1988 Aug. The Compendium on continuing education for the
 practicing veterinarian v. 10 (8): p. 971-972, 974-976; 1988
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Stress; Management; Environment;
 Transport; Nutrition programs; Beef production
 
 
 167                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Evaluation of mating systems involving five breeds for
 integrated beef production systems. III. Integrated system.
 Lamb, M.A.; Tess, M.W.; Robison, O.W.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1992
 Mar. Journal of animal science v. 70 (3): p. 714-722; 1992
 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Crossbreeding; Mating systems; Breed
 differences; Computer simulation; Efficiency; Slaughter
 weight; Carcass weight; Lean; Productivity
 
 Abstract:  Angus (A), Charolais (C), Hereford (H), Limousin
 (L), and Simmental (S) breeds were included in deterministic
 computer models simulating integrated cow-calf-feedlot
 production systems. Three mating systems were used:
 purebreeding and two-and three-breed rotational crossbreeding.
 Breed information was taken from the literature. Herd sizes
 were unrestricted; however, 100 heifers were saved as
 replacements. Cows were removed for reproductive failure, age
 (> 10.5 yr), or death. Calves produced in the cow-calf segment
 were fed in a custom feedlot to four slaughter end points: 440
 d, 457 d, 288-kg carcass weight, and low Choice. All animals
 were fed to requirements. Cull cows were slaughtered after
 weaning. Biological and economic efficiencies improved with
 crossbreeding; however, rankings of breed combinations
 depended on how efficiencies were measured (weight, lean, or
 value basis). Among purebreds, reproductive performance had a
 large influence on breed rankings at age and weight end
 points, whereas feedlot performance was important at the low
 Choice end point. Crossbred combinations involving British (A
 or H) and Continental (C or S) breeds were more efficient than
 other crossbred combinations at all end points. However,
 choosing specific breed combinations for integrated systems
 depends on slaughter end points, market end points (weight vs
 lean), and measures of efficiency (weight, lean, or value
 basis).
 
 
 168                                    NAL Call. No.: TD886.O3
 Experience in the use of biofilters.
 Geelen, M.A. van
 London : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1986.
 Odour prevention and control of organic sludge and livestock
 farming / edited by V.C. Nielsen, J.H. Voorburg, and P.
 L'Hermite. p. 238-240. ill; 1986. Paper presented at the
 "Seminar on Odour Prevention and Control of Organic Sludge and
 Livestock Farming," Apr. 15-19, 1985, Silsoe, England.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Netherlands; Animal manures; Animal wastes; Calf
 housing; Pig housing; Filters; Odor abatement; Waste disposal
 
 
 169                                   NAL Call. No.: SF91.M427
 Facilities for handling, sheltering and trailing livestock.
 McBratney, Brad; Karsky, Richard
 Equipment Development Center (Missoula, Mont.)
 Vegetative Rehabilitation and Equipment Workshop.
 Missoula, Mont. : The Center,; 1987.
 iv, 52 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.  Includes index.  September 1987. 
 5E42D31--Range Structural Equipment, Range Structural
 Equipment Handbook.  Sponsored by Vegetative Rehabilitation
 and Equipment Workshop.  Bibliography: p. 52.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Housing; Stables; Range management
 
 
 170                                NAL Call. No.: 275.29 AL13P
 Factors to consider before establishing an Alaskan livestock
 enterprise. Krieg, K.
 Fairbanks? :b The Service,; 1993 May.
 Publication / v.): 4 p.; 1993 May.  In subseries: Alaska
 livestock series.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alaska; Cabt; Animal husbandry; Livestock
 enterprises; Feasibility; Land clearance; Livestock feeding;
 Animal breeding; Animal housing; Farm equipment; Carcass
 disposal
 
 
 171                               NAL Call. No.: SF105.F3 1987
 Factory farming the experiment that failed : a compilation of
 articles and photographs., 1st ed..
 Carson, Rachel,
 Animal Welfare Institute
 Washington, DC : Animal Welfare Institute,; 1987.
 86 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.  Cover illustration by David Luck Smith.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Breeding; Livestock factories;
 Animals, Treatment of; Animal welfare
 
 
 172                        NAL Call. No.: Videocassette no.906
 Farm animal behavior research seminar.
 Curtis, Stanley
 United States, Agricultural Research Service, National Program
 Staff Washington, D.C.? : National Program Staff, ARS, USDA,;
 1990. 1 videocassette (100 min., 20 sec.) : sd., col. ; 1/2
 in.  VHS.  June 8, 1990.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal welfare; Livestock
 
 Abstract:  Discusses types of research being done on farm
 animal behavior to discover indicators of animal stress
 contentment, psychological make-up and the effects of
 environment on animal behavior. The various behaviors observed
 and the related situations are also discussed.
 
 
 173                                     NAL Call. No.: SF61.S2
 Farm animal welfare cattle, pigs and poultry.
 Sainsbury, David,
 London : Collins,; 1986.
 x, 175 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.  Includes index.  Bibliography: p.
 [171].
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock
 
 
 174                          NAL Call. No.: aZ5076.A1U54 no.84
 Farm animal welfare, January 1979-April 1989.
 Bebee, Charles N.; Swanson, Janice C.
 National Agricultural Library (U.S.)
 Beltsville, Md. : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, National
 Agricultural Library,; 1989.
 301 p. ; 28 cm. (Bibliographies and literature of agriculture
 ; no. 84). September 1989.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Domestic animals; United States; Bibliography;
 Livestock; United States; Bibliography
 
 
 175                                   NAL Call. No.: HV4711.H3
 Farm animal welfare, what, if any, progress? the Hume Memorial
 Lecture, 26th November 1987, at The Royal Society of Medicine,
 London.
 Harrison, Ruth
 Potters Bar, Herts. : UFAW,; 1988.
 24 p. ; 19 cm. (Hume memorial lecture ; 6).  Bibliography: p.
 23-24.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Great Britain; Animals, Treatment of;
 Great Britain
 
 
 176                             NAL Call. No.: HV4708.F38 1985
 Farm animals [factory farming]..  Factory farming
 Humane Society of the United States
 Washington, DC : Humane Society of the United States,; 1985. 1
 folded sheet : ill. ; 36 x 22 cm. folded to 22 x 9 cm.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal welfare; Livestock factories
 
 
 177                            NAL Call. No.: HV4758.F375 1991
 Farm animals it pays to be humane.
 Carruthers, S. P.
 University of Reading, Centre for Agricultural Strategy, Farm
 Animal Care Trust
 Reading : Centre For Agricultural Strategy, University of
 Reading,; 1991. 128 p. : ill. ; 22 cm. (CAS paper ; 22). 
 Papers presented at a conference organised by the Centre for
 Agricultural Strategy, sponsored by the Farm Animal Care Trust
 and held at the Royal Society, London SW1 on the 12th of
 September, 1991.  April 1991.  Includes bibliographical
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal welfare; Livestock
 
 
 178                       NAL Call. No.: Videocassette no.1359
 Farm animals with care produced for Glaxo Group Research in
 association with the Institute of Animal Technology [by]
 Datascope Communications. Datascope Communications, Glaxo
 Group Research Limited, Institute of Animal Technology
 England? : Datascope,; 1991.
 2 videocassettes (65 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Animal health; Animal welfare
 
 Abstract:  Illustrates regimes for housing and care for sheep,
 goats, pigs, cattle, and poultry as well as providing breeding
 information and demonstrating some routine health care
 procedures and blood sampling techniques.
 
 
 179                                    NAL Call. No.: 100 L935
 Feasibility of specialized for-hire cattle handling crews.
 Schupp, A.; Riechers, R.
 Baton Rouge, La. : The Station; 1987 Sep.
 D.A.E. research report - Department of Agricultural Economics
 and Agribusiness, Louisiana State University, Louisiana
 Agricultural Experiment Station (676): 24 p. maps; 1987 Sep. 
 Includes statistical data.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Louisiana; Dairy cattle; Beef cattle; Veterinary
 services; Feasibility studies; Hired labor; Fees; Cost benefit
 analysis; Operating costs
 
 
 180                                  NAL Call. No.: aS21.R44A7
 Feedlot and carcass characteristics of heifers: Effect of
 ovariectomy and ovariectomy with ovarian autograft.
 Klindt, J.M.; Crouse, J.D.
 Clay Center, Neb. : U.S. Department of Agriculture,
 Agricultural Research Service; 1993 May.
 ARS / (71): p. 108-111; 1993 May.  In the series analytic:
 Beef research progress report no. 4.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Heifers; Ovariectomized females; Ovariectomy;
 Ovaries; Autografts; Progesterone; Liveweight gain; Feed
 conversion efficiency; Estrous cycle; Feeding; Feedlots;
 Carcass quality
 
 
 181                                NAL Call. No.: S544.3.V8V52
 Feedlot and stocker health and management practices.
 Whittier, W.D.; Eller, A.L.
 Blacksburg, Va. : Extension Division, Virginia Polytechnic
 Institute and State University; 1991.
 Publication - Virginia Cooperative Extension Service
 (400-006): 7 p.; 1991. In subseries: Beef.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Feedlots; Beef cattle; Mortality; Animal health;
 Respiratory diseases; Parasites; Parasitism; Nutrient
 requirements; Digestive disorders; Therapy; Medical treatment
 
 
 182                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, hormones,
 metabolites in steers actively immunized against growth
 hormone-releasing factor. Harvey, R.W.; Armstrong, J.D.;
 Heimer, E.P.; Campbell, R.M. Champaign, Ill. : American
 Society of Animal Science; 1993 Nov. Journal of animal science
 v. 71 (11): p. 2853-2859; 1993 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Steers; Immunization; Somatoliberin; Beef cattle;
 Growth; Carcass composition; Breed differences; Fat
 percentage; Fattening performance; Charolais; Blood serum;
 Urea; Insulin; Fatty acids
 
 Abstract:  Large-framed Simmental and Charolais steers were
 actively immunized against growth hormone-releasing factor
 (GRF) to evaluate the effect on growth, carcass
 characteristics (especially intramuscular fat deposition), and
 concentrations of somatotropin (ST) and IGF-I.Primary
 immunizations of 1.5 mg of GRF-(1-29)-Gly-Gly-Cys- NH2
 conjugated to 1.5 mg of human serum albumin (GRFi, n = 12) or
 1.5 mg of human serum albumin (HSAi, n = 12) were given at
 approximately 10 mo of age. Booster immunizations of .5 mg of
 the appropriate antigen were given at d 49 and 125. Weights of
 steers administered GRFi were less (P < .05) than those given
 HSAi at 126 d (34.6 kg) or at 262 d (48.2 kg) after treatment.
 Carcass weights were 28.2 kg less (P < .01) for GRFi than for
 HSAi steers. Dry matter intake was not affected by
 immunization treatment, whereas feed efficiency was reduced in
 GRFi steers. Marbling scores were higher (P < .05) for HSAi
 than for GRFi steers but similar percentages (83.3) of both
 treatments graded Low Choice or higher. Rib sections of GRFi
 steers contained more fat (31.2 vs 25.0%) and less lean (63.3
 vs 68.4%) than those of HSAi steers (P < .05). A breed X
 treatment interaction was observed for percentage of fat
 within the trimmed longissimus muscle (P < .05); percentage of
 fat was similar for Charolais and Simmental steers when
 immunized against HSAi but was higher for Simmental than for
 Charolais when immunized against GRFi. Reduced serum ST, IGF-
 I, insulin, and plasma glucose concentrations and higher urea
 nitrogen values were observed in GRFi compared with HSAi
 steers.
 
 
 183                                    NAL Call. No.: S671.A22
 Feedlot runoff control.
 Lorimor, J. \u Iowa State University
 Ames, Iowa : Cooperative Extension Service, Iowa State
 University; 1994 Jan. AE / (30771): 2 p.; 1994 Jan.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Iowa; Cabt; Beef cattle; Feedlot wastes; Runoff
 water; Cattle manure; Cattle farming; Demonstration farms
 
 
 184                                    NAL Call. No.: S671.A22
 Feedlot runoff control--demonstration site: beef lot--
 location: Ringgold County.
 Lorimor, J.
 Ames, Iowa : Cooperative Extension Service, Iowa State U
 niversity; 1994 Jan. AE / (3077m): 2 p.; 1994 Jan.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Iowa; Cabt; Beef cattle; Feedlots; Feedlot
 effluent; Waste disposal
 
 
 185                                   NAL Call. No.: 100 M69MI
 Feedlot study considers steers from "conception to
 consumption.". Broadway, R.
 Mississippi State, Miss. : The Station; 1992 Feb.
 MAFES research highlights - Mississippi Agricultural and
 Forestry Experiment Station v. 55 (2): p. 4-5; 1992 Feb.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mississippi; Beef cattle; Breeding programs;
 Feedlots
 
 
 186                             NAL Call. No.: SF203.F458 1993
 Feedlotting notes a collection of farm notes., 2nd ed..
 Clarke, Ross
 Queensland, Dept. of Primary Industries
 Brisbane : Dept. of Primary Industries, Queensland,; 1993. iv,
 96 p. : ill. ; 30 cm. (Queensland Department of Primary
 Industries information series, QI93010).  "Agdex 420/17"--T.p.
 verso.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Feedlots
 
 
 187                                 NAL Call. No.: 275.29 M58B
 Fencing for beef cattle.
 Burdette, L.A.; Geuns, K.R.
 East Lansing, Mich. : The Service; 1987 Mar.
 Extension bulletin E - Cooperative Extension Service, Michigan
 State University (1570): 4 p. ill; 1987 Mar.  Subseries:
 Michigan beef production.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Fences; Fence posts; Construction;
 Costs
 
 
 188                                    NAL Call. No.: SF91.A97
 Fly control in confined livestock and poultry production.
 Axtell, Richard C.
 CIBAGEIGY Corporation, Agricultural Division
 Greensboro, N.C. : CIBA-GEIGY Corp., Agricultural Division,;
 1986. 59 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 28 cm. (Technical monograph /
 Ciba-Geigy). Bibliography: p. 55-59.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Poultry; Flies; Animal housing
 
 
 189                                NAL Call. No.: SF5.F66 1993
 Food animal well-being, 1993--conference proceedings and
 deliberations. Purdue University, Office of Agricultural
 Research Programs Food Animal Well-Being Conference and
 Workshop 1993 : Indianapolis, Ind. West Lafayette, Ind. :
 Purdue University, Office of Agricultural Research Programs,;
 1993.
 139 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.  Papers from the Food Animal Well-Being
 Conference and Workshop held in Indianapolis, IN, Apr. 13-15,
 1993.  Includes bibliographical references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Animal welfare
 
 
 190                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Forage intake responses to winter cold exposure of free-
 ranging beef cows. Beverlin, S.K.; Havstad, K.M.; Ayers, E.L.;
 Petersen, M.K. Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.;
 1989 May.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 23 (1/2): p. 75-85; 1989
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cows; Foraging; Feed intake; Winter; Cold;
 Free range husbandry; Stress; Grazing behavior
 
 
 191                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adenal axis and the
 sympathetic nervous system in models of acute stress in
 domestic farm animals. Minton, J.E.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1994
 Jul. Journal of animal science v. 72 (7): p. 1891-1898; 1994
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Stress; Animal models; Sympathetic
 nervous system; Adrenal glands; Animal welfare; Pituitary;
 Immune response; Corticoliberin; Vasopressin; Blood serum;
 Corticotropin; Hydrocortisone; Lymphocyte transformation;
 Hypothalamus; Literature reviews
 
 Abstract:  In response to stressors, the central nervous
 system of livestock (and other mammalian species) evokes
 physiological responses that ultimately result in activation
 of the hypothalamopituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and the
 sympatho-adrenal axis. The responses of these major systems
 are presumed to have adaptive and homeostatic value during
 periods of stress. The major hormone regulating the synthesis
 and secretion of adrenal glucocorticoids is ACTH. In sheep,
 cattle, and pigs, both corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
 and vasopressin (VP) participate in the regulation of
 secretion of ACTH, and the two peptides seem to interact to
 enhance that secretion. In cattle and pigs, CRH is the more
 potent peptide, whereas VP is the more potent in sheep. In
 addition to its better-known role in regulating pituitary
 function, CRH also may participate as a neurotransmitter
 acting centrally to enhance sympathetic activation of the
 adrenal medulla. Many experimental models of stress have been
 evaluated that reliably activate the HPA axis and the
 sympatho-adrenal medullary axis, and some of these model
 systems also reduce functions of cells of the immune system.
 Recent data support an important role of stressor-activation
 of the sympathetics rather than increased glucocorticoids per
 se in modulating some measures of immune function in response
 to stress. Thus, current dogma of glucocorticoids as the
 primary mediator of stressor-associated alteration in immune
 function of domestic livestock may require reevaluation.
 
 
 192                         NAL Call. No.: 49.9 Ut72R no.B-327
 Het gebruik van de classificatie op Nederlandse
 rundveeslachterijen nu en in de toekomst een bespreking = The
 use of classification at Dutch slaughter-houses for cattle at
 present and in the future : a discussion..  Use of
 classification at Dutch slaughter-houses for cattle at present
 and in the future : a discussion
 Schneijdenberg, T. C. H. G. P.
 Zeist : Instituut voor Veeteeltkundig Onderzoek "Schoonoord",;
 1989. 28 p. ; 30 cm. (Rapport / Instituut voor Veeteeltkundig
 Onderzoek "Schoonoord" ; B-327).  English summary.  Januari
 1989.  Bibliography: p. 26-27.
 
 Language:  Dutch
 
 
 193                        NAL Call. No.: Videocassette no.266
 A genetic engineering approach to the design of non-nitrite
 curing agents J. Norman Hansen..  Biotechnology, approach to
 non-nitrite cures Hansen, J. Norman
 United States, Food Safety and Inspection Service, Technology
 Transfer and Assessment Staff
 Washington : D.C. : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Food Safety and
 Inspection Service, Technology Transfer and Assessment Staff,;
 1986. 1 videocassette (VHS) (ca. 53 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2
 in.  Title from separte information sheet.  Spine title: A
 genetic engineering approach to the design of nitrite curing
 agents.  Label title: Biotechnology, approach to non-nitrite
 cures / J. Hansen.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Meat; Curing; Animal genetic engineering;
 Nitrites; Animal welfare
 
 
 194                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Genetic parameter estimates for postweaning traits of beef
 cattle in a stressful environment.
 DeNise, S.K.; Torabi, M.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1989
 Oct. Journal of animal science v. 67 (10): p. 2619-2626; 1989
 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Growth; Stress; Postweaning
 interval; Traits; Genetic covariance
 
 
 195                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Genetic parameter estimates for preweaning traits of beef
 cattle in a stressful environment.
 DeNise, S.K.; Torabi, M.; Ray, D.E.; Rice, R.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1988
 Aug. Journal of animal science v. 66 (8): p. 1899-1906; 1988
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Preweaning period; Growth; Stress;
 Heritability; Genetic correlation
 
 
 196                                    NAL Call. No.: 23 AU783
 Genetic parameters for tropical beef cattle in northern
 Australia: a review. Davis, G.P.
 Melbourne : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research
 Organization; 1993.
 Australian journal of agricultural research v. 44 (2): p.
 179-198; 1993. Literature review.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Australia; Cattle; Zebu; Beef cattle; Genetic
 parameters; Heritability; Liveweight; Reproduction;
 Resistance; Stress; Environmental factors; Literature reviews;
 Tropics
 
 
 197                                  NAL Call. No.: SF55.A78A7
 Genotype (breed) and environment interaction with particular
 reference to cattle in the tropics--review.
 Vercoe, J.E.; Frisch, J.E.
 Suweon, Korea : Asian-Australasian Association of Animal
 Production Societies; 1992 Sep.
 Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v. 5 (3): p.
 401-409; 1992 Sep. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Breed differences; Crossbreds;
 Genotype environment interaction; Animal nutrition; Stress
 factors
 
 
 198                           NAL Call. No.: SF85.4.A9G72 1985
 Grazing Animal Welfare Symposium proceedings of a symposium
 held at the Bardon Professional Development Centre, Brisbane,
 on April 26th and 27th, 1985.. Grazing animal welfare
 Moore, Brian L.; Chenoweth, Peter J.
 Australian Veterinary Association, Queensland Division
 Grazing Animal Welfare Symposium 1985 : Brisbane, Qld.
 Indooroopilly, QLD, [Australia] : Australian Veterinary
 Association (Queensland Division),; 1985.
 vii, 185, 40 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.  Cover title: Grazing animal
 welfare. Includes bibliographical references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle; Congresses; Sheep; Congresses; Livestock;
 Congresses; Grazing; Congresses
 
 
 199                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Grazing behavior of free-ranging beef cows in initial and
 prolonged exposure to fluctuating thermal environments.
 Prescott, M.L.; Havstad, K.M.; Olson-Rutz, K.M.; Ayers, E.L.;
 Petersen, M.K. Amsterdam ; New York : Elsevier, 1984-; 1994
 Feb.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 39 (2): p. 103-113; 1994
 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Montana; Cabt; Beef cows; Grazing behavior;
 Thermoregulation; Cold stress; Environmental temperature; Feed
 intake; Grazing time; Autumn; Winter; Seasonal variation;
 Acclimatization
 
 
 200                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Growth research: challenges and opportunities.
 Convey, E.M.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1987.
 Journal of animal science v. 65 (suppl.2): p. 128-139; 1987. 
 In the series analytic: Current concepts of animal growth III
 / edited by R.A. Merkel. Proceedings of the Biennial
 Symposium, July 28-29, 1986, Manhattan, Kansas. Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Meat animals; Growth; Fat percentage; Leanness;
 Food safety; Regulations; Growth promoters; Male animals;
 Aggressive behavior; Sexual behavior; Meat production
 
 Abstract:  Challenges and near-term opportunities for growth
 research are examined in light of the needs and concerns for
 those who will ultimately accept, utilize and pay for new
 technology for growth promotion. The challenge from the
 livestock producer is for new ways to improve feed
 utilization. That from the consumer is to reduce fat and
 cholesterol content of meat without substantially changing
 taste, texture or price. Challenges arising from various
 segments of society include the need to ensure product safety
 and animal welfare, particularly with respect to recombinant
 DNA technology. The animal science community is challenged to
 contribute to development of regulatory policy regarding
 application of new technology to animal growth. Additionally,
 government decisions can challenge the long-term research
 planning process. The use of beta-adrenergic agonists, peptide
 hormones and growth factors and development of ways to manage
 gonadally intact males are suggested as near-term
 opportunities for growth research.
 
 
 201                            NAL Call. No.: SF75.3.I4M3 1987
 Hand book of animal husbandry..  Handbook of animal husbandry,
 1st ed.. Mahanta, Kanak Chandra, 1926-
 Guwahati [India] : Omsons Publications : Distributed by
 Western Book Dept,; 1987.
 xviii, 612 p. : ill., maps, plans ; 22 cm.  Spine title:
 Handbook of animals husbandry.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; India; Livestock; Breeding; Animal
 housing; India; Animal culture; India
 
 
 202                               NAL Call. No.: SF89.H85 1991
 Handling and loading of livestock.
 Humane Slaughter Association (1986-); Agricultural Training
 Board Potters Bar, Herts. : Humane Slaughter Association,;
 1991. 35 p. : ill. ; 15 x 21 cm.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal welfare; Animals
 
 
 203                       NAL Call. No.: Videocassette no.1334
 Handling livestock naturally Livestock Marketing Association ;
 produced for Livestock Marketing Association by AgriBase, Inc.
 ; producer, Mike Sweet ; director, Rustin Hamilton.
 AgriBase, Inc, Livestock Marketing Association
 Kansas City, Mo.? : AgriBase,; 1989.
 1 videocassette (15 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Animal welfare
 
 Abstract:  Discusses viewing the world through the animal's
 eyes when handling then on the farm, for transport and at
 markets. Covers how to transport with gentleness,
 understanding of the animal's field of vision, point of
 balance, flight zone, and blind spot, how to feed and water
 animals at markets, how to move animals without hitting,
 yelling, or electric shock, how to deal with medical problems,
 and caring of facilities to reduce injuries.
 
 
 204                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 The handling of cattle pre-slaughter and its effects on
 carcass and meat quality.
 Warriss, P.D.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1990 Nov.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 28 (1/2): p. 171-186; 1990
 Nov.  In the special issue: Transport and pre-slaughter
 handling / edited by Graham Perry. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle; Slaughter; Handling; Carcasses; Beef
 quality; Transport of animals; Bruises; Marketing; Dark
 cutting meat; Animal welfare
 
 
 205                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Heat production of cattle acclimated to cold, thermoneutrality
 and heat when exposed to thermoneutrality and heat stress.
 Robinson, J.B.; Ames, D.R.; Milliken, G.A.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1986
 May. Journal of animal science v. 62 (5): p. 1434-1440; 1986
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Heat production; Acclimatization;
 Thermal neutrality; Environmental temperature; Cold; Heat
 stress; Respiration rate; Body temperature
 
 
 206                                NAL Call. No.: S544.3.N3C66
 Heat stress in beef cattle.
 Torell, D.; Krysl, L.J.
 Reno, Nev. : The College; 1990.
 Fact sheet - College of Agriculture, University of Nevada-
 Reno, Nevada Cooperative Extension (90-08): 3 p.; 1990. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Heat stress; Beef cattle
 
 
 207                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Heritabilities of predicted performance measures in beef bull
 tests and their relationships with feedlot efficiency
 measures.
 McWhir, J.; Wilton, J.W.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1987
 May. Journal of animal science v. 64 (5): p. 1323-1331; 1987
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef bulls; Performance testing; Heritability;
 Growth rate; Body weight; Conversion efficiency; Feedlots
 
 
 208                        NAL Call. No.: Videocassette no.199
 Hitting the targets the production of lean beef.
 Cross, H. Russell
 United States, Food Safety and Inspection Service, Technology
 Transfer and Assessment Staff
 Washington, D.C. : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Food Safety and
 Inspection Service, Technology Transfer and Assessment Staff,
 [1986?]; 1986. 1 videocassette (VHS) (ca. 53 min.) : sd., col.
 ; 1/2 in.  "October 1986" --Separate information sheet.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Beef; Food; Biotechnology; Animal
 welfare
 
 
 209                                NAL Call. No.: SF91.I5 1988
 Horizontal forces on livestock pen walls.
 Bailey, W.A.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1988. Livestock environment III : proceedings of
 the Third International Livestock Environment Symposium, April
 25-27, 1988, Constellation Hotel, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. p.
 149-154. ill; 1988. (ASAE publication ; 1-88).  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Livestock transporters; Trailers;
 Transport of animals; Handling; Loading; Horizontal
 resistance; Cattle crushes
 
 
 210                                   NAL Call. No.: aZ5071.N3
 Housing, husbandry, and welfare of beef cattle: January 1980-
 November 1992. Berry, D.
 Beltsville, Md. : The Library; 1992 Dec.
 Quick bibliography series - U.S. Department of Agriculture,
 National Agricultural Library (U.S.). (93-07): 55 p.; 1992
 Dec.  Bibliography.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Animal husbandry; Animal housing;
 Animal welfare; Bibliographies
 
 
 211                                NAL Call. No.: S671.D44 v.6
 Housing of animals construction and equipment of animal
 houses..  Huisvesting van dieren
 Maton, A.; Daelemans, J.; Lambrecht, J.
 Amsterdam ; New York : Elsevier ; New York, N.Y. :
 Distributors for the U.S. and Canada, Elsevier Science,; 1985.
 xii, 458 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.. (Developments in agricultural
 engineering ; 6). Translation of: De huisvesting van dieren. 
 Includes bibliographies.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Housing
 
 
 212                                      NAL Call. No.: S1.N32
 How to corral handling stress: innovative facilities and
 techniques make working stock a breeze.
 Kidd, R.
 Emmaus, Pa. : Rodale Institute; 1994 Sep.
 The New farm v. 16 (6): p. 5-9; 1994 Sep.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Animal husbandry; Handling
 
 
 213                                    NAL Call. No.: 58.8 J82
 Human subjective response to lorry vibration: implications for
 farm animal transport.
 Randall, J.M.
 London : Academic Press; 1992 Aug.
 Journal of agricultural engineering research v. 52 (4): p.
 295-307; 1992 Aug. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Trucks; Drivers; Operator comfort; Vibration;
 Transport of animals; Animal welfare
 
 Abstract:  Lorry drivers are exposed to a wide range of
 mechanical vibrations and random motions. The seat and
 sometimes the cab suspensions are designed to reduce vibration
 exposure. Nevertheless drivers are often subjected to
 considerable discomfort occurring within minutes of starting a
 journey. The frequencies and axes of vibration which occur at
 a driver's seat are often close to those of maximum discomfort
 for the human. On a livestock transporter, the interfaces
 between the animals and the vehicle are not designed to reduce
 vibration and it is possible that animals are subjected to a
 higher vibration magnitude than the driver. However, nothing
 is known of the discomfort or welfare levels experienced by
 livestock (e.g. cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry) during
 transport as the result of vibration and motion. This paper
 draws analogues with subjective evaluations of human comfort
 and poses a number of questions which must be addressed by
 research in order to quantify vibration dose, animal welfare
 response relationships. The primary requirement is to
 determine to what extent frequency dependent response
 weightings for the most important axes of vibration are
 necessary for each animal species and to determine how they
 should be defined. This would enable a comparison to be made
 between the experiences of humans and animals.
 
 
 214                                      NAL Call. No.: 10 OU8
 Humane slaughter.
 Gregory, N.G.
 Oxon : C.A.B. International; 1991 Jun.
 Outlook on agriculture v. 20 (2): p. 95-101; 1991 Jun. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Europe; Livestock; Stunning; Symptoms; Safety at
 work; Animal welfare; Consciousness; Regulations
 
 
 215                            NAL Call. No.: HV4725.U5L4 1990
 Humane slaughter laws., 4th ed.
 Leavitt, E.S.; Halverson, D.
 Washington, D.C. : Animal Welfare Institute; 1990.
 Animals and their legal rights : a survey of American laws
 from 1641 to 1990 / with chapters by the Animal and Plant
 Health Inspection Service of the United States Department of
 Agriculture ... [et al.].. p. 52-65; 1990.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Livestock; Slaughter; Animal welfare;
 Law; History
 
 
 216                              NAL Call. No.: HV4731.H8 1986
 Humane slaughter of animals for food proceedings of a
 symposium organized by Universities Federation for Animal
 Welfare in association with Humane Slaughter Association, held
 at the meeting rooms, Zoological Society of London, Regent's
 Park, 18th September 1986.
 Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, Humane Slaughter
 Association Potters Bar, Hertfordshire, England : UFAW,; 1987.
 iii, 59 p. : ill. ; 21 cm.  Includes bibliographies.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Slaughtering and slaughter-houses; Great Britain;
 Animals, Treatment of; Livestock; Stunning
 
 
 217                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Immunomodulation: a means of disease prevention in stressed
 livestock. Blecha, F.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1988
 Aug. Journal of animal science v. 66 (8): p. 2084-2090; 1988
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Cattle; Immune response; Immunity; Stress;
 Levamisole; Thiabendazole
 
 
 218                              NAL Call. No.: S494.5.B563N33
 Impact of animal growth promotants on the meat industry.
 Hayenga, M.L. \u Iowa State University; Buhr, B.L.
 Ithaca, N.Y. : National Agricultural Biotechnology Council;
 1989. NABC report / (1): p. 194-196; 1989.  In the series
 analytic: Biotechnology and sustainable agriculture : Policy
 alternatives / edited by J.F. McDonald. Paper presented at the
 first annual National Agricultural Biotechnology Council
 meeting, May 22-24, 1989.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Somatotropin; Pigs; Growth promoters;
 Utilization; Meat and livestock industry; Economic impact;
 Agricultural structure
 
 
 219                                    NAL Call. No.: TX373.M4
 Impact of animal husbandry and slaughter technologies on
 microbial contamination of meat: monitoring and control.
 Huis in't Veld, J.H.J.; Mulder, R.W.A.W.; Snijders, J.M.A.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1994.
 Meat science v. 36 (1/2): p. 123-154; 1994.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Meat; Slaughter; Microbial contamination; Animal
 husbandry
 
 Abstract:  The microbial flora transferred to carcasses during
 slaughter is a reflection of the care taken on the slaughter
 floor and of the types and numbers of microorganisms acquired
 by the animal on the farm or during the period of
 transportation to the slaughter house. These microorganisms
 may include those able to cause illness in the consumer, or
 microorganisms responsible for spoilage of the product.
 Considerable progress has been made in reducing contamination
 at slaughter and thereby extending the shelf-life of meat. In
 contrast, international statistics still clearly show that
 meat and meat products are responsible for a major proportion
 of all foodborne infections. This latter aspect is not
 determined by the overall number of microorganisms present but
 by the bacterial composition of the. animal's gut flora at
 slaughter. Preventive quality assurance along the whole
 productions and processing line is therefore the only
 effective means of controlling the microbiological safely and
 quality of meat. This includes, hazard analysis techniques to
 identify critical control points and procedures for monitoring
 the microbiological status of both animals and carcasses since
 most of the critical points cannot be totally controlled. At
 early stages in the production line, colonisation of meat
 animals with pathogens should be prevented. Subsequently, good
 slaughter practices will ensure carcasses of good overall
 microbiological quality. This paper deals with microbiological
 monitoring systems that can be used at different stages of
 production and processing to control the microbiological
 quality of poultry and pig meat.
 
 
 220                             NAL Call. No.: KF27.A366 1988d
 Impact of drought conditions on livestock and dairy producers
 hearing before the Subcommittee on Livestock, Dairy, and
 Poultry of the Committee on Agriculture, House of
 Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, second session, June
 24, 1988; Bismarck, ND.
 United States. Congress. House. Committee on Agriculture.
 Subcommittee on Livestock, Dairy, and Poultry
 Washington [D.C.] : U.S. G.P.O. : For sale by the Supt. of
 Docs., Congressional Sales Office, U.S. G.P.O.,; 1988; Y 4.Ag
 8/1:100-93. iii, 89 p. ; 24.  Distributed to some depository
 library in microfiche. Serial no. 100-93.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Droughts; United States; Livestock; United
 States; Effect of drought on; Dairy products; United States
 
 
 221                             NAL Call. No.: KF27.B542 1988a
 Impact of the drought on prices and production hearing before
 the Subcommittee on Economic Stabilization of the Committee on
 Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs, House of Representatives,
 One-hundredth Congress, second session, July 6, 1988.
 United States. Congress. House. Committee on Banking, Finance,
 and Urban Affairs. Subcommittee on Economic Stabilization
 Washington [D.C.] : U.S. G.P.O. : For sale by the Supt. of
 Docs., Congressional Sales Office, U.S. G.P.O.,; 1988; Y 4.B
 22/1:100-75. iii, 55 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm.  Distributed to
 some depository libraries in microfiche.  Serial no. 100-75.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Droughts; United States; Agriculture; Economic
 aspects; United States; Plants, Effect of drought on; United
 States; Livestock; United States; Effect of drought on;
 Agricultural prices; United States
 
 
 222                                  NAL Call. No.: RC620.A1N8
 Implanting trenbolone acetate and estradiol in finishing beef
 steers. Eversole, D.E.; Fontenot, J.P.; Kirk, D.J.
 Stoneham, Mass. : Butterworth; 1989 May.
 Nutrition reports international v. 39 (5): p. 995-1002; 1989
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Steers; Trenbolone; Estradiol;
 Weight gain; Carcass composition; Feed conversion efficiency
 
 Abstract:  The effect of implanting trenbolone acetate and
 estradiol 17 beta on feedlot performance and carcass
 characteristics of finishing steers was studied. A lactose- or
 cholesterol-based pellet containing 140 mg trenbolone acetate
 and 28 mg estradiol was implanted in yearling steers fed a
 high-roughage diet consisting of corn silage and supplement
 for 140 d. There was a 20% increase (P< 0.05) in rate of gain
 from the use of the implant in either base. A second implant
 with a lactose base given at the mid-point of the feeding
 period improved daily gain by an additional 7.5%. Dry matter
 intake was similar among control cattle and those receiving
 the different implants. Feed efficiency was improved (P <
 0.05) by the lactose-base and the cholesterol-based implants.
 Use of the two lactose-based implants resulted in 23%
 improvements in feed efficiency, compared to the control
 cattle. Hot carcass weights were heavier (P < 0.05) for
 implanted cattle but carcass quality grades were lower (P <
 0.05). Ribeye area was increased (P < 0.05) by the
 cholesterol-base and the two lactose-based pellets. These data
 indicate that combined androgenic-estrogenic anabolic implants
 enhanced feedlot performance and tended to increase edible
 lean and reduce fat in the carcass.
 
 
 223                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Implications of genetic changes in body composition on beef
 production systems.
 Bennett, G.L. \u Roman L. Hruska U.S. Meat Animal Research
 Center, USDA, ARS, Clay Center, NE; Williams, C.B.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1994
 Oct. Journal of animal science v. 72 (10): p. 2756-2763; 1994
 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Body composition; Beef production;
 Beef quality; Crossbreeding; Cattle fattening; Carcass weight;
 Carcass yield; Genotypes; Differential pricing; Slaughter
 weight; Feedlots; Calves; Marginal returns
 
 Abstract:  Changing the body composition of beef has
 implications for the entire beef production system. The
 dynamic nature of an animal's body composition and the
 production system itself make predictions of the implications
 of genetic change in body composition difficult. The cow-calf,
 stocker, and feeder segments of the production system will be
 affected differently. Leaner cattle tend to be slaughtered at
 heavier weights. Heavier weights effectively reduce
 composition differences of slaughter beef to less than the
 genetic differences. The effects of four pricing scenarios on
 slaughter weight and composition were evaluated for two leaner
 genotypes, one with no change in marbling and one with reduced
 marbling. A genetic difference of 1.0 yield grade at the same
 carcass weight resulted in slaughter beef that differed by .4
 to 1.0 yield grade because of increased slaughter weights.
 Separate analyses suggested the stocker segment of beef
 production will be least affected by changes in body
 composition. Genotypes that are best fitted to slaughter
 requirements will have the most flexibility in types of
 stocker systems that can be used. The cow-calf segment of beef
 production has several options to adapt to leaner cattle.
 Management to reduce nutritional stress on leaner cows may be
 required by some producers. Increased selection for
 reproductive traits in cow genotypes may be needed. An
 alternative to selection for reproduction is terminal crossing
 to partially disassociate the slaughter animal's genotype from
 the cow's genotype.
 
 
 224                                    NAL Call. No.: 58.9 IN7
 Improvements in animal welfare.
 Randall, J.M.
 Silsoe : Institution of Agricultural Engineers; 1986.
 The Agricultural engineer v. 41 (3): p. 84-90. ill; 1986. 
 Paper presented at the convention on "Pressures for Change
 Generate Engineering Opportunities," May 13, 1986.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal welfare; Animal husbandry; Livestock
 housing; Animal production; Abattoirs
 
 
 225                                   NAL Call. No.: SF207.S68
 In vitro analysis of drought stressed, chopped sunflower heads
 as a a protein supplement for cattle grazing corn crop
 residues.
 Thomson, D.U.; Pritchard, R.H.
 Brookings, SD : Animal and Range Sciences Dept., Agricultural
 Experiment Station, Cooperative Extension Service, South
 Dakota State Unviersity, [1986?-; 1992 Aug.
 South Dakota beef report (92-3): p. 5-8; 1992 Aug.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South Dakota; Cabt; Sunflowers; Maize silage;
 Protein supplements; Soybeans; Soybean oilmeal; Urea;
 Fermentation; Beef cattle; Grazing; Dry matter
 
 
 226                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AU72
 Induction of heat stress in beef cattle by feeding the ergots
 of Claviceps purpurea.
 Ross, A.D.; Bryden, W.L.; Bakau, W.; Burgess, L.W.
 Brunswick, Victoria : Australian Veterinary Association; 1989
 Aug. Australian veterinary journal v. 66 (8): p. 247-249; 1989
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Animal feeding; Ergot; Barley; Feed
 grains; Contamination; Claviceps purpurea; Ingestion toxicity
 
 
 227                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Induction of tall fescue toxicosis in heat-stressed cattle and
 its alleviation with thiamin.
 Dougherty, C.T.; Lauriault, L.M.; Bradley, N.W.; Gay, N.;
 Cornelius, P.L. Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal
 Science; 1991 Mar. Journal of animal science v. 69 (3): p.
 1008-1018; 1991 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Festuca arundinacea; Acremonium
 coenophialum; Heat stress; Poisoning; Thiamin; Grazing
 behavior; Grazing time; Alkaloids; Feed intake
 
 Abstract:  Livestock grazing endophyte (Acremonium
 coenophialum)-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea
 Schreb. cv. Kentucky 31) at high ambient temperatures may
 suffer from fescue toxicosis. Adult Angus cows (Bos taurus)
 were fed 0 to 1 kg/d of 70% infected tall fescue seed
 containing about 4.4 g of loline alkaloids in factorial
 combination with thiamin at 0 or 1 g/d. Cows assigned to the
 zero level of tall fescue seed received a supplement of
 equivalent energy and protein. Ingestive behavior was measured
 at 1330 to 1430 EDT during two 4-d periods in two consecutive
 weeks in August on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) pastures using
 a tethered grazing system. Alfalfa intake per measured grazing
 session of cows given tall fescue seed declined linearly (P <
 .01) as air temperatures during grazing increased above 25
 degrees C, largely because of shorter grazing meals. Thiamin
 increased alfalfa intake per measured grazing session by
 extending grazing time. Alkaloids in ingested endophyte-
 infected tall fescue induce thiamin deficiencies in cattle
 that result in symptoms of tall fescue toxicosis.
 
 
 228                                    NAL Call. No.: S671.A33
 An industry view of engineering research needs for livestock.
 Blackshaw, J.K.
 Victoria : Agricultural Engineering Society; 1990.
 Agricultural engineering Australia v. 19 (1): p. 14-15; 1990.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Australia; Livestock; Handling; Agricultural
 engineering; Research; Sheep; Shearing; Pig housing;
 Transport; Ultrasonic devices
 
 
 229                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Influence of breed and rearing management on cattle reactions
 during human handling.
 Boivin, X.; Le Neindre, P.; Garel, J.P.; Chupin, J.M.
 Amsterdam ; New York : Elsevier, 1984-; 1994 Feb.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 39 (2): p. 115-122; 1994
 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Calves; Salers; Beef breeds; Breed differences;
 Cattle husbandry; Man; Handling; Aggressive behavior;
 Traditional farming; Interactions
 
 
 230                                  NAL Call. No.: QP251.A1T5
 Influence of naloxone and yohimbine administration on
 pulsatile LH secretion in luteal phase beef cows.
 Schoenemann, H.M.; Richards, M.W.; Sangiah, S.; Wettemann,
 R.P. Stoneham, Mass. : Butterworth Publishers; 1990 Feb.
 Theriogenology v. 33 (2): p. 509-518; 1990 Feb.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cows; Lh; Hormone secretion; Estrous cycle;
 Neurotransmitters; Antagonists; Stress
 
 
 231                                      NAL Call. No.: SF1.S6
 Influence of pen area and trough space on feedlot performance
 of beef cattle. Van Niekerk, B.D.H.; Jacobs, G.A.
 Pretoria : South African Society of Animal Production; 1985
 Dec. South African journal of animal science; Suid-Afrikaanse
 tydskrif vir veekunde v. 15 (4): p. 164-166; 1985 Dec. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Feedlots; Feed troughs; Pens;
 Fattening performance
 
 
 232                                  NAL Call. No.: QP251.A1T5
 Influence of prepartum exposure of beef heifers to winter
 weather on concentrations of plasma energy-yielding
 substrates, serum hormones and birth weight of calves.
 Andreoli, K.M.; Minton, J.E.; Spire, M.F.; Schalles, R.R.
 Stoneham, Mass. : Butterworth Publishers; 1988 Mar.
 Theriogenology v. 29 (3): p. 631-642; 1988 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cows; Heifers; Prepartum period; Winter;
 Cold stress; Glucose; Cortisol; Nonesterified fatty acids;
 Estradiol; Calves; Birth weight
 
 
 233                                     NAL Call. No.: 49 AN55
 The influence of pre-slaughter transport and lairage on meat
 quality in pigs of two genotypes.
 Warriss, P.D.; Brown, S.N.; Bevis, E.A.; Kestin, S.C.
 S.l. : Durrant; 1990 Feb.
 Animal production v. 50 (pt.1): p. 165-172; 1990 Feb. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Genotypes; Meat lines; Large white;
 Landrace; Transport of animals; Meat quality; Stress;
 Slaughter
 
 
 234                                  NAL Call. No.: RC620.A1N8
 Influence of roughage source on wintering beef heifer
 performance. Bagley, C.P.; Morrison, D.G.; Feazel, J.I.;
 Mooso, G.D.
 Stoneham, Mass. : Butterworth; 1989 Mar.
 Nutrition reports international v. 39 (3): p. 575-585; 1989
 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Heifers; Roughage; Sources;
 Performance
 
 Abstract:  Three roughage sources (bermudagrass hay,
 cottonseed hulls and soybean straw) were evaluated using
 weanling beef heifers for preference, voluntary intake and
 performance during wintering trials. In trial 1, when given
 access to all three roughage sources, heifers preferred (P
 less than .05) bermudagrass hay (7.3 kg/d) to either
 cottonseed hulls (.2 kg/d) or soybean straw (.1 kg/d). In
 trial 2, voluntary intakes of the roughage sources fed
 individually and unsupplemented were higher for bermudagrass
 hay (P less than .05) than cottonseed hulls, which was greater
 (P less than .05) than soybean straw. During the winter
 performance trial (trial 3), heifers consuming the
 bermudagrass hay diet had heavier (P less than .01) final
 weights (255 vs 235 kg) and higher (P less than .01) daily
 gains (.36 vs .15 kg) than heifers fed other roughage-based
 diets. Cottonseed hull diets produced heifers with higher
 daily gains and final weights (P less than .01) compared with
 soybean straw diets. Corn added to the diets of either
 cottonseed hulls or soybean straw increased (P less than .05)
 heifer gains and final weights. Performance of heifers on all
 diets, except soybean straw, was acceptable. Heifers receiving
 soybean straw without supplemental corn grain had weight
 losses during the winter phase, while those fed soybean straw
 plus supplemental corn gained only .11 kg/d. Daily dietary
 costs were similar only when cottonseed hulls could be
 purchased and handled in bulk rather than sacked.
 
 
 235                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 The influence of social factors on allogrooming in cows.
 Sato, S.; Tarumizu, K.; Hatae, K.
 Amsterdam ; New York : Elsevier, 1984-; 1993 Dec.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 38 (3/4): p. 235-244; 1993
 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Beef cows; Grooming; Kinship; Social
 structure; Spatial distribution; Social interaction; Altruism
 
 
 236                                    NAL Call. No.: SF810.V4
 Influence of transport stress on trichostrongylid infection in
 feedlot beef cattle.
 Genchi, C.; Traldi, G.; Locatelli, A.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.; 1986 Aug.
 Veterinary parasitology v. 21 (3): p. 211-215; 1986 Aug. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Transport; Stress; Feedlots;
 Trichostrongylidae; Blood chemistry; Pepsinogen
 
 
 237                                 NAL Call. No.: HV4890.A3A9
 Intensive livestock production report.
 Australia. Parliament. Senate. Select Committee on Animal
 Welfare Canberra : Australian Govt. Pub. Service,; 1990.
 xxviii, 320 p. ; 25 cm.  At head of title: Parliament of the
 Commonwealth of Australia.  June 1990.  Includes
 bibliographical references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal welfare; Livestock
 
 
 238                                  NAL Call. No.: 286.8 N47M
 Interstate differences in the cost of complying with feedlot
 environmental regulations: an initial investigation.
 Ridley, E.J.H.; Morison, J.B.; Griffith, G.R.
 Armidale : Australian Agricultural Economics Society, Inc;
 1994 Apr. Review of marketing and agricultural economics v. 62
 (1): p. 79-88; 1994 Apr. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Australia; Cabt; Beef cattle; Environmental
 policy; Regulations; Operating costs; Economic impact;
 Commercial farming; Farm comparisons
 
 
 239                        NAL Call. No.: Videocassette no.265
 Introduction of foreign genes into livestock Robert Wall.
 Wall, Robert
 United States, Food Safety and Inspection Service, Technology
 Transfer and Assessment Staff
 Washington : D.C. : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Food Safety and
 Inspection Service, Technology Transfer and Assessment Staff,;
 1986. 1 videocassette (VHS) (ca. 53 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2
 in.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal genetic engineering; United States;
 Livestock; United States; Genetic engineering; Animal
 genetics; Research; Animal welfare
 
 
 240                                    NAL Call. No.: SF206.R8
 Ionizatsiia vozdukha v zhivotnovodcheskikh pomeshcheniiakh 
 [Ionization of air in livestock housing].
 Rudakov, V. V.; Aleksandrova, S. K.
 Leningrad : Agropromizdat,; 1987.
 62 p. : ill. ; 20 cm. (Novoe v sel'skom khoziaistve).
 
 Language:  Russian
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Soviet Union; Housing; Air, Ionized
 
 
 241                                 NAL Call. No.: S544.3.K2K3
 Kansas beef industry: facts and figures.
 Dhuyvetter, K.C.; Kuhl, G.L.; Eck, T.P.
 Manhattan, Kan. : The Service; 1992 Nov.
 MF - Cooperative Extension Service, Kansas State University,
 Manhattan (1057): 20 p.; 1992 Nov.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kansas; Cattle; Beef cows; Feedlots; Beef
 production; Statistics; Marketing; Crop production
 
 
 242                                 NAL Call. No.: S544.3.K2K3
 Kansas feedlot industry--facts and figures.
 Dhuyvetter, K.C.; Laudert, S.B.
 Manhattan, Kan. : The Service; 1991 Oct.
 MF - Cooperative Extension Service, Kansas State University,
 Manhattan (1017): 14 p.; 1991 Oct.  Includes statistical data.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kansas; Cattle; Feedlots; Beef production;
 Slaughter; Productivity; Statistical data; Marketing
 
 
 243                              NAL Call. No.: SF91.I568 1987
 Latest developments in livestock housing Seminar of the 2nd
 Technical Section of the C.I.G.R..
 International Commission of Agricultural Engineering. 2nd
 Technical Section. Seminar (1987 : University of Illinois at
 Urbana-Champaign); American Society of Agricultural Engineers
 St. Joseph, Mich.? : The Society,; 1987.
 vii, 417 p. : ill. ; 23 cm. (Reports / International
 Commission of Agricultural Engineering).  Includes
 bibliographies.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Housing; Congresses
 
 
 244                                 NAL Call. No.: 100 OK4 (3)
 Lead steers as a management tool for stressed stocker cattle.
 Hays, V.S.; Johnson, B.D.; Gill, D.R.; Lusby, K.S.; Owens,
 F.N.; Smith, R.A.; Ball, R.L.
 Stillwater, Okla. : The Station; 1988 Jun.
 Miscellaneous publication - Agricultural Experiment Station,
 Oklahoma State University (125): p. 99-104; 1988 Jun. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Calves; Steers; Bulls; Pens; Stress; Animal
 health
 
 
 245                                   NAL Call. No.: SF207.S68
 Limiting intake of finishing diets by restricting access time
 to feed and the interaction with monensin.
 Birkelo, C.P.; Lounsbery, J.
 Brookings, SD : Animal and Range Sciences Dept., Agricultural
 Experiment Station, Cooperative Extension Service, South
 Dakota State Unviersity, [1986?-; 1992 Aug.
 South Dakota beef report (92-10): p. 38-41; 1992 Aug.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South Dakota; Cabt; Beef cattle; Monensin;
 Restricted feeding; Liveweight gain; Feedlots; Feeding
 frequency
 
 
 246                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Live animal measurement of carcass traits by ultrasound:
 assessment and accuracy of sonographers.
 Robinson, D.L.; McDonald, C.A.; Hammond, K.; Turner, J.W.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1992
 Jun. Journal of animal science v. 70 (6): p. 1667-1676; 1992
 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Ultrasonic fat meters;
 Ultrasonography; Training courses; Fat thickness; Longissimus
 dorsi; Body fat; Ribs; Rump; Accuracy; Errors; Carcass
 composition
 
 Abstract:  The establishment and evaluation of an assessment
 system to accredit sonographers for measuring the carcass
 traits of subcutaneous fat depths and longissimus muscle area
 (LMA) on potential breeding animals by real-time ultrasound is
 described. Repeatability of operators, variation between the
 animal's left and right sides, and variations in technique
 were assessed from measurements and repeat measurements of 30
 cattle by up to eight operators at three testing sessions.
 Accuracy of carcass data was determined by repeatability of
 measurements, variability between measurers, between left and
 right sides of the carcass, and variation due to handling and
 dressing procedures. Correlations with carcass data averaged
 .92 for rump fat, .90 for rib fat, and .87 for LMA. Residual
 SD averaged .81 mm, .88 mm, and 5.1 cm2. A very experienced
 sonographer can measure LMA only marginally less accurately
 than it can be measured on the carcass. In Session 3, the SE
 between repeat fat measurements for accredited sonographers
 averaged .43 mm, indicating that fat depths can be measured
 more accurately, but when comparing measurements from
 different operators, adjustments may be required for
 differences in technique, otherwise overall accuracy will be
 about the same, approximately 1 mm. Scanned rump fat
 measurements were consistently approximately 20% higher than
 on the chilled, hanging carcass 24 h after slaughter; after
 applying the standard correction factor of 1.17, LMA
 measurements were similar. Scan and carcass rib fat
 measurements were similar for animals with less than or equal
 to 10 mm of fat cover, above which carcass measurements tended
 to be higher.
 
 
 247                                NAL Call. No.: S544.3.N7A45
 Livestock bedding: new market for old news?.
 Richard, T.
 Batavia, N.Y. : Agricultural Div. of Coop Extension, Four
 Western Plain Counties, N.Y. State; 1989 Nov.
 Ag impact v. 16 (11): p. 8-10; 1989 Nov.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New York; Bedding; Animal housing; Newspapers;
 Recycling
 
 
 248                                 NAL Call. No.: 275.29 M36B
 Livestock enterprises for the part-time farm.
 Perry, J.G.; Barao, S.M.
 College Park, Md. : The Service; 1991-1992.
 Bulletin - Cooperative Extension Service, University of
 Maryland (349): 10 p.; 1991-1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock enterprises; Part time farming;
 Species; Livestock; Feeding; Animal housing; Reproduction;
 Animal health; Flocks; Livestock products; Marketing
 
 
 249                                NAL Call. No.: SF91.I5 1988
 Livestock environment III proceedings of the Third
 International Livestock Environment Symposium, April 25-27,
 1988, Constellation Hotel, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.. 
 Livestock environment 3 Livestock environment three American
 Society of Agricultural Engineers
 International Livestock Environment Symposium 3rd : 1988 :
 Toronto, Ont. St. Joseph, Mich., USA : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,; 1988. viii, 470 p. ; 23 cm. (ASAE
 publication ; 88-1.).  Includes bibliographies.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Housing; Congresses; Livestock;
 Ecology; Congresses; Veterinary physiology; Congresses;
 Veterinary hygiene; Congresses
 
 
 250                                NAL Call. No.: SF91.I5 1988
 Livestock environment in perspective: a look ahead.
 Hahn, G.L.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1988. Livestock environment III : proceedings of
 the Third International Livestock Environment Symposium, April
 25-27, 1988, Constellation Hotel, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. p.
 469-470; 1988. (ASAE publication ; 1-88).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock enterprises; Environmental control;
 Quality product; Automation; Decision making; Research policy;
 Livestock housing
 
 
 251                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Livestock handling and transport video.
 Hoke, K.E.; Grandin, T.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1988.
 Journal of animal science v. 66 (suppl.1): p. 516; 1988. 
 Paper presented at the 80th Annual Meeting of the American
 Society of Animal Science, held July 19-22, 1988, New
 Brunswick, New Jersey.  Includes abstract.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Handling; Transport of animals;
 Videotapes
 
 
 252                                NAL Call. No.: SF91.S3 1988
 Livestock health and housing., 3rd ed..
 Sainsbury, David,; Sainsbury, Peter,
 London ; Philadelphia : Bailliere Tindall,; 1988.
 xi, 319 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.  Includes bibliographies and index.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Housing; Veterinary hygiene
 
 
 253                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.T7
 Livestock production in central Mali: ownership, management
 and productivity of poultry in the traditional sector.
 Kuit, H.G.; Traore, A.; Wilson, R.T.
 Edinburgh : Scottish Academic Press; 1986 Nov.
 Tropical animal health and production v. 18 (4): p. 222-231;
 1986 Nov. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mali; Poultry farming; Egg production; Flocks;
 Types; Poultry housing; Farm management; Mortality
 
 
 254                                      NAL Call. No.: HD1.A3
 Livestock productivity assessment and herd growth models.
 Upton, M.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1989.
 Agricultural systems v. 29 (2): p. 149-164; 1989.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Herd size; Prediction; Herd structure; Growth
 models; Productivity; Reproductive performance; Mortality;
 Milk yield
 
 
 255                                      NAL Call. No.: HD1.A3
 Livestock productivity assessment and modelling.
 Upton, M.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1993.
 Agricultural systems v. 43 (4): p. 459-472; 1993.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock numbers; Herd structure; Productivity;
 Growth models; Assessment; Outturn; Case studies;
 Reproduction; Mortality; Yields; Mathematical models
 
 
 256                                 NAL Call. No.: SF428.6.S56
 Livestock protection dogs selection, care, and training.
 Sims, David E.,; Dawydiak, Orysia,
 Ft. Payne, AL : OTR Publications,; 1990.
 128 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.  Includes bibliographical references
 and index.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock protection dogs
 
 
 257                           NAL Call. No.: SF85.4.A9G72 1985
 Losses and diseases induced by transport.
 Shaw, F.D.
 Indooroopilly, QLD : Australian Veterinary Association
 (Queensland Division); 1985.
 Grazing Animal Welfare Symposium : proceedings of a symposium
 held at the Bardon Professional Development Centre, Brisbane,
 on April 26th and 27th, 1985 / [editors: Brian L. Moore and
 Peter J. Chenoweth]. p. 145-154; 1985. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle; Losses; Mortality; Transport; Tetany;
 Liveweight; Carcass weight; Bruising; Stress; Beef quality
 
 
 258                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Major biological consequences of aflatoxicosis in animal
 production. Pier, A.C.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1992
 Dec. Journal of animal science v. 70 (12): p. 3964-3967; 1992
 Dec.  Paper presented at a symposium entitled "Current
 Perspectives on Mycotoxins in Animal Feeds," Laramie, WY. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Aflatoxins; Feeds; Contamination;
 Aflatoxicosis; Species differences; Age differences;
 Susceptibility; Economic impact
 
 Abstract:  Aflatoxins, a family of closely related,
 biologically active mycotoxins, have been known as a prominent
 cause of animal disease for 30 yr. The toxins occur naturally
 on several key animal feeds, including corn, cottonseed, and
 peanuts. Occurrence of aflatoxin on some field crops tends to
 spike in years when drought and insect damage facilitate
 invasion by the causative organisms, Aspergillus flavus and A.
 parasiticus, which abound in the crop's environment. Acute
 aflatoxicosis causes a distinct overt clinical disease marked
 by hepatitis, icterus, hemorrhage, and death. More chronic
 aflatoxin poisoning produces very protean signs that may not
 be clinically obvious; reduced rate of gain in young animals
 is a sensitive clinical register of chronic aflatoxicosis. The
 immune system is also sensitive to aflatoxin, and suppression
 of cell-mediated immune responsiveness, reduced phagocytosis,
 and depressed complement and interferon production are
 produced. Acquired immunity from vaccination programs may be
 substantially suppressed in some disease models. In such cases
 the signs of disease observed are those of the infectious
 process rather than those of the aflatoxin that predisposed
 the animal to infection. Mixtures of aflatoxin with other
 mycotoxins can result in greatly augmented biological
 responses in terms of rate of gain, lethality, and immune
 reactivity. Because of its great biological activity, its
 widespread potential presence in areas where critical feed
 crops axe grown, and its propensity to spike in problem years,
 aflatoxin promises to be a continuing problem in animal
 production.
 
 
 259                               NAL Call. No.: SF61.M35 1988
 Management and welfare of farm animals., 3rd ed..
 Universities Federation for Animal Welfare
 London : Bailliere Tindall,; 1988.
 x, 260 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.  The WFAW handbook.  Includes
 bibliographies and index.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock
 
 
 260                                  NAL Call. No.: 275.9 N213
 Management of a student-run livestock facility.
 Wilson, M.E.; Conway, G.
 Urbana, Ill. : The Association; 1986 Sep.
 NACTA journal - National Association of Colleges and Teachers
 of Agriculture v. 30 (3): p. 29; 1986 Sep.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock farming; Agricultural education;
 College students
 
 
 261                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Management of yearling bulls in a feedlot.
 MacNeil, M.D.; Gregory, K.E.; Ford, J.J.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1989
 Apr. Journal of animal science v. 67 (4): p. 858-864; 1989
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Bulls; Cattle husbandry; Dry lot feeding;
 Feedlots; Beef production; Group size
 
 
 262                           NAL Call. No.: SF140.L58K58 1991
 Massentierhaltung aktuelle Fragen, sachliche Antworten  [Mass
 animal rearing]., 1. Aufl..
 Kleinschmidt, Nina; Eimler, Wolf-Michael
 Gottingen : Echo,; 1991.
 96 p. : ill. ; 18 cm.  Includes bibliographical references (p.
 93-94).
 
 Language:  German
 
 Descriptors: Livestock factories; Animal welfare
 
 
 263                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Maternal breed of sire effects on postweaning performance of
 heifer and steer progeny: postweaning growth and carcass
 characteristics.
 Urick, J.J.; Reynolds, W.L.; Knapp, B.W.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1991
 Nov. Journal of animal science v. 69 (11): p. 4377-4387; 1991
 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Liveweight gain; Carcass
 composition; Breed differences; Sires; Crossbred progeny;
 Growth; Heifers; Steers
 
 Abstract:  Heifer and steer progeny of 2-yr-old first-cross
 (F1) heifers and 3- to 6-yr-old F1 cows, from Hereford dams
 and five sire breeds, were evaluated for postweaning feedlot
 growth and carcass composition. Breeds of sire of dam were
 Angus (A), Red Poll (RP), Tarentaise (T), Simmental (Sm), and
 Pinzgauer (P). Calves from 2-yr-old heifers were sired by
 Shorthorn, and calves from 3- to 6-yr-old dams were sired by
 Charolais. Breed of sire of dam was significant (P < .05 to P
 < .01) for total gain and final weight for female progeny from
 2-yr-old dams. At all weights, Sm, P, and T ranked above A and
 RP. Progeny of A, P, Sm, and T F1 2-yr-old dams were not
 significantly different but were higher (P < .05) than RP
 heifers in total feedlot gain. Breed of sire of dam was
 significant (P < .05) for carcass weight and longissimus
 muscle area; T ranked highest and RP lowest. Breed was not
 significant for any growth traits of steer progeny of 2-yr-old
 dams. Breed was significant for marbling score; A ranked
 highest and exceeded (P < .01) both RP and Sm steers. Breed
 was significant (P < .05) for most growth traits in the heifer
 progeny of the 3- to 6-yr-old dams bred to Charolais sires.
 Heifer calves of the Sm group were heavier (P < .05) than all
 other groups for most weights and total gain. For total gain,
 P and T were intermediate and A and RP lowest. For heifer
 carcass traits from 3- to 6-yr-old dams, breed was significant
 (P < .05 to P < .01) for carcass weight, longissimus muscle
 area, percentage of cutability, and estimated kidney, heart,
 and pelvic fat. Heifers from Sm-sired dams were heavier (P <
 .05) than those from all other groups but ranked second to
 heifers from P for percentage of cutability. Marbling scores
 of RP heifer carcasses ranked highest of all groups. Breed was
 not significant (P > .05) for any of the weights or gains in
 steer progeny of 3- to 6-yr-old dams; however, the Sm and P
 groups ranked above A and RP for all feedlot test weights.
 Breed was significan
 
 
 264                              NAL Call. No.: QP145.I52 1984
 Metabolic responses to cold.
 Sasaki, Y.; Weekes, T.E.C.
 Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : Prentice-Hall; 1986.
 Control of digestion and metabolism in ruminants : proceedings
 of the Sixth International Symposium on Ruminant Physiology,
 held at Banff, Canada, Sept 10-14, 1984 / edited by L.P.
 Milligan, W.L. Grovum, and A. Dobson. p. 326-343; 1986. 
 Literature review.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Ruminants; Cold stress; Endocrinology;
 Heat production; Metabolism; Rumen digestion
 
 
 265                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 A method of evaluating solar heat storage in livestock
 buildings. Sokhansanj, S.; Barber, E.M.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1986 May.
 Transactions of the ASAE - American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers v. 29 (3): p. 816-818. ill; 1986 May.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock housing; Solar heating; Evaluation;
 Ventilation
 
 
 266                                     NAL Call. No.: SF91.I8
 Mikroklimat zhivotnovodcheskikh ferm i kompleksov 
 [Microclimate of animal farms and complexes]..  Mikroklimat
 ferm i kompleksov
 IUrkov, V. M.
 Moskva : Rossel'khozizdat,; 1985.
 222 p. : ill. ; 21 cm.  Spine title: Mikroklimat ferm i
 kompleksov. Bibliography: p. 221.
 
 Language:  Russian
 
 Descriptors: Animal housing; Soviet Union; Climate;
 Microclimatology; Soviet Union; Livestock; Soviet Union;
 Housing
 
 
 267                                NAL Call. No.: S544.3.N9C46
 Minimum facilities for beef cattle production.
 Hirning, H.J.
 Fargo, N.D. : The University; 1990 Jan.
 NDSU Extension Service [publication] - North Dakota State
 University (AE-986): 16 p.; 1990 Jan.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Dakota; Beef cattle; Farm structure;
 Construction; Windbreaks; Straw cobs; Barns; Fencing;
 Feedlots; Water troughs; Feed dispensers
 
 
 268                         NAL Call. No.: HD1775.M5M5 no.92-5
 Minnesota's livestock industries past, present and future
 structural change. Olson, Kent D.; Grande, Jorunn; Bjornstad,
 Even; Allen, Kristen University of Minnesota, Dept. of
 Agricultural and Applied Economics St. Paul, Minn. : Dept. of
 Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Minnesota,
 College of Agriculture,; 1992.
 xiv, 70 p. : ill. ; 28 cm. (Economic report (Saint Paul,
 Minn.) ; ER92-5.). June, 1992.  Includes bibliographical
 references (p. 69-70).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal industry; Agricultural productivity;
 Livestock
 
 
 269                                    NAL Call. No.: 58.8 J82
 A model of the bioclimatic value of shelter to beef cattle.
 Higgins, K.P.; Dodd, V.A.
 London : Academic Press; 1989 Mar.
 Journal of agricultural engineering research v. 42 (3): p.
 149-164. maps; 1989 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Scotland; Beef cattle; Shelter; Bioclimate;
 Thermodynamics; Mathematical models; Energy intake; Liveweight
 gains; Meteorological factors; Computer simulation; Winter;
 Performance
 
 
 270                                  NAL Call. No.: HM206.A1H8
 Modeling Rendille household herd composition.
 Roth, E.A.
 New York, N.Y. : Plenum Press; 1990 Dec.
 Human ecology v. 18 (4): p. 441-455; 1990 Dec.  In the special
 issue: Empirical approaches to household organization. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kenya; Camels; Cattle; Livestock numbers; Herd
 structure; Households; Decision making; Pastoralism;
 Traditions; Cultural change
 
 
 271                              NAL Call. No.: SF91.I568 1987
 Natural convection efficiency in modeling houses and its
 effectiveness in animal production.
 Takezono, T.; Murakami, R.; Sase, S.
 St. Joseph, Mich.? : The Society; 1987.
 Latest developments in livestock housing : Seminar of the 2nd
 Technical Section of the C.I.G.R. / Univ of Illinois, Urbana-
 Champaign, Illinois, USA, June 22-26, 1987 ; hosted by
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers. p. 171-178. ill;
 1987. (Reports / International Commission of Agricultural
 Engineering).  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Japan; Livestock housing; Poultry housing;
 Convection; Natural ventilation; Design calculations; Models
 
 
 272                                     NAL Call. No.: 100 OK4
 Naxcel for stressed stocker cattle.
 Johnson, B.D.; Gill, D.R.; Smith, R.A.; Ball, R.L.
 Stillwater, Okla. : The Station; 1990 Jun.
 Annual report - Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station
 (129): p. 217-220; 1990 Jun.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle; Transport of animals; Stress response;
 Respiratory diseases; Cephalosporins; Treatment; Liveweight
 gain; Mortality; Morbidity; Disease control
 
 
 273                               NAL Call. No.: HV4877.A43E96
 The need for change in the exploitation of domesticated
 livestock. Topps, J.H.
 Aberdeen [Scotland] : Aberdeen University African Studies
 Group; 1988. The Exploitation of animals in Africa :
 proceedings of a colloquium at the University of Aberdeen,
 March 1987 / edited by Jeffrey C. Stone. p. 53-63; 1988. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Africa; Domestic animals; Domestication; Resource
 exploitation; Animal production; Production structure;
 Structural change
 
 
 274                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J824
 New advances in humane slaughter of meat animals.
 Childers, A.B.
 Ames, Iowa : International Association of Milk, Food, and
 Environmental Sanitarians; 1987 Aug.
 Journal of food protection v. 50 (8): p. 709-710; 1987 Aug. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Meat animals; Stunning; Animal welfare; Heart;
 Electrical treatment; Meat quality; Blood
 
 
 275                                  NAL Call. No.: SF207.B442
 New concepts of bovine viral diarrhea virus disease and
 control. Shulaw, W.P.; Brock, K.V.; Hoblet, K.H.
 Wooster, Ohio : The Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural
 Research and Development Center; 1991 Mar.
 Ohio beef cattle research & industry report (91-2): p. 89-93;
 1991 Mar. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ohio; Beef cattle; Bovine diarrhea virus; Disease
 prevention; Disease control; Vaccination; Feedlots; Diagnosis;
 Puerperium; Congenital infection
 
 
 276                                    NAL Call. No.: SF191.G4
 New teaching, research facilities sought for UGA livestock
 programs. Macon, Ga. : Georgia Cattlemen's Association; 1989
 Sep.
 Georgia cattleman v. 17 (9): p. 31. maps; 1989 Sep.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Georgia; Livestock; Instruction; Schools;
 Buildings; University research
 
 
 277                                    NAL Call. No.: 421 J828
 New version of LSTSIM for computer simulation of Amblyomma
 americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) population dynamics.
 Mount, G.A.; Haile, D.G.; Barnard, D.R.; Daniels, E.
 Lanham, Md. : The Entomological Society of America; 1993 Sep.
 Journal of medical entomology v. 30 (5): p. 843-857; 1993 Sep. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oklahoma; Cabt; Kentucky; Cabt; Tennessee; Cabt;
 Amblyomma Americanum; Population dynamics; Simulation models;
 Computer simulation
 
 Abstract:  A previous version of Lone Star Tick Simulation
 Model (LSTSIM) for a wildlife ecosystem was revised and
 expanded to include a beef cattle forage area and improved
 handling of tick-host- habitat interactions. Relationships
 between environmental and biological variables were also
 refined in the new version. General validity of the revised
 model was established by comparing simulated and observed
 host-seeking populations of Amblyomma americanum (L.) at five
 geographic locations, three in Oklahoma and two in Kentucky-
 Tennessee. Additional validity was indicated from comparisons
 of simulated and observed seasonality of lone star ticks at
 one location in Kentucky. The model produced acceptable values
 for initial population growth rate, generation time, and 15-yr
 population density when historical weather files for 14
 locations in the United States were used. The model of A.
 americanum population dynamics was used to study the
 relationship between tick density and density of white-tailed
 deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman), and cattle. The
 revised model can be used for additional simulation studies on
 effects of tick control technologies and integrated management
 strategies.
 
 
 278                                   NAL Call. No.: 57.8 C734
 Newsprint gets farmer and livestock okay.
 Temple, G.
 Emmaus, Pa. : J.G. Press; 1990 Sep.
 BioCycle v. 31 (9): p. 60-63. ill; 1990 Sep.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Newspapers; Livestock; Litter; Farming; Animal
 housing
 
 
 279                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Nulliparous versus primiparous crossbred females for beef.
 Bailey, C.M.; Reid, C.R.; Ringkob, T.P.; Koh, Y.O.; Foote,
 W.D. Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science;
 1991 Apr. Journal of animal science v. 69 (4): p. 1403-1408;
 1991 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cows; Heifers; Crossbreds; Breed
 differences; Fattening performance; Carcass composition;
 Carcass quality; Beef; Tenderness; Shear strength
 
 Abstract:  Feedlot and carcass traits of nulliparous and
 primiparous females representing eight breed types, including
 Bos taurus and Bos indicus X Bos taurus crosses, were
 evaluated. Nulliparous females (heifers) were in the feedlot
 for 4 mo; primiparous females (heiferettes) were fed for 2 1/3
 mo after their calves were weaned at 6 mo of age. Heifers
 averaged higher (P < .01) in dressing percentage, percentage
 of kidney fat, carcass grade (P < .10), and color of lean (P <
 .05) compared with heiferettes. Heiferettes exceeded the
 nulliparous group in feedlot ADG (P < .01), fat thickness (P <
 .05), and percentage of steak, roast, and bone (P < .01).
 Parity effects on carcass weight, longissimus area, marbling,
 pH, and shear force value were not statistically significant.
 Dam breed types differed in several traits, including marbling
 (P < .05) and percentage of steak (P < .10), roast (P < .01),
 and bone (P < .01). Dam breed X parity interactions were
 nonsignificant. Results show that beef derived from
 heiferettes is competitive with heifer beef.
 
 
 280                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AU72
 Objective measures of welfare in farming environments.
 Blackshaw, J.K.
 Brunswick, Victoria : Australian Veterinary Association; 1986
 Nov. Australian veterinary journal v. 63 (11): p. 361-364;
 1986 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Animal welfare; Animal health; Animal
 behavior; Physiology; Animal production; Animal husbandry
 
 
 281                                   NAL Call. No.: 60.18 J82
 Observations on white-tailed deer and habitat response to
 livestock grazing in south Texas.
 Cohen, W.E.; Drawe, D.L.; Bryant, F.C.; Bradley, L.C.
 Denver : American Society for Range Management, 1948-; 1989
 Sep. Journal of range management v. 42 (5): p. 361-365; 1989
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Cabt; Odocoileus Virginianus; Rotational
 grazing
 
 Abstract:  Since short duration grazing (SDG) was introduced
 to Texas, concern for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus
 virginianus) has magnified because they are a species of major
 economic importance to ranchers. The objective of this study
 was to observe the effects of SDG and continuous yearlong
 grazing (CG) on home ranges and movement indices of female
 deer, and on forage availability. The study was conducted on
 the Rob and Bessie Welder Wildlife Refuge, near Sinton, Texas.
 The study area included a 10-pasture SDG cell and a CG
 pasture, each stocked at 2.8 ha/auy. Cattle grazed each SDG
 paddock 2 to 8 days; paddocks were rested 32 to 47 days. A
 total of 3,961 radio-fixes from 11 does was collected over an
 11-month study period in 1983. Monthly and annual home ranges
 of does were similar (P > 0.05) between SDG (207 ha) and CG
 (229 ha). However, white-tailed deer traveled 35% more (P <
 0.05) between fixes in SDG (449 m) than in CG (332 m) from May
 to August, a time of greatest physiological and nutritional
 stress for female deer in south Texas. Also, does avoided (P <
 0.05) cattle during 2 cycles of the SDG rotation. The primary
 trend observed was for the deer under SDG to avoid cattle
 concentrations by alternating between preferred habitats
 rather than a predictable paddock-to-paddock movement. In
 general, there were few differences in total grass and forb
 cover between SDG and CG. However, several forage species
 important to deer were less frequent (P < 0.05) under SDG than
 CG.
 
 
 282                        NAL Call. No.: Videocassette no.791
 Our side of the fence produced by National Cattlemen's
 Association. National Cattlemen's Association (U.S.)
 Englewood, CO. : National Cattlemen's Association,; 1989. 1
 videocassette (9 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. + 1 guide.  VHS. 
 Funded by Beef Promotion & Research Board.  "3/89"--Slip
 cover.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal welfare; Beef cattle industry; Livestock
 
 
 283                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.T7
 An outbreak of haemorrhagic septicaemia (septicaemic
 pasteurellosis) in cattle in Zimbabwe.
 Lane, E.P.; Kock, N.D.; Hill, F.W.G.; Mohan, K.
 Midlothian, Scotland : University of Edinburgh; 1992 May.
 Tropical animal health and production v. 24 (2): p. 97-102;
 1992 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Zimbabwe; Beef cattle; Pasteurella multocida;
 Pasteurellosis; Outbreaks; Stress factors; Morbidity;
 Mortality; Postmortem examinations
 
 
 284                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Output/input differences among nonpregnant, lactating Bos
 indicus-Bos taurus and Bos taurus-Bos taurus F1 cross cows.
 Green, R.D.; Cundiff, L.V.; Dickerson, G.E.; Jenkins, T.G.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1991
 Aug. Journal of animal science v. 69 (8): p. 3156-3166; 1991
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cows; Zebu breeds; Crossbred progeny;
 Crossbreeding; Energy intake; Body weight; Milk production;
 Feed conversion efficiency; Growth
 
 Abstract:  Nonpregnant F1 crossbred cows, progeny of either
 Hereford (H) or Angus (A) dams and sired by Brahman (Bm),
 Sahiwal (Sw), Pinzgauer (Pz), H or A sires, were fed to
 maintain initial weight while rearing Charolais (C)-sired
 progeny for a period of 126 d in drylot commencing at about 48
 d postpartum. Cow-calf pairs were assigned to equalize cow
 age, calf sex, and breed of cow's dam among three replicate
 pens of approximately 12 pairs each. Cows and calves were
 weighed every 2 wk and feed intake was adjusted to minimize
 change in cow weight. Metabolizable energy (ME) consumption
 for zero cow weight change was estimated by regression. Milk
 production was estimated by weigh-suckle, weigh at 58, 85,
 125, and 170 d of lactation. Calf gain (GAIN, kg) relative to
 cow weight (CWT 1, kg) was higher (P < .01) for calves from
 Bm-X (139.5/585) and Sw-X (132.2/534) than for calves from Pz-
 X (127.2/552) and HA-X (116.9/547) cows. Estimated mean daily
 production of milk was 7.40, 7.15, 7.28, and 6.37 kg for the
 Bm-X, Sw-X, Pz-.X, and HA-X, respectively. Total cow ME intake
 (TME cow) for breed groups ranked (P < .05) with cow size and
 milk production, and calf creep-feed intake (FME calf) was
 inversely related to estimated milk intake. Proportion of
 total feed ME (TME cow+calf) consumed by calves was higher (P
 < .05) for HA-X cows (18%) than for the others (14%). Total
 efficiency of calf gain in weight (GAIN/TME cow+calf) was 11 %
 greater (P < .05) for crossbred cows of Bos indicus X Bos
 taurus Bm-X, Sw-X) than for Bos taurus X Bos taurus (Pz-X, HA-
 X) cows (35 vs 32 g/Mcal) in the 126-d lactation period.
 
 
 285                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32P
 Particle size distribution of cattle feedlot dust emissions.
 Sweeten, J.M.; Parnell, C.B.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1989.
 Paper - American Society of Agricultural Engineers (89-4076):
 21 p.; 1989. Paper presented at the 1989 International Summer
 Meeting, June 25-28, 1989, Quebec, PQ, Canada.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Feedlots; Dust; Emission; Beef cattle; Particle
 size distribution
 
 
 286                                  NAL Call. No.: QP251.A1T5
 Patterns of development of gonads, sex-drive and hormonal
 responses in tropical beef bulls.
 Perry, V.E.A.; Chenoweth, P.J.; Post, T.B.; Munro, R.K.
 Stoneham, Mass. : Butterworth Publishers; 1991 Feb.
 Theriogenology v. 35 (2): p. 473-486; 1991 Feb.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef bulls; Zebu; Testes; Libido; Hormone
 secretion; Sexual development; Genetic differences; Lh; Gnrh;
 Testosterone
 
 Abstract:  The development of different traits was studied in
 tropical beef bulls of seven genotypes (Brahman, Africander,
 British and combinations of these) from approximately 500 to
 910 d of age. Bulls were raised under pasture conditions
 without supplementation. At each examination, approximately 2
 mo apart, bulls were weighed, palpated (including scrotal and
 testicular measurement), electroejaculated, and subjected to
 two libido tests with estrus-induced females. At alternate
 examinations, plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) was measured at
 30 and 150 min post gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH)
 injection (LH - 30 and LH - 150) and testosterone (T) was
 measured at 150 min (T - 150). In general, nutritional and
 environmental stressors appeared to impede bull reproductive
 development. Scrotal circumference increased nonlinearly,
 apparently influenced by puberty and average daily gain (ADG).
 Libido increased overall, albeit nonlinearly also. No apparent
 marked differences in development of either trait could be
 attributed to genotype differences, although Brahman bulls
 tended to display lower sexual interest. The LH-30 level was
 relatively high (>14 ng/ml) at 500 and 640 d of age, but then
 dropped markedly at 760 d followed by a slight recovery. The
 LH-150 level followed a similar pattern, although d was very
 low at 500 d of age. The T-150 level showed a reverse pattern,
 being lower initially and higher in the latter part of the
 study. No apparent genotype differences occurred. Possible
 contributory influences on these patterns, including the onset
 of puberty and sexual maturity, season and nutrition, are
 discussed herein.
 
 
 287                                  NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Pen sizes aboard livestock transport ships.
 Hoke, K.E.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1987.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche
 collection) (fiche no. 87-6070): 10 p.; 1987.  Paper presented
 at the 1987 Summer Meeting of the American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers. Available for purchase from: The
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950
 Niles Road, St. Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order
 Dept. at (616) 429-0300 for information and prices.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Virginia; Venezuela; Cattle; Transport; Pens;
 Size; Exports
 
 
 288                              NAL Call. No.: SF197.P47 1990
 Penternakan secara fidlot  [Feedlot system for beef cattles].
 Yusof Hamali Ahmad; Omar, Mohamed Ariff,_1949-; Wan Zahari
 Mohamed Kuala Lumpur : Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, Kementerian
 Pendidikan Malaysia,; 1990.
 xi, 102 p. : ill. ; 21 cm.  Includes bibliographical
 references (p. 95-96) and index.
 
 Language:  Malay
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Beef cattle
 
 
 289                                NAL Call. No.: SF91.I5 1988
 Performance and behavior responses of beef cattle to stable
 flies in warm environments.
 Wieman, G.A.; DeShazer, J.A.; Campbell, J.B.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1988. Livestock environment III : proceedings of
 the Third International Livestock Environment Symposium, April
 25-27, 1988, Constellation Hotel, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. p.
 315-321; 1988. (ASAE publication ; 1-88).  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nebraska; Beef cattle; Stomoxys calcitrans; Pens;
 Bunching; Animal behavior; Weight gain; Feed intake; Heat
 stress
 
 
 290                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Performance and health of weanling bulls after butorphanol and
 xylazine administration at castration.
 Faulkner, D.B.; Eurell, T.; Tranquilli, W.J.; Ott, R.S.; Ohl,
 M.W.; Cmarik, G.F.; Zinn, G.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1992
 Oct. Journal of animal science v. 70 (10): p. 2970-2974; 1992
 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Calves; Steers; Castration; Analgesics;
 Liveweight gain; Feed intake; Feed conversion; Blood serum;
 Hydrocortisone; Haptoglobins
 
 Abstract:  A total of 268 crossbred, 6- to 9-mo-old, bull
 calves (214 +/- 19 kg) were used in two separate 27-d
 experiments to assess the effects of butorphanol and xylazine
 administration (BXA) on the subsequent performance and health
 of beef calves. In each experiment, calves were randomly
 allotted to four treatment groups: 1) castration with BXA, 2)
 castration without BXA, 3) no castration with BXA, and 4) no
 castration without BXA. There were two replicates within each
 experiment. The intravenous administration of .07 mg/kg of
 butorphanol and .02 mg/kg of xylazine occurred 90 s before
 tail hold and castration procedures. Calves were placed in a
 squeeze chute and manually restrained by tail elevation. In
 Exp. 2, the cattle also were scored for chute activity (on a 1
 to 5 scale with 5 being the most active). Cattle were weighed
 at the beginning and end of the experiment, feed intake was
 recorded daily, and cattle were monitored daily for
 respiratory disease. There were no castration X BXA
 interactions (P > .51). Castration reduced (P < .01) daily
 gain and gain/feed and tended (P = .13) to reduce feed intake.
 The administration of BXA had no effect (P > .05) on gain or
 gain/feed but did tend (P = .13) to reduce feed intake. No
 differences (P > .45) were observed in morbidity or mortality
 due to either BXA or castration. Castration and BXA increased
 (P < .01) blood cortisol levels on d 3, whereas control
 animals had reduced cortisol levels. Castration increased (P <
 .05) haptoglobin levels on d 3, but BXA had no effect (P >
 .05) on serum haptoglobin concentrations on d 3. Chute
 activity was reduced (P < .05) by castration and BXA. In this
 study, animal performance was reduced by castration. The
 administration of BXA did not alter stress indicators or
 improve performance of castrated bull calves. Serum
 haptoglobin may be a more specific indicator of the
 inflammatory process in cattle, whereas serum cortisol may be
 an indicator of the whole-body stress response.
 
 
 291                                NAL Call. No.: SF91.I5 1988
 Performance of alternative veal housing systems.
 Rynk, R.F.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1988. Livestock environment III : proceedings of
 the Third International Livestock Environment Symposium, April
 25-27, 1988, Constellation Hotel, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. p.
 409-416; 1988. (ASAE publication ; 1-88).  Literature review. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Calf housing; Loose housing; Beef production;
 Cattle husbandry
 
 
 292                                     NAL Call. No.: 26 T754
 The performance of cattle stall-fed for beef in Malawi.
 Nkhonjera, L.; Agyemang, K.; Butterworth, M.
 Guildford : Butterworth Scientific; 1987 Apr.
 Tropical agriculture v. 64 (2): p. 105-110; 1987 Apr. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Malawi; Beef cattle; Cattle fattening; Stalls;
 Weight gain; Performance testing; Crop residues; Small farms
 
 
 293                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32P
 Performance of heat exchangers on three types of Quebecois
 livestock buildings.
 Lord, D.; Dutil, C.; Chagnon, R.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1989.
 Paper - American Society of Agricultural Engineers (89-4066):
 8 p.; 1989. Paper presented at the 1989 International Summer
 Meeting, June 25-28, 1989, Quebec, PQ, Canada.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Quebec; Animal housing; Heat exchangers;
 Ventilation; Pigs; Broilers; Calves
 
 
 294                                    NAL Call. No.: 421 J822
 Physiological and nutritional response of beef steers to
 combined infestations of horn fly and stable fly (Diptera:
 Muscidae).
 Schwinghammer, K.A.; Knapp, F.W.; Boling, J.A.
 College Park, Md. : Entomological Society of America; 1987
 Feb. Journal of economic entomology v. 80 (1): p. 120-125;
 1987 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Steers; Haematobia irritans;
 Stomoxys calcitrans; Stress; Animal nutrition; Respiration
 rate; Digestibility; Body temperature; Blood chemistry; Heart
 rate; Cortisol; Nitrogen retention
 
 
 295                                  NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Planning fencing systems for intensive grazing management.
 Turner, L.W.; Absher, C.W.; Evans, J.K.; McNeill, S.G.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1987.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche
 collection) (fiche no. 87-4084): 19 p. ill; 1987.  Paper
 presented at the 1987 Summer Meeting of the American Society
 of Agricultural Engineers. Available for purchase from: The
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950
 Niles Road, St. Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order
 Dept. at (616) 429-0300 for information and prices.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Fencing; Systems; Planning; Controlled grazing;
 Beef cattle
 
 
 296                                  NAL Call. No.: SF207.B442
 Plastic pot scrubbers replace roughage for cattle fed all
 concentrate diets. Loerch, S.C.
 Wooster, Ohio : The Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural
 Research and Development Center; 1990 Mar.
 Ohio beef cattle research & industry report (90-2): p. 91-97;
 1990 Mar. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ohio; Beef cattle; Plastic nets; Concentrates;
 Feedlots; Roughage; Liveweight gain; Fattening performance
 
 
 297                                   NAL Call. No.: HT401.J68
 A political economy perspective on the expansion of New
 Zealand livestock farming, 1960-1984. I. Agricultural policy.
 Le Heron, R.
 Elmsford, N.Y. : Pergamon Press; 1989.
 Journal of rural studies v. 5 (1): p. 17-32; 1989.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New Zealand; Livestock farming; Agricultural
 policy; Politics; History; Structural change; Capitalism;
 Regulations; Pastoralism; Support measures; Investments
 
 
 298                                  NAL Call. No.: SF601.V535
 Polyether ionophores--effect on rumen function in feedlot
 cattle. Corah, L.R.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders Company; 1991 Mar.
 The Veterinary clinics of North America : food animal practice
 v. 7 (1): p. 127-132; 1991 Mar.  In the series analytic: Beef
 cattle nutrition / edited by J. Maas.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Ionophores; Rumen metabolism;
 Feedlots; Fattening performance; Monensin; Lasalocid; Nitrogen
 metabolism; Mineral metabolism; Mode of action
 
 
 299                                   NAL Call. No.: 100 K41PR
 Potassium in feedlot diets containing lasalocid.
 Gay, N.; Boling, J.A.; Dawson, K.A.; Dew, R.
 Lexington, Ky. : The Station; 1985 Nov.
 Progress report - Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station
 (291): p. 14-15; 1985 Nov.  Documents available from
 Agriculture Library, Agricultural Science Center - North,
 University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546-0091. In the
 series analytic: 1985 beef cattle research report.  Includes
 statistical data.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Steers; Cattle fattening; Lasalocid; Potassium
 
 
 300                               NAL Call. No.: SF61.P73 1991
 Practical animal handling.
 Anderson, R. S._1931-; Edney, A. T. B.
 Oxford ; New York : Pergamon Press,; 1991.
 xii, 198 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.  Includes bibliographical
 references and index.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock
 
 
 301                                    NAL Call. No.: SF87.B55
 Pre- and post-weaning growth of different breeds of beef
 cattle in the tropics.
 Vercoe, J.E.; Frisch, J.E.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier; 1987.
 Bioclimatology and the adaptation of livestock / edited by
 H.D. Johnson. p. 59-63; 1987. (World animal science. B,
 Disciplinary approach ; 5).  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Beef breeds; Tropics; Postweaning
 interval; Preweaning period; Growth; Environment; Stress;
 Adaptation
 
 
 302                                 NAL Call. No.: SF191.2.I68
 Preparations for receiving and processing stocker cattle.
 Richey, E.J.
 Morillton, Ark. : Winrock International; 1985.
 Emerging technology and management for ruminants : 1985
 livestock seminars, International Stockmen's School / edited
 by Frank H. Baker and Mason E. Miller. p. 223-227; 1985.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Feedlots; Animal feeding; Vaccines;
 Drugs; Equipment; Supplies
 
 
 303                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 Preparing Holstein beef calves for the feedyard.
 Smith, R.A.; Lynch, J.W.
 Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company, Inc; 1991
 Nov. The Compendium on continuing education for the practicing
 veterinarian v. 13 (11): p. 1739-1744; 1991 Nov.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Calves; Beef production; Holstein-friesian;
 Animal health; Cattle husbandry; Feedlots; Feed rations;
 Cattle fattening
 
 
 304                              NAL Call. No.: HD9415.S5 1986
 Prime cut livestock raising and meatpacking in the United
 States, 1607-1983., 1st ed.
 Skaggs, Jimmy M.,
 College Station : Texas A&M University Press,; 1986.
 xiii, 263 p., [8] p. of plates : ill. ; 24 cm.  Includes
 index.  Bibliography: p. [219]-245.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Meat industry and trade; United States; History;
 Cattle trade; United States; History; Stockyards; United
 States; History; Packing-houses; United States; History
 
 
 305                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Problems and possibilities into the next decade involving beef
 cattle breeding research in the Southern Region: experiment
 station herds. Franke, D.E.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1991
 Oct. Journal of animal science v. 69 (10): p. 4229-4233; 1991
 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Southern states of U.S.A.; Beef cattle; Animal
 breeding; Government research; Research support; Organization
 of research; Genetics
 
 Abstract:  Opinions on expected support of animal breeding and
 genetics research into the next decade were requested from
 heads of Departments of Animal Science and directors of
 agricultural experiment stations in the Southern Region and
 from directors of agricultural experiment stations outside the
 Southern Region. A majority of administrators in all three
 groups expect a reduction in assignment of state appropriated
 funds for beef cattle breeding research compared with total
 support available. Cattle numbers and land areas assigned to
 breeding and genetics research may be more limited in the
 future. Directors of agricultural experiment stations expect
 animal breeding scientists to work more closely with
 scientists in biotechnology and to become more involved in
 multidisciplinary research to reduce the costs associated with
 maintaining large herds of cattle. Departments of Animal
 Science do not expect to reduce significantly the number of
 animal breeding positions, but they may reassign some that
 come open to balance departmental opportunities. Animal
 breeding scientists will be needed to educate graduate
 students, teach classes, and handle research responsibilities
 as in the past.
 
 
 306                                 NAL Call. No.: SF5.W6 1988
 Proceedings.
 Suomen kotielainjalostusyhdistys, World Association of Animal
 Production World Conference on Animal Production 6th : 1988 :
 Helsinki. S.l. : Finnish Animal Breeding Association,; 1988.
 810 p. : Ill., maps ; 24 cm.  On cover: WAAP-Helsinki, June
 27-July 1, 1988. Includes bibliographies and index.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Congresses; Animal welfare
 
 
 307                             NAL Call. No.: HV4704.A54 1986
 The proceedings of the Animal Welfare Foundation's Third
 Symposium entitled The welfare of animals in transit, held on
 19 November 1986..  Welfare of animals in transit
 Gibson, T. E.
 Animal Welfare Foundation. Symposium 1986 : London, England?)
 London : BVA Animal Welfare Foundation, [1986?]; 1986.
 115 p. : ill. ; 30 cm. (Symposia series (American Welfare
 Foundation) ; 1.). Includes bibliographies.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal welfare; Animals, Treatment of;
 Congresses; Livestock; Transportation; Congresses; Animals;
 Transportation; Congresses
 
 
 308                             NAL Call. No.: HV4704.C65 1989
 Proceedings of the conference on Agriculture & Animal Rights.
 New York (State), Legislature, Legislative Commission on Dairy
 Industry Development, New York Farm Bureau
 Conference on Agriculture & Animal Rights 1989 : Albany, N.Y.
 Albany, N.Y. ? : The Commission?, 1989?; 1989.
 v, 54 p. ; 28 cm.  Hearing room "A", Legislative Office
 Building, Albany, New York, July 27, 1989.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal welfare; Congresses; Agriculture;
 Congresses; Livestock; Congresses
 
 
 309                               NAL Call. No.: SF715.S4 1985
 Proceedings of the Seminar on Primary Animal Health Care in
 Africa Blantyre, Republic of Malawi, 25-28 September 1985.
 Centre technique de cooperation agricole et rurale
 Seminar on Primary Animal Health Care in Africa 1985 :
 Blantyre, Malawi. Ede, The Netherlands : Technical Centre for
 Agricultural and Rural Cooperation, [1985?]; 1985.
 122 p. : ill. ; 29 cm.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Veterinary medicine; Africa; Congresses;
 Livestock; Africa; Congresses
 
 
 310                                 NAL Call. No.: 275.29 M58B
 Processing and starting new cattle on feed.
 Ritchie, H.D.; Rust, S.; Gibson, C.D.; Wardynski, F.
 East Lansing, Mich. : The Service; 1992 Jan.
 Extension bulletin E - Cooperative Extension Service, Michigan
 State University (1569,rev): 4 p.; 1992 Jan.  In subseries:
 Michigan Beef Production.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Feedlots; Animal health;
 Vaccination; Inspection; Livestock feeding; Feed rations
 
 
 311                                  NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Production and environmental simulations in livestock housing.
 Diesch, M.A.; Froehlich, D.P.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1987.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche
 collection) (fiche no. 87-4514): 18 p.; 1987.  Paper presented
 at the 1987 Winter Meeting of the American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers. Available for purchase from: The
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950
 Niles Road, St. Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order
 Dept. at (616) 429-0300 for information and prices.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Simulation models; Livestock housing;
 Environmental factors; Prediction; Environmental control;
 Production; Geographical distribution; Climate
 
 
 312                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Productivity and profitability of twin births in beef cattle.
 De Rose, E.P.; Wilton, J.W.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1991
 Aug. Journal of animal science v. 69 (8): p. 3085-3093; 1991
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Twins; Female fertility; Growth;
 Carcass composition; Economic impact; Profitability; Feed
 intake; Milk yield; Weaning weight; Mathematical models;
 Profits
 
 Abstract:  Data from 1,277 single and 85 twin calvings,
 occurring in both spring and fall from 1980 through 1987, were
 used to examine the productivity and profitability associated
 with twin births in beef cattle. Pregnancies in pure and
 crossbred cattle resulted from both AI and embryo transfer.
 Cows and calves were confinement-housed. Cows were
 individually fed to specification. Calves were given ad
 libitum access to creep feed and those born in 1986 and 1987
 were fed to slaughter. The influence of birth number on
 gestation length, total calf birth and weaning weights,
 lactation yield, and cow feed intake during both the dry and
 lactating periods was examined. Twin-bearing cows had their
 gestation length shortened by 6.4 d (2%); yielded 25.5 (59)
 and 186.0 kg (73%) more weight of calf at birth and weaning,
 respectively; had lactation yield and lactation feed intake
 increased by 25 and 20%, respectively; and had precalving
 (dry) period feed intake no different from their single-
 bearing counterparts (P = .12). Postweaning growth was not
 different for single and twin calves (P = .50); twin gain,
 relative to initial size, was higher. Feedlot feed intake of
 twins was 85% of that for singletons (P = .20). Twins were 90%
 of singleton live weight at slaughter and yielded 93% of
 singleton hot carcass weight (P = .12). Twins were slightly
 older and significantly leaner at slaughter. Returns less feed
 costs showed twin births to be associated with increased
 profit for cow-calf programs. Returns less feed and overhead
 costs were higher for twin calves than for singles in the
 feedlot.
 
 
 313                                    NAL Call. No.: 58.8 J82
 Propeller fan induction motors for ventilating livestock
 buildings. 1. Mathematical prediction of performance.
 Randall, J.M.; Elsayed, A.M.
 London : Academic Press; 1988 Oct.
 Journal of agricultural engineering research v. 41 (2): p.
 99-111. ill; 1988 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock housing; Ventilation; Fans; Propellers;
 Induction; Environmental control; Evaluation; Agricultural
 engineering
 
 
 314                                    NAL Call. No.: 58.8 J82
 Propeller fan induction motors for ventilating livestock
 buildings. 2. Performance characteristics.
 Randall, J.M.; Elsayed, A.M.
 London : Academic Press; 1988 Oct.
 Journal of agricultural engineering research v. 41 (2): p.
 113-127; 1988 Oct. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock housing; Ventilation; Fans; Motors;
 Propellers; Efficiency; Torque
 
 
 315                                    NAL Call. No.: 58.8 J82
 Propeller fan induction motors for ventilating livestock
 buildings. 3. Speed control characteristics.
 Randall, J.M.; Elsayed, A.M.
 London : Academic Press; 1988 Oct.
 Journal of agricultural engineering research v. 41 (2): p.
 129-137; 1988 Oct. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock housing; Ventilation; Fans; Motors;
 Propellers; Rotational speed; Controls; Evaluation;
 Agricultural engineering
 
 
 316                                NAL Call. No.: S544.3.N3C66
 Proper implanting procedures for growth promoters in beef
 cattle. Torell, R.C.; Krysl, L.J.
 Reno, Nev. : The College; 1992.
 Fact sheet - College of Agriculture, University of Nevada-
 Reno, Nevada Cooperative Extension (92-36): 4 p.; 1992. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Implantation; Growth promoters;
 Feedlots; Abscesses; Sanitation; Absorption; Growth rate
 
 
 317                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 Am32P
 Proper wiring for livestock & poultry structures: video &
 written resources. Hiatt, R.; McFate, K.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers,; 1992. Paper / (92-3562): 7 p.; 1992.  Paper
 presented at the "1992 International Winter Meeting sponsored
 by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers," December
 15-18, 1992, Nashville, Tennessee.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Poultry housing; Electricity; Wire; Standards
 
 
 318                                 NAL Call. No.: 442.8 J8222
 Prostaglandin secretion by endometrium of pregnant and cyclic
 cattle at Day 17 after oestrus in response to in-vitro heat
 stress.
 Putney, D.J.; Gross, T.S.; Thatcher, W.W.
 Colchester : The Journal; 1988 Nov.
 Journal of reproduction and fertility v. 84 (2): p. 475-483;
 1988 Nov. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cows; Aberdeen-angus; Endometrium; Estrus;
 Prostaglandins; Secretion; Heat stress; Infertility; Oxytocin;
 Pregnancy
 
 
 319                                 NAL Call. No.: 275.29 W27P
 Protecting groundwater: managing livestock on small acreage.
 Schmidt, J.L.; Wolfley, B.F.
 Pullman, Wash. : The Service; 1992 Oct.
 Extension bulletin - Washington State University, Cooperative
 Extension Service (1713): 6 p.; 1992 Oct.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Washington; Groundwater; Water pollution; Farm
 management; Practice; Feedlot wastes; Fencing; Grazing; Soil
 test values; Weed control; Pastures
 
 
 320                                NAL Call. No.: 275.29 W27PN
 Protective shelters for beef calves on range.
 Olson, D.P.; Riesenberg, L.E.
 Corvallis, Or. : The Service; 1985 Jan.
 PNW - Pacific Northwest Extension Publication - Oregon State
 University, Extension Service Jan 1985 (264): 4 p. ill; 1985
 Jan.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Calves; Shelter; Range pastures
 
 
 321                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Protein sources for finishing calves as affected by management
 system. Sindt, M.H.; Stock, R.A.; Klopfenstein, T.J.;
 Vieselmeyer, B.A. Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal
 Science; 1993 Mar. Journal of animal science v. 71 (3): p.
 740-752; 1993 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Calves; Calf feeding; Feedlots; Dietary protein;
 Cattle fattening; Grazing; Maize; Crop residues; Protein
 supplements; Fattening performance; Urea; Essential amino
 acids; Feed intake; Feed conversion; Blood meal; Soybean
 oilmeal; Feather meal; Compensatory growth
 
 Abstract:  Two beef production systems were evaluated in
 conjunction with an evaluation of escape protein sources for
 finishing calves. Two hundred forty crossbred steers and 80
 crossbred heifer calves (BW = 267 +/- 2 kg) were split into
 two groups: 1) control, finished (207 d) after a 3-wk feedlot
 adjustment period and 2) grazing cornstalks for 74 d after a
 3-wk feedlot adjustment period, then finished (164 d).
 Finishing treatments were sources and proportions of
 supplemental CP: 1) urea 100%; 2) soybean meal (SBM) 100%; 3)
 blood meal (BM) 50%, urea 50%; 4) feather meal (FTH) 50%, urea
 50%; 5) SBM 50%, FTH 25%, urea 25%; 6) SBM 25%, FTH 38%, urea
 37%; 7) FTH 25%, BM 25%, urea 50%, and 8) FTH 38%, BM 13%,
 urea 50%. Treatments 1 to 8 were fed in dry-rolled corn (DRC)-
 based diets. Treatments 9 and 10 were supplement Treatments 1
 and 7 fed in diets based on high-moisture corn. Calves
 finished after a 74-d period of grazing cornstalks consumed
 more feed (P < .01) and gained faster (P < .01) but were less
 efficient (P < .05) than calves finished directly after
 weaning. Although not statistically different, calves finished
 after grazing cornstalks and supplemented with natural protein
 in the feedlot were 7% more efficient than calves supplemented
 with urea alone. Efficiency of calves finished directly after
 weaning was similar for calves supplemented with natural
 protein or urea alone. Supplementing SBM/ FTH/urea or
 BM/FTH/urea improved feed efficiency compared with
 supplementing FTH/urea alone. These data suggest that allowing
 calves to graze cornstalks before finishing is a possible
 management option, but this system may require more
 metabolizable protein in the finishing diet to maximize feed
 efficiency if the calves are expressing compensatory growth.
 
 
 322                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Quantitative- and molecular-genetic effects on animal well-
 being: adaptive mechanisms.
 Newman, S.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1994
 Jun. Journal of animal science v. 72 (6): p. 1641-1653; 1994
 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Animal welfare; Performance;
 Domestication; Traits; Animal behavior; Intensive livestock
 farming; Selection criteria; Literature reviews
 
 Abstract:  Domestic farm animals play an important role in
 meeting some basic needs of humankind, especially food and
 clothing. The aspects of genetic improvement programs in
 livestock production pertinent to animal welfare and animal
 well-being are reviewed. A link is made between the
 evolutionary processes of adaptation and domestication and
 animal well-being. Animal behavior is a component of all
 these. Thus, the genetics of behavior may provide clues to the
 well-being of farm animal populations, and it will also be of
 relevance to public opinion issues of animal welfare. Many
 expressions of behavior by domestic livestock may be
 influenced by those processes that change gene as well as
 genotypic frequencies such as inbreeding, drift, and
 artificial selection. The environment in which the individual
 lives will also play a role, along with the interaction
 between genotype and environment. Selection for or against
 such behaviors as aggressiveness, docility, response to
 stress, and certain sexual behaviors in some livestock species
 has often been successful. This points to the existence of
 additive genetic variation for behavior, and scope for the
 inclusion of behavioral traits into selection programs, if
 these measures are shown to be related to welfare. Negative
 relationships between behaviors associated with well-being and
 traits of economic importance have been reported in most
 livestock species. However, estimates of genetic parameters,
 especially genetic correlations between objective measures of
 well-being and production traits, are scarce. There have been
 no comprehensive studies of the welfare of transgenic animals
 reported in the scientific literature. Increased use of
 biotechnology in animal agriculture, coupled with greater
 public scrutiny of livestock industries, may precipitate
 decisions concerning the interface of behavior and genetics
 that need to be addressed before scientists can conduct
 appropriate experimental evaluations.
 
 
 323                        NAL Call. No.: Videocassette no.801
 A Question of respect a production of the American Society for
 the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.
 American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals,
 Varied Directions, Inc
 New York, N.Y. : ASPCA ; Camden, Me. : [Distributed by] Varied
 Directions Inc., [1988?]; 1988.
 1 videocassette (12 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in.  VHS.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal welfare; Laboratory animals; Animal
 experimentation; Livestock
 
 
 324                                 NAL Call. No.: S544.3.O5O5
 Ranchers' guide to custom cattle feeding.
 Gill, D.; Barnes, K.; Lusby, K.
 Stillwater, Okla. : The Service; 1992 Apr.
 OSU extension facts - Cooperative Extension Service, Oklahoma
 State University (3022): 6 p.; 1992 Apr.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oklahoma; Beef cattle; Feedlots; Prices; Cost
 benefit analysis
 
 
 325                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3
 Realities of contemporary livestock production.
 Bevier, G.W.; Lautner, B.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1994 Jan01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 204
 (3): p. 369-371; 1994 Jan01.  Paper presented at the 1993 AVMA
 Animal Welfare Forum, "The Veterinarian's Role in Farm Animal
 Welfare," Rosemont, Ill.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Cabt; Livestock; Meat production;
 Agribusiness; Pigmeat; Consumption per caput; World
 
 
 326                                     NAL Call. No.: QL1.D48
 The recent status of deer farming in New Zealand.
 Pearse, A.J.
 Amsterdam, Elsevier North-Holland; 1993.
 Developments in animal and veterinary sciences (26): p.
 401-413; 1993.  In the series analytic: Deer of China--biology
 and management / edited by N. Ohtaishi and H. I. Sheng. 
 Meeting held on Nov. 21-23, 1992, Shanghai, China.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New Zealand; Cabt; Cervus elaphus; Cervus elaphus
 canadensis; Fallow deer; Cervidae; Deer farming; Velvet;
 Venison; Meat and livestock industry; Meat production; Animal
 production; Animal health; Animal welfare
 
 
 327                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Recombinant bovine somatotropin improves growth performance in
 finishing beef steers.
 Moseley, W.M.; Paulissen, J.B.; Goodwin, M.C.; Alaniz, G.R.;
 Claflin, W.H. Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal
 Science; 1992 Feb. Journal of animal science v. 70 (2): p.
 412-425; 1992 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Steers; Somatotropin; Dosage
 effects; Liveweight gain; Feed conversion; Carcass
 composition; Carcass yield; Blood serum; Insulin-like growth
 factor; Abomasum; Lesions
 
 Abstract:  The objectives of this study were to determine the
 efficacy of various doses of rbST on ADG and feed efficiency
 (FE) and to describe carcass composition changes in finishing
 beef steers. In Exp. 1, 96 crossbred beef steers (393 kg)
 received daily i.m. injections of buffer or 33, 100, or 300
 microgram/kg of BW of rbst (0ST, 33ST, 1OOST, 300ST). In Exp.
 2, 200 crossbred beef steers (417 kg) received daily i.m.
 injections of buffer or 8.25, 16.5, 33, or 66 microgram/kg of
 BW of rbST (0ST, 8.25ST, 16.5ST, 33ST, 66ST). Treatments were
 administered until steer BW per pen averaged 540 kg in Exp. 1
 and 560 kg in Exp. 2. An 86% concentrate:14% roughage diet was
 fed once daily (CP: 16.5% in Exp. 1, 20.2% in Exp. 2). In Exp.
 1, growth performance of steers receiving rbst was dose-
 dependent; ADG changed linearly (P = .01), DMI decreased
 linearly (P = .03), and FE changed quadratically (P < .03).
 The 33ST steers responded with improved ADG and FE, 100ST with
 improved FE, and 300ST with lower ADG and poorer FE, compared
 with 0ST. In Exp. 2, the ADG response was quadratic (P = .01),
 DMI decreased linearly (P = .003), and FE improved
 quadratically (P = .004) with increasing dose of rbst. Steers
 receiving 16.5ST and 33ST responded with improved ADG and FE,
 whereas steers receiving 8.25ST and 66ST responded with
 improved FE but not ADG relative to 0ST steers. In Exp. 1 and
 2, rbST administration altered carcass composition by
 increasing carcass protein and decreasing carcass fat. Our
 results indicate that a daily dose between 16.5 and 33
 microgram/kg of BW was required to optimize both ADG and FE in
 finishing beef steers; however, the dose response for changes
 in carcass chemical composition had not attained a plateau
 even at 300 microgram/kg of BW.
 
 
 328                             NAL Call. No.: TS1960.G73 1991
 Recommended animal handling guidelines for meat packers.
 Grandin, Temple
 Washington, DC : American Meat Institute, [1991?]; 1991.
 21 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.  Cover title.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Slaughtering and slaughter-houses; Livestock;
 Animal welfare
 
 
 329                           NAL Call. No.: 7 C16Pu no.1870/E
 Recommended code of practice for the care and handling of farm
 animals beef cattle..  Beef cattle
 Hurnik, J. F.
 Ottawa, Ont. : Available from Communications Branch,
 Agriculture Canada,; 1991.
 46 p. : ill. ; 23 cm. (Publication (Canada. Agriculture
 Canada) ; 1870.).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Beef cattle
 
 
 330                                    NAL Call. No.: S671.A66
 Reflective roof coatings for heat stress relief in livestock
 and poultry housing.
 Bucklin, R.A.; Bottcher, R.W.; Van Wicklen, G.L.; Czarick, M.
 St. Joseph, MI : American Society of Agricultural Engineers,
 1985-; 1993 Jan. Applied engineering in agriculture v. 9 (1):
 p. 123-129; 1993 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Georgia; Cabt; Poultry housing; Roofs;
 Reflection; Heat stress; Ventilation; Cost benefit analysis
 
 Abstract:  A reflective roof coating was demonstrated to
 reduce temperatures by 2 to 3 degrees C (3.6 to 5.4 degrees F)
 in totally enclosed poultry housing with no ventilation.
 However, similar results did not occur in studies of well-
 ventilated poultry and dairy housing. Reductions in roof
 temperatures of well-ventilated housing did occur, but similar
 reductions were not found in interior dry bulb or black globe
 temperatures at animal level and no production benefits
 resulted. Reflective coatings can reduce the temperature of
 galvanized steel roofing material and the temperatures of
 enclosed attics. However, these coatings add expense to
 structures and their effectiveness drops rapidly with time as
 they weather and accumulate dirt. They are most beneficial for
 poorly ventilated structures. For well-ventilated structures,
 they do not offer great benefits. The addition of reflective
 coatings will seldom be economically justified for well-
 ventilated livestock and poultry structures.
 
 
 331                                  NAL Call. No.: 99.8 F7632
 Regulating competition on conifer plantations with prescribed
 cattle grazing. Karl, M.G.; Doescher, P.S.
 Bethesda, Md. : Society of American Foresters; 1993 Aug.
 Forest science v. 39 (3): p. 405-418; 1993 Aug.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oregon; Forest plantations; Pseudotsuga
 menziesii; Pinus ponderosa; Grazing effects; Vegetation
 management; Cattle; Water stress; Dactylis glomerata; Roots;
 Growth; Soil water; Plant competition
 
 Abstract:  On conifer plantations, competitive understory
 vegetation often retards growth and establishment of tree
 seedlings. Livestock grazing exemplifies a method of
 controlling the understory vegetation and increasing the
 availability of site resources to tree seedings. We
 hypothesized that prescribed cattle grazing ameliorates water
 stress of young tree seedlings by reducing root growth of
 competing understory species. On a Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga
 menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa
 Dougl.) plantation in southwest Oregon planted in 1986,
 seedling water stress was evaluated with the pressure chamber
 technique and supplemented with gravimetric sod water
 determinations in 1986-1989. Root growth of orchardgrass
 (Dactylis glomerata L.), the major understory competing
 species, was quantified in 1988 and 1989 with the root
 periscope/mini-rhizotron technique. Seedling water stress
 levels during spring and summer were similar in a cattle-
 grazed vs. ungrazed area in 1986 through 1988, but in summer
 1989, water stress was reduced significantly in the grazed
 area. Soil water content was higher in the grazed area in
 1989, especially at the 10-20 cm soil depth. End of season
 (July) orchardgrass root growth was reduced 18% and 15% with
 grazing in 1988 and 1989, respectively. We conclude that
 repeated cattle grazing of orchardgrass reduced
 transpirational surface area and root growth sufficiently to
 increase soil water availability to seedlings. Thus,
 prescribed cattle grazing on conifer plantations can enhance
 seedling physiological status by acting as a regulator of
 above- and belowground competition.
 
 
 332                                  NAL Call. No.: QP251.A1T5
 Regulation of heat shock-induced alterations in the release of
 prostaglandins by the uterine endometrium of cows.
 Malayer, J.R.; Hansen, P.J.; Gross, T.S.; Thatcher, W.W.
 Stoneham, Mass. : Butterworth Publishers; 1990 Aug.
 Theriogenology v. 34 (2): p. 219-230; 1990 Aug.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cows; Endometrium; Explants; Heat shock;
 Stress response; Prostaglandins; Hormone secretion;
 Oxidoreductases; Peroxidase; Enzyme activity; Regulation;
 Proteins; Phospholipids; Inhibitors
 
 
 333                                 NAL Call. No.: HD9421.5.F3
 Report on the welfare of livestock at markets.
 Farm Animal Welfare Council (Great Britain)
 London : H.M.S.O.,; 1986.
 iv, 71 p. ; 25 cm. (Reference book (Great Britain. Ministry of
 Agriculture, Fisheries and Food) ; 265.).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Great Britain; Marketing; Congresses;
 Animals, Treatment of; Great Britain; Congresses
 
 
 334                                NAL Call. No.: TS1966.G7R46
 Report on the welfare of livestock when slaughtered by
 religious methods. Farm Animal Welfare Council (Great Britain)
 London : H.M.S.O.,; 1985.
 49 p. : ill. ; 25 cm. (Reference book (Great Britain. Ministry
 of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food) ; 262.).  Bibliography: p.
 47-49.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Slaughtering and slaughterhouses; Great Britain;
 Shehitah; Muslims; Dietary laws; Sikhs; Dietary laws; Food;
 Religious aspects
 
 
 335                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Reproductive criteria of beef bulls during and after exposure
 to increased ambient temperature.
 Meyerhoeffer, D.C.; Wettemann, R.P.; Coleman, S.W.; Wells,
 M.E. Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science;
 1985 Feb. Journal of animal science v. 60 (2): p. 352-357.
 ill; 1985 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef bulls; Reproduction; Heat stress; Semen
 characters; Environmental temperature
 
 
 336                                      NAL Call. No.: SF1.S6
 The reproductive responses of two breeds of beef cows and the
 performance of their progeny in two contrasting environments.
 van Niekerk, A.; Lishman, A.W.; Lesch, S.F.
 Pretoria : Bureau for Scientific Publications; 1986 Dec.
 South African journal of animal science; Suid-Afrikaanse
 tydskrif vir veekunde v. 16 (4): p. 209-214; 1986 Dec. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South  Africa; Beef cows; Afrikander; Simmental;
 Progeny; Calving rate; Feed conversion; Cold stress;
 Environment
 
 
 337                                NAL Call. No.: HD9000.5.E17
 Research and facilities for a viable reindeer industry.
 Karmum, D.
 Boulder, Colo. : Westview Press; 1985.
 East-West agricultural trade / edited by James R. Jones. p.
 151-153; 1985. (Westview special studies in international
 economics and business).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alaska; Rangifer tarandus; Livestock enterprises;
 Research policy; Viability; Meat and livestock industry
 
 
 338                                 NAL Call. No.: 100 OK4 (3)
 Respiratory syncytial virus vaccine for stressed stocker
 cattle. Johnson, B.D.; Hays, V.S.; Gill, D.R.; Smith, R.A.;
 Owens, F.N.; Ball, R.L. Stillwater, Okla. : The Station; 1988
 Jun.
 Miscellaneous publication - Agricultural Experiment Station,
 Oklahoma State University (125): p. 105-110; 1988 Jun. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle diseases; Respiratory diseases; Viral
 diseases; Spumavirinae; Live vaccines
 
 
 339                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Response to reimplanting beef steers with estradiol benzoate
 and progesterone: performance, implant absorption pattern, and
 thyroxine status. Rumsey, T.S.; Hammond, A.C.; McMurtry, J.P.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1992
 Apr. Journal of animal science v. 70 (4): p. 995-1001; 1992
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Steers; Hereford; Estradiol; Progesterone;
 Implantation; Controlled release; Body protein; Body weight;
 Feed conversion; Body composition; Carcass quality; Thyroid
 hormones; Deiodination; Enzyme activity; Organs; Blood plasma
 
 Abstract:  This study determined the influence of the
 estrogenic ear implant Synovex-S on feedlot performance,
 tissue deposition, and thyroid status of growing-finishing
 beef steers implanted either once or reimplanted. The pattern
 of implant absorption was also determined. Two 112-d feeding
 trials were used with 48 Hereford steers per trial, Each trial
 was a randomized block design with eight groups (lots) of six
 steers each assigned to four treatments (two lots/treatment).
 Treatments were 1) no implant or control, 2) implanted on d 0
 and reimplanted at 60 d on trial, 3) implanted at 30 d on
 trial, and 4) implanted on d 0 only. These implant treatments
 resulted in withdrawal periods before slaughter of
 approximately 60, 90 and 120 d for Treatments 2, 3, and 4,
 respectively. All steers were given ad libitum access to water
 and a 60% concentrate diet. Group intakes were determined
 daily, BW weekly, estimated body composition every 28 d,
 plasma thyroid hormone concentrations at 112 d and at
 slaughter, and carcass measurements and liver tissue
 deiodinase at slaughter. Approximately 25% of the original
 implant dose remained in the ear 60 d after implanting and
 this residual amount was absorbed linearly at the rate of
 approximately .15% of the original dose per day. Implant
 treatments increased (P < .05) DMI, BW gain, feed conversion,
 and empty body gains for water and protein. Carcass
 measurements suggested a nonsignificant trend (P > .10) for
 leaner carcasses for implanted steers. An immediate shift
 toward greater protein and less fat deposition occurred within
 28 d after initial implanting (Treatment 3). The ratio of
 plasma thyroxine to triiodothyronine was slightly higher and
 liver deiodinase slightly lower in implanted steers. There
 were no differences between the steers implanted once and
 those reimplanted at 60 d. These data are interpreted to show
 no benefit to reimplanting beef steers at 60 d with Synovex-S.
 
 
 340                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Responses of bovine lymphocytes to heat shock as modified by
 breed and antioxidant status.
 Kamwanja, L.A.; Chase, C.C. Jr; Gutierrez, J.A.; Guerriero, V.
 Jr; Olson, T.A.; Hammond, A.C.; Hansen, P.J.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1994
 Feb. Journal of animal science v. 72 (2): p. 438-444; 1994
 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Lymphocytes; Breed differences;
 Brahman; Cattle breeds; Heat shock; Heat shock proteins; Heat
 stress; Lymphocyte transformation; Glutathione; Antioxidants;
 Inhibitors
 
 Abstract:  We tested whether resistance of lymphocytes to heat
 stress is modified by breed, intracellular glutathione
 content, and extracellular antioxidants. In the first
 experiment, lymphocytes from Angus (Bos taurus, non-heat-
 tolerant), Brahman (B. indicus, heat-tolerant), and Senepol
 (B. taurus, heat-tolerant) heifers (12 heifers per breed) were
 cultured at 45 degrees C for 3 h to evaluate thermal killing,
 at 42 degrees C for 12 h in a 60-h phytohemagglutinin-induced
 proliferation test, and at 42 degrees C for 1 h to measure
 induction of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Killing at 45
 degrees C was affected by breed X temperature (P < .01); the
 decrease in viability caused by a temperature of 45 degrees C
 was greater for Angus than for Brahman or Senepol. For
 phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes, heating to 42
 degrees C reduced [3H]thymidine incorporation equally for all
 breeds. Viability at the end of culture was affected (P <
 .001) by a breed X temperature interaction because the
 decrease in viability caused by culture at 42 degrees C was
 greatest for lymphocytes from Angus heifers. Heat shock for 1
 h at 42 degrees C caused a two- to threefold increase in
 intracellular concentrations of HSP70, but there was no
 interaction of temperature with breed. In another experiment
 (with lymphocytes harvested from three Holstein cows),
 buthionine sulfoximine, a glutathione synthesis inhibitor,
 inhibited (P < .01) proliferation of phytohemagglutinin-
 stimulated lymphocytes at 38.5 and 42 degrees C. Addition of
 the antioxidants glutathione or thioredoxin to culture did not
 reduce the effects of heating to 42 degrees C on
 proliferation. In summary, lymphocyte resistance to heat shock
 differed between breeds. There was no evidence that this
 effect is caused by differential HSP70 synthesis. Although
 intracellular antioxidant status affected lymphocyte
 proliferation, exogenous glutathione or thioredoxin did not
 overcome the effects of heat shock.
 
 
 341                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R3224
 A review of the Alberta certified preconditioned feeder
 program -- 1980-1987. Schipper, C.; Church, T.; Harris, B.
 Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1989 Sep.
 The Canadian veterinary journal v. 30 (9): p. 736-741; 1989
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alberta; Beef cattle; Calves; Growth; Liveweight
 gain; Prices; Performance; Mortality; Feedlots; Calf feeding;
 Conditioning
 
 
 342                                    NAL Call. No.: 58.8 J82
 A review of the control of odour nuisance from livestock
 buildings. 1. Influence of the techniques for managing waste
 within the building. O'Neill, D.H.; Phillips, V.R.
 London : Academic Press; 1991 Sep.
 Journal of agricultural engineering research v. 50 (1): p.
 1-10; 1991 Sep. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal housing; Odor emission; Odor abatement;
 Wastes; Management; Techniques; Floor type; Waste treatment;
 Litter; Anaerobic conditions; Prevention; Ammonia; Emission
 
 Abstract:  Malodorous emissions from livestock buildings are
 caused by waste products, particularly manure. The published
 information on how waste management practices influence odour
 production and emission has been reviewed, but the shortage of
 objective odour measurements makes it difficult to give
 practical recommendations with confidence. Some
 recommendations for research are, however, proposed. The main
 factors in livestock management have been analysed; these are
 waste removal, waste decomposition, design of the floor of the
 building, treatments that may be applied to the waste within
 the building (e.g. changing its pH) and the use of bedding
 materials. The interactions between most of these factors
 confound the analysis, but the evidence indicates that the
 main options for reducing odour production, odour emission or
 odour nuisance are frequent waste removal from buildings, or
 the prevention of anaerobic conditions developing in the
 waste. Reduction of the moisture content of the waste has been
 reported to reduce odour production. This may work by
 inhibiting the development of anaerobic conditions and it may
 explain why the use of bedding has been found to reduce odour.
 However, adequate odour measurement data on using different
 bedding materials and on other waste management practices must
 be gathered before any firm conclusions can be drawn. The
 relevance of information on emissions of ammonia from
 livestock buildings is briefly considered. Although ammonia
 concentrations in air do not show a good correlation with
 odour strength, nevertheless any step taken to reduce the
 ammonia emissions from a livestock building ought also to
 reduce the odour emissions and vice versa.
 
 
 343                          NAL Call. No.: S397.M57  no.87/19
 Road transport of livestock code of practice for the welfare
 of animals. Harris, D. G.
 Perth? : Dept. of Agriculture, Western Australia,; 1987.
 24 p. : ill. ; 25 cm. (Miscellaneous publication (Western
 Australia. Dept. of Agriculture) ; no. 87/19.).  "December
 1987.
 
 Language:  English
 
 
 344                                    NAL Call. No.: SF961.A5
 The role of interleukin 2 in the immune response of incoming
 feeder cattle. Blecha, F.
 Stillwater, Okla. : The Association; 1985, reprinted 1986.
 Proceedings ... annual convention - American Association of
 Bovine Practitioners 1986). (18th): p. 113-115; 1985,
 reprinted 1986.  Includes 36 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Immune response; Stress; Cattle
 diseases; Glucocorticoids; Disease resistance
 
 
 345                                      NAL Call. No.: S27.A3
 Scale model tests help optimize wind protection and water
 improvements for livestock.
 Jairell, R.L.; Schmidt, R.A.
 Bozeman, Mont. : Montana State University, Cooperative
 Extension Service; 1986.
 Great Plains Agriculture [i.e. Agricultural] Council
 publication (117): p. 159-161. ill; 1986.  Paper presented at
 the "International Symposium on Windbreak Technology," June
 23-27, 1986, Lincoln, Nebraska.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Barriers; Snow cover; Three
 dimensional models; Wind protection
 
 
 346                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 C163
 The scientific assessment of the impact of housing on animal
 welfare: a critical review.
 Rushen, J.; De Passille, A.M.B.
 Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada; 1992 Dec.
 Canadian journal of animal science v. 72 (4): p. 721-743; 1992
 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Animal welfare; Animal production;
 Animal housing; Animal husbandry; Abnormal behavior; Stress
 
 
 347                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Screening of depigmenting compounds for the development of an
 alternate method of branding beef cattle.
 Schwartzkopf, K.S.; Stookey, J.M.; Hull, P.R.; Clark, E.G.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1994
 Jun. Journal of animal science v. 72 (6): p. 1393-1398; 1994
 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Saskatchewan; Cabt; Beef cattle; Branding;
 Pigmentation; Hair follicles; Skin; Animal welfare; Hair;
 Injection; Carriers; Transdermal application; Chemicals;
 Hydroquinone; Pyrocatechol
 
 Abstract:  The impetus to find alternative methods to
 stressful routine management procedures has increased in
 recent years in the hope of improving animal welfare. The
 potential of using depigmenting compounds to create a
 permanent visible mark was evaluated in two beef heifers.
 Eight compounds (hydroquinone [H], 4-ethoxyphenol [4-EP], 4-
 methylcatechol [4-MC], 4-tert-butylcatechol [4-t-BC], 4-
 methoxyphenol [4-MP], monobenzone [M], hydroquinone bis (2-
 hydroxyethyl) ether (HHEE), and catechol [C]) were injected
 intradermally at concentrations of 10 and 20%. These compounds
 were screened in four different carriers (ethanol, glycerol,
 propylene glycol, and liposome cream) to test their
 effectiveness in producing depigmented hair. Transdermal
 dermal patches containing 5, 7, and 10% liposome preparations
 of 4-MC and 4-MP produced depigmentation, but this
 depigmentation was not as visible as when the same
 preparations were injected. Histological examination of
 biopsies and observations of the injected sites were compared
 to sites that were only injected with the carrier solution.
 Compounds H, 4-EP, 4-MC, 4-t-BC, 4-MP, and M produced visible
 depigmentation lasting up to 3 mo. The duration of the effect
 seemed dependent on the hair cycle length and stage of cycle
 at time of application. None of the depigmenting compounds
 tested produced a permanent depigmenting effect.
 
 
 348                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32P
 Selection criteria for livestock ventilation control systems.
 Bayne, G.; Barber, E.; Jorgenson, M.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1989.
 Paper - American Society of Agricultural Engineers (89-4024):
 19 p.; 1989. Paper presented at the 1989 International Summer
 Meeting sponsored by the American Agricultural Engineers and
 the Canadian Society of Agricultural Engineering, June 25-28,
 1989, Quebec, Canada.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Animal housing; Ventilation; Fans;
 Controllers; Selection criteria
 
 
 349                                  NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Selection of forage technologies for beef cow-calf
 enterprises. White, W.A.B.; Batte, M.T.; Forster, D.L.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1989 Jul.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 2 (3): p. 228-234; 1989
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ohio; Cows; Calves; Beef herds; Livestock
 feeding; Harvesting; Forage; Storage; Dry matter; Losses; Herd
 size; Costs; Returns; Decision making; Mathematical models;
 Winter
 
 
 350                       NAL Call. No.: Videocassette no.1537
 Separating fact from myth the veal industry challenge.
 Beef Industry Council (U.S.), Veal Committee, American Veal
 Association Chicago : The Committee,; 1990.
 1 videocassette (11 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Veal industry; Animal welfare
 
 Abstract:  Describes the veal industry's viewpoint on the
 issues of animal welfare and food safety.
 
 
 351                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AU72
 Serum cortisol and "stress" in cattle.
 Herd, R.M.
 Brunswick, Victoria : Australian Veterinary Association; 1989
 Oct. Australian veterinary journal v. 66 (10): p. 341-342;
 1989 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cows; Cortisol; Blood serum; Stress;
 Restraint of animals
 
 
 352                               NAL Call. No.: aS21.A8U5/ARS
 Shelters and environmental modification.
 Hahn, G.L.
 Washington, D.C. : The Service; 1986.
 Reprints - U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural
 Research Service [470]: 13 p.; 1986.  Indexed from reprint:
 Limiting the Effects of Stress on Cattle / edited by G.P.
 Moberg, 1986. (W-135 Western Regional Research Pub. No. 9). p.
 47-59.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Performance; Environmental factors;
 Stress; Shelters; Environmental temperature; Dairy cows; Dairy
 performance
 
 
 353                                NAL Call. No.: 275.29 AL13P
 Shrink.
 Krieg, K.
 Fairbanks, Alaska : The Service; 1988 May.
 Publication - University of Alaska, Cooperative Extension
 Service (A-00744): 2 p. ill; 1988 May.  In subseries: Alaska
 Livestock.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Weight losses; Transport of animals;
 Stress
 
 
 354                                  NAL Call. No.: SF55.A78A7
 Social relationship and spatial distribution in a small herd
 of Japanese black cattle in a dry-lot.
 Nakanishi, Y.; Mutoh, Y.; Umetsu, R.
 Suweon, Korea : Asian-Australasian Association of Animal
 Production Societies; 1992 Mar.
 Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v. 5 (1): p.
 183-188; 1992 Mar. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Feedlots; Animal behavior
 
 
 355                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 C163
 Social stress and dominance among group members after mixing
 beef cows. Mench, J.A.; Swanson, J.C.; Stricklin, W.R.
 Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada; 1990 Jun.
 Canadian journal of animal science v. 70 (2): p. 345-354; 1990
 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cows; Stress; Social behavior; Agonistic
 behavior; Dominance; Cortisol; Blood glucose; Leukocyte count;
 Mixing
 
 
 356                                      NAL Call. No.: 10 OU8
 A socio-economic perspective on animal welfare.
 McInerney, J.
 Oxon : C.A.B. International; 1991.
 Outlook on agriculture v. 20 (1): p. 51-56; 1991.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal welfare; Animal production; Food prices;
 Law; Livestock; Socioeconomic status
 
 
 357                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69
 Solving livestock handling problems.
 Grandin, T. \u Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO
 Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Co; 1994 Oct.
 Veterinary medicine v. 89 (10): p. 989-990, 992-993, 996, 998;
 1994 Oct. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Handling; Temperament; Animal
 husbandry; Chutes; Animal housing; Layout; Stockmen; Training
 
 
 358                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Some husbandry factors affecting mortality and morbidity on a
 calf-rearing unit.
 Peters, A.R.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1986 Oct04.
 The Veterinary record v. 119 (14): p. 355-357; 1986 Oct04. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Calves; Mortality; Morbidity; Animal husbandry;
 Pens; Cattle housing; Breeds; Pneumonia; Diarrhea; Intensive
 livestock farming
 
 
 359                                    NAL Call. No.: 100 L939
 Soybeans as crude protein supplements for beef finished on
 silages. Coombs, D.F.; Loyacano, A.F.; Kreider, J.L.
 Baton Rouge, La. : The Station; 1992.
 Louisiana agriculture - Louisiana Agricultural Experiment
 Station v. 35 (5): p. 3-4; 1992.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Louisiana; Soybeans; Protein supplements; Crude
 protein; Silage; Cattle fattening; Steers; Carcass
 composition; Carcass yield; Feedlots
 
 
 360                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Special address.
 Harrison, R.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1988 Jul.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 20 (1/2): p. 21-27; 1988
 Jul.  Paper presented at the "Symposium on Animal Bio-ethics
 and Applied Ethology," August 1987, Montreal, Canada. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock farming; Meat production; Intensive
 livestock farming; Animal welfare; Ecology; Bioethics;
 Guidelines
 
 
 361                                  NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Sprinkling water and fans to reduce heat stress of beef
 cattle. Garner, J.C.; Bucklin, R.A.; Kunkle, W.E.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1986.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche
 collection) (fiche no. 86-4021): 21 p.; 1986.  Paper presented
 at the 1986 Summer Meeting of the American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers. Available for purchase from: The
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950
 Niles Road, St. Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order
 Dept. at (616) 429-0300 for information and prices.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Heat stress; Control methods; Water;
 Spraying; Evaporative cooling; Fans
 
 
 362                            NAL Call. No.: 100 N465R no.646
 Stress and the free-ranging animal proceedings of a symposium.
 Anderson, Dean M.,_1947-; Havstad, Kris M.,_1952-; Hinds,
 Frank C. Western Regional Coordinating Committee on
 Utilization of Range Forage for Rangeland and Domestic
 Ruminant Production, New Mexico State University, Agricultural
 Experiment Station
 Las Cruces, N.M. : New Mexico State University, Agricultural
 Experiment Station,; 1990.
 vii, 40 p. : ill. ; 28 cm. (Research report (New Mexico State
 University. Agricultural Experiment Station) ; 646.).  June
 1990.  Includes bibliographical references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Stress (Physiology)
 
 
 363                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.B6
 Stress-induced hematological changes in feedlot cattle.
 Bennett, B.W.; Kerschen, R.P.; Nockels, C.F.
 Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Publishing
 Company; 1989 Jan. Agri-Practice v. 10 (1): p. 16, 18-19,
 22-23, 25-28; 1989 Jan.  Includes statistical data.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Feedlots; Stress; Types; Blood
 chemistry; Cortisol; Blood picture
 
 
 364                                    NAL Call. No.: SB197.B7
 Suckler beef production: practical opportunities now and in
 the future. Broadbent, P.J.
 Hurley, Berkshire : The Society; 1988.
 Occasional symposium - British Grassland Society (22): p.
 161-175; 1988. Paper presented at the "Conference organised
 jointly with the British Society of Animal Production,"
 November 3-5, 1987, Peebles, Scotland.  Literature review. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sucklings; Beef production; Beef cows; Heifers;
 Weaning weight; Calving season; Genotypes; Housing; Calves
 
 
 365                           NAL Call. No.: SF85.4.A9G72 1985
 Surgical and other animal husbandry procedures.
 Armstrong, J.R.
 Indooroopilly, QLD : Australian Veterinary Association
 (Queensland Division); 1985.
 Grazing Animal Welfare Symposium : proceedings of a symposium
 held at the Bardon Professional Development Centre, Brisbane,
 on April 26th and 27th, 1985 / [editors: Brian L. Moore and
 Peter J. Chenoweth]. p. 21-30; 1985.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Queensland; Beef cattle; Branding; Castration;
 Polling; Weaning; Stress; Pain; Anesthetics; Parasites;
 Disease control; Animal welfare
 
 
 366                                     NAL Call. No.: 100 OK4
 Syntabac for stressed stocker cattle.
 Johnson, B.D.; Gill, D.R.; Smith, R.A.; Ball, R.L.
 Stillwater, Okla. : The Station; 1990 Jun.
 Annual report - Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station
 (129): p. 221-226; 1990 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle; Transport of animals; Stress response;
 Intestinal microorganisms; Probiotics; Treatment; Liveweight
 gain; Feed intake; Feed conversion efficiency; Morbidity;
 Mortality; Disease control
 
 
 367                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Synthesis of heat stress proteins in lymphocytes from
 livestock. Guerriero, V. Jr; Raynes, D.A.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1990
 Sep. Journal of animal science v. 68 (9): p. 2779-2783. ill;
 1990 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle; Horses; Sheep; Fowls; Lymphocytes; Heat
 stress; Protein synthesis; Animal proteins; Species
 differences
 
 
 368                                   NAL Call. No.: SF774.J68
 Systemic salmonellosis in mature beef cows.
 Morter, R.L.; Armstrong, C.H.; Amstutz, H.E.; Thacker, H.L.
 Lawrence, Kan. : AAVLD; 1989 Jan.
 Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation v. 1 (1): p.
 22-24; 1989 Jan. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cows; Salmonella typhimurium; Stress;
 Abortion; Salmonellosis; Histopathology
 
 
 369                                  NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Systems of growing cattle on stargrass pastures or sugarcane
 bagasse in peninsular Florida.
 Horton, G.M.J. \u Sultan Qaboos Univ., Muscat, Sultanate of
 Oman; Pitman, W.D.; Hodges, E.M.
 Madison, WI : American Society of Agronomy, c1987-; 1994 Oct.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 7 (4): p. 471-476; 1994
 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Cabt; Beef cattle; Beef production;
 Cattle feeding; Cynodon nlemfuensis; Grazing; Feedlots; Feed
 supplements; Sugarcane bagasse; Comparisons; Liveweight gain;
 Performance; Carcass quality
 
 
 370                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Teaching principles of behavior and equipment design for
 handling livestock. Grandin, T.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1993
 Apr. Journal of animal science v. 71 (4): p. 1065-1070; 1993
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal behavior; Senses; Livestock; Handling;
 Stress factors; Animal housing; Design; Slaughter
 
 Abstract:  A course is described in which students are taught
 principles of livestock behavior and how an understanding of
 behavior can facilitate handling. Some of the principles that
 are covered in the course are livestock senses, flight zone,
 herd behavior during handing, and methods to reduce stress
 during handling. To teach problem solving and original
 thinking, the students design three different types of
 handling facilities. Design of restraint equipment and humane
 slaughter procedures are also covered. Both existing systems
 and ideas for future systems are discussed. Students are
 provided with information from both scientific studies and
 practical experience.
 
 
 371                             NAL Call. No.: HV4708.K37 1992
 Tiere als Ware gequalt, getotet, vermarktet  [Animals as
 commodities]., Originalausg..
 Karremann, Manfred,; Schnelting, Karl B.; Apel, Wolfgang;
 Schmidt, Wolf-Rudiger,_1936-; Rosenfeld, Reiner
 Frankfurt am Main : Fischer Taschenbuch,; 1992.
 146 p. : col. ill. ; 19 cm. (Fischer Alternativ).  "In
 Zusammenarbeit mit dem ZDF"--Cover.
 
 Language:  German
 
 Descriptors: Animal welfare; Livestock factories
 
 
 372                                   NAL Call. No.: 57.8 C734
 To bed with old paper.
 Emmaus, Pa. : J.G. Press; 1990 Sep.
 BioCycle v. 31 (9): p. 63-64. ill; 1990 Sep.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal housing; Livestock; Newspapers; Litter
 
 
 373                        NAL Call. No.: Videocassette no.264
 Transgenic farm animals Douglas Bolt.
 Bolt, Douglas
 United States, Food Safety and Inspection Service, Technology
 Transfer and Assessment Staff
 Fort Worth, Tex. : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Food Safety and
 Inspection Service, Technology Transfer and Assessment Staff,
 [1986?]; 1986. 1 videocassette (VHS) (ca. 53 min.) : sd., col.
 ; 1/2 in.  Presented in Fort Worth, Texas.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; United States; Genetic engineerring;
 Animal genetic engineering; United States; Animal genetics;
 Research; Animal welfare
 
 
 374                                  NAL Call. No.: QH442.G393
 Transgenic transgressions?.
 Jennings, V.
 Cambridge, Mass. : Council for Responsible Genetics; 1994 Jan.
 Genewatch : a bulletin of the Committee for Responsible
 Genetics v. 9 (3/4): 4-5; 1994 Jan.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Domestic animals; Livestock; Transgenic animals;
 Laboratory mammals; Disease models; Animal welfare; Genetic
 engineering; Animal production; Ethics
 
 
 375                                   NAL Call. No.: aZ5071.N3
 Transport and handling of livestock--January 1981-July 1992.
 Berry, D.J.
 Beltsville, Md. : The Library; 1992 Aug.
 Quick bibliography series - U.S. Department of Agriculture,
 National Agricultural Library (U.S.). (92-57): 40 p.; 1992
 Aug.  Updates QB 91-143. Bibliography.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Transport of animals; Bibliographies
 
 
 376                                   NAL Call. No.: SF600.C82
 The transport of deer.
 Fletcher, T.J.
 Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1988.
 Current topics in veterinary medicine and animal science v.
 48: p. 181-190; 1988.  In the series analytic: The management
 and health of farmed deer / edited by H.W. Reid.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Deer; Transport of animals; Animal welfare;
 Stress; Air transport; Road transport; Livestock transporters;
 Disease resistance
 
 
 377                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Transportation of cattle by road.
 Tarrant, P.V.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1990 Nov.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 28 (1/2): p. 153-170; 1990
 Nov.  In the special issue: Transport and pre-slaughter
 handling / edited by Graham Perry. Literature review. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle; Transport of animals; Road transport;
 Stress; Animal welfare; Space requirements; Carcass quality;
 Dark cutting meat; Weight losses; Mortality; Pasteurellosis
 
 
 378                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Trenbolone acetate/estradiol combinations in feedlot steers:
 dose-response and implant carrier effects.
 Bartle, S.J.; Preston, R.L.; Brown, R.E.; Grant, R.J.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1992
 May. Journal of animal science v. 70 (5): p. 1326-1332; 1992
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Steers; Trenbolone; Estradiol;
 Dosage effects; Liveweight gain; Feed conversion; Carriers;
 Feed intake; Dry matter; Controlled release; Carcass
 composition
 
 Abstract:  Two experiments were conducted at three locations
 to determine the correct dosage and carrier for trenbolone
 acetate (TBA) and estradiol (E2) implants in feedlot steers.
 In the dose-response experiment, 1,296 steers were allotted to
 six implant treatments (48 pens per location): control, 140 mg
 of TBA (140/0), 30 mg of E2 (0/30), 20 mg of TBA + 4 mg of
 E2(20/4), 80 mg of TBA + 16 mg of E2(80/16), and 140 mg of TBA
 + 28 mg of E2 (140/28). In the carrier experiment, 575 steers
 were allotted to five implant treatments (25 pens per
 location): control, 140 mg of TBA + 28 mg of E2 in lactose
 (140/28-LA), 140 mg of TBA + 28 mg of E2 in cholesterol
 (140/28-CH), 140 mg of TBA + 20 mg of E2 in LA (140/20-LA),
 and 200 mg of progesterone + 20 mg of E2 benzoate (SS,
 reimplanted). In both experiments steers were fed a finishing
 diet for 140 to 168 d. In the dose-response experiment,
 response to TBA alone (140/0) did not differ from control (P >
 .2). Estradiol alone (0/30) improved ADG by 7% (P < .01) and
 tended to improve feed efficiency over control (3%, P = .17).
 The highest dosage (140/28) improved ADG by 18% (P < .001) and
 feed efficiency by 10% (P < .001) over control and 10% (P <
 .001) and 7% (P < .01) over E2 alone, respectively. In the
 carrier experiment, all implant treatments increased steer
 performance over control (P < .01); no differences in response
 were observed (P > .2) between LA and CH carriers or between
 28 and 20 mg of E2 in combination with 140 mg of TBA. Implant
 treatments, in general, decreased (P < .05) carcass fatness
 and quality grade; little difference was noted in carcass
 characteristics between E2 alone and treatments containing
 TBA. Combinations of TBA/E2 were more effective enhancers of
 steer performance under U.S. conditions than was either E2 or
 TBA alone (Exp. 1), and combinations were similar to SS-
 reimplanted (Exp. 2).
 
 
 379                                  NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Trouble-shooting livestock environment control and equipment
 problems. Korthals, R.L.; Christianson, L.L.; Muehling, A.J.;
 Curtis, S.E.; Bane, D.P.; Hall, W.F.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1987.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche
 collection) (fiche no. 87-4037): 27 p. ill; 1987.  Paper
 presented at the 1987 Summer Meeting of the American Society
 of Agricultural Engineers. Available for purchase from: The
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950
 Niles Road, St. Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order
 Dept. at (616) 429-0300 for information and prices.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pig housing; Environmental assessment;
 Ventilation; Waste disposal; Animal health
 
 
 380                                  NAL Call. No.: TK4018.R86
 Understanding and dealing with stray voltage in livestock
 facilities. Gustafson, R.J.
 New York, N.Y. : Institute of Electrical and Electronics
 Engineers; 1985. Papers presented at the ... annual conference
 - Rural Electric Power Conference (29th): p. C2/1-C2/19. ill;
 1985.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock housing; Electricity; Losses; Shock;
 Dairy cows; Disorders; Prevention
 
 
 381                                    NAL Call. No.: S671.A66
 Variable-dimension livestock restraining cage.
 Larsen, W.E.; Short, R.E.
 St. Joseph, MI : American Society of Agricultural Engineers,
 1985-; 1993 Nov. Applied engineering in agriculture v. 9 (6):
 p. 549-552; 1993 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Restraint of animals; Cages; Design;
 Cage size
 
 Abstract:  Handling livestock can be a hazardous and
 frustrating operation especially when access to the animal is
 required for procedures such as pregnancy testing of cattle or
 other reproductive examinations. A handling facility that
 gently restrains the animal in an adjustable dimension cage
 can contribute to a smooth operation and increased safety for
 the operator as well as the animal. A system was designed to
 mechanically adjust the width of the cage and the position of
 the front restraint so the cage precisely fits the animal and
 positions the animal against the leg bar at the rear of the
 cage. The width and position can be changed over the entire
 span of each motion control device and can be adjusted for
 each animal after the animal is in place. The system has been
 tested at the Fort Keogh Livestock and Range Research
 Laboratory. Cattle are handled easily with a minimum of stress
 and the controls are easy to operate.
 
 
 382                         NAL Call. No.: MnSUThesis stp mank
 Velocity and temperature distributions in a 1/5 scale model
 livestock facility.
 Mankell, Kurt Owen
 1993; 1993.
 v, 100 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.  Includes bibliographical
 references (leaves 95-97).
 
 Language:  English
 
 
 383                                NAL Call. No.: TH7651.S68K6
 Ventiliatsiia zhivotnovodcheskikh pomeshchenii  [Ventilation
 of animal housing].
 Korotkov, E. N.
 Moskva : Agropromizdat,; 1987.
 108, [2] p. : ill. ; 20 cm.  Bibliography: p. [110].
 
 Language:  Russian
 
 Descriptors: Farm buildings; Soviet Union; Heating and
 ventilation; Livestock; Soviet Union; Housing
 
 
 384                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3
 The veterinarian's role in farm animal welfare: directions in
 production and practice.
 Crook, A.D.; Heider, L.E.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1994 Jan01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 204
 (3): p. 388-395; 1994 Jan01.  Paper presented at the 1993 AVMA
 Animal Welfare Forum, "The Veterinarian's Role in Farm Animal
 Welfare," Rosemont, Ill.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Animal welfare; Veterinarians;
 Veterinary practice; Animal production
 
 
 385                                  NAL Call. No.: SF85.A1R32
 Viewpoint: wildlife and animal rights.
 Howard, W.E.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1993 Feb.
 Rangelands v. 15 (1): p. 21-22; 1993 Feb.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Animal welfare; Wildlife management;
 Livestock; Public opinion; Environmental impact; Economic
 impact; Vertebrate pests; Pest control
 
 
 386                                  NAL Call. No.: HV4701.A45
 A visit to a slaughterhouse.
 Gifford, D.
 Westport, Conn. : Animal Rights Network; 1987 Jun.
 The Animals' agenda v. 7 (5): p. 35-36. ill; 1987 Jun.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Livestock; Abattoirs; Animal welfare;
 Slaughter
 
 
 387                               NAL Call. No.: aS21.A8U5/ARS
 Weather and climate impacts on beef cattle.
 Hahn, G.L.
 Washington, D.C. : The Service; 1985.
 Reprints - U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural
 Research Service [463]: 5 p.; 1985.  Indexed from reprint:
 Beef Research Program: Progress Report, no. 2 / Roman L.
 Hruska U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, 1985, p. 85-89.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Environmental temperature; Climatic
 factors; Responses; Liveweight gain; Mortality; Cattle
 housing; Shelters
 
 
 388                                NAL Call. No.: S544.3.N3C66
 Winter stress conditions in beef cattle.
 Krysl, L.J.; Torell, R.C.
 Reno, Nev. : College of Agriculture, University of Nevada-
 Reno, Nevada Cooperative Extension; 1988.
 Fact sheet - College of Agriculture, University of Nevada-
 Reno, Nevada Cooperative Extension (88-13): 4 p. ill; 1988. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beef cattle; Winter; Cold tolerance; Stress;
 Shelter; Nutrition programs; Windbreaks; Layout and planning
 
 
 389                                 NAL Call. No.: 275.29 G29B
 Working facilities for small beef herds.
 Silcox, R.; Brown, D.; Kay, F.
 Athens, Ga. : The Service; 1989 Aug.
 Bulletin - Cooperative Extension Service, University of
 Georgia, College of Agriculture (1016): 16 p. ill; 1989 Aug.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pens; Animal husbandry; Beef cattle
 

Go to: Author Index | Subject Index | Top of Document

Author Index

 Absher, C. 21, 31, 82
 Absher, C.W. 295
 AgriBase, Inc, Livestock Marketing Association 203
 Agricultural Training Board 202
 Agyemang, K. 292
 Alaniz, G.R. 327
 Aleksandrova, S. K. 240
 Allen, Kristen 268
 Amer, P.R. 47
 American National CattleWomen 54
 American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals 23
 American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals,
 Varied Directions, Inc 323
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers 243, 249
 Ames, D.R. 205
 Amstutz, H.E. 368
 Anderson, Dean M.,_1947- 362
 Anderson, G.B. 156
 Anderson, R. S._1931- 300
 Anderson, V.L. 87
 Andreoli, K.M. 232
 Animal Industry Foundation 5
 Animal Welfare Foundation. Symposium 1986 : London, England?)
 307
 Animal Welfare Institute 171
 Ansotegui, R. 150
 Apel, Wolfgang 371
 Apple, J.K. 152
 Armstrong, C.H. 368
 Armstrong, J.D. 182
 Armstrong, J.R. 365
 Arthur, R.J. 58
 Australia. Parliament. Senate. Select Committee on Animal
 Welfare 237
 Australian Veterinary Association, Queensland Division 198
 Axtell, Richard C. 188
 Ayers, E.L. 190, 199
 Bagley, C.P. 234
 Bailey, C.M. 279
 Bailey, W.A. 209
 Bakau, W. 226
 Baker, A.M. 158
 Baker, F.S. Jr 123, 133
 Ball, R.L. 112, 154, 244, 272, 338, 366
 Bane, D.P. 379
 Baptist, R. 74
 Barao, S.M. 248
 Barbeito, Manuel 48
 Barber, E. 348
 Barber, E.M. 265
 Barnard, D.R. 277
 Barnes, K. 324
 Barnett, J.L. 131
 Barrington, S. 4
 Bartle, S.J. 378
 Batte, M.T. 349
 Bayne, G. 348
 Bebee, Charles N. 174
 Beckett, J.L. 163
 Beef Industry Council (U.S.), Veal Committee, American Veal
 Association 350
 Beermann, D.H. 100
 Bennett, B.W. 146, 363
 Bennett, G.L. \u Roman L. Hruska U.S. Meat Animal Research
 Center, USDA, ARS, Clay Center, NE 223
 Berry, D. 210
 Berry, D.J. 375
 Berry, I.L. 149
 Bertrand, J.E. 13, 102
 Beverlin, S.K. 190
 Bevier, G.W. 325
 Bevis, E.A. 233
 Biggers, B.G. 107, 108
 Birkelo, C.P. 120, 245
 Bjornstad, Even 268
 Blackshaw, J.K. 228, 280
 Blancquaert, A.M.B. 146
 Blayney, D.P. 78
 Blecha, F. 217, 344
 Bodman, G.R. 12
 Boivin, X. 229
 Boling, J.A. 294, 299
 Bolt, Douglas 373
 Bolt, Douglas J. 48
 Bolze, R.P. 71
 Borg, Robert 79
 Bottcher, R.W. 330
 Bowers, C.L. 43
 Boxler, D.J. 148
 Boyle, J.M. 69
 Bracken, T.D. 42
 Bradley, L.C. 281
 Bradley, N.W. 143, 227
 Branine, M.E. 137
 Broadbent, P.J. 364
 Broadway, R. 37, 185
 Brock, K.V. 275
 Brown, A.H. Jr 125
 Brown, C.J. 125
 Brown, D. 389
 Brown, R.E. 378
 Brown, S.N. 233
 Bruce, J.M. 162
 Bruynickx, W. 146
 Bryan, W.B. 96
 Bryant, F.C. 281
 Bryant, J.P. 64
 Bryden, W.L. 226
 Buchanan, D.S. 107, 108
 Buchanan-Smith, J.G. 47
 Bucklin, R.A. 330, 361
 Buhr, B.L. 218
 Burdette, L.A. 187
 Burgess, L.W. 226
 Burris, R. 31
 Butterworth, M. 292
 Butts, W.T. Jr 123
 Cahill, D.J. 131
 Calderon, J. 28
 Calkins, C.R. 17
 Campbell, C.B. 69
 Campbell, J.B. 20, 148, 149, 289
 Campbell, R.M. 182
 Carruthers, S. P. 177
 Carson, Rachel, 171
 Catangui, M.A. 148
 Centre technique de cooperation agricole et rurale 309
 Cermak, J. 88
 Chagnon, R. 293
 Chase, C.C. Jr 340
 Chen, Y.R. 62
 Chenoweth, P.J. 286
 Chenoweth, Peter J. 198
 Chewning, J.J. 125
 Childers, A.B. 274
 Christianson, L.L. 379
 Christopherson, R.J. 67
 Chupin, J.M. 229
 Church, T. 341
 CIBAGEIGY Corporation, Agricultural Division 188
 Claflin, W.H. 327
 Clanton, D.C. 115
 Clark, C. 150
 Clark, E.G. 347
 Clarke, Ross 186
 Clausen, T.P. 64
 Clemens, E. 51
 Cmarik, G.F. 290
 Cockram, M.S. 117
 Cohen, R.D.H. 99
 Cohen, W.E. 281
 Coleman, S.W. 335
 Collett, F.A. 50
 Conklin, D.H. 17
 Convey, E.M. 200
 Conway, G. 260
 Coombs, D.F. 359
 Corah, L.R. 298
 Corley, K.T.T. 117
 Cornelius, P.L. 227
 Craig, A.M. 146
 Crook, A.D. 384
 Cross, H. Russell 48, 208
 Crouse, J.D. 180
 Cundiff, L.V. 97, 284
 Curtis, S.E. 379
 Curtis, Stanley 172
 Czarick, M. 330
 D'Souza, G.E. 96
 Daelemans, J. 211
 Dalke, B.S. 92
 Daniels, E. 277
 Datascope Communications, Glaxo Group Research Limited,
 Institute of Animal
 Technology 178
 Davis, G.P. 196
 Davis, R. 148
 Davis, Ron 86
 Dawson, K.A. 299
 Dawydiak, Orysia, 256
 De Passille, A.M.B. 346
 De Rose, E.P. 312
 DeNise, S.K. 194, 195
 DeShazer, J.A. 12
 Deshazer, J.A. 149
 DeShazer, J.A. 289
 Deutscher, G.H. 115
 Dew, R. 299
 Dhuyvetter, K.C. 241, 242
 Dickerson, G.E. 97, 284
 Diesch, M.A. 311
 Dikeman, M.E. 152
 Dobson, H. 116
 Dodd, V.A. 269
 Dodt, R.M. 58, 60
 Doescher, P.S. 331
 Dohkoshi, J. 90
 Doornenbal, H. 49
 Dougherty, C.T. 227
 Down, M. J. 89
 Drawe, D.L. 281
 Duewer, Lawrence A. 41, 81
 Dunn, T.G. 138
 Dutil, C. 293
 Eck, T.P. 241
 Edney, A. T. B. 300
 Edwards, A.J. 121
 Eidman, V.R. 19
 Eigenberg, R.A. 62
 Eimler, Wolf-Michael 262
 Eldridge, G.A. 45, 131
 Eller, A.L. 181
 Elliot, J.I. 15
 Elsayed, A.M. 313, 314, 315
 Equipment Development Center (Missoula, Mont.) 169
 Eurell, T. 290
 Evans, J.K. 295
 Eversole, D.E. 222
 Fallert, R.F. 78
 Farm Animal Welfare Council (Great Britain) 333, 334
 Faulkner, D.B. 290
 Feazel, J.I. 234
 Fisher, J.C. 71
 Fiske, W.A. 96
 Fitzgerald, B.P. 143
 Fletcher, J.J. 96
 Fletcher, T.J. 376
 Fluharty, F.L. 128, 130, 132, 142, 145
 Fontenot, J.P. 222
 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 75
 Foote, W.D. 279
 Ford, J.J. 261
 Fordyce, G. 60, 61
 Forster, D.L. 349
 Fox, D.G. 100
 Fox, G.C. 47
 Fox, Michael W., 2
 Franke, D.E. 305
 Friend, T.H. 43
 Frisch, J.E. 197, 301
 Froehlich, D.P. 311
 Galyean, M.L. 137
 Ganskopp, D. 42
 Garel, J.P. 229
 Garner, J.C. 361
 Gay, N. 21, 227, 299
 Gee, C.K. 98
 Geelen, M.A. van 168
 Geisert, R.D. 107, 108
 Genchi, C. 236
 Geuns, K.R. 187
 Gibson, C.D. 310
 Gibson, L.L. 126, 127
 Gibson, T. E. 307
 Gifford, D. 386
 Gill, D. 324
 Gill, D.R. 44, 112, 154, 244, 272, 338, 366
 Godbout, S. 35
 Gonyou, H.W. 158
 Gonzalez, R.A. 28
 Goodwin, M.C. 327
 Graham, R.T. 103
 Grande, Jorunn 268
 Grandin, T. 10, 53, 55, 93, 94, 118, 165, 251, 370
 Grandin, T. \u Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 357
 Grandin, Temple 56, 328
 Grant, R.J. 119, 378
 Gray, D. 150
 Great Britain, Agricultural Development and Advisory Service
 65
 Green, R.D. 284
 Greenwood, G.B. 91
 Gregory, K.E. 97, 261
 Gregory, N.G. 25, 214
 Griffith, G.R. 238
 Grissom, K.K. 43
 Gross, T.S. 318, 332
 Grosskopf, J.F.W. 50
 Guenther, C.L. 99
 Guerrero, J.N. 28
 Guerriero, V. Jr 340, 367
 Gustafson, R.J. 380
 Gutierrez, J.A. 340
 Hahn, G.L. 62, 63, 250, 352, 387
 Haile, D.G. 277
 Hall, J.B. 143
 Hall, W.F. 379
 Halpin, C.G. 131
 Halverson, D. 215
 Hammond, A.C. 123, 339, 340
 Hammond, K. 246
 Hannan, J. 147
 Hansen, D.E. 69
 Hansen, J. 48
 Hansen, J. Norman 193
 Hansen, P.J. 332, 340
 Harris, B. 341
 Harris, D. G. 343
 Harrison, R. 360
 Harrison, Ruth 175
 Harvey, R.W. 182
 Hatae, K. 235
 Havstad, K.M. 190, 199
 Havstad, Kris M.,_1952- 362
 Hayenga, M.L. \u Iowa State University 218
 Hays, V.S. 244, 338
 Hays, W.G. 38
 Heersche, G. 21
 Heider, L.E. 384
 Heimer, E.P. 182
 Herd, R.M. 351
 Hiatt, R. 317
 Hicks, R.B. 44, 112
 Hidiroglou, N. 104
 Higgins, K.P. 269
 Hill, F.W.G. 283
 Hinds, Frank C. 362
 Hinman, D.D. 92
 Hirning, H.J. 267
 Hirst, D.J. 30
 Hoblet, K.H. 275
 Hodges, E.M. 369
 Hoffman, M.P. 139
 Hoke, K.E. 251, 287
 Hoke, Karl E. 56
 Horton, G.M.J. \u Sultan Qaboos Univ., Muscat, Sultanate of
 Oman 369
 Hoshiba, S. 90
 House, H.K. 73
 Howard, W.E. 385
 Huffman, H.E. 73
 Huis in't Veld, J.H.J. 219
 Hull, P.R. 347
 Humane Slaughter Association (1986-) 202
 Humane Society of the United States 176
 Hunt, C.W. 92
 Hurnik, J. F. 329
 Hurnik, J.F. 77, 164
 Institut fur Rinderproduktion Iden-Rohrbeck (Akademie der
 Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR) 159
 International Commission of Agricultural Engineering. 2nd
 Technical Section.
 Seminar (1987 : University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
 243
 IUrkov, V. M. 266
 Jackson, P.G.G. 27
 Jacobs, G.A. 231
 Jairell, R.L. 345
 Janzen, E.D. 99
 Jeffrey, S.R. 19
 Jenkins, O.C. 43
 Jenkins, T.G. 284
 Jennings, V. 374
 Jeremiah, L.E. 126, 127
 Johnson, B.D. 244, 272, 338, 366
 Johnson, D. 87
 Johnson, D.D. 13, 102, 104
 Johnson, Z.B. 125
 Johnston, G.N. 59
 Jones, Daniel 48
 Jones, S.D.M. 155, 157
 Jorgenson, M. 348
 Juniewicz, P.E. 105, 106, 110, 122, 153
 Kains, F.I. 70
 Kamwanja, L.A. 340
 Karl, M.G. 331
 Karmum, D. 337
 Karremann, Manfred, 371
 Karsky, Richard 169
 Kasser, T.R. 92
 Kauffman, R.G. 17
 Kay, F. 389
 Kemp, R.A. 47
 Kerr, S.G.C. 72
 Kerschen, R.P. 363
 Kestin, S.C. 233
 Kidd, R. 212
 Kilgour, R. 16, 85
 Kilpatrick, D.J. 113
 King, B.D. 99
 King, G.J. 164
 Kingery, J.L. 103
 Kirk, D.J. 222
 Kleiber, Hans, 159
 Kleinschmidt, Nina 262
 Klindt, J.M. 180
 Klopfenstein, T.J. 119, 321
 Knapp, B.W. 263
 Knapp, F.W. 294
 Knott, M. 51
 Koch, R.M. 97
 Kock, N.D. 283
 Koh, Y.O. 279
 Kolkman, John 9
 Korotkov, E. N. 383
 Korthals, R.L. 379
 Kreider, J.L. 359
 Kreikemeier, K.K. 52
 Krieg, K. 170, 353
 Krysl, L.J. 206, 316, 388
 Kuhl, G. 152
 Kuhl, G.L. 241
 Kuit, H.G. 253
 Kunkle, W.E. 123, 133, 361
 Ladd, G.W. 140
 Lamb, M.A. 167
 Lambrecht, J. 211
 Lane, E.P. 283
 Larsen, W.E. 381
 Latz, G.I. II 1
 Laudert, S.B. 242
 Lauriault, L.M. 227
 Lautner, B. 325
 Lay, D.C. Jr 43
 Le Heron, R. 297
 Le Neindre, P. 229
 Leavitt, E.S. 215
 Leeson, R.H. 25
 Lesch, S.F. 336
 Lishman, A.W. 336
 Locatelli, A. 236
 Loe, W.C. 125
 Loeffler, K. 24
 Loerch, S.C. 71, 128, 130, 132, 134, 142, 144, 145, 296
 Lombard, M.S. 50
 Lord, D. 293
 Lorimor, J. 184
 Lorimor, J. \u Iowa State University 183
 Lounsbery, J. 120, 245
 Loyacano, A.F. 359
 Luescher, U.A. 77
 Lusby, K. 324
 Lusby, K.S. 244
 Lynch, J.W. 303
 Lyons, D. J. 22
 MacNeil, M.D. 261
 Mader, T.L. 109, 115
 Madsen, A.G. 98
 Mahanta, Kanak Chandra, 1926- 201
 Makarechian, M. 114
 Malayer, J.R. 332
 Malcolm, K.J. 137
 Males, J. 14
 Mankell, Kurt Owen 382
 Marquis, A. 35
 Martin, A.H. 157
 Mathewson, G. K. 65
 Maton, A. 211
 McBratney, Brad 169
 McCaughey, W.J. 113
 McDonald, C.A. 246
 McDowell, L.R. 104
 McFate, K. 317
 McFate, K.L. 160
 McInerney, J. 356
 McIntyre, B.L. 111
 McLauchlan, W. 113
 McMurtry, J.P. 339
 McNaughton, S.J. 101
 McNeill, S. 31
 McNeill, S.G. 295
 McPhee, J.E. 30
 McWhir, J. 207
 Mears, G.J. 49
 Meltzer, D.G.A. 50
 Mench, J.A. 355
 Mendez, J.K. 141
 Meyerhoeffer, D.C. 335
 Midwest Plan Service 39
 Miksch, D. 21
 Milliken, G.A. 205
 Minton, J.E. 191, 232
 Mohan Raj, A.B. 113
 Mohan, K. 283
 Moore, Brian L. 198
 Mooso, G.D. 234
 Morison, J.B. 238
 Morrison, D.G. 234
 Morrison, S.R. 36
 Morter, R.L. 368
 Moseley, W.M. 327
 Moss, B.W. 25, 113
 Moss, C. 46
 Moss, G.E. 138
 Mount, G.A. 277
 Muehling, A.J. 379
 Mulder, R.W.A.W. 219
 Mulders, M.S. 50
 Munro, R.K. 286
 Murakami, R. 271
 Murphy, P.A. 147
 Murray, N.L. 49
 Mutoh, Y. 354
 Mwansa, P.B. 114
 Nakanishi, Y. 354
 Nash, D. 166
 National Agricultural Library (U.S.) 174
 National Cattlemen's Association (U.S.) 282
 Nelson, Fred 86
 Nelson, K. E. 41
 New Mexico State University, Agricultural Experiment Station
 76
 New York (State), Legislature, Legislative Commission on Dairy
 Industry
 Development, New York Farm Bureau 308
 Newman, J.A. 49, 126, 127, 157
 Newman, S. 322
 Nichols, C. 21
 Nienaber, J.A. 62, 63
 Nkhonjera, L. 292
 Nockels, C.F. 146, 363
 Nunez-Dominguez, R. 97
 Nyamusika, N. 46
 O'Neill, D.H. 342
 Oesterheld, M. 101
 Ohl, M.W. 290
 Okamoto, M. 67
 Olson, D.P. 320
 Olson, Kent D. 268
 Olson, T.A. 340
 Olson-Rutz, K.M. 199
 Oltjen, J.W. 163
 Omar, Mohamed Ariff,_1949- 288
 Ott, R.S. 290
 Owens, F.N. 44, 244, 338
 Palmer, A.Z. 123, 133
 Pankaskie, D.E. 115
 Parnell, C.B. 285
 Parsons, J. 14
 Paulissen, J.B. 327
 Pearse, A.J. 326
 Peart, W.J. 66
 Perry, J.G. 248
 Perry, T.C. 100
 Perry, V.E.A. 286
 Peters, A.R. 358
 Petersen, M.K. 190, 199
 Peterson, E.B. 140
 Peterson, N. 28
 Phillips, V.R. 342
 Phillips, W.A. 105, 106, 110, 122, 153
 Phipps, T.T. 96
 Pier, A.C. 258
 Pitman, W.D. 369
 Plasencia, A. 28
 Pollreisz, J.P. 166
 Post, T.B. 286
 Powell, B. 40
 Powell, V.H. 57
 Prescott, M.L. 199
 Preston, R.L. 378
 Price, E.O. 136, 156
 Prichard, D.L. 102
 Prigg, E.C. 96
 Pritchard, R.H. 141, 225
 Purdue University, Office of Agricultural Research Programs
 189
 Pusillo, G.M. 139
 Putney, D.J. 318
 Queensland, Dept. of Primary Industries 186
 Rae, O. 46
 Rainforth, L. 51
 Raleigh, R. 42
 Randall, J.M. 213, 224, 313, 314, 315
 Randel, R.D. 43
 Ray, D.E. 195
 Raynes, D.A. 367
 Reichardt, P.B. 64
 Reid, C.R. 279
 Reynolds, W.L. 263
 Rice, D.A. 113
 Rice, H.B. 82
 Rice, R. 195
 Richard, T. 247
 Richards, M.W. 230
 Richey, E.J. 302
 Ridley, E.J.H. 238
 Riechers, R. 179
 Riesenberg, L.E. 320
 Ringkob, T.P. 279
 Ritchie, H.D. 310
 Robertson, W.M. 157
 Robinson, D.L. 246
 Robinson, J.B. 67, 205
 Robison, O.W. 167
 Roeder, R.A. 92
 Rosen, S. 95
 Rosenfeld, Reiner 371
 Ross, A.D. 226
 Ross, G.S. 38
 Roth, E.A. 270
 Round, P.J. 59
 Rudakov, V. V. 240
 Rumsey, T.S. 339
 Rushen, J. 346
 Rust, S. 310
 Ryan, W.J. 111
 Rynk, R.F. 291
 Sainsbury, David, 173, 252
 Sainsbury, Peter, 252
 Sala, O.E. 101
 Sangiah, S. 230
 Sasaki, Y. 264
 Sase, S. 271
 Saskatchewan, Family Farm Improvement Branch 32
 Sato, S. 235
 Schaefer, A.L. 155
 Schalles, R.R. 232
 Schelling, G.T. 92
 Schillo, K.K. 143
 Schipper, C. 341
 Schmidt, J.L. 319
 Schmidt, R.A. 345
 Schmidt, Wolf-Rudiger,_1936- 371
 Schneijdenberg, T. C. H. G. P. 192
 Schnelting, Karl B. 371
 Schoenemann, H.M. 230
 Schott, M. 42
 Schupp, A. 179
 Schwarm, M.A. 3
 Schwartzkopf, K.S. 347
 Schwinghammer, K.A. 294
 Sconberg, S. 146
 Self, H.L. 139
 Shagam, S.D. 78
 Shain, D.H. 119
 Shaw, F.D. 257
 Shepherd, R.K. 61
 Short, R.E. 381
 Shorthose, W.R. 57, 58, 61
 Shulaw, W.P. 275
 Silcox, R. 389
 Silver, G.V. 136
 Simms, D.D. 152
 Sims, David E., 256
 Sindt, M.H. 119, 321
 Skaggs, Jimmy M., 304
 Smith, C. 47
 Smith, P.C. 59
 Smith, R.A. 112, 154, 244, 272, 303, 338, 366
 Smith, R.F. 116
 Smith, V.M. 156
 Snijders, J.M.A. 219
 Sokhansanj, S. 265
 Spire, M.F. 232
 Spreen, T.H. 46, 123
 Stefanides, N. 69
 Stock, R.A. 119, 321
 Stookey, J.M. 347
 Stricklin, W.R. 355
 Strohbehn, D.R. 140
 Suomen kotielainjalostusyhdistys, World Association of Animal
 Production 306
 Sutton, A.L. 6
 Swanson, J.C. 34, 355
 Swanson, Janice C. 174
 Sweeten, J.M. 285
 Takezono, T. 271
 Tanaka, T. 90
 Tarrant, P.V. 8, 135, 377
 Tarumizu, K. 235
 Teigen, L.D. 80
 Temple, G. 278
 Tess, M.W. 167
 Thacker, H.L. 368
 Thatcher, W.W. 318, 332
 Thomas, G.D. 148
 Thomson, D.U. 225
 Thomson, J. 14
 Thornsberry, R.M. 124
 Thos, J. 156
 Thrift, F.A. 33
 Tong, A.K.W. 49, 126, 127, 155, 157
 Topps, J.H. 273
 Torabi, M. 194, 195
 Torell, D. 206
 Torell, R.C. 316, 388
 Townsend, H.G.G. 161
 Traldi, G. 236
 Tranquilli, W.J. 290
 Traore, A. 253
 Tucker, T.A. 1
 Turnbull, J.E. 70
 Turner, J.W. 246
 Turner, L. 31, 82
 Turner, L.W. 295
 Umetsu, R. 354
 Underwood, D.W. 61
 United States, Agricultural Research Service, National Program
 Staff 172
 United States, Dept. of Agriculture, Commodity Economics
 Division 41
 United States, Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service
 81
 United States, Dept. of Agriculture, Office of Transportation,
 Livestock
 Conservation Institute 56
 United States, Food Safety and Inspection Service, Technology
 Transfer and
 Assessment Staff 48, 193, 208, 239, 373
 United States. Congress. House. Committee on Agriculture.
 Subcommittee on
 Livestock, Dairy, and Poultry 84, 220
 United States. Congress. House. Committee on Banking, Finance,
 and Urban
 Affairs. Subcommittee on Economic Stabilization 221
 United States. Congress. House. Committee on Small Business.
 Subcommittee on
 Energy and Agriculture 129
 Universities Federation for Animal Welfare 259
 Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, Humane Slaughter
 Association 216
 University of Melbourne, Dept. of Civil and Agricultural
 Engineering 89
 University of Minnesota, Dept. of Agricultural and Applied
 Economics 268
 University of Reading, Centre for Agricultural Strategy, Farm
 Animal Care
 Trust 177
 Unruh, J.A. 52
 Upton, M. 254, 255
 Urick, J.J. 263
 Van Den Heever, L.W. 50
 Van Koevering, M.T. 154
 van Niekerk, A. 336
 Van Niekerk, B.D.H. 231
 Van Rensburg, J.J. 50
 Van Wicklen, G.L. 330
 Veall, Frederick 75
 Veenhuizen, J.J. 92
 Vercoe, J.E. 197, 301
 Vieselmeyer, B.A. 321
 Vocational Education Productions, Da-Nel Productions 86
 Von Tungeln, D.L. 122, 151, 153
 VonTungeln, D.L. 105, 106, 110
 Wakeman, D.L. 133
 Wall, Robert 48, 239
 Wallach, S.J.R. 136
 Wan Zahari Mohamed 288
 Ward, J.K. 115
 Wardynski, F. 310
 Warner, R.D. 131
 Warriss, P.D. 204, 233
 Webster, A.J.F. 11
 Weekes, T.E.C. 264
 Wells, M.E. 335
 Western Regional Coordinating Committee on Utilization of
 Range Forage for
 Rangeland and Domestic Ruminant Production, New Mexico State
 University, Agricultural Experiment Station 362
 Wetteman, R.P. 108
 Wettemann, R.P. 107, 230, 335
 White, W.A.B. 349
 Whitsett, D. 69
 Whittier, W.D. 181
 Wieman, G.A. 149, 289
 Wiley, S. 150
 Willham, R.L. 140
 Williams, C.B. 223
 Williams, C.M. 7
 Williams, G. 69
 Williams, M.J. 123
 Wilson, M.E. 260
 Wilson, R.T. 253
 Wilton, J.W. 207, 312
 Winfield, C.G. 45
 Wolfley, B.F. 319
 Wolynetz, M.S. 70
 Wood-Gush, D.G.M. 29, 72
 Wythes, J.R. 57, 58, 59, 60, 61
 Young, B.A. 67, 155
 Yusof Hamali Ahmad 288
 Zavy, M.T. 106, 107, 110, 122, 153
 Zayan, R. 26
 Zinn, G. 290
 Zinn, R.A. 36
 


Go to: Author Index | Subject Index | Top of Document


Subject Index

 Abattoirs 25, 45, 50, 57, 58, 59, 117, 224, 386
 Aberdeen-angus 111, 318
 Abnormal behavior 77, 346
 Abomasum 327
 Abortion 121, 368
 Abrasion 147
 Abscesses 316
 Absorption 316
 Acclimatization 199, 205
 Accuracy 246
 Acremonium coenophialum 227
 Adaptation 141, 301
 Adrenal glands 191
 Adverse effects 149
 Aflatoxicosis 258
 Aflatoxins 258
 Africa 273, 309, 309
 Afrikander 336
 Age 60, 143
 Age differences 99, 105, 258
 Aggressive behavior 200, 229
 Agonistic behavior 158, 355
 Agribusiness 325
 Agricultural ecology 2
 Agricultural education 260
 Agricultural engineering 93, 228, 313, 315
 Agricultural industries 2
 Agricultural law 6
 Agricultural policy 297
 Agricultural pollution 2
 Agricultural prices 221
 Agricultural productivity 268
 Agricultural regions 46
 Agricultural research 14, 38
 Agricultural structure 218
 Agriculture 2, 221, 308
 Agroforestry 103
 Air spora 90
 Air transport 376
 Air, Ionized 240
 Alaska 170, 337
 Alberta 341
 Alfalfa hay 59
 Algorithms 96
 Alkaloids 227
 Alpha-tocopherol 146
 Altruism 235
 Amblyomma Americanum 277
 Ammonia 342
 Anaerobic conditions 342
 Analgesics 290
 Analysis of variance 125
 Anesthesia 25
 Anesthetics 365
 Animal behavior 7, 8, 10, 24, 42, 45, 55, 60, 72, 116, 117,
 118, 165, 280, 289, 322, 354, 370
 Animal breeding 170, 305
 Animal culture 201
 Animal diseases 11, 14, 27
 Animal experimentation 323
 Animal feeding 88, 226, 302
 Animal genetic engineering 193, 239, 373
 Animal genetics 239, 373
 Animal health 178, 181, 244, 248, 280, 303, 310, 326, 379
 Animal housing 1, 3, 11, 12, 18, 27, 29, 35, 70, 73, 120, 170,
 188, 201, 210, 247, 248, 266, 278, 293, 342, 346, 348, 357,
 370, 372
 Animal husbandry 15, 29, 66, 74, 101, 170, 210, 212, 219, 224,
 280, 346, 357, 358, 389
 Animal industry 2, 5, 268
 Animal manures 168
 Animal models 191
 Animal nutrition 123, 197, 294
 Animal production 66, 91, 224, 273, 280, 326, 346, 356, 374,
 384
 Animal products 22
 Animal proteins 367
 Animal wastes 6, 168
 Animal welfare 2, 5, 7, 11, 15, 16, 17, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27,
 29, 40, 43, 48, 53, 56, 65, 66, 72, 78, 85, 86, 162, 165, 171,
 172, 176, 177, 178, 189, 191, 193, 202, 203, 204, 208, 210,
 213, 214, 215, 224, 237, 239, 262, 274, 280, 282, 306, 307,
 308, 322, 323, 326, 328, 346, 347, 350, 356, 360, 365, 371,
 373, 374, 376, 377, 384, 385, 386
 Animals 48, 202, 307
 Animals, Treatment of 2, 54, 171, 175, 216, 307, 333
 Antagonists 230
 Antibiotics 69
 Antioxidants 340
 Arachis glabrata 123
 Arthropod pests 20
 Artificial insemination 21
 Assessment 24, 26, 255
 Attachment behavior 156
 Australia 30, 45, 66, 196, 228, 238
 Autografts 180
 Automatic control 93
 Automation 250
 Autumn 102, 199
 Bacteria 90
 Barley 226
 Barns 90, 267
 Barriers 88, 345
 Bedding 247
 Beef 50, 152, 208, 279
 Beef breeds 114, 229, 301
 Beef bulls 88, 114, 125, 136, 155, 158, 207, 286, 335
 Beef cattle 3, 8, 21, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 39,
 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 54, 59, 60, 61, 65, 67, 69, 71, 76,
 79, 81, 82, 92, 94, 96, 99, 105, 106, 109, 110, 111, 117, 120,
 121, 122, 124, 128, 130, 131, 132, 134, 137, 139, 140, 141,
 142, 144, 145, 146, 147, 151, 153, 156, 160, 161, 163, 166,
 167, 179, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 194, 195, 196,
 197, 205, 206, 208, 210, 222, 223, 225, 226, 227, 231, 234,
 236, 238, 245, 246, 263, 267, 269, 275, 283, 285, 288, 288,
 289, 292, 294, 295, 296, 298, 301, 302, 305, 310, 312, 316,
 320, 324, 327, 329, 329, 340, 341, 344, 347, 354, 361, 363,
 365, 369, 378, 387, 388, 389
 Beef cattle industry 282
 Beef cows 52, 55, 97, 107, 108, 164, 190, 199, 230, 232, 235,
 241, 279, 284, 318, 332, 336, 351, 355, 364, 368
 Beef herds 349
 Beef industry 41, 159
 Beef packers 81
 Beef production 17, 40, 98, 141, 163, 166, 223, 241, 242, 261,
 291, 303, 364, 369
 Beef quality 155, 204, 223, 257
 Behavior 56
 Bibliographies 210, 375
 Bibliography 174, 174
 Bioclimate 269
 Bioethics 360
 Biofermal 134
 Biotechnology 48, 208
 Birth weight 232
 Bites 149
 Blood 164, 165, 274
 Blood chemistry 50, 236, 294, 363
 Blood composition 49, 117
 Blood glucose 355
 Blood meal 130, 132, 142, 321
 Blood picture 363
 Blood plasma 43, 51, 99, 110, 116, 143, 146, 339
 Blood sampling 146
 Blood serum 92, 182, 191, 290, 327, 351
 Blood sugar 143
 Body composition 223, 339
 Body condition 119
 Body fat 109, 246
 Body protein 339
 Body temperature 63, 205, 294
 Body weight 109, 143, 153, 207, 284, 339
 Bovidae 126, 127
 Bovine diarrhea virus 275
 Bovine respiratory syncytial virus 46
 Brahman 13, 50, 59, 60, 102, 104, 340
 Branding 43, 347, 365
 Bred heifers 52
 Breed differences 97, 100, 110, 125, 167, 182, 197, 229, 263,
 279, 340
 Breeders' associations 125
 Breeding 171, 201
 Breeding programs 37, 185
 Breeds 358
 Broilers 293
 Brood care 160
 Browsing 64
 Browsing damage 64, 103
 Bruises 204
 Bruising 45, 57, 58, 131, 257
 Buildings 276
 Bull feeding 114
 Bulls 49, 65, 157, 244, 261
 Bunching 289
 Cabt 46, 52, 80, 96, 120, 150, 170, 183, 184, 199, 225, 238,
 245, 277, 277, 277, 281, 325, 326, 330, 347, 369
 Cage size 381
 Cages 381
 Calf feeding 321, 341
 Calf housing 72, 168, 291
 Calf production 46, 96
 California 28
 Calves 51, 67, 68, 72, 82, 93, 99, 110, 112, 119, 122, 128,
 140, 141, 142, 150, 151, 153, 156, 161, 223, 229, 232, 244,
 290, 293, 303, 320, 321, 341, 349, 358, 364
 Calving 51
 Calving rate 336
 Calving season 161, 364
 Camels 270
 Canada 15
 Capitalism 297
 Carbon dioxide 25, 165
 Carcass composition 52, 92, 100, 157, 182, 222, 246, 263, 279,
 312, 327, 359, 378
 Carcass disposal 170
 Carcass quality 13, 25, 45, 49, 52, 57, 58, 61, 102, 104, 109,
 115, 123, 124, 133, 139, 157, 180, 279, 339, 369, 377
 Carcass weight 57, 58, 59, 125, 167, 223, 257
 Carcass yield 109, 139, 152, 155, 223, 327, 359
 Carcasses 57, 58, 204
 Carriers 347, 378
 Case studies 255
 Castration 49, 99, 126, 127, 140, 158, 290, 365
 Catecholamines 51
 Cattle 20, 30, 50, 56, 56, 56, 57, 58, 62, 63, 101, 103, 118,
 123, 138, 148, 154, 159, 159, 196, 198, 204, 217, 241, 242,
 257, 270, 272, 287, 331, 366, 367, 377
 Cattle breeds 149, 340
 Cattle crushes 209
 Cattle diseases 338, 344
 Cattle farming 183
 Cattle fattening 98, 133, 147, 223, 292, 299, 303, 321, 359
 Cattle feeding 369
 Cattle feedlot soils 133
 Cattle housing 34, 36, 136, 139, 147, 161, 358, 387
 Cattle husbandry 28, 60, 95, 161, 229, 261, 291, 303
 Cattle manure 34, 183
 Cattle pens 79
 Cattle trade 304
 Cephalosporins 272
 Cervidae 326
 Cervus elaphus 116, 326
 Cervus elaphus canadensis 326
 Charolais 182
 Chemical treatment 30
 Chemicals 347
 Chilling 135
 Chutes 31, 118, 357
 Claviceps purpurea 226
 Climate 266, 311
 Climatic factors 387
 Cobweb models 95
 Code of practice 7
 Cold 190, 205
 Cold stress 67, 68, 131, 199, 232, 264, 336
 Cold tolerance 120, 388
 College students 260
 Color 131
 Colorado 98, 118
 Commercial farming 238
 Comparisons 28, 369
 Compensatory growth 71, 321
 Computer applications 73
 Computer simulation 74, 167, 269, 277
 Concentrates 102, 144, 296
 Concrete 133
 Conditioning 141, 341
 Congenital infection 275
 Congresses 48, 48, 159, 159, 159, 159, 198, 198, 198, 198,
 243, 249, 249, 249, 249, 306, 307, 307, 307, 308, 308, 308,
 309, 309, 333, 333
 Consciousness 26, 214
 Construction 187, 267
 Consumer attitudes 40
 Consumers' preferences 76
 Consumption per caput 325
 Contamination 226, 258
 Control methods 30, 361
 Controlled grazing 295
 Controlled release 109, 152, 339, 378
 Controllers 348
 Controls 315
 Convection 271
 Conversion efficiency 207
 Conveyors 93
 Cooking 127
 Cooling 160
 Cooperative services 125
 Corticoliberin 191
 Corticotropin 105, 110, 146, 191
 Cortisol 106, 116, 151, 232, 294, 351, 355, 363
 Cost benefit analysis 150, 179, 324, 330
 Costs 21, 28, 97, 187, 349
 Cows 61, 349
 Creatine kinase 146
 Creep feeding 71, 128, 140
 Creep grazing 82
 Crop mixtures 19
 Crop production 241
 Crop residues 292, 321
 Crossbred progeny 263, 284
 Crossbreds 13, 44, 97, 104, 149, 197, 279
 Crossbreeding 167, 223, 284
 Crowding 149
 Crude protein 119, 142, 359
 Culling 74, 97
 Cultural change 270
 Curing 193
 Cynodon nlemfuensis 369
 Dactylis glomerata 331
 Dairies 28
 Dairy cattle 179
 Dairy cows 88, 119, 235, 352, 380
 Dairy equipment 160
 Dairy farming 19, 160
 Dairy farms 80
 Dairy laws 84
 Dairy performance 352
 Dairy products 220
 Dairying 84, 159
 Dams (mothers) 51, 156
 Dark cutting meat 52, 204, 377
 Data processing 81, 81
 Decision making 96, 250, 270, 349
 Deer 376
 Deer farming 326
 Defense mechanisms 64
 Dehorning 86
 Deiodination 339
 Demonstration farms 183
 Design 73, 87, 88, 370, 381
 Design calculations 271
 Development 91
 Diagnosis 275
 Diarrhea 358
 Diet 2, 119
 Dietary laws 334, 334
 Dietary protein 321
 Differential pricing 223
 Digestibility 294
 Digestible energy 114
 Digestion 64
 Digestive disorders 181
 Diptera 20
 Disease control 14, 27, 46, 161, 272, 275, 365, 366
 Disease models 374
 Disease prevention 275
 Disease resistance 344, 376
 Disorders 380
 Distance travelled 45
 Diurnal variation 44
 Domestic animals 174, 273, 374
 Domestication 273, 322
 Dominance 355
 Dosage effects 92, 109, 327, 378
 Dressing percentage 13, 59, 109, 133
 Drinkers 87
 Drivers 213
 Drought 66
 Droughts 129, 220, 221
 Drug effects 154
 Drug therapy 112
 Drugs 302
 Dry lot feeding 261
 Dry matter 71, 225, 349, 378
 Duration 125
 Dust 285
 Dystocia 51
 Ecology 249, 360
 Econometric models 47
 Economic analysis 46, 98
 Economic aspects 84, 129, 221
 Economic dualism 80
 Economic evaluation 97
 Economic impact 218, 238, 258, 312, 385
 Effect of drought on 129, 220, 221
 Efficacy 165
 Efficiency 167, 314
 Egg collectors 1
 Egg production 253
 Ejaculate volume 114
 Electric current 42
 Electric heaters 160
 Electrical energy 87, 160
 Electrical treatment 57, 111, 165, 274
 Electricity 160, 317, 380
 Electrolytes 155
 Electrolytes retention 155
 Embryo mortality 108
 Embryonic development 107, 108
 Emission 285, 342
 Endocrinology 264
 Endometrium 318, 332
 Energy 130
 Energy balance 119
 Energy consumption 87
 Energy content 114
 Energy intake 143, 269, 284
 Environment 1, 4, 8, 151, 166, 301, 336
 Environmental assessment 379
 Environmental control 18, 250, 311, 313
 Environmental engineering 159
 Environmental factors 14, 64, 161, 162, 196, 311, 352
 Environmental impact 96, 385
 Environmental policy 238
 Environmental protection 40
 Environmental temperature 63, 199, 205, 335, 352, 387
 Enzyme activity 146, 332, 339
 Epinephrine 43, 51, 146
 Equipment 18, 98, 302
 Equipment and supplies 32, 39
 Ergot 226
 Errors 246
 Erythrocytes 146
 Essential amino acids 321
 Estradiol 100, 109, 124, 222, 232, 339, 378
 Estrous behavior 164
 Estrous cycle 138, 180, 230
 Estrus 21, 164, 318
 Ethics 66, 374
 Etiology 161
 Europe 214
 Euthanasia 165
 Evaluation 265, 313, 315
 Evaporative cooling 18, 361
 Excretion 105
 Explants 332
 Exports 287
 Exposure 42
 Extensive livestock farming 72, 74
 Facilities 10, 98
 Fallow deer 326
 Fans 160, 313, 314, 315, 348, 361
 Farm buildings 3, 35, 383
 Farm comparisons 238
 Farm equipment 170
 Farm management 253, 319
 Farm structure 78, 267
 Farmers 5
 Farming 160, 278
 Fasting 105, 131
 Fat absorption 132
 Fat percentage 182, 200
 Fat thickness 246
 Fattening performance 71, 124, 128, 130, 132, 134, 137, 141,
 142, 144, 145, 182, 231, 279, 296, 298, 321
 Fatty acids 182
 Feasibility 170
 Feasibility studies 179
 Feather meal 321
 Feed conversion 100, 109, 148, 152, 290, 321, 327, 336, 339,
 378
 Feed conversion efficiency 133, 139, 180, 222, 284, 366
 Feed dispensers 267
 Feed grains 226
 Feed intake 62, 63, 109, 119, 139, 152, 190, 199, 227, 289,
 290, 312, 321, 366, 378
 Feed rations 303, 310
 Feed supplements 144, 369
 Feed troughs 231
 Feeding 1, 59, 180, 248
 Feeding and feeds 76
 Feeding behavior 44
 Feeding frequency 245
 Feedlot effluent 184
 Feedlot wastes 183, 319
 Feedlots 6, 13, 28, 37, 47, 50, 63, 69, 71, 98, 102, 104, 120,
 121, 123, 124, 128, 130, 132, 134, 137, 139, 141, 142, 144,
 145, 180, 181, 184, 185, 186, 207, 223, 231, 236, 241, 242,
 245, 261, 267, 275, 285, 296, 298, 302, 303, 310, 316, 321,
 324, 341, 354, 359, 363, 369
 Feeds 88, 163, 258
 Fees 179
 Female fertility 97, 312
 Fence posts 187
 Fences 82, 187
 Fencing 3, 55, 267, 295, 319
 Fermentation 225
 Festuca arundinacea 227
 Fetus 51
 Fibrinogen 122
 Filters 168
 Filtration 90
 Flavors 61, 127
 Flies 188
 Flocks 248, 253
 Floor type 342
 Florida 13, 102, 104, 123, 133, 369
 Fodder crops 160
 Follicles 143
 Food 208, 334
 Food and nutrition controversies 78
 Food biotechnology 78
 Food industry 40
 Food industry and trade 2
 Food preferences 76
 Food prices 356
 Food processing plants 41
 Food quality 8, 135
 Food safety 40, 78, 200
 Forage 64, 349
 Foraging 190
 Forest plantations 103, 331
 Fowls 367
 Fractionation 62
 Free range husbandry 190
 Freezing 43
 Gastrin 51
 Gates 82
 Genetic correlation 195
 Genetic covariance 194
 Genetic differences 286
 Genetic engineering 48, 239, 374
 Genetic engineerring 373
 Genetic parameters 196
 Genetics 305
 Genotype environment interaction 197
 Genotypes 47, 106, 122, 153, 223, 233, 364
 Geographical distribution 311
 Georgia 276, 330
 Glucocorticoids 151, 344
 Glucose 232
 Glutathione 340
 Glycogen 8
 Gnrh 138, 286
 Government policy 84
 Government research 305
 Grain drying 160
 Grazing 66, 71, 123, 138, 198, 225, 319, 321, 369
 Grazing behavior 190, 199, 227
 Grazing effects 101, 103, 331
 Grazing time 199, 227
 Great Britain 175, 175, 216, 333, 333, 334
 Grooming 235
 Groundwater 319
 Group size 261
 Groups 136
 Growth 49, 92, 128, 130, 132, 134, 142, 144, 182, 194, 195,
 200, 263, 284, 301, 312, 331, 341
 Growth curve 125
 Growth models 254, 255
 Growth promoters 200, 218, 316
 Growth rate 60, 125, 207, 316
 Guidelines 85, 360
 Haematobia irritans 294
 Hair 347
 Hair follicles 347
 Handbooks, manuals, etc 39, 39
 Handling 10, 21, 32, 45, 56, 57, 58, 60, 93, 111, 117, 118,
 135, 146, 160, 204, 209, 212, 228, 229, 251, 357, 370
 Handling machinery 33
 Haptoglobins 290
 Harvesting 349
 Hay 102
 Heart 274
 Heart diseases 53
 Heart rate 43, 294
 Heat exchangers 293
 Heat production 67, 205, 264
 Heat shock 332, 340
 Heat shock proteins 340
 Heat stability 67
 Heat stress 63, 107, 108, 148, 149, 205, 206, 227, 289, 318,
 330, 335, 340, 361, 367
 Heating 160
 Heating and ventilation 383
 Heating systems 12, 73
 Heifers 51, 52, 88, 97, 143, 180, 232, 234, 263, 279, 364
 Height 143
 Hematology 151
 Herbivores 64
 Herd size 74, 254, 349
 Herd structure 74, 95, 97, 161, 254, 255, 270
 Herds 60, 61, 74
 Hereford 59, 156, 339
 Heritability 195, 196, 207
 Heterosis 97
 Hired labor 179
 Histopathology 368
 History 215, 297, 304, 304, 304, 304
 Holstein-friesian 303
 Hoof and claw diseases 147
 Horizontal resistance 209
 Hormone secretion 143, 230, 286, 332
 Horses 367
 Households 270
 Housing 39, 89, 159, 169, 211, 240, 243, 249, 252, 266, 364,
 383
 Housing density 36, 77
 Humidity 18
 Hydraulic equipment 118
 Hydrocortisone 43, 99, 110, 191, 290
 Hydroquinone 347
 Hygiene 11
 Hypothalamus 191
 Idaho 103
 Immobilization 53
 Immune response 191, 217, 344
 Immunity 217
 Immunization 182
 Immunology 151
 Implantation 115, 124, 133, 157, 158, 316, 339
 Implementation of research 85
 Incidence 88
 India 201, 201, 201
 Indiana 6
 Induction 313
 Infertility 318
 Ingestion toxicity 226
 Inhibitors 332, 340
 Injection 347
 Injuries 88
 Inspection 48, 310
 Instruction 276
 Insulin 143, 182
 Insulin-like growth factor 92, 327
 Intensive livestock farming 7, 15, 72, 147, 322, 358, 360
 Interactions 229
 Intestinal microorganisms 366
 Inventories 95
 Investments 297
 Ionophores 137, 298
 Ions 155
 Iowa 183, 184
 Ireland 135
 Irrigated pastures 163
 Japan 271
 Kansas 3, 52, 121, 241, 242
 Keeping quality 61
 Kentucky 82, 277
 Kenya 270
 Kinship 235
 Kleiber, Hans 1920- 159
 Laboratory animals 323
 Laboratory mammals 374
 Lameness 147
 Land capability 91
 Land clearance 170
 Land use 19
 Landrace 233
 Large white 233
 Lasalocid 298, 299
 Law 215, 356
 Layout 357
 Layout and planning 31, 388
 Lean 167
 Leanness 200
 Lectins 119
 Lesions 327
 Leukocyte count 355
 Leukocytes 122
 Levamisole 217
 Lh 138, 143, 230, 286
 Libido 114, 286
 Lighting 1
 Lipids 104
 Literature reviews 138, 191, 196, 322
 Litter 11, 120, 278, 342, 372
 Live vaccines 338
 Liver 104
 Livestock 2, 4, 5, 9, 10, 11, 12, 18, 22, 24, 26, 27, 29, 53,
 66, 74, 75, 77, 78, 83, 85, 89, 91, 93, 129, 165, 169, 171,
 172, 173, 174, 175, 177, 178, 188, 189, 191, 198, 201, 201,
 203, 211, 212, 214, 215, 216, 220, 221, 228, 237, 239, 240,
 243, 248, 249, 249, 251, 252, 258, 259, 264, 266, 268, 276,
 278, 280, 282, 300, 306, 307, 308, 309, 322, 323, 325, 328,
 333, 345, 346, 348, 352, 353, 356, 357, 362, 370, 372, 373,
 374, 375, 381, 383, 384, 385, 386
 Livestock enterprises 170, 248, 250, 337
 Livestock factories 2, 171, 176, 262, 371
 Livestock farming 6, 14, 16, 260, 297, 360
 Livestock feeding 170, 310, 349
 Livestock housing 4, 68, 77, 87, 162, 224, 250, 265, 271, 311,
 313, 314, 315, 380
 Livestock number 95
 Livestock numbers 19, 80, 255, 270
 Livestock products 248
 Livestock projects 22
 Livestock protection dogs 256
 Livestock sector 15
 Livestock transporters 209, 376
 Liveweight 59, 71, 196, 257
 Liveweight gain 37, 46, 99, 100, 109, 120, 125, 139, 143, 149,
 150, 180, 245, 263, 272, 290, 296, 327, 341, 366, 369, 378,
 387
 Liveweight gains 44, 123, 269
 Loading 209
 Locomotion 24
 Lolium perenne 102
 Longissimus dorsi 246
 Loose housing 291
 Losses 67, 257, 349, 380
 Louisiana 179, 359
 Lymphocyte transformation 191, 340
 Lymphocytes 340, 367
 Maize 119, 130, 134, 145, 321
 Maize silage 225
 Malawi 292
 Male animals 113, 126, 127, 200
 Mali 253
 Mammals 64
 Man 229
 Management 38, 60, 166, 342
 Managers 88
 Mangers 36
 Marginal analysis 80
 Marginal returns 223
 Marketing 204, 241, 242, 248, 333
 Maternal behavior 156
 Maternal effects 51
 Mathematical models 46, 255, 269, 312, 349
 Mating behavior 114
 Mating systems 167
 Meat 193, 219
 Meat and livestock industry 218, 326, 337
 Meat animals 200, 274
 Meat industry and trade 304
 Meat lines 233
 Meat production 200, 325, 326, 360
 Meat quality 59, 61, 111, 113, 131, 233, 274
 Meat yield 135
 Medical treatment 181
 Metabolism 67, 151, 153, 264
 Meteorological factors 269
 Methodology 63, 165
 Microbial contamination 219
 Microclimatology 266
 Milk composition 119
 Milk production 84, 156, 284
 Milk yield 119, 254, 312
 Milking 160
 Mineral metabolism 298
 Minnesota 19
 Mississippi 37, 185
 Missouri 124
 Mixing 355
 Mode of action 298
 Models 271
 Monensin 144, 245, 298
 Montana 150, 199
 Morbidity 112, 272, 283, 358, 366
 Mortality 46, 181, 253, 254, 255, 257, 272, 283, 341, 358,
 366, 377, 387
 Motility 114
 Motors 314, 315
 Movements 10
 Multivariate analysis 19
 Muscle tissue 8, 59
 Muscles 57, 58, 116, 152
 Muslims 334
 National forests 103
 Natural ventilation 271
 Nebraska 121, 149, 289
 Netherlands 168
 Neurotransmitters 230
 Neutrophils 146
 New Mexico 137
 New York 247
 New Zealand 16, 297, 326
 Newborn animals 67, 161
 Newspapers 120, 247, 278, 372
 Nitrites 193
 Nitrogen metabolism 298
 Nitrogen retention 294
 Noise 42
 Nonesterified fatty acids 232
 Norepinephrine 43
 North Dakota 267
 Nutrient content 119
 Nutrient requirements 142, 181
 Nutrition 13, 138
 Nutrition programs 166, 388
 Objectives 125
 Odocoileus Virginianus 281
 Odor abatement 168, 342
 Odor emission 342
 Ohio 71, 128, 130, 132, 134, 142, 144, 275, 296, 349
 Oklahoma 277, 324
 Oleic acid 104
 Ontogeny 77
 Operating costs 179, 238
 Operator comfort 213
 Optimization 47
 Oregon 69, 331
 Organization of research 305
 Organs 49, 339
 Outbreaks 283
 Outturn 255
 Ovariectomized females 180
 Ovariectomy 180
 Ovaries 180
 Oxidoreductases 332
 Oxytocin 318
 Packing-houses 41, 304
 Pain 24, 26, 27, 43, 53, 365
 Parasites 30, 181, 365
 Parasitism 181
 Part time farming 248
 Particle size distribution 285
 Paspalum notatum 123
 Pasteurella haemolytica 121
 Pasteurella multocida 121, 283
 Pasteurellosis 283, 377
 Pastoral society 91
 Pastoralism 16, 74, 91, 270, 297
 Pasture management 13, 102
 Pastures 319
 Pens 133, 149, 231, 244, 287, 289, 358, 389
 Pepsinogen 236
 Perception 11
 Performance 92, 102, 104, 109, 152, 234, 269, 322, 341, 352,
 369
 Performance testing 36, 87, 125, 207, 292
 Perinatal mortality 161
 Peroxidase 332
 Pest control 385
 Ph 8, 50, 61, 111, 116, 131
 Philosophy 15
 Phospholipids 332
 Phylogeny 77
 Physico-chemical properties 57, 58
 Physiology 280
 Pig farming 160
 Pig housing 168, 228, 379
 Pigmeat 325
 Pigmentation 347
 Pigs 25, 70, 95, 135, 217, 218, 233, 293
 Pinus ponderosa 103, 331
 Pituitary 191
 Plane of nutrition 138
 Planning 295
 Plant competition 331
 Plant composition 64
 Plants, Effect of drought on 129, 221
 Plastic nets 296
 Pneumonia 358
 Poisoning 227
 Politics 297
 Polling 140, 365
 Population dynamics 277
 Postmortem examinations 283
 Posture 24
 Postweaning interval 71, 109, 115, 128, 142, 194, 301
 Potassium 299
 Poultry 9, 53, 85, 188
 Poultry farming 160, 253
 Poultry housing 1, 253, 271, 317, 330
 Power lines 42
 Practice 319
 Prediction 254, 311
 Pregnancy 52, 60, 108, 318
 Prepartum period 232
 Prevention 161, 342, 380
 Preweaning period 115, 195, 301
 Prices 324, 341
 Probability 46
 Probiotics 366
 Production 311
 Production costs 28, 80
 Production functions 80
 Production structure 91, 96, 273
 Productivity 74, 167, 242, 254, 255
 Profitability 96, 312
 Profits 312
 Progeny 336
 Progesterone 109, 164, 180, 339
 Propellers 313, 314, 315
 Prostaglandins 318, 332
 Protein digestion 119
 Protein intake 138
 Protein sources 130, 132, 142, 144
 Protein supplements 225, 321, 359
 Protein synthesis 367
 Protein uptake 132
 Proteins 332
 Pseudotsuga menziesii 331
 Psychological needs 11
 Puberty 143
 Public opinion 385
 Public relations 7
 Puerperium 275
 Pyrocatechol 347
 Quality product 250
 Quebec 35, 293
 Queensland 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 365
 Range management 91, 101, 169
 Range pastures 320
 Rangifer tarandus 337
 Recycling 247
 Reflection 330
 Reflexes 25
 Regrowth 64
 Regulation 332
 Regulations 200, 214, 238, 297
 Religious aspects 334
 Reproduction 196, 248, 255, 335
 Reproductive efficiency 138
 Reproductive performance 136, 254
 Research 228, 239, 373
 Research policy 250, 337
 Research support 305
 Resistance 196
 Resource exploitation 273
 Respiration rate 205, 294
 Respiratory diseases 69, 121, 154, 181, 272, 338
 Responses 387
 Rest 50, 57, 58
 Restraint of animals 93, 94, 110, 118, 165, 351, 381
 Restricted feeding 245
 Retinol 138
 Returns 21, 46, 349
 Ribs 246
 Rice straw 59
 Risk 19, 96
 Road transport 376, 377
 Roofs 330
 Roots 331
 Rotation 137
 Rotational grazing 281
 Rotational speed 315
 Roughage 145, 234, 296
 Rumen 121
 Rumen bacteria 150
 Rumen digestion 119, 130, 264
 Rumen metabolism 298
 Ruminants 264
 Rump 246
 Runoff water 183
 Safety at work 214
 Sahel 91
 Salers 229
 Salmonella typhimurium 368
 Salmonellosis 368
 Sanitation 316
 Saskatchewan 347
 Scales 24
 Schools 276
 Scotland 269
 Screens 149
 Scrotum 114
 Seasonal variation 139, 199
 Secale cereale 102
 Secondary metabolites 64
 Secretion 318
 Seedlings 103
 Selection criteria 322, 348
 Semen 21
 Semen characters 114, 335
 Senses 370
 Sensory evaluation 100, 152
 Sexual behavior 114, 136, 158, 200
 Sexual development 286
 Shading 133
 Shear strength 152, 279
 Shearing 228
 Sheep 20, 93, 101, 118, 138, 198, 228, 367
 Shehitah 334
 Shelter 269, 320, 388
 Shelterbelts 3
 Shelters 352, 387
 Shock 380
 Shorthorn 59, 60, 111
 Sikhs 334
 Silage 128, 130, 134, 145, 359
 Silvopastoral systems 103
 Simmental 336
 Simulation models 19, 277, 311
 Sires 263
 Size 114, 125, 287
 Skin 347
 Skin temperature 43
 Skinning 152
 Slatted floors 34, 36, 147
 Slaughter 8, 47, 50, 57, 58, 94, 116, 117, 135, 165, 204, 215,
 219, 233, 242, 370, 386
 Slaughter weight 167, 223
 Slaughtering and slaughter-houses 41, 75, 216, 328
 Slaughtering and slaughterhouses 334
 Slaughtering equipment 93, 165
 Small farms 292
 Snow cover 345
 Social behavior 355
 Social interaction 235
 Social structure 235
 Socioeconomic status 356
 Soil test values 319
 Soil water 331
 Solar collectors 12
 Solar energy 12
 Solar heating 12, 265
 Somatoliberin 182
 Somatotropin 78, 92, 143, 218, 327
 Sources 234
 South Africa 336
 South America 101
 South Dakota 14, 68, 120, 225, 245
 Southern states of U.S.A. 305
 Soviet Union 240, 266, 266, 266, 383, 383
 Soybean husks 119
 Soybean oilmeal 225, 321
 Soybean soapstock 119
 Soybeans 130, 132, 142, 225, 359
 Space requirements 36, 45, 162, 377
 Spacing 45
 Spatial distribution 235
 Species 248
 Species differences 258, 367
 Spermatozoa 114
 Spraying 361
 Spumavirinae 338
 Stables 169
 Stalls 292
 Standards 317
 Statistical data 242
 Statistics 241
 Steaks 126, 127
 Steers 13, 44, 49, 61, 92, 100, 102, 104, 105, 109, 115, 133,
 152, 157, 182, 222, 244, 263, 290, 294, 299, 327, 339, 359,
 378
 Stimulation 57
 Stochastic processes 19
 Stocking rate 82
 Stockmen 357
 Stockyards 304
 Stomoxys calcitrans 148, 149, 289, 294
 Storage 160, 349
 Straw 120
 Straw cobs 267
 Stray voltage 42
 Stress 4, 10, 11, 20, 25, 43, 49, 50, 51, 57, 58, 61, 99, 105,
 106, 110, 111, 112, 115, 116, 121, 122, 126, 127, 146, 150,
 151, 153, 155, 157, 165, 166, 190, 191, 194, 195, 196, 217,
 230, 233, 236, 244, 257, 294, 301, 344, 346, 351, 352, 353,
 355, 363, 365, 368, 376, 377, 388
 Stress (Physiology) 362
 Stress factors 14, 197, 283, 370
 Stress response 272, 332, 366
 Structural change 19, 80, 273, 297
 Stunning 25, 53, 93, 214, 216, 274
 Subcutaneous fat 104
 Sucklings 364
 Sugarcane bagasse 369
 Sulfadimethoxine 69
 Summer 50, 133
 Sunflowers 225
 Supplementary feeding 155
 Supplies 302
 Supply response 95
 Support measures 297
 Surpluses 78
 Survival 107
 Susceptibility 258
 Sympathetic nervous system 191
 Symptoms 214
 Synchronization 21
 Synthetic hormones 152
 Systems 73, 295
 Tannins 64
 Techniques 342
 Technological innovations 159, 159
 Technology transfers 91
 Temperament 60, 61, 357
 Temperature 18
 Tenderness 61, 111, 152, 279
 Tennessee 277
 Testes 286
 Testosterone 286
 Tetany 257
 Texas 281
 Texture 126
 Therapy 181
 Thermal neutrality 205
 Thermodynamics 269
 Thermoregulation 62, 199
 Thiabendazole 217
 Thiamin 227
 Three dimensional models 345
 Thyroid hormones 339
 Timing 161
 Torque 314
 Traditional farming 229
 Traditions 270
 Trailers 209
 Training 357
 Training courses 246
 Traits 194, 322
 Transdermal application 347
 Transfer 51
 Transgenic animals 374
 Transport 105, 126, 127, 135, 150, 151, 154, 166, 228, 236,
 257, 287
 Transport of animals 45, 58, 110, 122, 141, 146, 153, 155,
 157, 204, 209, 213, 233, 251, 272, 353, 366, 375, 376, 377
 Transportation 56, 307, 307
 Treatment 272, 366
 Trenbolone 100, 109, 124, 222, 378
 Trichostrongylidae 236
 Trifolium 102
 Tropics 196, 301
 Trucks 213
 Twins 156, 312
 Types 253, 363
 U.S.A. 40, 46, 80, 163, 209, 215, 325, 385, 386
 Ultrasonic devices 228
 Ultrasonic fat meters 246
 Ultrasonography 246
 United States 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 48, 54, 54, 84,
 84, 84, 129, 129, 129, 174, 174, 220, 220, 220, 221, 221, 221,
 221, 221, 239, 239, 304, 304, 304, 304, 373, 373
 University research 276
 Unsaturated fatty acids 104
 Urea 132, 142, 143, 182, 225, 321
 Utilization 218
 Vaccination 46, 140, 275, 310
 Vaccines 302
 Vasopressin 191
 Veal calves 17
 Veal industry 23, 350
 Vegetables 160
 Vegetation management 331
 Velvet 326
 Venezuela 287
 Venison 116, 326
 Ventilation 12, 18, 70, 73, 89, 160, 265, 293, 313, 314, 315,
 330, 348, 379
 Vertebrate pests 385
 Veterinarians 27, 384
 Veterinary hygiene 249, 252
 Veterinary medicine 118, 309
 Veterinary physiology 249
 Veterinary practice 384
 Veterinary services 179
 Viability 337
 Vibration 213
 Videotapes 251
 Viral diseases 338
 Virginia 287
 Viruses 121
 Vision 55
 Vocalization 25
 Volatile fatty acids 119
 Washington 319
 Wastage 88
 Waste disposal 168, 184, 379
 Waste treatment 342
 Wastes 342
 Water 1, 361
 Water holding capacity 61
 Water intake 163
 Water policy 163
 Water pollution 6, 319
 Water quality 6
 Water requirements 163
 Water stress 331
 Water troughs 267
 Water use 163
 Weaning 68, 106, 110, 122, 153, 365
 Weaning weight 312, 364
 Weed control 319
 Weight gain 133, 148, 222, 289, 292
 Weight losses 105, 141, 353, 377
 West Virginia 96
 Wildlife management 385
 Wind protection 345
 Windbreaks 267, 388
 Winter 13, 50, 123, 190, 199, 232, 269, 349, 388
 Wire 317
 Woody plants 64
 World 325
 Yields 255
 Zebu 110, 196, 286
 Zebu breeds 284
 Zebu cattle 122
 Zeranol 49, 109, 115, 124, 126, 127, 157, 158
 Zimbabwe 283
 


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