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Housing, Husbandry, and Welfare of Dairy Cattle

Animal Welfare Information Center
United States Department of Agriculture
National Agricultural Library

ISSN: 1052-5378

Quick Bibliography Series, QB 95-15
January 1985 - March 1995

Updated by: Information Resources on the Care and Welfare of Dairy Cattle, 1996-2002

Compiled By:
D'Anna J.B. Jensen
Animal Welfare Information Center, Information Centers Branch
National Agricultural Library, Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture
10301 Baltimore Ave., Beltsville, Maryland 20705-2351


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National Agricultural Library Cataloging Record:

 Jensen, D'Anna J.B.
   Housing, husbandry, and welfare of dairy cattle.
   (Quick bibliography series ; 95-15)
   1.Dairy cattle--Bibliography. I. Title.
 aZ5071.N3 no.95-15
 

Search Strategy

 Set    Description
 
 S1     DAIR? AND (BOVINE OR BOS OR COW? OR BULL?? OR STEER??
        OR HEIFER? OR CALK OR CALVE?? OR CATTLE)
 S2     S1 AND SH=(L100 OR L300 OR N100)
 S3     S2 AND (HOUS? OR FACILIT? OR STRUCT? OR PEN?? OR
        STALL?? OR CONFIN? OR STANCHION?? OR FREE(W)STALL? OR
        PARLOR?)
 S4     S1 AND STRESS?
 S5     S4 NOT SH=L500
 S6     S1 AND (WELFARE OR WELL(W)BEING OR HUMANE OR HANDL? OR
        CARE)
 S7     (S3+S5+S6)
 S8     S7 AND PY=1985:1995
 S9     RD (unique items)
 

 1                                    NAL Call. No.: SF196.U5A8
 1987 heat-stress trials in Saudi Arabia.
 Armstrong, D.V.; Wise, M.E.
 Tucson, Ariz. : The Service; 1987 Jun.
 Arizona dairy newsletter - University of Arizona, Cooperative
 Extension Service. p. 2; 1987 Jun.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Saudi arabia; Dairy cows; Heat stress; Milk
 production; Lactation; Cooling
 
 
 2                                  NAL Call. No.: S544.3.V8V52
 4-H dairy project 1.
 Hartman, D.A.
 Blacksburg, Va. : Extension Division, Virginia Polytechnic
 Institute and State University; 1991.
 Publication - Virginia Cooperative Extension Service
 (404-777): 19 p.; 1991.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: 4-h clubs; Calves; Selection; Calf feeding; Calf
 diseases; Calf housing; Dehorning; Teats
 
 
 3                                     NAL Call. No.: 100 M69MI
 Advanced techniques practiced at new dairy research unit.
 Broadway, R.
 Mississippi State, Miss. : The Station; 1988 Apr.
 MAFES research highlights - Mississippi Agricultural and
 Forestry Experiment Station v. 51 (4): p. 8. ill; 1988 Apr.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mississippi; Experimental stations; Farm dairies;
 Milking; Cow housing; Programmed feed dispensers
 
 
 4                                     NAL Call. No.: 58.8 C164
 Air quality in six Alberta commercial free-stall dairy barns.
 Clark, P.C.; McQuitty, J.B.
 Ottawa : Canadian Society of Agricultural Engineering; 1987
 Jan. Canadian agricultural engineering v. 29 (1): p. 77-80;
 1987 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alberta; Barns; Cow housing; Air quality; Carbon
 dioxide; Ammonia; Hydrogen sulfide; Dust; Moisture;
 Ventilation
 
 
 5                                   NAL Call. No.: S539.5.R473
 All year housing of dairy cows.
 Poole, D.A.
 Harlow, Essex : Longman; 1987.
 Research and development in agriculture v. 4 (2): p. 77-81.
 ill; 1987. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Cow housing; Feed intake; Milk
 production
 
 
 6                                     NAL Call. No.: aTD930.Y6
 Alternatives for dairy manure management.
 Young, C. Edwin; Alwang, Jeffrey R.; Crowder, Bradley M.
 United States, Dept. of Agriculture, Natural Resource
 Economics Division Washington, D.C. : United States Dept. of
 Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Natural Resourse
 Economics Division,; 1986.
 vi, 35 p. ; 28 cm.. (ERS staff report ; no. AGES 860422). 
 Cover title. Bibliography: p. 28.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Manure; Handling; Dairy cattle;
 Manure; Management; Manures; Management; Agricultural wastes;
 Environmental aspects; United States
 
 
 7                                    NAL Call. No.: S540.S7K36
 Analysis of a two lactation target animal safety study of
 somidobove sustained release injection in multiparous dairy
 cows.
 Tonkinson, L.V.; Basson, R.P.; McGuffey, R.K.; Deldar, A.;
 Fisher, L. Manhattan, Kan. : Dept. of Statistics, Kansas State
 University; 1989. Proceedings of the ... Kansas State
 University conference on applied statistics in agriculture. p.
 34-36; 1989.  Meeting held April 30 - May 2, 1989, Manhattan,
 Kansas.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Dairy cows; Somatotropin; Lactation;
 Animal welfare; Dosage effects
 
 
 8                                    NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Analysis of equipotential plane installations.
 Kammel, D.W.; Jones, B.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1987.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche
 collection) (fiche no. 87-3037): 12 p. ill; 1987.  Paper
 presented at the 1987 Summer Meeting of the American Society
 of Agricultural Engineers. Available for purchase from: The
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950
 Niles Road, St. Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order
 Dept. at (616) 429-0300 for information and prices.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Cattle housing; Planes;
 Installations; Facilities; Electric current; Costs
 
 
 9                                     NAL Call. No.: 281.8 C16
 An analysis of the structural and welfare effects of bovine
 somatotropin on the Ontario dairy industry.
 Oxley, J.; Fox, G.; Moschini, G.
 Ottawa : Canadian Agricultural Economics and Farm Management
 Society; 1989 Nov.
 Canadian journal of agricultural economics; Revue Canadienne
 d'economie rurale v. 37 (3): p. 393-406; 1989 Nov.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ontario; Dairy industry; Somatotropin; Structural
 change; Welfare economics; Technology; Economic impact; Farm
 surveys; Quotas; Simulation models; Surpluses; Innovation
 adoption
 
 
 10                                    NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Analytical tools for material and energy balance, cash flow,
 and environmental loads in a dairy cattle enterprise.
 Saama, P.M.; Koenig, B.E.; Koenig, H.E.; Anderson, J.H.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1994
 Apr. Journal of dairy science v. 77 (4): p. 994-1002; 1994
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy farming; Computer software; Systems
 analysis; Network analysis; Material balance; Energy balance;
 Externalities
 
 Abstract:  Analytical tools for the preconstruction technical
 design and postconstruction management of a dairy enterprise
 are presented. The enterprise is represented as a network of
 production processes with alternative operating technologies
 and scale of operation as technical parameters of
 environmental loads and cash flow. The operating technologies
 of the network are represented by material conversion
 coefficients and energetic cost functions. Generalized laws of
 material and energy balance are used to define an on-line
 management accounting system for recording resource and
 product flows, physical energy, and human time involved in the
 production process. Cash flow and value added are computed
 from the technologies of the network, prices of material and
 energetic resources, and costs of operating facilities. A
 microcomputer application was developed to evaluate the
 environmental loads and the economic consequences of
 alternative technologies, product prices, and amortization
 schedules for facility and equipment costs. The concepts and
 analytical tools presented for the design and management of
 dairy enterprises provide a framework through which scientists
 across disciplines and producers across product lines can work
 together to increase overall farm profitability and to reduce
 environmental loads.
 
 
 11                                   NAL Call. No.: SF241.L8N6
 Anatomy and physiology of the udder.
 Nickerson, S.C.
 Homer, La. : The Station; 1992.
 Dairy research report - Louisiana Agricultural Experiment
 Station. p. 159-176; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Udders; Teats; Animal anatomy;
 Mammary glands; Mammary tissue; Mammary development; Milk
 synthesis; Milk secretion; Milk ejection; Milk yield; Milking
 
 
 12                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V6456
 Animal husbandry review.
 Ewer, T.K.
 London : Scientechnica; 1988.
 The Veterinary annual v. 28: p. 1-22. ill; 1988.  Literature
 review.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Sheep; Pigs; Animal husbandry; Animal
 feeding; Diets; Concentrates; Hay; Silage; Forage; Animal
 breeding; Pig housing
 
 
 13                                     NAL Call. No.: SF191.D3
 Animal rights.
 Clark, E.
 Minnetonka, Minn. : Miller Publishing Company; 1988 Aug.
 Dairy herd management v. 25 (8): p. 4; 1988 Aug.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Animal welfare; Cattle husbandry
 
 
 14                                     NAL Call. No.: SF191.D3
 Animal rights.
 Minnetonka, Minn. : Miller Publishing Company; 1988 Dec.
 Dairy herd management v. 25 (12): p. 8-10, 12, 14-15. ill;
 1988 Dec.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Dairy herds; Animal welfare; Animal
 husbandry; Cattle housing; Dairy legislation; Public opinion;
 Abuse; Politics
 
 
 15                                    NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Antibiotic residue prevention methods, farm management, and
 occurrence of antibiotic residues in milk.
 McEwen, S.A.; Black, W.D.; Meek, A.H.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1991
 Jul. Journal of dairy science v. 74 (7): p. 2128-2137; 1991
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Milk; Antibiotic residues; Dairy farms; Milking
 parlors; Questionnaires; Dairying; Farm management; Prevention
 
 Abstract:  The objective of this study was to determine
 associations among the occurrence of antibiotic residues in
 bulk milk and various farm management practices. Ninety-four
 dairy farms were visited after antibiotic residues were
 detected in samples of their bulk milk (case farms) along with
 an equal number of residue-free farms (controls). Farmers
 completed questionnaires designed to elicit details of
 management practices used on farms and methods employed for
 prevention of antibiotic residues. Factors were initially
 examined unconditionally for statistical association with
 occurrence of residues; then multivariate associations were
 determined using multiple logistic regression. After adjusting
 for herd size in a logistic model, the risk of residues in
 milk was observed to increase in association with the frequent
 use of part-time labor in the milking of cows. The risk of
 residue occurrence was decreased in association with the use
 of milk residue test kits, when the farmer believed that
 increasing the dose of antibiotic required an increase in the
 withholding time of milk, and when tie stall and pipeline
 milking systems were used rather than milking parlors or tie
 stall and dumping station systems.
 
 
 16                                 NAL Call. No.: SF5.I57 1986
 Applications of hormone radioimmunoassays on studies of
 environment and reproduction interactions in large ruminants.
 Thatcher, W.W.; Collier, R.J.; Drost, M.; Putney, J.; Beede,
 D.K.; Wilcox, C.J.
 Vienna : International Atomic Energy Agency; 1986.
 Nuclear and related techniques in animal production and health
 : proceedings of an International Symposium / jointly
 organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency ... [et
 al.].. p. 41-55; 1986. (Proceedings series).  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Heat stress; Estrous cycle;
 Reproductive performance; Hormones; Radioimmunoassay;
 Environmental factors
 
 
 17                                     NAL Call. No.: SF601.T7
 Assessment of heat stress in dairy cattle in Papua New Guinea.
 Lemerle, C.; Goddard, M.E.
 Edinburgh : Scottish Academic Press; 1986 Nov.
 Tropical animal health and production v. 18 (4): p. 232-242;
 1986 Nov. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Papua new guinea; Dairy cattle; Heat stress;
 Assessment; Dairy breeds; Environmental temperature
 
 
 18                                  NAL Call. No.: SF967.M3N32
 Automatic cow sorting system.
 Carrano, J.A.
 Arlington, Va. : The Council; 1994.
 Annual meeting /. p. 115-123; 1994.  Meeting held on January
 31-February 2, 1994, Orlando, Florida.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Sorting; Automation; Planning; Farm
 dairies; Farm surveys
 
 
 19                                    NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 An automatic system for auantification of eating and
 ruminating activities of dairy cattle housed in stalls.
 Beauchemin, K.A.; Zelin, S.; Genner, D.; Buchanan-Smith, J.G.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1989
 Oct. Journal of dairy science v. 72 (10): p. 2746-2759. ill;
 1989 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Quantitative techniques; Automation;
 Measurement; Feeding behavior; Rumination
 
 
 20                               NAL Call. No.: aSF208.A7 1985
 Avoiding drug residues in cull dairy cows., [Rev. Dec. 1985]..
 United States, Dept. of Agriculture, Washington State
 University Washington, D.C.? : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture in
 cooperation with the Washington State University,; 1985; A
 1.2-D 84.
 7 p. : ill. ; 23 x 10 cm.  Cover title.  Shipping list no.:
 86-96-P. Bibliography: p. 7.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Veterinary pharmacology; Dairy cattle; Handling;
 Safety measures; Dairy cattle; Inspection; Dairying; United
 States; Growth promoting substances
 
 
 21                                     NAL Call. No.: SF191.D3
 Bedding them down.
 Annexstad, J.
 Minnetonka, Minn. : Miller Publishing Company; 1990 May.
 Dairy herd management v. 27 (5): p. 14-15. ill; 1990 May.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Cow housing
 
 
 22                                     NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Behavior and maze learning ability of dairy calves as
 influenced by housing, sex and sire.
 Arave, C.W.; Lamb, R.C.; Arambel, M.J.; Purcell, D.; Walters,
 J.L. Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1992 May.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 33 (2/3): p. 149-163; 1992
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Calves; Dairy cattle; Animal behavior; Learning
 ability; Cattle housing; Sex differences; Sires; Environmental
 factors; Genetic effects
 
 
 23                                  NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Behavior of dairy calves reared in hutches as affected by
 temperature. Brunsvold, R.E.; Cramer, C.O.; Larsen, H.J.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1985 Jul.
 Transactions of the ASAE - American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers v. 28 (4): p. 1265-1268; 1985 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Calves; Animal behavior; Cattle
 housing; Temperature relations
 
 
 24                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 C163
 Behavioral and physiological responses to spatial novelty in
 dairy cows. Kondo, S.; Hurnik, J.F.
 Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada; 1988 Jun.
 Canadian journal of animal science v. 68 (2): p. 339-343; 1988
 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Agonistic behavior; Heart rate;
 Temperament; Stalls; Housing area
 
 
 25                                     NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Behaviour of dairy cows kept in extensive (loose
 housing/pasture) or intensive (tie stall) environments. I.
 Experimental procedure, facilities, time budgets--diurnal and
 seasonal conditions.
 Krohn, C.C.; Munksgaard, L.; Jonasen, B.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1992 Jul.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 34 (1/2): p. 37-47; 1992
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Extensive livestock farming;
 Intensive livestock farming; Weather; Seasons; Loose housing;
 Stalls; Animal behavior; Walking; Feeding preferences
 
 
 26                                     NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Behaviour of dairy cows kept in extensive (loose
 housing/pasture) or intensive (tie stall) environments. II.
 Lying and lying-down behaviour. Krohn, C.C.; Munksgaard, L.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1993 Jun.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 37 (1): p. 1-16; 1993 Jun. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Animal behavior; Extensive livestock
 farming; Intensive livestock farming
 
 
 27                                NAL Call. No.: DISS F1991016
 Behaviour of dairy cows under modern housing and management.
 Wierenga, H. K.
 1991; 1991.
 173 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.  Summary in Dutch.  "Stellingen" ([2]
 p.) inserted. Includes vita.  Includes bibliographical
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 
 28                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Behaviour of lame and normal dairy cows in cubicles and in a
 straw yard. Singh, S.S.; Ward, W.R.; Lautenbach, K.; Murray,
 R.D.
 London : The British Veterinary Association; 1993 Aug28.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 133 (9): p. 204-208; 1993 Aug28.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Animal behavior; Lameness; Cattle
 housing; Cubicles
 
 
 29                               NAL Call. No.: SF201.R47 1987
 Behaviour, production and welfare in relation to animal
 density for dairy cows in loose housing.
 Krohn, C.C.; Konggaard, S.P.
 Copenhagen : Landhusholdningsselkabets Forlag; 1987.
 Research in cattle production : Danish status and perspectives
 : contribution in honor of A. Neimann-Sorensen, 1 May 1987 /
 [B. Bech Andersen ... et al.].. p. 160-168; 1987.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Denmark; Dairy cows; Animal behavior; Animal
 welfare; Cow housing; Housing density; Loose housing
 
 
 30                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 AN55
 Biochemical and physiological responses to metabolic stimuli
 in Friesian calves of differing genetic merit for milk
 production.
 Sinnett-Smith, P.A.; Slee, J.; Woolliams, J.A.
 Neston, South Wirral, England : British Society of Animal
 Production; 1987 Feb.
 Animal production v. 44 (pt.1): p. 11-19; 1987 Feb.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Calves; Genetic differences; Holstein-friesian;
 Metabolites; Insulin; Dairy performance; Milk production;
 Sodium propionate; Fasting; Energy balance; Cold stress
 
 
 31                                  NAL Call. No.: HD1773.A3N6
 A bioeconomic analysis of bovine respiratory disease complex.
 Nyamusika, N.; Spreen, T.H.; Rae, O.; Moss, C.
 Manhattan, Kan. : Department of Agricultural Economics, Kansas
 State University; 1994 Jan.
 Review of agricultural economics v. 16 (1): p. 39-53; 1994
 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Cabt; Beef cattle; Calf production;
 Bovine respiratory syncytial virus; Disease control;
 Vaccination; Returns; Economic analysis; Mathematical models;
 Mortality; Liveweight gain; Agricultural regions; Probability
 
 Abstract:  Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex (BRDC) is an
 important disease affecting both beef and dairy cattle
 produced in confinement operations. A bioeconomic model of
 BRDC is developed for a typical Midwestern feedlot. Using
 vaccine efficacy rates found in the veterinary science
 literature, significant returns to vaccination are estimated.
 
 
 32                               NAL Call. No.: SF206.B57 1991
 BMfLuF, Abt. II A 4 und BAL Gumpenstein kleine
 Rinderlaufstalle--Schwerpunkt Milchvieh : Bericht uber die
 Tagung "Kleine Rinderlaufstalle--Schwerpunkt Milchvieh", BAL
 Gumpenstein, 25.-26. September 1990, A-8952 Irdning  [BMfLuF,
 Abt. II A 4 and BAL Gumpenstein.  small loose boxes for
 cattle, an emphasis for dairy cattle]..  Bericht uber die
 Tagung "Kleine
 Rinderlaufstalle--Schwerpunkt Milchvieh" vom 25. bis 26.
 September 1990 Kleine Rinderlaufstalle--Schwerpunkt Milchvieh
 small loose boxes for cattle, an emphasis for dairy cattle
 Bundesanstalt fur Alpenlandische Landwirtschaft Gumpenstein
 Gumpenstein, Irdning : Bundesanstalt fur alpenlandische
 Landwirtschaft,; 1991. vi, 85 p. : ill. ; 30 cm.  Cover title:
 Bericht uber die Tagung "Kleine Rinderlaufstalle--Schwerpunkt
 Milchvieh" vom 25. bis 26. September 1990. Includes
 bibliographical references.
 
 Language:  German
 
 Descriptors: Cattle
 
 
 33                                     NAL Call. No.: SF221.H3
 Bovine somatotropin.
 Lee, C.N.
 Honolulu : The Service; 1987 Jan.
 Hawaii dairy newsletter - Hawaii Cooperative Extension
 Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture v. 2 (1): p. 1-5; 1987 Jan.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Somatotropin; Lactation; Heat stress
 
 
 34                                    NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Bovine somatotropin: biotechnology product and social issue in
 the United States dairy industry.
 Molnar, J.J.; Cummins, K.A.; Nowak, P.F.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1990
 Nov. Journal of dairy science v. 73 (11): p. 3084-3093; 1990
 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Somatotropin; Milk production; Biotechnology;
 Innovation adoption; Economic impact; Dairy industry;
 Structural change; Farm structure; Technical progress;
 Location of production; Politics; Food safety; Milk supply;
 Price support; Subsidies
 
 
 35                                    NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Bovine somatotropin: review of an emerging animal technolgoy.
 Bauman, D.E.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1992
 Dec. Journal of dairy science v. 75 (12): p. 3432-3451; 1992
 Dec.  Literature review.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Somatotropin; Milk yield; Dosage
 effects; Literature reviews; Milk composition; Production
 costs; Lactation; Economic impact
 
 Abstract:  One of the first potential biotechnology products
 for animal production is bST. Research in the technology of
 bST has involved scientists and support from federal agencies,
 universities, and private industry. As a consequence of this
 extensive cooperation, more than 1000 bST studies have been
 conducted, which involved over 20,000 dairy cows, and results
 have been confirmed by scientists throughout the world. This
 quantity of published research is unprecedented for a new
 technology and greater than most dairy technologies in use. In
 contrast to steroids, bST is a protein hormone. Milk yield and
 persistency responses to bST have been observed for all dairy
 breeds examined. Quality of management is the major factor
 affecting magnitude of milk response to bST. The mechanism of
 action of bST involves a series of orchestrated changes in the
 metabolism of body tissues so that more nutrients can be used
 for milk synthesis. it is these coordinated changes that allow
 the arrival to achieve an increased milk yield while remaining
 normal and healthy. Bioenergetic studies demonstrated that
 bST-supplemented animals are not stressed. Similarly, there
 are no adverse health effects from bST even under poor
 management conditions. Composition of milk (fat, protein,
 lactose, cholesterol, minerals, and vitamins) is not
 substantially altered when bST is used and does not differ in
 manufacturing characteristics. Public perception is of
 paramount importance bST or any new technology is to be
 effectively implemented. New technology must be understood and
 perceived as safe and beneficial both by farmers, who would
 utilize it, and consumers, who would purchase the dairy
 products. With bST use, a unit of milk is produced with less
 feed and protein supplement and with a reduction in animal
 excreta (manure, urine, and methane). Nationally, the use of
 bST simply reinforces, but does not fundamentally change,
 dairy industry trends of increased milk yield per cow, reduced
 number of cows, and decl
 
 
 36                                  NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Calculating required dairy manure storage volume.
 Moore, J.A.; Baker, E.S.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1985 Mar.
 Transactions of the ASAE - American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers v. 28 (2): p. 547-550. ill; 1985 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle manure; Dairy cattle; Storage equipment;
 Manure spreading
 
 
 37                               NAL Call. No.: SF239.I45 1985
 Calf care and raising young stock., [Rev.].
 Ames, Iowa : The Service; 1985.
 Illinois-Iowa dairy handbook / University of Illinois at
 Urbana-Champaign [and] Iowa State University at Ames,
 Cooperative Extension Service. 49 p. ill; 1985.  Hoard's
 Dairyman, 1982.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Calves; Cattle husbandry; Calf
 housing; Animal feeding; Animal health
 
 
 38                                  NAL Call. No.: S544.3.O5O5
 Calf hutches for dairy calves.
 Richardson, C.W.
 Stillwater, Okla. : The Service; 1991 Feb.
 OSU extension facts - Cooperative Extension Service, Oklahoma
 State University v.): 4 p.; 1991 Feb.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Calf housing; Disease prevention;
 Animal health
 
 
 39                                   NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 California dairy corral manger mister installation.
 Shultz, T.A.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1988.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche
 collection) (fiche no. 88-4056): 8 p. ill; 1988.  Paper
 presented at the 1988 Summer Meeting of the American Society
 of Agricultural Engineers. Available for purchase from: The
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950
 Niles Road, St. Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order
 Dept. at (616) 429-0300 for information and prices.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Cow housing; Fence lines; Mangers;
 Mists; Design; Installations; Heat stress; Cooling
 
 
 40                                   NAL Call. No.: HD1401.A47
 Canadian dairy policy and the returns to federal dairy cattle
 research. Fox, G.; Roberts, B.; Brinkman, G.L.
 Amsterdam ; New York : Elsevier, c1986-; 1992 Feb.
 Agricultural economics : the journal of the International
 Association of Agricultural Economists v. 6 (3): p. 267-285;
 1992 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Canada; Cabt; Dairy cattle; Dairy research;
 Federal government; Research support; Supply functions;
 Returns; Price policy; Time series; Price elasticities
 
 Abstract:  The economic surplus approach is used to estimate
 the returns to federal investments in dairy cattle research in
 Canada. A national supply function is estimated using time
 series data. Lagged research expenditures are included as
 explanatory variables in the model, facilitating the
 calculation of marginal as well as average benefits from
 research. Simulation analysis is used to study the effects of
 product market distortions associated with Canadian dairy
 policy as well as of the marginal excess burden on the rates
 of return to research and on the distribution of research
 benefits. Returns were found to be high at the margin.
 Distortions in the product market had a small effect on the
 overall returns to dairy cattle research but had a large
 impact on the distribution of research benefits. Rate of
 return estimates were found to be indicative of
 underinvestment even when the marginal excess burden was taken
 into account.
 
 
 41                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R3224
 A case of teat tramping in dairy cows.
 Luescher, U.A.; McKeown D.B.
 Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1989 Apr.
 The Canadian veterinary journal v. 30 (4): p. 356; 1989 Apr.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Teats; Injuries; Behavior problems;
 Cow housing
 
 
 42                                   NAL Call. No.: QP251.A1T5
 Cesarean section in dairy cattle: a study of risk factors.
 Barkema, H.W.; Schukken, Y.H.; Guard, C.L.; Brand, A.; Weyden,
 G.C. van der Stoneham, Mass. : Butterworth-Heinemann; 1992
 Feb.
 Theriogenology v. 37 (2): p. 489-506; 1992 Feb.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Caesarean section; Dystocia; Risk;
 Incidence; Beef bulls; Sires; Lactation number; Age at first
 calving; Cattle breeds; Calving interval; Gestation period;
 Dry period; Heifers
 
 Abstract:  Cesarean sections were studied on 35 Dutch dairy
 farms using data collected through a routine herd health and
 production control program. Over a period of 8 years and 9
 months there were 198 cesarean sections out of a total of
 15,051 calvings. The 198 cesarean sections were compared with
 a referent group of 841 calvings that was randomly selected
 from the original 15,051 calvings. A population-based, case-
 referent study design was used to investigate risk factors for
 cesarean section. Risk factors for cesarean section consisted
 of first parity, single male calf, long gestation period, long
 interval between first service and conception, long dry
 period, sired by a bull of double-muscled structure or
 Piedmont bull, under 730 days of age at first calving, and
 having a previous cesarean section. A short dry period and a
 short gestation were protective factors.
 
 
 43                                    NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Changes in fat and protein concentrations in farms with high
 milk production. Agabriel, C.; Coulon, J.B.; Marty, G.;
 Bonaiti, B.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1993
 Mar. Journal of dairy science v. 76 (3): p. 734-741; 1993 Mar. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Milk composition; Dairy farms; Milk
 fat; Milk protein; Dairy herds; Milk production; Seasonal
 fluctuations
 
 Abstract:  Seventy-six dairy farms composed of high producing
 (6200 to 8800 kg/yr) Montbeliarde cows that were fed hay-based
 rations were included in a detailed survey involving the herd
 and the farm structure, quality of forage, winter and summer
 feeding practices, and genetic characteristics (breeding value
 and herd effect for milk production, fat concentration, and
 protein concentration). These data permitted analysis of the
 variations of milk composition among farms. The mean annual
 fat and protein concentrations varied greatly among farms in
 spite of the homogeneity of the farm sample with regard to
 milk produced, breed, and type of winter roughage. Such
 variability results essentially from environmental factors.
 When farms were classified according to their level of herd
 effect (fat or protein concentrations), 1) protein
 concentration variations were greater in winter and linked to
 different feed characteristics (hay quality, type of
 concentrate), and 2) variations in fat concentration among
 farm groups were as marked, if not more so, in summer than in
 winter. These variations are only partly linked to feeding
 practices that are beneficial or detrimental to fat
 concentration (presence of sugar beet in the ration,
 concentrate distribution method). No correlation occurred
 between fat and protein herd effects. Therefore, these two
 variables may be controlled independently by manipulating
 environmental factors (especially feeding factors).
 
 
 44                                    NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Clinical mastitis in cows treated with sometribove
 (recombinant bovine somatotropin) and its relationship to milk
 yield.
 White, T.C.; Madsen, K.S.; Hintz, R.L.; Sorbet, R.H.; Collier,
 R.J.; Hard, D.L.; Hartnell, G.F.; Samuels, W.A.; Kerchove, G.
 de; Adriaens, F. Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science
 Association; 1994 Aug. Journal of dairy science v. 77 (8): p.
 2249-2260; 1994 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Cabt; Europe; Cabt; Dairy cows; Bovine
 mastitis; Somatotropin; Milk yield; Lactation stage; Animal
 welfare; Genetic effects; Risk; Literature reviews
 
 Abstract:  Effect of sometribove (methionyl bovine
 somatotropin) on mastitis in 15 full lactation trials (914
 cows) in Europe and the US and 70 short-term studies (2697
 cows) in eight countries was investigated. In full lactation
 studies, sometribove (500 mg/2 wk) was given for 252 d,
 commencing 60 d postpartum. Although though herds varied
 considerably, incidence of clinical mastitis within a herd was
 similar for cows receiving control and sometribove treatments.
 Relative risk analyses indicated no treatment effect, and
 percentage of mastitis during treatment was similar for
 control and sometribove groups. A positive linear relationship
 existed between peak milk yield and mastitis incidence
 (percentage of cows contracting mastitis or cases per 100 cow
 days); sometribove treatment did not alter this relationship.
 Increases in mastitis related to milk yield increase from
 sometribove or related to genetic selection were similar. When
 expressed per unit of milk, mastitis incidence declined
 slightly as milk yield increased; this relationship was not
 altered by sometribove. No effect on clinical mastitis was
 observed in 70 commercial herds utilizing sometribove for 84
 d. However, effects were significant for stage of lactation
 and milk yield. Overall, studies represented a wide range of
 research and commercial situations demonstrating that
 sometribove had no effect on incidence of clinical mastitis
 during the lactation of treatment. Furthermore, sometribove
 did not alter typical relationships between milk yield or herd
 factors and incidence of clinical mastitis.
 
 
 45                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 A clinical syndrome in imported cows subjected to
 environmental stress in Sudan.
 Suliman, H.B.; Bkhiet, H.A.; Fagiri, I.
 London : The Association; 1989 Aug26.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 125 (9): p. 240; 1989 Aug26.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sudan; Dairy cattle; Heat stress; Pneumonia;
 Summer; Mortality; Symptoms; Pathology
 
 
 46                                       NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 A comparative physiological and behavioral study of freeze and
 hot-iron branding using dairy cows.
 Lay, D.C. Jr; Friend, T.H.; Bowers, C.L.; Grissom, K.K.;
 Jenkins, O.C. Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal
 Science; 1992 Apr. Journal of animal science v. 70 (4): p.
 1121-1125; 1992 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Branding; Pain; Heart rate; Blood
 plasma; Hydrocortisone; Behavioral resistance; Animal welfare
 
 Abstract:  A public debate has recently arisen, largely
 surrounding the issue of pain, over whether freeze or hot-iron
 branding should be the preferred method of permanently
 identifying cattle. This study addressed that question by
 quantifying the following accepted measures of distress and
 pain over a 25-min sampling period: elevated heart rate,
 concentrations of cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine,
 and escape-avoidance reactions and vocalizations. Twenty-four
 dairy cows (15 Holsteins and 9 Jerseys) were assigned to one
 of three treatments: freeze-branded (F), hot-iron-branded (H),
 or sham-branded (S), in which a room-temperature brander was
 applied. Plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations
 showed no discernible trends. Plasma cortisol concentrations
 were elevated in the F and H cows from 5.5 min to 25.5 min
 postbranding (P = .04). Heart rate, analyzed as a proportion
 of the prebranding mean, showed that H cows had a greater,
 more acute, response than did F cows (P = .04), which
 exhibited a more prolonged response (P = .07). No cows
 vocalized during branding; however, H cows had a greater
 escape-avoidance reaction toward branding than did the F and S
 cows. Both methods of branding produced elevated heart rates
 and cortisol concentrations indicative of pain sensations.
 Because the cows exhibited a greater escape-avoidance reaction
 and heart rate proportions to hot-iron branding, freeze
 banding would be preferable to hot-iron branding when
 feasible.
 
 
 47                                  NAL Call. No.: SF967.M3N32
 A comparison of bedding material for dairy cows--a case study.
 Visser, R.Q.
 Arlington, Va. : The Council; 1994.
 Annual meeting /. p. 313-318; 1994.  Meeting held on January
 31-February 2, 1994, Orlando, Florida.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South  Africa; Cabt; Dairy cows; Litter; Animal
 welfare; Cubicles; Hygiene; Sand; Calcrete; Maize byproducts;
 Covers
 
 
 48                                      NAL Call. No.: 8 P832J
 Complete rations containing coarsely chopped or ground hay for
 dairy cows in confinement vs. conventional grazing.
 Randel, P.F.
 Rio Piedras, R.R. : University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural
 Experiment Station; 1991 Jul.
 The Journal of agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico v.
 75 (3): p. 241-252; 1991 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Puerto Rico; Dairy cows; Cattle breeds; American
 brown swiss; Holstein-friesian; Complete feeds; Feed intake;
 Feed supplements; Restricted feeding; Unrestricted feeding;
 Liveweight; Milk yield
 
 
 49                                    NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Compressed baled alfalfa hay for primiparous and multiparous
 dairy cows. Beauchemin, K.A.; Rode, L.M.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1994
 Apr. Journal of dairy science v. 77 (4): p. 1003-1012; 1994
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Alfalfa hay; Compaction; Mastication;
 Digestibility; Milk yield; Body weight; Nutrient intake; Milk
 composition; Lactation number; Energy balance; Rumination;
 Transit time
 
 Abstract:  Compressed baled alfalfa hay was fed to cows, and
 the effects productivity, chewing activities, and digestion
 were measured using a replicated 4 X 4 Latin square design.
 Cows received second-cutting alfalfa hay (20% CP; 40% NDF)
 from either compressed or standard small rectangular bales at
 two forage to concentrate ratios (35:65 and 65:35, DM basis).
 Compressed hay did not affect milk yield, although milk fat
 content was higher (2.90 vs. 2.68%). Higher concentrate diets
 increased milk yield (32.2 vs. 28.3 kg/d), lowered milk fat
 (2.66 vs. 2.91%), and increased milk protein 3.16 vs. 2.99%)
 and lactose (5.06 vs. 4.99%) with no interaction between
 concentrate proportion and hay type. Cows fed compressed bales
 spent less time eating per kilogram of DM and NDF consumed
 than cows fed standard bales, but rumination time was
 unaffected by forage processing. For cows fed both types of
 hay, digestibilities of DM, ADF, and NDF were similar; ruminal
 liquid out-flow rates also were similar, but rate of
 particulate passage from the reticulorumen was greater for
 cows receiving compressed hay. Compressing alfalfa hay did not
 adversely affect forage quality but increased the ease of
 shipping and handling and minimized storage space
 requirements. This process may be beneficial when higher milk
 fat content is desirable or when cows have limited time to
 consume forage.
 
 
 50                                      NAL Call. No.: 8 P832J
 Confinement feeding of dairy cows based on stargrass as green
 chopped fodder or hay.
 Randel, P.F.; Fernandez-van Cleve, J.
 Mayaguez : University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Experiment
 Station; 1988 Apr.
 The Journal of agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico v.
 72 (2): p. 231-246; 1988 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Puerto Rico; Dairy cows; Holstein-friesian; Brown
 swiss; Feed intake; Green fodders; Hay; Unrestricted feeding;
 Milk production; Feed composition tables
 
 
 51                                    NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Continuous computer acquisition of feed and water intakes,
 chewing, reticular motility, and ruminal pH of cattle.
 Dado, R.G.; Allen, M.S.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1993
 Jun. Journal of dairy science v. 76 (6): p. 1589-1600; 1993
 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Feed intake; Mastication;
 Deglutition; Water intake; Measurement; Instruments; Computer
 hardware; Computer software; Rumen; Ph
 
 Abstract:  The monitoring of feeding, chewing, and ruminal
 activity was integrated into one data acquisition system for
 continuous measurement of 12 dairy cows. Feed mangers were
 hung from single-point load cells for measurement of feed
 disappearance from individual stalls. Water flow meters,
 inserted in supply lines for each stall, generated pulse
 output for electronic summation of water intake. Jaw movements
 were detected with a water-filled tube connected to a pressure
 transducer under the cow's jaw to determine chewing activity.
 Similar tubes were used to detect contractions in the
 reticulum. Ruminal pH was monitored continuously with an
 electrode and pH transmitter. All signals were processed and
 recorded on a microcomputer using commercially available
 computer hardware and software. One file was written for each
 cow monitored. Data were interpreted using algorithms
 developed with SAS software. Two studies were conducted with
 10 lactating cows to evaluate the performance of acquisition
 hardware, protocols, and interpretation algorithms. Use of
 only one algorithm to interpret behavior of many cows
 sacrificed accuracy of bout time borders for some individual
 cows. Nonetheless, high correlations (r greater than or equal
 to .85) between computer-interpreted and manually determined
 variables indicated that performance of the acquisition system
 was acceptable. With continuous measurement of many cow
 feeding variables, a more complete understanding of dietary
 effects on digestive function and performance is possible.
 
 
 52                                NAL Call. No.: 275.29 N811NC
 Cool cows can conceive.
 Washburn, S.P.
 Raleigh, N.C. : North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service;
 1989 Apr. North Carolina dairy extension newsletter. p. 4-5;
 1989 Apr.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Heat stress; Summer; Conception rate
 
 
 53                                     NAL Call. No.: SF191.D3
 Cool cows equal persistent production.
 Sauber, C.M.
 Minnetonka, Minn. : Miller Publishing Company; 1989 May.
 Dairy herd management v. 26 (5): p. 20-24, 26; 1989 May.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South Carolina; Florida; New York; Texas;
 Arizona; Dairy herds; Heat stress; Cooling systems
 
 
 54                                       NAL Call. No.: 6 AR44
 Cool dairy cows more productive.
 Kingdon, L.B.
 Phoenix, Ariz. : Elliott L. Cushman; 1985 Jun.
 Arizona farmer-stockman v. 64 (6): p. 11; 1985 Jun.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Dairy cows; Evaporative coolers; Milk
 production
 
 
 55                                NAL Call. No.: 275.29 N811NC
 Cooling cows with sprinklers and fans.
 Knott, F.N.
 Raleigh, N.C. : North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service;
 1988 May. North Carolina dairy extension newsletter. p. 3;
 1988 May.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Heat stress; Air conditioning; Fans
 
 
 56                                  NAL Call. No.: SF967.M3N32
 Cooling ponds and milk quality.
 Bray, D.R.; DeLorenzo, M.A.; Elvinger, F.C.; Beede, D.K.;
 Shearer, J.K.; Reed, P.A.; Boosinger, J.
 Arlington, Va. : The Council; 1989.
 Annual meeting - National Mastitis Council, Inc (28th): p.
 188-197; 1989. Meeting held on February 9-11, 1989, Tampa,
 Florida.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Dairy cows; Heat stress; Cooling; Ponds;
 Milk quality; Bovine mastitis; Water quality
 
 
 57                                    NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Correlation of indices of stress with intensity of electrical
 shock for cows. Lefcourt, A.M.; Kahl, S.; Akers, R.M.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1986
 Mar. Journal of dairy science v. 69 (3): p. 833-842; 1986 Mar. 
 Literature review. Includes 45 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Stress; Shock; Electric current;
 Animal behavior; Milk yield; Correlation analysis
 
 
 58                                  NAL Call. No.: aHD1401.J68
 Cost, supply, and farm structure: a pedagogical note.
 Teigen, L.D.
 Washington, D.C : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research
 Service : [Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O., distributor], 1987-;
 1993.
 Journal of agricultural economics research v. 45 (1): p.
 27-32; 1993. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Cabt; Dairy farms; Production costs;
 Production functions; Marginal analysis; Structural change;
 Economic dualism; Livestock numbers
 
 Abstract:  Starting with an individual firm and its quadratic
 production function, this paper derives all related functions:
 marginal and average cost, supply, profit, and input demand.
 Since derivatives in other functions correspond to parameters
 of the quadratic, the results generalize. Explicit aggregation
 from firm to market shows that properly specified aggregate
 functions depend on firm numbers. To illustrate the results,
 marginal and average cost functions for several dairy farms
 are drawn to scale, noting that large farms get more output
 per cow than small farms. Juxtaposing the cost curves with
 trends in dairy farms by size shows the link between firm-
 level profit and structural change.
 
 
 59                                    NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Cow sensitivity to electricity during milking.
 Aneshansley, D.J.; Gorewit, R.C.; Price, L.R.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1992
 Oct. Journal of dairy science v. 75 (10): p. 2733-2741; 1992
 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Electricity; Animal behavior;
 Electric current; Milking rate; Milk yield; Milk composition;
 Lactation number; Residual milk; Blood serum; Hydrocortisone;
 Animal welfare
 
 Abstract:  Alternating currents were delivered to lactating
 cattle through the milk during milking. Electrodes were placed
 at the top of each short milk tube and jointed for one
 electrical contact. A metal grid on which the cows' rear
 hooves stood during milking was the second contact. Constant
 voltages (0 to 16 V) applied to contacts showed first
 lactation cows to be more sensitive than multiple lactation
 cows. First lactation cows kicked milking machines at 8 V
 (currents > 5 mA), and multiple lactation cows kicked at 16 V
 (currents > 8 mA). At lower voltages, there were no consistent
 significant differences in milking duration, milk yield, or
 composition for primary or residual milk. Application of
 constant currents of 5 mA for first lactation cows and 8 mA
 for multiple lactation cows produced no undesired behaviors
 but did result in some differences in production variables.
 Milking duration decreased during application of constant
 current to first lactation cows. Blood cortisol monitored in
 the multiple lactation cows during trial 2 showed a
 significant increase during milking but was equivalent or less
 during application of current. This study demonstrates that
 currents of 5 mA or less, delivered through the milk line, did
 not produce any direct economic effect. To produce this
 current, voltages on the milk pipe line would have to be in
 excess of 125 V (obvious human safety hazard) or in excess of
 5 V on the claw of the milking cluster.
 
 
 60                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Cow-calf behaviour in relation to first suckling.
 Ventorp, M.; Michanek, P.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1991 Jul.
 Research in veterinary science v. 51 (1): p. 6-10; 1991 Jul. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Calves; Newborn animals; Suckling;
 Postpartum period; Feeding behavior; Animal behavior; Teats;
 Time
 
 Abstract:  For the newborn calf, the length of time between
 birth and when (and if) it manages to obtain its first suckle
 plays an important role in the acquisition of passive
 immunity. In a study of 21 pairs of dairy cows and their
 calves, loose housed in individual calving boxes, the calves
 suckled for the first time at a median of four hours, nine
 minutes after birth. Nineteen suckled within 12 hours, with a
 range between 50 minutes and 11 hours, 44 minutes. Calves that
 were active early usually suckled early. However, irrespective
 of the start of a calf's activities, long pauses while teat
 seeking played a decisive role in the time of the first
 suckling. Factors which affected the periodicity and length of
 these pauses would therefore greatly influence the time of the
 first suckling.
 
 
 61                                   NAL Call. No.: HV4701.A35
 Crack for cows?.
 Kimbrell, A.
 Englewood, Colo. : American Humane Association, Animal
 Protection Division; 1994.
 Advocate v. 12 (1): p. 22-23; 1994.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Somatotropin; Animal welfare
 
 
 62                                      NAL Call. No.: S67.E22
 Daily temperature and reproductive efficiency in the Southeast
 Louisiana Experiment Station dairy herd: 1983-1988.
 Ingraham, R.H.; French, D.D.; Morgan, E.B.; Anthony, T.Y.;
 Kappel, L.C. Baton Rouge?, La. : The Station; 1988.
 Annual progress report - Southeast Research Station, Louisiana
 Agricultural Experiment Station. p. 209-215; 1988.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Louisiana; Dairy cows; Conception rate; Heat
 stress
 
 
 63                                    NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Dairy animal welfare: current and needed research.
 Albright, J.L.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1987
 Dec. Journal of dairy science v. 70 (12): p. 2711-2731; 1987
 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Animal welfare; Conferences; Dairy
 research; Animal behavior
 
 
 64                             NAL Call. No.: SF196.U6D35 1993
 Dairy care practices.
 Bath, Donald L.; Stull, Carolyn; DePeters, Ed; Beall, Gary,
 Oakland, Calif.? : Dairy Workgroup : University of California,
 Cooperative Extension, [1993?]; 1993.
 i, 48 p. ; 28 cm. (Animal care series).  Cover title. 
 Includes bibliographical references (p. 41-42) and index.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Dairy farming
 
 
 65                                NAL Call. No.: SF61.M35 1988
 Dairy cattle., 3rd ed.
 Leaver, J.D.
 London : Bailliere Tindall; 1988.
 Management and welfare of farm animals. p. 13-45. ill; 1988. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: United  Kingdom; Dairy cattle; Cattle husbandry;
 Milk production; Animal welfare; Cattle housing; Animal
 feeding; Reproduction; Disease control
 
 
 66                               NAL Call. No.: SF201.R47 1987
 Dairy cattle production systems and management systems.
 Thysen, I.; Kristensen, E.S.; Sorensen, J.T.; Ostergaard, V.
 Copenhagen : Landhusholdningsselkabets Forlag; 1987.
 Research in cattle production : Danish status and perspectives
 : contribution in honor of A. Neimann-Sorensen, 1 May 1987 /
 [B. Bech Andersen ... et al.].. p. 169-182; 1987.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Denmark; Dairy herds; Dairy cows; Cow housing;
 Farm dairies; Cattle husbandry; Animal feeding; Costs;
 Grazing; Animal research
 
 
 67                                   NAL Call. No.: HV4702.H85
 The dairy cow debacle: the government mandates face branding.
 Fox, M.W.
 Washington, D.C. : The Humane Society of the United States;
 1986. The Humane Society of the United States News v. 31 (3):
 p. 4-9. ill; 1986.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Dairy cows; Faces; Branding; Usda;
 Societies; Animal welfare; Legislation
 
 
 68                                    NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J824
 A dairy farm survey of antibiotic treatment practices, residue
 control methods and associations with inhibitors in milk.
 McEwen, S.A.; Meek, A.H.; Black, W.D.
 Ames, Iowa : International Association of Milk, Food, and
 Environmental Sanitarians; 1991 Jun.
 Journal of food protection v. 54 (6): p. 454-459; 1991 Jun. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Canada; Milk; Antibiotic residues; Farm surveys;
 Farm management; Control methods; Inhibitors; Food
 contamination; Testing; Medicated feeds; Regression analysis
 
 Abstract:  A mail survey was conducted of dairy producers who
 had received a positive bulk milk antibiotic residue test
 result in a two-year period (1987-88) of government monitoring
 (case farms) and farms that were negative for all tests
 conducted in the same period (control farms). Farmers were
 asked to complete questionnaires designed to determine dairy
 management practices, as well as, antibiotic handling and
 residue prevention methods. Using multiple logistic regression
 analysis, and adjusting for the size of the milking herd, the
 following factors were associated with increased risk of
 antibiotic residues in milk: the use of part-time assistance
 in milking, use of a milking parlor and increased estimated
 frequency of intramammary antibiotic treatments.
 Unconditionally, significantly more control farmers used
 separate equipment to milk treated cows rather than simply
 attempting to divert milk from the bulk tank. Controls were
 also more likely to vary the withholding time of milk for
 different drugs. Other significant differences between cases
 and controls with respect to residue prevention methods were
 observed, however, some of these may have been due to changes
 instituted on case farms after the antibiotic residue
 violations occurred. For example, significantly more case than
 control farmers reported using on-farm residue test kits and
 marking of treated animals as residue prevention methods and
 more case farmers believed that failure to keep good records
 of treatment was an important factor in residue occurrence. No
 significant differences were observed in the proportions of
 case and control farms that used medicated feed, in the number
 of people employed on the farm, or in the general knowledge of
 antibiotic residue prevention.
 
 
 69                                  NAL Call. No.: SF967.M3N32
 Dairy free stall bedding systems and udder health.
 Britten, A.M.
 Arlington, Va. : The Council; 1994.
 Annual meeting /. p. 292-299; 1994.  Meeting held on January
 31-February 2, 1994, Orlando, Florida.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Cattle husbandry; Hygiene; Udders;
 Litter; Cubicles
 
 
 70                                    NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Dairy herd improvement: meeting the information needs of the
 dairy industry through a totally integrated cooperative.
 Whittaker, W.G.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1994
 Jul. Journal of dairy science v. 77 (7): p. 1992-1998; 1994
 Jul.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy herds; Milk production; Information needs;
 Grazing; Production costs; Dairy industry; Dairy cooperatives;
 Dairy farms; Profitability
 
 Abstract:  The New Zealand dairy industry comprises 2.5
 million dairy cows milked in 14,600 herds. Dairy herd
 improvement has been restructured over the past 8 yr into a
 single legal entity operating as a farmer cooperative company.
 The cooperative encompasses the national milk records
 operations; a single dairy records processing center with an
 associated national animal database; the development,
 management, and calculation of sire and cow evaluations; and
 the deployment of scientific and technical resources for
 research and development of products and services. Also
 included is 1) the operation of the country's largest progeny-
 testing program, an artificial breeding, semen, and
 inseminating service commanding 80% of the artificial
 insemination market, and 2) the management of the industry's
 farm extension service. The extension service and the marginal
 cost of developing and operating sire and cow evaluations are
 funded through an industry grant. All other operations,
 including farm management information, are fully funded by
 users. The totally integrated operation allows cost-effective
 utilization of personnel, facilities, and equipment. Industry
 management information is made available to the industry,
 universities, and research organizations without charge.
 
 
 71                               NAL Call. No.: SF239.I45 1985
 Dairy housing and equipment handbook., [Rev.].
 Ames, Iowa : The Service; 1985.
 Illinois-Iowa dairy handbook / University of Illinois at
 Urbana-Champaign [and] Iowa State University at Ames,
 Cooperative Extension Service. 113 p. ill., maps; 1985. 
 (MWPS-7), 4th ed., 1985.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Dairy cattle; Cow housing; Calf housing;
 Dairy equipment; Farm equipment; Handbooks
 
 
 72                                    NAL Call. No.: 44.8 IN28
 Dairy management practices of bovines in key village and non-
 key village areas around Karnal.
 Agarwal, S.B.; Sharma, K.N.S.
 New Delhi : Indian Dairy Association; 1986 Mar.
 The Indian journal of dairy science v. 29,i.e.39 (1): p. 6-12;
 1986 Mar. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Haryana; Cows; Buffaloes; Dairy farming; Milking;
 Animal feeding; Animal breeding; Animal housing
 
 
 73                              NAL Call. No.: SF206.I58  1994
 Dairy systems for the 21st century proceedings of the Third
 International Dairy Housing Conference, 2-5 February, 1994,
 Orlando, Florida..  Dairy systems for the Twenty-first century
 Bucklin, Ray
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers
 International Dairy Housing Conference 3rd : 1994 : Orlando,
 Fla. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers,; 1994. xv, 858 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.  Includes
 bibliographical references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Milking parlors
 
 
 74                                   NAL Call. No.: TH4911.F37
 Dairy unit for the Falkland Islands.
 Watson, G.A.L.
 Aberdeen : Scottish Farm Buildings Investigation Unit; 1985
 Jul. Farm building progress (81): p. 27-28. ill; 1985 Jul.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Falkland Islands; Dairy cattle; Cow housing;
 Building construction
 
 
 75                                   NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Dairy youngstock environment in Pennsylvania--a survey.
 Heinrichs, A.J.; Graves, R.E.; Kiernan, N.E.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1985.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche
 collection) (fiche no. 85-4548): 17 p.; 1985.  Paper presented
 at the 1985 Winter Meeting of the American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers. Available for purchase from: The
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950
 Niles Road, St. Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order
 Dept. at (616) 429-0300 for information and prices.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pennsylvania; Dairy cattle; Calves; Heifers;
 Housing; Farming; Practice
 
 
 76                                   NAL Call. No.: TH4911.F37
 Darnaway Farm Visitor Centre, Forres.
 Sommer, M.
 Aberdeen : Scottish Farm Buildings Investigation Unit; 1985
 Jul. Farm building progress (81): p. 17-21. ill., maps; 1985
 Jul.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Scotland; Dairy farming; Visitor centers; Cow
 housing; Demonstration farms
 
 
 77                                    NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Data modeling for database design in production and health
 monitoring systems for dairy herds.
 Lescourret, F.; Genest, M.; Barnouin, J.; Chassagne, M.; Faye,
 B. Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1993
 Apr. Journal of dairy science v. 76 (4): p. 1053-1062; 1993
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Dairy herds; Databases; Monitoring;
 Milk production; Models; Life history; Cattle feeding; Farm
 management
 
 Abstract:  Monitoring systems, increasingly used in dairy
 herds, require carefully designed databases. Database design
 involves modeling, which is generally not treated in papers
 dealing with such monitoring systems. We present general rules
 of data modeling based on the analysis of the semantic
 structure of information and their application to the
 construction of five basic data models. Such models are not
 database structures; a single model can be translated into
 different database structures. Modeling choices related to
 utilization requirements are explained. The models provide a
 sound basis for database schemes that prevent redundancy and
 support various applications in production and health
 monitoring systems for dairy herds and refer to information
 sets at either the cow or the farm level, including unique
 life history features, individual morbidity, production and
 reproduction performance, herd management systems, and feeding
 practices. The efficiency of the models is illustrated by
 their contribution to a real database; emphasis is on their
 integration into a model, on the ease of translation into
 relational database tables, and on subsequent database
 performance.
 
 
 78                                   NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Delays in drinking due to AC voltages.
 Gorewit, R.C.; Aneshansley, D.J.; Ludington, D.C.; Pellerin,
 R.A. St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1988.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche
 collection) (fiche no. 88-3524): 16 p. ill; 1988.  Paper
 presented at the 1988 Winter Meeting of the American Society
 of Agricultural Engineers. Available for purchase from: The
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950
 Niles Road, St. Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order
 Dept. at (616) 429-0300 for information and prices.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Housing; Stray voltage; Drinking
 behavior
 
 
 79                                     NAL Call. No.: 58.8 J82
 Design loads for slatted floors in cattle buildings.
 Dumelow, J.; Sharples, T.
 London : Academic Press; 1993 Jun.
 Journal of agricultural engineering research v. 55 (2): p.
 171-175; 1993 Jun. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle housing; Dairy cows; Slatted floors;
 Loads; Design
 
 Abstract:  The live loads exerted by large dairy cows on a
 reinforced concrete cattle slat were measured. The horizontal
 and vertical design live loads obtained from analysis of the
 data were both slightly higher than current BSI
 recommendations.
 
 
 80                                    NAL Call. No.: SF55.P3A5
 Design of an ideal stanchion type commercial dairy barn for
 Bangladesh. Wallah, M.W.
 Mymensingh, Bangladesh : Bangladesh Animal Husbandry
 Association; 1986. Bangladesh journal of animal science v. 15
 (1/2): p. 62-68. ill; 1986. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Bangladesh; Dairy cows; Cow housing; Barns;
 Design; Herd size
 
 
 81                                   NAL Call. No.: SF221.D342
 Design of dairy cow housing systems in the United Kingdom.
 Sumner, J.
 Ames, Iowa : International Association of Milk, Food and
 Environmental Sanitarians, Inc; 1991 Nov.
 Dairy, food and environmental sanitation v. 11 (11): p.
 650-653; 1991 Nov. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Uk; Dairy cows; Cow housing; Design; Trends;
 Cubicles
 
 
 82                                 NAL Call. No.: SF779.5.A1B6
 The design of feeding barriers and managers and its effect on
 incidence of injuries and feed wastage.
 Cermak, J.
 Stillwater, Okla. : American Association of Bovine
 Practitioners; 1988 Nov. The Bovine practitioner (23): p.
 74-75; 1988 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Heifers; Dairy cows; Beef bulls; Managers; Animal
 feeding; Barriers; Design; Injuries; Incidence; Feeds; Wastage
 
 
 83                                 NAL Call. No.: SF779.5.A1B6
 Design of slip-resistant surfaces for dairy cattle buildings.
 Cermak, J.
 Stillwater, Okla. : American Association of Bovine
 Practitioners; 1988 Nov. The Bovine practitioner (23): p.
 76-78; 1988 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Cattle housing; Surfaces; Floors;
 Slips; Prevention
 
 
 84                                  NAL Call. No.: SF967.M3N32
 Designing dairy facilities to assist in management and to
 enhance animal environment.
 Bickert, W.G.
 Arlington, Va. : The Council; 1994.
 Annual meeting /. p. 232-240; 1994.  Meeting held on January
 31-February 2, 1994, Orlando, Florida.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Milking parlors; Structural design; Planning;
 Barns; Cattle husbandry; Farm equipment
 
 
 85                                  NAL Call. No.: 275.29 W27P
 Designing dairy free stalls.
 Gamroth, M.J.; Moore, J.A.
 Pullman, Wash. : The Service; 1987 Sep.
 Extension bulletin - Washington State University, Cooperative
 Extension Service (321): 4 p. ill; 1987 Sep.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Washington; Dairy cows; Stalls; Cow housing
 
 
 86                                   NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Designing secondary electrical systems to minimize neutral-to-
 earth voltage. Surbrook, T.C.; Reese, N.D.; Althouse, J.R.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1988.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche
 collection) (fiche no. 88-3526): 8 p.; 1988.  Paper presented
 at the 1988 Winter Meeting of the American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers. Available for purchase from: The
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950
 Niles Road, St. Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order
 Dept. at (616) 429-0300 for information and prices.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle housing; Dairy cows; Stray voltage; Animal
 behavior
 
 
 87                                 NAL Call. No.: SF91.I5 1988
 Developing improved designs of skid-resistant floors for dairy
 cattle buildings.
 Dumelow, J.; Albutt, R.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1988. Livestock environment III : proceedings of
 the Third International Livestock Environment Symposium, April
 25-27, 1988, Constellation Hotel, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. p.
 163-170. ill; 1988. (ASAE publication ; 1-88).  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: United  Kingdom; Farm dairies; Floors; Concrete;
 Surface roughness; Lameness; Slip resistant finishes;
 Instrumentation; Simulation
 
 
 88                                    NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Developmental changes in embryonic resistance to adverse
 effects of maternal heat stress in cows.
 Ealy, A.D.; Drost, M.; Hansen, P.J.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1993
 Oct. Journal of dairy science v. 76 (10): p. 2899-2905; 1993
 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Embryos; Embryonic development; Heat
 stress; Body temperature; Heat tolerance; Embryo mortality
 
 Abstract:  The objective of this study was to determine
 whether bovine embryos become more resistant to deleterious
 effects of maternal heat stress as early embryonic development
 progresses. Superovulated, lactating Holstein cows were bred
 by AI and assigned to be heat stressed on d 1, 3, 5, or 7 of
 pregnancy (d 0 = day of estrus) or not heat stressed
 (control). Embryos were retrieved from the uterus on d 8 and
 evaluated for viability and stage of development. Compared
 with embryos of control cows, embryos of cows receiving heat
 stress on d 1 had decreased viability and development.
 Maternal heat stress on other days had no detrimental effect
 on embryonic viability or stage of development. Bovine embryos
 become more resistant to adverse effects of maternal heat
 stress as pregnancy progresses; substantial resistance
 develops by d 3. This information may be useful in design of
 environmental modification systems that provide cooling at
 critical periods of gestation to enhance pregnancy rates
 during summer in hot climates.
 
 
 89                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 C163
 Diurnal patterns of estrous behavior of dairy cows housed in a
 free stall. Amyot, E.; Hurnik, J.F.
 Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada; 1987 Sep.
 Canadian journal of animal science v. 67 (3): p. 605-614; 1987
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Estrous behavior; Diurnal variation;
 Illumination; Cow housing; Estrus; Detection
 
 
 90                                    NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Diurnal temperature patterns of early lactating cows with
 milking parlor cooling.
 Araki, C.T.; Nakamura, R.M.; Kam, L.W.G.; Clarke, N.L.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1985
 Jun. Journal of dairy science v. 68 (6): p. 1496-1501. ill;
 1985 Jun.  Includes 10 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Body temperature; Cooling; Milking
 parlors; Milking interval
 
 
 91                                    NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Dry period heat stress relief effects on prepartum
 progesterone, calf birth weight, and milk production.
 Wolfenson, D.; Flamenbaum, I.; Berman, A.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1988
 Mar. Journal of dairy science v. 71 (3): p. 809-818; 1988 Mar. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Heat stress; Dry period; Prepartum
 period; Progesterone; Milk production; Calves; Birth weight
 
 
 92                                  NAL Call. No.: HV4804.A3A4
 Dying for the dairy.
 Petersfield [Hampshire] : Compassion in World Farming; 1987
 Jun. Agscence : news & comments on agriculture and the
 environment (88): p. 2-3. ill; 1987 Jun.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Animal health; Pain; Animal welfare;
 Disease prevention; Animal husbandry; Somatotropin; Stress
 
 
 93                                  NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 A dynamic weight logging system for dairy cows.
 Ren, J.; Buck, N.L.; Spahr, S.L.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1992 Mar. Transactions of the ASAE v. 35 (2): p.
 719-725; 1992 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Liveweight; Milking parlors; Cattle
 weighers; Computer techniques
 
 Abstract:  A scale for automatically weighing dairy cows was
 developed and tested. The scale consists of a weigh bridge
 supported by two load bars placed in the return alley of a
 milking parlor. When a cow walks over the weigh bridge, each
 load bar generates an analog signal. A summing amplifier
 combines the signals. An ADC-1 data acquisition device
 digitizes and transmits the amplifier output to the serial
 port of a computer. A program written in C records the cow's
 weight and identification number. At the end of milking,
 another program processes the recorded raw data and computes
 the measured weight of each cow detected.
 
 
 94                                    NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Economic, political, and global demands on the United States
 dairy industry. Olson, K.E.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1993
 Oct. Journal of dairy science v. 76 (10): p. 3133-3142; 1993
 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Milk production; International trade;
 Animal welfare; Food safety; Consumer attitudes; Dairy
 technology; Technology transfer; Dairy industry; Trends
 
 Abstract:  Since 1970, average milk production per cow in the
 US has increased by 2321 kg. During this time, the number of
 cows has decreased by 2,010,000, and the number of farms with
 milk cows is less than one-third the previous level. These
 trends are likely to continue. Although increased productivity
 has made US producers among the most efficient in the world,
 many challenges will emerge in the near future. Reduced
 government involvement that is partially due to budget
 constraints will contribute to greater price variations than
 in the past; international trade may offer new opportunities
 for increased sales if current trade negotiations are
 successful; and environmental concerns, animal welfare issues,
 and consumer preferences will continue to challenge the
 industry. Basic and applied research, technology transfer, and
 responsible legislation will be needed to assist the industry
 in meeting these challenges. Most of all, active producer
 participation in setting research priorities and the
 legislative agenda is necessary for the industry to progress.
 
 
 95                                    NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Economic weights for milk yield traits and herd life under
 various economic conditions and production quotas.
 Harris, B.L.; Freeman, A.E.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1993
 Mar. Journal of dairy science v. 76 (3): p. 868-879; 1993 Mar. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Linear models; Linear programming;
 Dairy traits; Economic impact; Milk prices; Milk production
 costs; Quotas; Herd structure
 
 Abstract:  A linear programming model was used to derive
 economic weights for yield traits and herd life from a farm
 system under different milk markets, protein to fat price
 ratios, and feed costs. The model allowed optimization of the
 system over time, simultaneously optimizing management
 resource and capital allocation and optimizing future genetics
 of the animal. The change from fluid to manufacturing use of
 milk had considerable effect on the economic weights for the
 yield traits but little effect on the weights for herd life.
 The effect of changes in feed costs was greatest on the
 economic weights for herd life. Changes in the protein to fat
 price ratio had little effect on the economic weights for milk
 carrier yield and herd life but affected the relative
 magnitudes for fat and protein yields substantially. Economic
 weights were computed with milk carrier quota, fat quota, and
 milk carrier and fat quotas, assuming constant herd size and
 midwestern prices and costs. Economic weights for the yield
 traits under quota were negative. Those for herd life
 increased substantially under production quotas. Economic
 weights were also computed when enterprise rescaling was taken
 into account. The optimum for rescaling the enterprise
 depended on the economic severity of the quota system.
 
 
 96                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 C163
 The effect of assistance at calving, injections of recombinant
 bovine somatotropin and jugular catheterization on serum
 cortisol and its influence on the GnRH-induced LH response in
 postpartum dairy cows. Lefebvre, D.M.; Gallo, G.F.; Block, E.
 Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada; 1990 Jun.
 Canadian journal of animal science v. 70 (2): p. 723-726; 1990
 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Postpartum interval; Stress;
 Reproductive disorders; Somatotropin; Catheters; Cortisol; Lh;
 Gonadotropin releasing hormone
 
 
 97                                    NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Effect of drinking water temperature on heat stress of dairy
 cows. Stermer, R.A.; Brasington, C.F.; Coppock, C.E.; Lanham,
 J.K.; Milam, K.Z. Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science
 Association; 1986 Feb. Journal of dairy science v. 69 (2): p.
 546-551; 1986 Feb.  Includes 15 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Heat stress; Chilling; Drinking
 water; Temperatures; Body temperature; Respiration rate
 
 
 98                                     NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 The effect of environment and stage of the oestrous cycle on
 the behaviour of diary cows.
 Phillips, C.J.C.; Schofield, S.A.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1990 Aug.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 27 (1/2): p. 21-31; 1990
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Estrous cycle; Sexual behavior;
 Behavior patterns; Cow housing; Cubicles; Pastures
 
 
 99                                   NAL Call. No.: QP251.A1T5
 Effect of environmental heat stress on follicular development
 and steroidogenesis in lactating Holstein cows.
 Badinga, L.; Thatcher, W.W.; Diaz, T.; Drost, M.; Wolfenson,
 D. Stoneham, Mass. : Butterworth-Heinemann; 1993 Apr.
 Theriogenology v. 39 (4): p. 797-810; 1993 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Subtropics; Summer; Shade; Graafian
 follicles
 
 Abstract:  Lactating Holstein cows were utilized over two
 replicate periods (July and September, 1990) to examine the
 effect of summer heat stress on follicular growth and
 steroidogenesis. On day of synchronized ovulations, cows were
 assigned to shade (n = 11) or no shade (n = 12) management
 systems. Follicular development was monitored daily by
 ultrasonography until ovariectomy on Day 8 post estrus. At
 time of ovariectomy, dominant and second largest follicles
 were dissected from the ovary. Aromatase activity and steroid
 concentrations in dominant and subordinate follicles were
 measured. Acute heat stress had no effects on patterns of
 growth of first wave dominant and subordinate follicles
 between Days 1 and 7 of the cycle. Compared with shaded cows,
 the heat stressed cows did not have suppression of medium size
 (6 to 9 mm) follicles between Days 5 and 7. A treatment X
 follicle interaction was detected (P < 0.01) for follicular
 diameter and fluid volume at Day 8. Dominant follicles in
 shade were bigger (16.4 > 14.5 mm) and contained more fluid
 (1.9 > 1.1 ml) than dominant follicles in no shade.
 Conversely, subordinate follicles in no shade were bigger
 (10.1 > 7.9 mm) and contained more fluid (0.4 > 0.2 ml) than
 subordinate follicles in shade. Concentrations of estradiol in
 plasma and follicular fluid were higher (P < 0.01) in July
 than in September. Heat stress appears to alter the efficiency
 of follicular selection and dominance, and to have adverse
 effects on the quality of ovarian follicles.
 
 
 100                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 N62
 Effect of environmental temperature on major mineral
 metabolism of cows during feeding and fasting.
 Kume, S.; Shibata, M.; Kurihara, M.; Aii, T.
 Tokyo : Nihon Chikusan Gakkai; 1986 Aug.
 Nihon Chikusan Gakkai ho; Japanese journal of zootechnical
 science v. 57 (8): p. 679-686; 1986 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Feeding; Fasting; Environmental
 temperature; Mineral metabolism; Heat stress; Calcium;
 Phosphorus; Magnesium
 
 
 101                                   NAL Call. No.: SF600.C82
 The effect of extra space on the behavior of dairy cows kept
 in a cubicle house.
 Wierenga, H.K.; Metz, J.H.M.; Hopster, H.
 The Hague : Martinus Nijhoff; 1985.
 Current topics in veterinary medicine and animal science v.
 35: p. 160-170. ill; 1985.  Paper presented at the "Seminar on
 the Social Space for Domestic Animals," January 10-11, 1985,
 Brussels.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Cubicles; Animal behavior; Housing
 density; Spacing
 
 
 102                                   NAL Call. No.: 340.8 IN8
 Effect of farm and simulated laboratory cold environmental
 conditions on the performance and physiological responses of
 lactating dairy cows supplemented with bovine somatotropin
 (BST).
 Becker, B.A.; Johnson, H.D.; Li, R.; Collier, R.J.
 Berlin, W. Ger. : Springer International; 1990.
 International journal of biometeorology v. 34 (3): p. 151-156;
 1990.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Lactating females; Somatotropin;
 Hormone supplements; Milk production; Milk yield; Milk
 composition; Feed intake; Blood chemistry; Cold stress;
 Environmental factors; Winter; Farm tests; Laboratory tests
 
 Abstract:  A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of
 bovine somatotropin (BST) supplementation in twelve lactating
 dairy cows maintained in cold environmental conditions. Six
 cows were injected daily with 25 mg of BST; the other six were
 injected with a control vehicle. Cows were maintained under
 standard dairy management during mid-winter for 30 days. Milk
 production was recorded twice daily, and blood samples were
 taken weekly. Animals were then transferred to environmentally
 controlled chambers and exposed to cycling thermoneutral (15
 degrees to 20 degrees C) and cycling cold (-5degrees to +5
 degrees C) temperatures for 10 days in a split-reversal
 design. Milk production, feed and water intake, body weights
 and rectal temperatures were monitored. Blood samples were
 taken on days 1, 3, 5, 8 and 10 of each period and analyzed
 for plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4). cortisol.
 insulin and prolactin. Under farm conditions, BST-treated cows
 produced 11% more milk than control-treated cows and in
 environmentally controlled chambers produced 17.4% more milk.
 No differences due to BST in feed or water intake, body
 weights or rectal temperatures were found under laboratory
 conditions. Plasma T3 and insulin increased due to BST
 treatment while no effect was found on cortisol, prolactin or
 T4. The results showed that the benefits of BST
 supplementation in lactating dairy cows were achieved under
 cold environmental conditions.
 
 
 103                                  NAL Call. No.: QP251.A1T5
 Effect of heat stress on conception in a dairy herd model
 under South African conditions.
 Du Preez, J.H.; Terblanche, S.J.; Giesecke, W.H.; Maree, C.;
 Welding, M.C. Stoneham, Mass. : Butterworth-Heinemann; 1991
 May.
 Theriogenology v. 35 (5): p. 1039-1049; 1991 May.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South  Africa; Dairy cows; Friesian; Conception
 rate; Heat stress; Air temperature; Relative humidity;
 Regression analysis; Seasonal variation
 
 Abstract:  Three regression models are proposed for predicting
 reproduction in a model dairy herd under South African
 conditions. Conception rate (CR%) was related to mean monthly
 temperature-humidity index (THI) by; CR% = 31.15THI -
 0.25THI(2) - 890.2, and first service conception rate (FSCR%)
 to THI by; FSCR% = 173.45 - 1.79THI. Conception rate was
 related to numerical month of the year (M) by; CR% = 11.86M -
 0.82M(2) + 26.36. The relation between mean monthly THI values
 and the conception rate of dairy cattle is significant.
 Further investigations to test the proposed regression models
 under various dairy herd conditions and to improve
 reproduction in South African dairy herds are needed.
 
 
 104                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 On1
 Effect of heat stress on conception in a dairy-herd model in
 the Natal highlands of South Africa.
 Du Preez, J.H.; Willemse, J.J.C.; Ark, H. van
 Onderstepoort : Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute,
 Agricultural Research Council; 1994 Mar.
 The Onderstepoort journal of veterinary research v. 61 (1): p.
 1-6; 1994 Mar. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South  Africa; Cabt; Dairy cattle; Dairy herds;
 Heat stress; Conception rate; Environmental temperature;
 Relative humidity; Seasonal variation; Models; Prediction
 
 
 105                                 NAL Call. No.: 442.8 J8222
 Effect of heat stress on tonic and GnRH-induced gonadotrophin
 secretion in relation to concentration of oestradiol in plasma
 of cyclic cows. Gilad, E.; Meidan, R.; Berman, A.; Graber, Y.;
 Wolfenson, D. Essex, U.K. : Journal of Reproduction and
 Fertility; 1993 Nov. Journal of reproduction and fertility v.
 99 (2): p. 315-321; 1993 Nov. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Lactating females; Heat stress;
 Estradiol; Gnrh; Lh; Fsh; Hormone secretion; Estrous cycle
 
 Abstract:  Effects of acute and seasonal heat stress on tonic
 and GnRH-induced LH and FSH secretion were examined during the
 early follicular phase of the oestrous cycle of cows (n = 40).
 Prostaglandin F2alpha was injected on day 11 +/- 1 of the
 oestrous cycle and on the next day blood samples were
 collected at intervals of 15-20 min for 14 h, and i.m.
 injection of GnRH was given after 7 h. Treatments compared
 were control versus acute heat stress during blood sampling in
 winter, and cooled versus chronic heat stress in summer.
 Before GnRH injection, chronic heat stress in summer did not
 affect basal concentrations of plasma LH, but did lower LH
 pulse amplitude. However, in cows with low plasma oestradiol
 (1.9 +/- 0.2 pg ml-1), the mean and basal concentrations and
 amplitude of tonic LH pulses were reduced by heat stress (3.1,
 2.1 and 4.8 versus 1.9, 1.4 and 2.5 ng ml-1, respectively). In
 cows with high plasma oestradiol (6.3 + 0.5 pg ml-1), these
 parameters were not affected. In chronically heat stressed
 cows in summer, GnRH-induced increases in plasma LH and FSH
 concentrations were the same as in the cooled controls.
 However, in cows with low plasma oestradiol, mean
 concentrations of FSH in plasma (31.8 versus 25.5 ng ml-1, the
 peak of the GnRH-induced FSH and LH surge (FSH 47.4 versus
 35.6 ng ml-1, LH 50.7 versus 37.3 ng ml-1 ) and the shape of
 the GnRH-induced FSH and LH curves (treatment by time
 interaction) were significantly lower in non-cooled versus
 cooled controls. The GnRH-induced increase in LH secretion was
 unaffected by chronic heat stress in cows with high
 concentrations of oestradiol in plasma. In winter, acute heat
 stress depressed the mean concentration of FSH in plasma and
 decreased the GnRH-induced release of FSH in cases with low
 but not with high concentrations of oestradiol in plasma. The
 peak of the GnRH-induced surge of LH in all acutely heat
 stressed cows was significantly lower in winter than in
 control cows, irrespective of concentrations of oestradiol in
 plasma. These results show that heat stress affects the
 secretion of gonadotrophins more in cows with low
 concentrations of oestradiol than in those with high
 concentrations of oestradiol in plasma.
 
 
 106                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Effect of heat-stress on bovine embryo development in vitro.
 Ryan, D.P.; Blakewood, E.G.; Lynn, J.W.; Munyakazi, L.; Godke,
 R.A. Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science;
 1992 Nov. Journal of animal science v. 70 (11): p. 3490-3497;
 1992 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Embryo culture; Heat stress;
 Embryonic development; Carbon dioxide; Morula; Prostaglandins
 
 Abstract:  Chronic elevation of uterine temperature has long
 been known to increase embryo mortality in dairy cattle.
 Short-term elevation in temperature of mouse embryos to 43
 degrees C (acute) has been shown to induce intracellular
 production of heat-shock proteins. In this study, in vitro
 development of bovine embryos was assessed during short-term
 (60 h) coculture with oviduct epithelial cells at 38.6 degrees
 C (T1), 40 degrees C (T2), 38.6 degrees C after a prior pulse
 treatment (20 min) at 43 degrees C with 5% CO2 (T3), or 38.6
 degrees C after a prior pulse treatment (20 min) at 43 degrees
 C with 100% CO2 (T4). During incubation, embryos cocultured at
 40 degrees C had a greater (P < .05) mean embryo development
 score at 36 h than embryos cocultured at 38.6 degrees C. At 60
 h of incubation, embryo development scores were greater (P <
 .05) for embryos cultured at 38.6 degrees C than for those
 cocultured at 40 degrees C. The number of embryos hatched at
 60 h was similar after coculture at 38.6 degrees C (T1) or a
 prior pulse treatment with 5% CO2 and 43 degrees C (T3), but
 the embryo development score at 60 h was greater (P < .05) for
 the pulse-treated embryos. Embryos in T4 had greater (P < .05)
 embryo development scores than did T1 embryos from 36 through
 60 h. Pulse treatment (T4) resulted in a greater (P < .05)
 number of hatched embryos at 60 h than T1, T2, and T3. These
 results indicate a detrimental effect of a chronic elevation
 in temperature that was evident shortly after embryo hatching.
 However, an acute rise in temperature at the morula stage
 increased the rate of embryo development. This may be
 associated with the production of heat-shock proteins that
 enabled embryos to tolerate the in vitro stress of the culture
 environment.
 
 
 107                                    NAL Call. No.: 23 AU792
 Effect of heifer size at mating and calving on milk production
 during first lactation.
 Thomas, G.W.; Mickan, F.J.
 Melbourne : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research
 Organization; 1987.
 Australian journal of experimental agriculture v. 27 (4): p.
 481-483; 1987. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Victoria; Heifers; Dairy cows; Liveweight; Size;
 Calving; Milk production; Lactation; Conception; Mating
 
 
 108                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.T7
 Effect of high daytime temperatures on the intake and
 utilisation of water in lactating Friesian cows.
 Richard, J.I.
 Edinburgh : Longman; 1985 Nov.
 Tropical animal health and production v. 17 (4): p. 209-217;
 1985 Nov. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Tropics; Dairy cows; Holstein-friesian;
 Environmental temperature; Tropical climate; Water intake;
 Water excretion; Acclimatization; Laboratory tests; Lactation;
 Heat stress
 
 
 109                                  NAL Call. No.: SF55.A78A7
 Effect of hot environment on Ca and P metabolism in dairy cow.
 Kume, S.; Takahashi, S.; Kurihara, M.; Ali, T.
 Suweon, Korea : Asian-Australasian Association of Animal
 Production Societies; 1989 Sep.
 Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v. 2 (3): p.
 259-260; 1989 Sep. Paper presented at the "VII International
 Symposium on Ruminant Physiology: Physiological Aspects of
 Digestion and Metabolism in Ruminants", August 28-September 1,
 1989, Sendai, Japan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Heat stress; Mineral metabolism
 
 
 110                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Effect of Re-17 mutant Salmonella typhimurium bacterin toxoid
 on clinical coliform mastitis.
 McClure, A.M.; Christopher, E.E.; Wolff, W.A.; Fales, W.H.;
 Krause, G.F.; Miramonti, J.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1994
 Aug. Journal of dairy science v. 77 (8): p. 2272-2280; 1994
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Bovine mastitis; Coliform bacteria;
 Vaccination; Salmonella typhimurium; Toxoids; Lactation
 number; Mortality; Lactation stage; Incidence; Rain;
 Streptococcus
 
 Abstract:  The objective of this study was to test the
 hypothesis that the incidence and severity of clinical
 coliform mastitis could be decreased by Re-17 mutant
 Salmonella typhimurium bacterin toxoid. Holstein-Friesian cows
 from two Arizona dairies were selected for this study based on
 July through November projected calving dates; peak lactation
 occurred during the period of highest rainfall and peak
 environmental stress. The cows were randomly assigned to
 either a vaccinate or a control group, and 1292 cows were
 paired by herd, parity, calving date, and milk yield. The 646
 vaccinates were injected twice during the third trimester of
 pregnancy with an Re-17 mutant S. typhimurium bacterin toxoid,
 and the 646 controls were not vaccinated. Vaccinated cows had
 significantly fewer clinical cases of coliform mastitis with
 positive coliform cultures and had lower culling rate from
 coliform mastitis than control cows during the first 5 mo of
 lactation. During the same period, the mortality rate from
 clinical coliform mastitis was 75% less in the vaccinated
 clinical coliform mastitic group than in the control group.
 Incidence of mastitis increased with advancing parity. The
 Re-17 mutant Salmonella typhimurium bacterin toxoid provided
 cross-protection against coliform mastitis; incidence and
 severity of clinical coliform mastitis were significantly
 lowered during the first 5 months of lactation.
 
 
 111                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Effect of season and stage of lactation on performance of
 Holsteins. Perera, K.S.; Gwazdauskas, F.C.; Pearson, R.E.;
 Brumback, T.B. Jr Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science
 Association; 1986 Jan. Journal of dairy science v. 69 (1): p.
 228-236. ill; 1986 Jan.  Includes 31 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy performance; Dairy cows; Holstein-friesian;
 Lactation stage; Seasonal fluctuations; Animal housing; Milk
 production; Housing temperature and humidity; Statistical
 analysis
 
 
 112                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Effect of soybean hull:soy lecithin-soapstock mixture on
 ruminal digestion and performance of growing beef calves and
 lactating dairy cattle. Shain, D.H.; Sindt, M.H.; Grant, R.J.;
 Klopfenstein, T.J.; Stock, R.A. Champaign, Ill. : American
 Society of Animal Science; 1993 May. Journal of animal science
 v. 71 (5): p. 1266-1275; 1993 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Calves; Soybean husks; Soybean
 soapstock; Lectins; Rumen digestion; Crude protein; Protein
 digestion; Maize; Diet; Nutrient content; Feed intake; Milk
 yield; Milk composition; Volatile fatty acids; Energy balance;
 Body condition
 
 Abstract:  Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the
 effect of a soybean hull, soy lecithin, and soapstock mixture
 on ruminal fiber and protein digestion, growth efficiency of
 beef calves, and lactational performance of dairy cattle. An
 initial mixing experiment determined that a 4:1 ratio (DM
 basis) of soy lecithin:soapstock could be added to soybean
 hulls at 15% (wt/wt, DM basis); this mixture had acceptable
 mixing and handling characteristics. Dietary addition of a
 mixture of 85% soybean hulls, 12% soy lecithin, and 3%
 soapstock (DM basis; SLS) to provide 0, 3, 5, or 7%
 supplemental fat resulted in a linear (P < .01) decrease in in
 situ rate of ruminal NDF digestion with no effect on rate of
 CP digestion. Daily gain, DMI, and feed efficiency (kilograms
 of gain/kilogram of DMI) of growing beef calves were not
 affected (P > .10) as graded levels of SLS replaced corn
 grain. However, as graded levels of SLS replaced soybean
 hulls, daily gain and feed efficiency increased linearly (P <
 .01). Based on the results of these trials, Holstein dairy
 cattle were fed four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets
 that contained either high levels of nonfiber carbohydrates
 (43%) and no added fat, 1% ruminally inert fat, a 6% level of
 SLS, or a 12% SLS level (all on DM basis). Efficiency of 4%
 fat-corrected milk production (kilograms of milk/kilogram of
 DMI) was greatest for cows fed SLS at 6% of dietary DM. The
 SLS mixture was an excellent source of fiber and vegetable
 fat, comparable in feeding value to corn grain, for inclusion
 in the diets of beef calves and dairy cows.
 
 
 113                                    NAL Call. No.: 23 AU792
 Effect of stage of lactation and feeding level on milk yield
 response by stall-fed dairy cows to change in pasture intake.
 Grainger, C.
 East Melbourne : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial
 Research Organization; 1990.
 Australian journal of experimental agriculture v. 30 (4): p.
 495-501; 1990. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Victoria; Dairy cows; Holstein-friesian; Jersey;
 Crossbreds; Inbred lines; Feed intake; Lactation; Milk
 composition; Milk yield; Pastures; Unrestricted feeding
 
 
 114                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 ON1
 The effect of stress on udder health of dairy cows.
 Giesecke, W.H.
 Pretoria : South Africa, Dept. of Agriculture and Water
 Supply; 1985 Sep. The Onderstepoort journal of veterinary
 research v. 52 (3): p. 175-193; 1985 Sep.  Literature review. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Animal health; Stress; Lactation;
 Udders; Disease resistance; Environment
 
 
 115                                     NAL Call. No.: 49 AN55
 The effect of summer decline in conception rate on the monthly
 milk production pattern in Israel.
 Kahn, H.E.
 East Lothian, Scotland : Durrant; 1991 Oct.
 Animal production v. 53 (pt.2): p. 127-131; 1991 Oct. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Heat stress; Milk production;
 Conception; Simulation models; Seasonal fluctuations
 
 
 116                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Effects of a hot climate on the performance of first lactation
 Holstein cows grouped by coat color.
 King, V.L.; Denise, S.K.; Armstrong, D.V.; Torabi, M.;
 Wiersma, F. Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science
 Association; 1988 Apr. Journal of dairy science v. 71 (4): p.
 1093-1096; 1988 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Dairy cows; Holstein-friesian; Heat
 stress; Climate; Coat; Color; Milk production; Reproductive
 performance
 
 
 117                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Effects of acute thermal stress and amount of feed intake on
 concentrations of somatotropin, insulin-like growth factor
 (IGF)-I and IGF-II, and thyroid hormones in plasma of
 lactating Holstein cows.
 McGuire, M.A.; Beede, D.K.; Collier, R.J.; Buonomo, F.C.;
 DeLorenzo, M.A.; Wilcox, C.J.; Huntington, G.B.; Reynolds,
 C.K.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1991
 May. Journal of animal science v. 69 (5): p. 2050-2056; 1991
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Heat stress; Feed intake; Insulin-
 like growth factor; Body temperature; Blood plasma;
 Somatotropin; Thyroid hormones; Restricted feeding;
 Environmental temperature
 
 Abstract:  Our objective was to evaluate effects of acute
 thermal stress, independent of reduced feed intake caused by
 elevated temperatures, and of reduced feed intake in thermal
 comfort on plasma concentrations of somatotropin, insulin-like
 growth factors I and II, thyroxine, and triiodothyronine. Six
 Holstein cows (averaging 475 +/- 18 kg BW, 2.3 +/-.3 parities,
 and 96 +/- 12 d in lactation) surgically fitted with catheters
 in the hepatic portal vein, mesenteric vein, and intercostalis
 posterior artery were exposed to treatments of thermal comfort
 environments with ad libitum or restricted (75% of ad libitum)
 DM intake and a thermal stress environment with ad libitum
 intake in two balanced 3 X 3 Latin squares. Thermal stress
 increased rectal temperatures and respiration rates. Dry
 matter intake of the thermal-stressed cows offered feed ad
 libitum (11.1 +/- .7 kg/d) was similar to the experimentally
 imposed reduction in DM intake of the thermal comfort
 restricted group (11.5 +/- .7 kg/d). Dry matter intake of cows
 in thermal comfort was 15.1 +/- .7 kg/d. Plasma somatotropin
 concentrations tended (P < .08) to decrease daring thermal
 stress but were unchanged by amount of feed intake in thermal
 comfort environments. Concentrations of IGF-I were not
 affected by treatments. Concentrations of IGF-II tended (P <
 .14) to increase with thermal stress compared with thermal
 comfort treatments. Thyroxine concentrations tended (P < .15)
 to increase in the thermal stress treatment compared with the
 thermal comfort restricted intake treatment. Triiodothyronine
 tended (P < .11) to decrease with restriction in feed intake
 in the thermal comfort environment. Overall, effects of
 nutrition and thermal stress did not markedly alter
 concentrations of metabolic hormones in lactating dairy cows.
 
 
 118                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Effects of administration of recombinant bovine somatotropin
 on the response of lactating and nonlactating cows to heat
 stress.
 Cole, J.A.; Hansen, P.J.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1993 Jul01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 203
 (1): p. 113-117; 1993 Jul01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Somatotropin; Heat stress; Solar
 radiation; Lactating females; Dry period; Milk yield
 
 
 119                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Effects of bovine somatotropin on dry matter intake, milk
 yield, and body temperature in Holstein and Jersey cows during
 heat stress. West, J.W.; Mullinix, B.G.; Johnson, J.C. Jr;
 Ash, K.A.; Taylor, V.N. Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy
 Science Association; 1990 Oct. Journal of dairy science v. 73
 (10): p. 2896-2906; 1990 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Heat stress; Somatotropin; Feed
 intake; Milk yield; Body temperature; Holstein-friesian;
 Jersey; Body weight; Body condition
 
 
 120                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Effects of bovine somatotropin on milk yield and composition,
 dry matter intake, and some physiological functions of
 Holstein cows during heat stress. Zoa-Mboe, A.; Head, H.H.;
 Bachman, K.C.; Baccari, F. Jr; Wilcox, C.J. Champaign, Ill. :
 American Dairy Science Association; 1989 Apr. Journal of dairy
 science v. 72 (4): p. 907-916; 1989 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Holstein-friesian; Heat stress;
 Somatotropin; Milk yield; Milk composition; Dry matter; Feed
 intake; Shade; Hormones; Physiological functions
 
 
 121                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Effects of bovine somatotropin on physiologic responses of
 lactating Holstein and Jersey cows during hot, humid weather.
 West, J.W.; Mullinix, B.G.; Sandifer, T.G.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1991
 Mar. Journal of dairy science v. 74 (3): p. 840-851; 1991 Mar. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Somatotropin; Weather; Humidity; Heat
 production; Heat stress; Milk; Temperature; Blood chemistry;
 Fatty acids
 
 Abstract:  Thirty-one lactating Holstein and Jersey cows were
 used to determine the effects of daily injections of 0 or 20
 mg of recombinant bST on physiologic responses during hot,
 humid weather. Body temperature was determined by measuring
 milk temperature at each milking. Jugular blood was sampled
 for serum analysis of selected hormones, blood metabolites,
 and fatty acids, and arterial blood was sampled for blood pH
 and blood gas analysis. Milk was characterized for fatty acid
 composition. Blood pH was unchanged, but partial pressure of
 blood CO2, blood bicarbonate, base excess, and total CO2
 declined with administration of bST. Serum triglycerides
 increased 89% in cows receiving bST. Blood urea nitrogen
 tended to decline in cows receiving bST. Serum cortisol,
 triiodothyronine, and thyroxine did not change, but insulin-
 like growth factor-1 increased 128% with bST use. Reduced milk
 short-chain fatty acids, increased milk long-chain fatty
 acids, and increased blood serum C18:1 fatty acid content
 occurred in cows administered bST and probably reflected
 tissue mobilization. Cows administered bST in hot weather had
 higher milk temperatures. Alterations in physiologic and
 metabolic measures in association with higher milk
 temperature, suggest an interaction of bST use with hot, humid
 weather and reflect the need to minimize the effects of heat
 stress.
 
 
 122                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Effects of coat colour on physiological responses to solar
 radiation in Holsteins.
 Hansen, P.J.
 London : The Association; 1990 Sep29.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 127 (13): p. 333-334; 1990 Sep29.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Holstein-friesian; Coat; Color; Solar
 radiation; Heat stress; Heat resistance; Shade; Milk
 production; Physiological functions
 
 
 123                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Effects of daily exogenous oxytocin on lactation milk yield
 and composition. Nostrand, S.D.; Galton, D.M.; Erb, H.N.;
 Bauman, D.E.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1991
 Jul. Journal of dairy science v. 74 (7): p. 2119-2127; 1991
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Milk yield; Oxytocin; Injection; Milk
 composition; Mastitis; Milk ejection; Animal health
 
 Abstract:  Eighty-four Holstein cows were used to determine
 effects of exogenous oxytocin on 305-d milk production and
 health. Cows were assigned at parturition by parity group to
 treatments: 1) oxytocin group, animals received an injection
 of 1 ml (20 IU) of oxytocin at each milking throughout
 lactation and 2) control group, animals received no injection.
 Oxytocin injections were given in the thigh region within 3
 min following the initiation of udder preparation and
 immediately prior to machine attachment. Udder preparation
 consisted of forestripping and manual cleaning (10 to 20 s)
 and drying (5 to 10 s) of teats. Cows were milked in a parlor,
 and milk yield was recorded at each milking. Milk samples were
 collected from each cow biweekly for milk fat, protein, and
 somatic cell count determination. Individual lactations were
 modeled using Woods' lactation equation; resulting
 coefficients were analyzed using ANOVA. The oxytocin group
 produced 849 kg more milk during the lactation than the
 control group, with a significant difference occurring after
 peak milk yield. This suggests that exogenous oxytocin
 maintained greater persistency during lactation. No
 significant differences existed for milk fat or protein
 percentages. The use of exogenous oxytocin at milking
 increased lactation milk production with no apparent effect on
 health.
 
 
 124                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Effects of dexamethasone on shedding of Listeria monocytogenes
 in dairy cattle.
 Wesley, I.V.; Bryner, J.H.; Van Der Maaten, M.J.; Kehrli, M.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1989 Dec. American journal of veterinary research v. 50 (12):
 p. 2009-2013; 1989 Dec. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Listeria monocytogenes;
 Dexamethasone; Immunosuppression; Stress; Milk
 
 Abstract:  Ten lactating Holstein cows that had been given
 multiple injections of Listeria monocytogenes (serotype 4B,
 Scott A strain) via the intramammary route were allotted to 2
 groups: group 1 (n = 5) was treated with the synthetic
 glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (0.04 mg/kg of body weight), for
 3 consecutive days, and group 2 (n = 5) served as controls.
 Two days after the initial dexamethasone injection, the number
 of L monocytogenes in the milk had increased nearly 15-fold
 (1.16 log10) over pretreatment values. On day 3, Listeria
 numbers in the milk had increased by 1.83 log10, compared with
 pretreatment values. By day 4, Listeria numbers in the milk
 were approximately 100-fold (2.03 log10) greater than
 pretreatment numbers. Numbers remained high through day 7 and,
 by day 11, approached pretreatment numbers. Dexamethasone
 administration was accompanied by high total WBC and milk
 somatic cell counts and decreased eosinophil and lymphocyte
 numbers, and decreased milk production. The increase in
 shedding of L monocytogenes in the milk may reflect impairment
 of cell-mediated immune mechanisms and phagocytic cell
 functions that are critical for sustaining listerial immunity.
 
 
 125                                    NAL Call. No.: 100 Al1H
 
                                                                
    NSUS31.E23 Effects of different cooling and management
 regimes on milk production. Lin, J.C.; Moss, B.R.; Cummins,
 K.A.; Coleman, D.A.; Smith, R.C. III Auburn, Ala. :
 Agricultural Experiment Station of Auburn University, 1954-;
 1993.
 Highlights of agricultural research v. 40 (3): p. 7; 1993.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Milk production; Heat stress; Feed
 intake; Milk yield; Milk composition; Cooling systems
 
 
 126                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Effects of feeding practices on milk fat concentration for
 dairy cows. Coulon, J.B.; Agabriel, C.; Brunscwig, G.; Muller,
 C.; Bonaiti, B. Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science
 Association; 1994 Sep. Journal of dairy science v. 77 (9): p.
 2614-2620; 1994 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: France; Cabt; Dairy cows; Milk fat percentage;
 Concentrates; Cattle feeding; Rumen digestion; Dairy herds;
 Volatile fatty acids; Seasonal fluctuations; Farm surveys
 
 Abstract:  Thirty-seven dairy farms, using high producing
 (7500 kg/yr per cow on average) Montbeliarde cows that were
 fed hay-based rations, were included in a detailed survey
 involving the structure of the farm and the herd, the quality
 of forage, the feeding practices in winter and summer, and
 genetic characteristics of the cows (breeding values and herd
 effects). These data were used to analyze variation in milk
 fat concentration among farms, particularly variation linked
 to environmental factors, as assessed by the herd effect. When
 farms were ranked according to herd effect of fat
 concentration, farms with the highest herd effects fed
 concentrate to cows in rolled form, distributed forage before
 or with the concentrate, and provided hay in the trough in
 summer. The effects of such practices on digestive phenomena
 in the rumen are discussed. This study supported the use of
 herd effects to identify factors related to variation in dairy
 cow performance.
 
 
 127                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 The effects of handling by humans at calving and during
 milking on the behaviour and milk cortisol concentrations of
 primiparous dairy cows. Hemsworth, P.H.; Barnett, J.L.;
 Tilbrook, A.J.; Hansen, C. Amsterdam : Elsevier Science
 Publishers, B.V.; 1989 Apr.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 22 (3/4): p. 313-326; 1989
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Milking interval; Calving interval;
 Handling; Stress; Cortisol; Animal behavior
 
 
 128                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Effects of lameness on the behaviour of cows during the
 summer. Hassall, S.A.; Ward, W.R.; Murray, R.D.
 London : The Association; 1993 Jun05.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 132 (23): p. 578-580; 1993 Jun05.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Animal welfare; Lameness
 
 
 129                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Effects of late gestation heat stress on postpartum milk
 production and reproduction in dairy cattle.
 Moore, R.B.; Fuquay, J.W.; Drapala, W.J.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1992
 Jul. Journal of dairy science v. 75 (7): p. 1877-1882; 1992
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mississippi; Dairy cows; Heat stress; Dry period;
 Milk yield; Milk fat percentage; Lactation stage; Heat sums;
 Age; Lactation number; Precipitation; Female fertility
 
 Abstract:  Carry-over effects of late gestation heat stress on
 postpartum productive and reproductive traits were estimated
 from DHI records using 341 lactations from six sites in
 Mississippi. Climatological data were gathered from records of
 weather stations near the sites. Using multiple linear
 regression analyses, predictor variables for lactations were
 age at calving, lactation number, maximum degree-days (above
 32.2 degrees C) during the periods 30 and 60 d prepartum, and
 precipitation 30 and 60 d prepartum. Months and sites were
 indicator variables. Dependent variables included milk and fat
 production during early, mid, and late lactation; days to peak
 lactation; days open; services per conception; and body
 weight. Age at calving affected milk and fat production in mid
 and late lactation and services per conception. Degree-days
 for 60 d prepartum had the greatest negative influence on
 production variables; its statistical significance was shown
 in predictions of milk and fat production in early and
 midlactation. Days open were higher for July than for cows
 calving in August or September. Sites had effects on many milk
 and fat measurements and some reproductive traits. These
 results indicate that heat stress in the last 60 d of
 gestation has negative effects on some production variables.
 
 
 130                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Effects of number and location of water bowls and social rank
 on drinking behaviour and performance of loose-housed dairy
 cows.
 Andersson, M.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.; 1987 Apr.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 17 (1/2): p. 19-31; 1987
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Bowl drinkers; Loose housing;
 Drinking behavior; Dairy performance; Social structure
 
 
 131                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Effects of premilking teat preparation on spores of anaerobes,
 bacteria, and iodine residues in milk.
 Rasmussen, M.D.; Galton, D.M.; Petersson, L.G.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1991
 Aug. Journal of dairy science v. 74 (8): p. 2472-2478; 1991
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Milk; Bacterial count; Bacterial spores; Iodine;
 Residues; Teat dip; Iodophors; Teats; Milking
 
 Abstract:  Premilking teat preparations using individual paper
 or cotton towels for either 6 or 20 s to reduce bacteria and
 iodine residues from teat surfaces were determined through
 Latin square designs applied to 50 cows. A cotton towel used
 for 20 s was most effective in cleaning teats, probably
 because of the physical structure of the towel, physical
 action on teat surface, and scrubbing of the teat ends.
 Premilking teat preparation of 6 s was inadequate to clean
 teats and to avoid iodine residues in milk. Teat end erosions
 increased iodine residue in milk. Two days after a treatment
 period, iodine content in milk from iodophordipped groups was
 similar to that of the undipped control group. Against our
 expectation, teat dipping with a .25% iodophor teat dip caused
 higher iodine residue in milk than a .50% iodophor teat dip.
 Differences in formulations and inert ingredients of iodophor
 teat dips indicate a need for further studies.
 
 
 132                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin under conditions of
 high production and heat stress.
 Lotan, E.; Sturman, H.; Weller, J.I.; Ezra, E.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1993
 May. Journal of dairy science v. 76 (5): p. 1394-1402; 1993
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Israel; Dairy cows; Somatotropin; Injection; Heat
 stress; Milk yield; Milk fat percentage; Feed intake; Dry
 matter; Liveweight gain; Body composition; Female fertility;
 Lactation stage; Milk protein percentage; Milk fat yield; Milk
 protein yield
 
 Abstract:  The effect of bST injection on milk production of
 Israeli Holsteins was tested under conditions of mean
 production > 9000 kg/yr and climatic stress; mean maximum and
 minimum summer temperatures are 38 and 25 degrees C,
 respectively, in the Jordan Valley, located 200 m below sea
 level. In 1989, 111 cows were injected, and 115 cows were
 recorded as controls. In 1990, 108 cows were injected, and 93
 cows were included as controls. Fifty-nine of the cows
 injected in 1990 were also injected in 1989. Production
 records were corrected for parity, calving month, days to
 first injection, and days in milk. Injection with bST
 increased total lactation milk production by 12%, fat
 production by 15%, and protein production by 13%. Injection
 also resulted in slight increases in fat and protein
 percentages. Daily milk production during the injection period
 was increased by 4.4 kg. Injection during the previous
 lactation slightly decreased production of cows injected
 during the following lactation. Advancing the commencement of
 injection from the 4th to the 2nd mo in milk did not affect
 total lactation production. Weight gains and dry matter intake
 were higher for injected cows, but body condition score was
 higher for the control group. Injection had no discernible
 effect on fertility variables.
 
 
 133                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Effects of recombinant methionyl bovine somatotropin
 (sometribove) in high producing cows milked three times daily.
 Jordan, D.C.; Aguilar, A.A.; Olson, J.D.; Bailey, C.;
 Hartnell, G.F.; Madsen, K.S.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1991
 Jan. Journal of dairy science v. 74 (1): p. 220-226; 1991 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Somatotropin; Milking interval; Milk
 production; Milk composition; Body condition; Body weight;
 Animal health; Mastitis
 
 Abstract:  Effects of daily sometribove administration on milk
 yield and composition, body condition score, BW, and SCC were
 evaluated in Holstein cows milked three times daily. Lactating
 cows (n = 104) were assigned randomly to control or
 sometribove-treated (25 mg/d) groups. The experimental period
 was 16 wk, consisting of 2-wk pretreatment, 12-wk treatment,
 and 2-wk posttreatment periods. All cows were injected once
 daily starting at 53 to 180 d postpartum, housed in free
 stalls, and fed one of five total mixed rations according to
 milk production. Body weights were measured weekly, and body
 condition was scored biweekly. Milk yield was recorded daily,
 and weekly milk samples were analyzed for fat, protein,
 lactose, total solids, and SCC. Milk yield and milk protein
 were increased 18.8% (38.6 vs. 32.5 kg/d) and 3.3% (3.1 vs.
 3.0%), respectively, whereas percentage of milk fat, lactose,
 SNF, SCC, and BW were unaffected by treatment. Overall average
 body condition scores were lower for the sometribove-treated
 group versus control (2.2 vs. 2.4). No apparent differences in
 the number of cows treated for mastitis, foot rot, displaced
 abomasum, or lameness were observed between treatment groups.
 Sometribove treatment significantly enhanced milk yield (6.1
 kg/d) with no apparent negative effects on health in high
 producing cows milked three time per day.
 
 
 134                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Effects of scrotal insulation on viability characteristics of
 cryopreserved bovine semen.
 Vogler, C.J.; Saacke, R.G.; Bame, J.H.; DeJarnette, J.M.;
 McGilliard, M.L. Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science
 Association; 1991 Nov. Journal of dairy science v. 74 (11): p.
 3827-3835; 1991 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy bulls; Holstein-friesian; Semen characters;
 Semen preservation; Scrotum; Heat stress; Spermatozoa;
 Cryopreservation; Insulation
 
 Abstract:  The effect of a 48-h scrotal insulation on
 spermatozoal viability (motility and acrosomal integrity),
 before and after semen cryopreservation, was studied in six
 young Holstein bulls whose semen was collected twice in
 succession at 3-d intervals. Motility and acrosomal integrity
 were measured before and after incubation of semen at 37
 degrees C for 3 h. For assessment of results, collection days
 were grouped: period 1 (control) = d -6, -3, and 0, where d 0
 = initiation of scrotal insulation after semen collection;
 period 2 = d 3, 6, and 9 sperm presumed in the epididymis or
 rete testis during scrotal insulation); period 3 = d 12, 15,.
 . . 39 (sperm presumed in spermatogenesis during scrotal
 insulation). Semen was cryopreserved each collection day until
 morphologically abnormal cells exceeded 50% of the ejaculate
 (d 12 to 21). Semen viability before and after freezing was
 lower in period 3 than in period 1 (P < .05). These
 differences coincided with the appearance in period 3 of
 abnormal sperm morphology and depressed undiluted semen
 motility, which began on d 12 (P < .01). Semen collected
 during period 2 that was extended but unfrozen did not differ
 from that collected during period 1 in morphology or
 viability. However, for frozen semen, period 2 was
 significantly poorer than period 1 for both viability
 measurements, but only after incubation for 3 h at 37 degrees
 C postthaw (P < .05). We conclude that epididymal sperm are
 adversely affected by elevated testicular temperatures, as
 noted by their decreased ability to maintain motility and
 acrosomal integrity following cryopreservation.
 
 
 135                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 C163
 Effects of social and physical stressors on growth hormone
 levels in dairy cows.
 Munksgaard, L.; Lovendahl, P.
 Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada; 1993 Dec.
 Canadian journal of animal science v. 73 (4): p. 847-853; 1993
 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Somatotropin; Dairy cows; Hormone secretion;
 Blood plasma; Corticotropin
 
 
 136                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Effects of somatotropin on milk yield and physiological
 responses during summer farm and hot laboratory conditions.
 Johnson, H.D.; Li, R.; Manalu, W.; Spencer-Johnson, K.J.;
 Becker, B.A.; Collier, R.J.; Baile, C.A.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1991
 Apr. Journal of dairy science v. 74 (4): p. 1250-1262; 1991
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Somatotropin; Environmental
 temperature; Feed conversion; Heat stress; Milk yield; Summer;
 Body temperature; Blood composition; Feed intake; Milk fat
 percentage; Milk protein percentage; Heat production
 
 Abstract:  The effects of bST on performance and physiological
 responses of lactating cows was studied under farm summer and
 laboratory heat conditions. Twelve cows, 90 to 50 d
 postpartum, were injected with either bST or vehicle solution
 for 30 d under farm summer and 10 d under either laboratory
 thermoneutral or heat conditions. Somatotropin increased milk
 yield by 6.1 (21%), 8.1 (32%), and 7.3 kg (35%) under the farm
 summer, laboratory thermoneutral, and heat conditions,
 respectively. Somatotropin also increased milk fat by 15 and
 19% and dry matter intake by 16 and 18% under laboratory
 thermoneutral and heat conditions, respectively. Somatotropin
 increased the efficiency of feed conversion into milk without
 any significant changes in body weight and temperatures.
 Somatotropin reduced plasma concentrations of triiodothyronine
 and cortisol and had no effect on plasma prolactin and insulin
 concentrations. Somatotropin did not increase water intake;
 however, hematocrit was decreased. The results suggest that
 stimulatory effects of bST on milk production are still
 observed on heat-stressed cows without any significant
 indications of additional heat stress.
 
 
 137                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Effects of supplemental potassium and sodium chloride salts on
 ruminal turnover rates, acid-base and mineral status of
 lactating dairy cows during heat stress.
 Schneider, P.L.; Beede, D.K.; Wilcox, C.J.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1988
 Jan. Journal of animal science v. 66 (1): p. 126-135; 1988
 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Lactating females; Heat stress;
 Minerals; Feed supplements; Potassium chloride; Sodium
 chloride; Rumen digestion; Acid base equilibrium; Nutritional
 state
 
 
 138                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Effects of thermal stress and level of feed intake on portal
 plasma flow and net fluxes of metabolites in lactating
 Holstein cows.
 McGuire, M.A.; Beede, D.K.; DeLorenzo, M.A.; Wilcox, C.J.;
 Huntington, G.B.; Reynolds, C.K.; Collier, R.J.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1989
 Apr. Journal of animal science v. 67 (4): p. 1050-1060; 1989
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Holstein-friesian; Heat stress; Feed
 intake; Nutrient uptake; Metabolites; Blood flow; Blood
 plasma; Portal vein
 
 
 139                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Effects of treatment of dairy cows with recombinant bovine
 somatotropin over three or four lactations.
 Oldenbroek, J.K.; Garssen, G.J.; Jonker, L.J.; Wilkinson,
 J.I.D. Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association;
 1993 Feb. Journal of dairy science v. 76 (2): p. 453-467; 1993
 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Somatotropin; Lactation number;
 Duration; Feed intake; Milk yield; Body weight; Blood plasma;
 L-thyroxine; Insulin; Metabolites; Milk composition; Somatic
 cell count; Female fertility; Animal health; Blood picture;
 Blood chemistry; Culling
 
 Abstract:  Jersey, Dutch Red and White, and Friesian cows were
 subcutaneously injected with 640 mg of recombinant bST at 28-d
 intervals from 87 to 115 d after calving through four
 successive lactations. A TMR (6.72 MJ of NE(L) and 168 g of
 CP/kg of DM) was fed for ad libitum consumption. The bST
 effects per day were 3.3 kg for milk yield, 189 g for fat
 yield, 109 g for protein yield, 157 g for lactose yield, 4 MJ
 of NE(L) for feed intake, and -4 kg for body weight. Responses
 in blood parameters measured 7 d after injection were -.007
 mmol/L for glucose, -1.3 mg of N/100 ml for urea, 221
 micromoles/L for 3-hydroxybutyrate, 59 micromoles/L for NEFA,
 65 ng/L for insulin, 2.8 micrograms/L for thyroxine, and 26.7
 micrograms/L for somatotropin. Somatic cell count in milk was
 75,000 cells/ml higher in treated cows. Concentrations of
 NEFA, Ca, Mg, and phosphorus were unaffected. Repeatability of
 the maximum response in milk yield after bST treatment was
 low: .2 within and .5 between lactations. Cows treated in the
 previous lactation had slightly more retained placentas, and
 birth weight of their calves was 2 kg less. No differences
 were between treated and control cows in disease incidence.
 Six treated cows were culled in third and fourth lactations.
 No indications for tissue damage, inflammation, or stress
 after bST injections were detected.
 
 
 140                             NAL Call. No.: KF27.A366 1987e
 Effects of United States and foreign trade policies and the
 Food Security Act of 1985 on the domestic livestock industry
 hearing before the Subcommittee on Livestock, Dairy, and
 Poultry of the Committee on Agriculture, House of
 Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, first session,
 November 21, 1987, Rapid City, SD.
 United States. Congress. House. Committee on Agriculture.
 Subcommittee on Livestock, Dairy, and Poultry
 Washington, [D.C.] : U.S. G.P.O. : For sale by the Supt. of
 Docs., Congressional Sales Office, U.S. G.P.O.,; 1988; Y 4.Ag
 8/1:100-58. iii, 91 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.  Distributed to some
 depository libraries in microfiche.  Serial no. 100-58.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; United States; Cattle trade; United
 States; Meat industry and trade; United States; Competition,
 Unfair
 
 
 141                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Effects of voltages on cows over a complete lactation. 1. Milk
 yield and composition.
 Gorewit, R.C.; Aneshansley, D.J.; Price, L.R.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1992
 Oct. Journal of dairy science v. 75 (10): p. 2719-2725; 1992
 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Electricity; Milk yield; Water
 intake; Milk composition; Lactation stage
 
 Abstract:  The effect of long-term voltage exposure on milk
 yield and composition was assessed. Forty cows in second to
 fifth lactation were used. Four groups of 10 Holstein cows
 were exposed to either 0, 1, 2, or 4 V throughout an entire
 lactation. Each group was housed in a free-stall environment
 with bunk feed and water provided for ad libitum intake.
 Voltages (AC, 60 Hz) were applied between waterers and a metal
 grid. Cows could not drink without placing their front hooves
 on the metal grid. Individual records were maintained for milk
 weights, milk fat, protein, and somatic cell counts. Average
 actual (7312, 8527, 6938, and 7725 kg for groups exposed to 0,
 1, 2, or 4 V, respectively) and mature equivalent (7802, 9281,
 7309, and 8911 kg for groups exposed to 0, 1, 2, or 4 V,
 respectively) milk weights for 305 d showed no significant
 differences between groups exposed or unexposed to voltage.
 Average actual milk yields for 305 d in the previous
 lactations were 8016, 8163, 7679, and 7876 kg for groups
 exposed to 0, 1, 2, or 4 V, respectively. Somatic cell counts,
 milk fat, and protein showed no significant differences
 between groups exposed or unexposed to voltage. Feed and water
 intakes were not affected by voltage.
 
 
 142                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Effects of voltages on cows over a complete lactation. 2.
 Health and reproduction.
 Gorewit, R.C.; Aneshansley, D.J.; Price, L.R.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1992
 Oct. Journal of dairy science v. 75 (10): p. 2726-2732; 1992
 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Lactation; Electricity; Bovine
 mastitis; Body weight; Hooves; Cattle diseases; Female
 fertility; Abortion; Fetal death; Animal welfare
 
 Abstract:  For the effects of voltages on health and
 reproduction, 40 cows in second to fifth lactation were
 divided into four groups of 10. These included a control group
 that was not subjected to voltages and three treatment groups
 that were given either 1, 2, or 4 V at the water bowl. Cows in
 the treatment groups were exposed during the entire lactation
 to voltage whenever they drank. Voltages did not sufficiently
 affect milk yield. General health parameters studied were
 mastitis, hoof problems, and changes in body weight.
 Reproductive and calving parameters examined were days to
 first breeding, days open, services per conception, response
 to PGF2 alpha, calving intervals, visible abortion, and calves
 born dead. Voltages did not significantly influence cow health
 or reproductive performance.
 
 
 143                                NAL Call. No.: SF233.D44M55
 Effects of warm climates on milk yield and composition (short-
 term effects). Beede, D.K.; Collier, R.J.; Wilcox, C.J.;
 Thatcher, W.W.
 Edinburgh : University of Edinburgh, Centre for Tropical
 Veterinary Medicine; 1985.
 Milk production in developing countries : proceedings of the
 conference held in Edinburgh from the 2nd to 6th April 1984 /
 organised by the Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine ;
 edited by A.J. Smi. p. 322-347; 1985.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Dairy cows; Milk yield; Milk
 composition; Metabolism; Heat stress; Tropical climate
 
 
 144                       NAL Call. No.: 18 D4825T Nr.241 1986
 Effektive Bewirtschaftung von Stallen und Anlagen der Milch-
 und Rinderproduktion unter besonderer Beachtung der Nutzung
 der Mikroelektronik und verbesserter Verfahren der
 Produktionskontrolle Vortrage einer wissenschaftlichen Tagung,
 veranstaltet vom Institut fur Rinderproduktion Iden-Rohrbeck
 aus Anlass des 65. Geburtstages seines Direktors Professor Dr.
 sc. Hans Kleiber, vom 18. bis 20. September 1985 in Iden 
 [Effective management of barns and milk and cattle production
 installations with particular attention to the use of
 microelectronics and improved production control methods]., 1.
 Aufl..
 Kleiber, Hans,
 Institut fur Rinderproduktion Iden-Rohrbeck (Akademie der
 Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR)
 Berlin : Die Akademie,; 1986.
 144 p. : ill. ; 21 cm. (Tagungsbericht / Akademie der
 Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der Deutschen Demokratischen
 Republik ; Nr. 241).  Cover title.  Summaries in English,
 German, and Russian.  Includes bibliographies.
 
 Language:  German
 
 Descriptors: Kleiber, Hans 1920-; Cattle; Congresses; Cattle;
 Housing; Environmental engineering; Congresses; Dairying;
 Technological innovations; Congresses; Beef industry;
 Technological innovations; Congresses
 
 
 145                                    NAL Call. No.: S671.A66
 Electric utilization on Vermont dairy farms.
 Wells, G.D.; Christiansen, W.C.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1991 Nov. Applied engineering in agriculture v. 7
 (6): p. 773-776; 1991 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Vermont; Dairy farms; Electrical energy; Energy
 consumption
 
 Abstract:  Fifty-two Vermont dairy farms were surveyed to
 determine electrical consumptive rates and thirteen farms were
 metered for demand patterns. A wide range of farm size and
 types were included in the study. Equations were developed to
 predict electrical energy use on dairy farms through
 comparison with number of cows or total milk production. The
 conclusion was that prediction equations are good only to show
 general trends. Every farm is different because of type of
 animal housing, equipment choices, and management. Well-
 defined peak demands indicate that dairy farms, given proper
 incentives, can be excellent load levellers for utilities.
 
 
 146                                 NAL Call. No.: S494.5.E547
 Electricity used in farmstead operations.
 McFate, K.L.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier; 1989.
 Energy in world agriculture v. 3: p. 121-142; 1989.  In the
 series analytic: Energy in World Agriculture / edited by K.L.
 McFate.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Farming; Electricity; Electrical energy; Electric
 heaters; Milking; Dairy equipment; Ventilation; Fans; Fodder
 crops; Handling; Heating; Cooling; Dairy farming; Beef cattle;
 Pig farming; Poultry farming; Brood care; Grain drying;
 Vegetables; Storage
 
 
 147                                 NAL Call. No.: 442.8 J8222
 Embryonic mortality and the uterine environment in first-
 service lactating dairy cows.
 Wiebold, J.L.
 Colchester : The Journal; 1988 Nov.
 Journal of reproduction and fertility v. 84 (2): p. 393-399;
 1988 Nov. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Washington; Dairy cows; Holstein-friesian;
 Lactating females; Embryo mortality; Functional disorders;
 Genetic defects; Hormones; Steroids; Stress; Uterus
 
 
 148                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Endocrine and neural control of estrus in dairy cows.
 Allrich, R.D. \u Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1994
 Sep. Journal of dairy science v. 77 (9): p. 2738-2744; 1994
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Estrus; Proestrus; Estradiol;
 Progesterone; Ovulation; Corpus luteum; Literature reviews
 
 Abstract:  During proestrus, gonadotropins induce final
 follicular maturation, resulting in increased secretion of
 estradiol. Estradiol, in the relative absence of progesterone,
 acts on the hypothalamus to induce estrous behavior. The mean
 duration of estrus is 12 to 16 h and ranges from 3 to 28 h.
 The effects of estradiol appear to be "all or none". That is,
 once a threshold of estradiol is achieved, estrus is induced,
 and additional amounts of estradiol above threshold do not
 further enhance the estrous response (duration and intensity
 of estrus). Also, progesterone can block the estrus-inducing
 actions of estradiol. In addition, prior exposure to
 progesterone does not potentiate the estrus-inducing actions
 of estradiol except in the early postpartum period. In dairy
 cows, the first postpartum ovulation is often "silent". In
 other words, ovulation is not preceded by estrous behavior.
 High levels of estradiol during late gestation apparently
 induce a refractory state such that the brain cannot respond
 to the estrus-inducing actions of estradiol at the first
 postpartum ovulation. Progesterone can "reset" the brain,
 allowing it to respond to subsequent estradiol exposure. In
 the case of the postpartum cow, the corpus luteum formed after
 the first ovulation provides the progesterone that resets the
 brain. As a consequence, the second postpartum ovulation is
 preceded by estrous behavior. Finally, stress (or injection of
 ACTH) has been shown to delay, shorten, or inhibit completely
 the expression of estrus in the presence of estrus-inducing
 concentrations of estradiol. In summary, estrus is induced by
 estradiol in the absence of progesterone, progesterone is
 inhibitory to estrus, and situations exist in which estrus may
 be absent prior to ovulation.
 
 
 149                                    NAL Call. No.: SF961.A5
 Engineered management in housing.
 Graves, R.E.
 Stillwater, Okla. : The Association; 1987 Apr.
 Proceedings ... annual convention - American Association of
 Bovine Practitioners (19th): p. 90-93; 1987 Apr.  Meeting held
 on November 18-21, 1986, in Louisville, Kentucky.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Cattle housing; Cubicles; Stalls;
 Loose housing; Ventilation; Insulation
 
 
 150                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 Environmental aspects od dairy calf housing.
 Bickert, W.G.; Herdt, T.H.
 Princeton Junction, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems; 1985
 May. The Compendium on continuing education for the practicing
 veterinarian v. 7 (5): p. S309-S314, S316. ill; 1985 May. 
 Includes 16 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Calf housing; Dairy cattle; Ventilation; Heating;
 Air quality; Environmental control
 
 
 151                                 NAL Call. No.: SF967.M3N32
 Environmental effects on mastitis and milk quality.
 Jarrett, J.A.
 Arlington, Va. : The Council; 1988.
 Annual meeting - National Mastitis Council, Inc (27th): p.
 12-17. ill; 1988. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Cow housing; Stalls; Loose housing;
 Environment; Bovine mastitis; Milk quality
 
 
 152                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.B6
 Environmental modifications to reduce heat stress in dairy
 cattle. III. Shearer, J.K.; Beede, D.K.; Bucklin, R.A.; Bray,
 D.R.
 Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Publishing
 Company; 1991 Jul. Agri-Practice v. 12 (4): p. 7-10, 13-16,
 18; 1991 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Heat stress; Cooling systems
 
 
 153                                   NAL Call. No.: 340.8 IN8
 Environmental profile and critical temperature effects on milk
 production of Holstein cows in desert climate.
 Igono, M.O.; Bjotvedt, G.; Sanford-Crane, H.T.
 Berlin, W. Ger. : Springer International; 1992.
 International journal of biometeorology v. 36 (2): p. 77-87;
 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Dairy cows; Lactating females; Milk
 production; Milk yield; Lactation; Heat stress; Arid climate;
 Environmental temperature; Relative humidity; Indexes; Weather
 data; Diurnal variation; Quantitative analysis
 
 Abstract:  The environmental profile of central Arizona is
 quantitatively described using meteorological data between
 1971 and 1986. Utilizing ambient temperature criteria of hours
 per day less than 21 degrees C, between 21 and 27 degrees C,
 and more than 27 degrees C, the environmental profile of
 central Arizona consists of varying levels of thermoneutral
 and heat stress periods. Milk production data from two
 commercial dairy farms from March 1990 to February 1991 were
 used to evaluate the seasonal effects identified in the
 environmental profile. Overall, milk production is lower
 during heat stress compared to thermoneutral periods. During
 heat stress, the cool period of hours per day with temperature
 less than 21 degrees C provides a margin of safety to reduce
 the effects of heat stress on decreased milk production. Using
 minimum, mean and maximum ambient temperatures, the upper
 critical temperatures for milk production are 21, 27 and 32
 degrees C, respectively. Using the temperature-humidity index
 as the thermal environment indicator, the critical values for
 minimum, mean and maximum THI are 64, 72 and 76, respectively.
 
 
 154                                  NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Equivalent temperature index at temperatures above the
 thermoneutral for lactating dairy cows.
 Baeta, F.C.; Meador, N.F.; Shanklin, M.D.; Johnson, H.D.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1987.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche
 collection) (fiche no. 87-4015): 22 p.; 1987.  Paper presented
 at the 1987 Summer Meeting of the American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers. Available for purchase from: The
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950
 Niles Road, St. Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order
 Dept. at (616) 429-0300 for information and prices.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Lactation; Environment; Stress
 conditions; Heat stress; Milk production
 
 
 155                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Estimated culling probabilities, age distribution, and
 expected herd life in Nili-Ravi buffalo.
 Ahmad, Z.; Berger, P.J.; Healey, M.H.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1992
 Jun. Journal of dairy science v. 75 (6): p. 1707-1714; 1992
 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Buffaloes; Survival; Productive life; Culling;
 Probability analysis; Age differences; Age at first calving;
 Herd structure; Milk-yielding animals
 
 Abstract:  Data were from 1457 buffalo cows in a herd under
 development for dairy production since 1935. The probability
 of cows entering and remaining in the herd increased from .037
 at 2 yr to .873 at 5 yr and decreased gradually thereafter.
 The probability of cows being culled increased with age from
 .098 at 3 yr to .423 at 14 yr. The maximum age of culling was
 15 yr. Average ages of culled cows and of cows in the herd
 were 7.92 and 6.58 yr, respectively. The proportions of young
 (<6 yr), mature (6 to 9 yr), and old cows (>9 yr) were 42.6,
 41.7, and 15.7%, respectively, for cows in the herd and 25.4,
 45.7, and 28.9%, respectively, for culled cows. Expected
 additional herd life was 4.64, 3.18, 2.24, 1.50, and .30 yr
 for cows aged 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 yr, respectively. Age at
 first calving did not affect the overall trend in age-specific
 culling probabilities. Cows calving for the first time before
 42 mo were culled in about equal proportions as old cows
 (28.5%) to cows calving first at 42 to 54 mo (28.5%) and after
 54 mo (25.9%). The relatively infrequent culling of cows at an
 early age within this herd may have been detrimental to
 genetic improvement. Therefore, efforts to improve the genetic
 merit of buffalo cows should focus on performance of younger
 cows.
 
 
 156                                   NAL Call. No.: 340.8 IN8
 Estimation of cold stress effect on dairy cows.
 Broucek, J.; Letkovivova, M.; Kovalcuj, K.
 Berlin, W. Ger. : Springer International; 1991.
 International journal of biometeorology v. 35 (1): p. 29-32;
 1991.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Cold stress; Temperature; Milk
 production; Milk yield; Feed intake; Blood chemistry; Yield
 forecasting; Correlation analysis
 
 Abstract:  Twelve crossbred heifers (Slovak Spotted X
 Holstein-Friesian) were housed in an open, uninsulated barn
 with straw bedding and a concrete-floored yard. Minimum
 temperatures inside the barn were as low as -19 degrees C. The
 average milk yield decreased as the temperatures approached
 these minima. Compared with the temperate conditions, the feed
 intake and blood levels of glucose and free fatty acids
 increased. The level of sodium declined significantly during
 the second cold period. Correlations and regressions between
 milk yield and biochemical parameters were calculated, and the
 results indicate that the concentrations of free fatty acids,
 cholesterol, and triiodothyronine and the haematocrit values
 may serve to predict milk production during periods of cold
 stress, or in lactations of 305 days.
 
 
 157                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Estrous and endocrine responses of lactating Holsteins to
 forced ventilation during summer.
 Younas, M.; Fuquay, J.W.; Smith, A.E.; Moore, A.B.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1993
 Feb. Journal of dairy science v. 76 (2): p. 430-436; 1993 Feb. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mississippi; Dairy cows; Artificial ventilation;
 Fans; Summer; Estrous cycle; Body temperature; Progesterone;
 Hormone secretion; Lh; Blood serum; Prostaglandins
 
 Abstract:  Fourteen lactating and cycling Holsteins in each of
 two summers were assigned randomly to pens in a free-stall
 barn either with or without overhead fans to study the effect
 of fan cooling on certain endocrine and behavioral responses
 during the estrous cycle. After an adjustment period of 8 d in
 the first summer and 21 d in the second summer, jugular
 cannulas were inserted, and 25 mg of PGF2 alpha were injected.
 After injection, blood samples were collected frequently for
 84 h in the first summer and 88 h in the second summer,
 followed by collection three times weekly for 3 wk thereafter
 each summer. Rectal temperatures were lower in the group
 cooled by fans than in the control group each summer. Luteal
 progesterone secretion tended to be greater in the fan group
 each summer; area under the luteal phase curve was
 significantly higher than for controls during the second
 summer. There was tendency for more preovulatory surges of LH
 and higher estrous response rates in the fan group during the
 second summer. Thus, fan cooling of lactating dairy cows for
 several weeks before anticipated breeding provides potential
 for more efficient reproductive performance during the summer.
 
 
 158                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Estrous cyclicity in nonlactating and lactating Holsteins and
 Jerseys during a Pakistani summer.
 Imtiaz Hussain, S.M.; Fuquay, J.W.; Younas, M.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1992
 Nov. Journal of dairy science v. 75 (11): p. 2968-2975; 1992
 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pakistan; Dairy cows; Estrous cycle;
 Environmental temperature; Lactation; Body temperature;
 Summer; Heat stress; Hydrocortisone; Progesterone; Duration
 
 Abstract:  Data from 36 cows were used in a 2 X 2 factorial
 arrangement to determine the effects of breed and lactation
 status on estrous cyclicity during a Pakistani summer (June
 through October). Cows were selected from a herd of Holsteins
 and Jerseys imported from the United States 5 yr earlier.
 Ambient temperatures were highest in June and declined in the
 ensuing months with the onset of the rainy season. Relative
 humidity increased in July and August and them remained stable
 until the end of the study. Although early morning rectal
 temperatures gradually declined from June through October,
 late afternoon rectal temperatures were highest in August.
 Average early morning rectal temperatures were higher in
 Holsteins than in Jerseys (38.5 vs. 38.3 degrees C). Even
 though all cows were cyclic throughout the study, as indicated
 by patterns of progesterone secretion, observed expression of
 estrus was low (36.8%) and unaffected by breed or lactation
 status. Average serum progesterone concentrations were lower
 (2.4 vs. 3.1 ng/ml), and cortisol concentrations were higher
 (4.1 vs. 3.9 ng/ml), in Holsteins than in Jerseys. Breed by
 lactation status interactions were significant for lengths of
 the luteal phase and estrous cycle. Lengths for lactating
 Holsteins were longer than those of other groups.
 
 
 159                          NAL Call. No.: SF768.2.C3B68 1992
 Ethical issues and BST.
 Thompson, P.B.
 Boulder : Westview Press; 1992.
 Bovine somatotropin and emerging issues : an assessment /. p.
 33-50; 1992. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Somatotropin; Milk; Ethics; Technical
 progress; Effects; Farmers; Productivity; Environmental
 impact; Animal welfare; Food safety; Social consciousness
 
 
 160                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Evaluation of 50:50 and 70:30 pulsation ratios in a large
 commercial dairy herd.
 Thomas, C.V.; Bray, D.R.; Delorenzo, M.A.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1993
 May. Journal of dairy science v. 76 (5): p. 1298-1304; 1993
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Machine milking; Pulsation;
 Pulsators; Milk production; Milking parlors; Dairy
 performance; Bovine mastitis; Udders
 
 Abstract:  An experiment was conducted in a large commercial
 dairy milking 1350 Holstein cows in Florida to investigate the
 effects of 50:50 or 70:30 pulsation ratios on milking parlor
 performance, milk production, and udder health. The experiment
 used a reversal design in which the two pulsation ratios were
 tested over four 2-mo periods in nearly identical double-11
 herringbone milking parlors. Analysis of milking parlor
 performance measures of cows milked per hour, milk harvested
 per hour, parlor turns per hour, and parlor cycle time
 revealed a small increase in milking parlor performance for
 the 70:30 pulsation ratio. Milking with the 70:30 pulsation
 ratio increased cows milked by 4.1 cows per h, increased milk
 harvested by 38.3 kg/h, increased parlor turns by .2 turns per
 hr, and decreased parlor cycle time by .4 min compared with
 the 50:50 pulsation ratio. Average milk production per cow per
 milking did not differ between the two ratios. Udder health
 indicators of clinical mastitis incidence, cows culled for
 mastitis, or bulk tank SCC were not different because of
 pulsation ratio.
 
 
 161                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Evaluation of a gel teat cleaning and sanitizing compound for
 premilking hygiene.
 Ingawa, K.H.; Adkinson, R.W.; Gough, R.H.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1992
 May. Journal of dairy science v. 75 (5): p. 1224-1232; 1992
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Teats; Teat dip; Milking; Dairy
 hygiene; Cleaning; Washing; Milk yield; Milk composition;
 Bacterial count; Time; Bovine mastitis; Iodine
 
 Abstract:  A gel was developed and tested for cleaning and
 sanitizing cow teats for milking. Thirty lactating Holstein
 cows were divided into three groups of 10 each and assigned to
 three premilking hygiene treatments for 10 wk as follows: 1)
 cleaning teats with gel, allowing 30 s of contact time, and
 wiping residual gel off with paper towel; 2) washing teats
 with water and drying them with paper towel; 3) washing teats
 with water, drying with paper towel, predipping with .5%
 iodophor solution, allowing 30 s of contact time, and drying
 with paper towel. Individual cow composite milk and teat end
 swab samples were collected. The gel and predip treatments
 resulted in less bacterial contamination of milk and teat
 ends. The gel treatment had an advantage over wash and predip
 treatments in lower SCC and reduced mastitis. Parlor
 throughput was greatest for gel and wash treatments. The wash
 treatment group had highest SCC, bacteria in milk and on teat
 ends, and mastitis. Milk iodine content was low and similar
 for the three treatments. Daily milk production and fat and
 protein percentages were not affected by treatments. The gel
 treatment was effective, efficient, and provided good hygiene.
 
 
 162                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 Am32P
 Evaluation of dairy housing under tropical climate.
 Naas, I.A.; Amaral, L.R.; Sydenstricker, K.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers,; 1991. Paper / (914024): 10 p.; 1991.  Paper
 presented at the "1991 International Summer Meeting sponsored
 by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers," June
 23-26, 1991, Albuquerque, New Mexico.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cow housing; Stalls; Computer simulation;
 Computer software
 
 
 163                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32P
 Experiences with natural ventilation in Michigan and
 elsewhere. Bickert, W.G.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1990.
 Paper - American Society of Agricultural Engineers (90-4553):
 7 p.; 1990. Paper presented at the "1990 International Winter
 Meeting sponsored by The American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers," December 18-21, 1990, Chicago, Illinois.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Michigan; Natural ventilation; Barns; Dairy
 cattle
 
 
 164                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32P
 Experiences with natural ventilation northeastern U.S.
 Weeks, S.A.; Martin, R.O.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1990.
 Paper - American Society of Agricultural Engineers (90-4555):
 3 p.; 1990. Paper presented at the "1990 International Winter
 Meeting sponsored by The American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers," December 18-21, 1990, Chicago, Illinois.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Northeastern states of U.S.A.; Natural
 ventilation; Barns; Ventilation; Dairy cattle
 
 
 165                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32P
 Experiences with natural ventilation of dairy barns in south
 Western Ontario. Milne, R.J.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1990.
 Paper - American Society of Agricultural Engineers (90-4556):
 3 p.; 1990. Paper presented at the "1990 International Winter
 Meeting sponsored by The American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers," December 18-21, 1990, Chicago, Illinois.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ontario; Barns; Ventilation; Dairy cattle
 
 
 166                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32P
 Experiences with natural ventilation-Wisconsin.
 Kammel, D.W.; Holmes, B.J.; Cramer, C.O.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1990.
 Paper - American Society of Agricultural Engineers (90-4554):
 5 p.; 1990. Paper presented at the "1990 International Winter
 Meeting sponsored by The American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers," December 18-21, 1990, Chicago, Illinois.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Wisconsin; Natural ventilation; Animal housing;
 Dairy cattle
 
 
 167                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Expert system for evaluation of reproductive performance and
 management. Domecq, J.J.; Nebel, R.L.; McGilliard, M.L.;
 Pasquino, A.T. Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science
 Association; 1991 Oct. Journal of dairy science v. 74 (10): p.
 3446-3453; 1991 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Dairy herds; Dairy performance;
 Reproductive efficiency; Expert systems; Conception rate
 
 Abstract:  A microcomputer expert system for dairy herd
 reproductive management was developed using an expert system
 shell and Turbo Pascal. The expert system initially examines
 the broad areas of days open, days to first breeding,
 detection of estrus, and conception rate to determine whether
 a problem exists. Interpretations ranging from "excellent" to
 "severe" were established for each trait. The system then
 selects an area for evaluation that has the largest negative
 influence on days open. Once an area has been selected for
 further evaluation, the expert system utilizes information
 from the user and DHI reports developed by the Dairy Records
 Processing Center in Raleigh, NC. These reports identify
 problems with conception categorized by production, parity,
 service number, days in milk, breed, and service sire. In
 addition, questions are presented by the expert system to
 isolate problems of accuracy of data, use of natural service,
 semen handling, AI technique, detection of estrus, signs of
 estrus, and other management areas. Recommendations and
 suggestions are given. Ten commercial herds having a
 conception rate less than 40% were evaluated by the expert
 system and by an extension reproduction specialist who
 supplied information for the system. Of 100 areas
 investigated, the expert system and extension specialist
 identified 47 as potential problem areas, agreeing on 85% of
 them. Most discrepancies resulted from the specialist applying
 a less restrictive standard when values were close to a
 preselected threshold.
 
 
 168                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Factors affecting cubicle utilisation by dairy cattle using
 stall frame and bedding manipulation experiments.
 O'Connell, J.M.; Giller, P.S.; Meaney, W.J.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1992 Oct.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 35 (1): p. 11-21; 1992
 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Cubicles; Utilization
 
 
 169                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Au72
 Factors affecting pregnancy rate in Holstein-Friesian cattle
 mated during summer in a tropical upland environment.
 Orr, W.N.; Cowan, R.T.; Davison, T.M.
 Brunswick, Vic. : Australian Veterinary Association, 1927-;
 1993 Jul. Australian veterinary journal v. 70 (7): p. 251-256;
 1993 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Queensland; Cabt; Dairy cattle; Pregnancy rate;
 Environmental factors; Summer; Tropics; Upland areas; Seasonal
 variation; Rain; Heat stress; Environmental temperature;
 Nitrogen fertilizers
 
 
 170                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Factors associated with seasonality of milk production in New
 York State. Oltenacu, P.A.; Smith, T.R.; Kaiser, H.M.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1989
 Apr. Journal of dairy science v. 72 (4): p. 1072-1079. maps;
 1989 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New York; Dairy cows; Milk production;
 Seasonality; Milk prices; Incentives; Production costs; Cattle
 housing; Geographical distribution
 
 
 171                                  NAL Call. No.: TH4911.F37
 Farm buildings in the west of Scotland.
 Kelly, M.
 Aberdeen : Scottish Farm Buildings Investigation Unit; 1985
 Jul. Farm building progress (81): p. 11-16. ill; 1985 Jul. 
 Includes 10 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: West scotland; Beef cattle; Dairy cattle; Farm
 buildings; Drainage systems; Slurries; Ventilation; Silos;
 Cubicles; Pig housing; Cattle housing
 
 
 172                                    NAL Call. No.: 100 L935
 Feasibility of specialized for-hire cattle handling crews.
 Schupp, A.; Riechers, R.
 Baton Rouge, La. : The Station; 1987 Sep.
 D.A.E. research report - Department of Agricultural Economics
 and Agribusiness, Louisiana State University, Louisiana
 Agricultural Experiment Station (676): 24 p. maps; 1987 Sep. 
 Includes statistical data.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Louisiana; Dairy cattle; Beef cattle; Veterinary
 services; Feasibility studies; Hired labor; Fees; Cost benefit
 analysis; Operating costs
 
 
 173                                   NAL Call. No.: HV4761.A5
 Federal judge condemns hot-iron face branding.
 Washington, D.C. : The Institute; 1987.
 The Animal Welfare Institute quarterly v. 35 (1): p. 3. ill;
 1987.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Dairy cows; Branding; Animal welfare;
 Legislation
 
 
 174                              NAL Call. No.: SF239.I45 1985
 Feeding and handling colostrum., [Rev.].
 Kenealy, M.D.; Hutjens, M.F.; Kilmer, L.H.
 Ames, Iowa : The Service; 1985.
 Illinois-Iowa dairy handbook / University of Illinois at
 Urbana-Champaign [and] Iowa State University at Ames,
 Cooperative Extension Service. 3 p.; 1985.  Illinois-Iowa
 Dairy Guide (203), December, 1980.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Calves; Animal feeding; Cow colostrum; Handling;
 Immunoglobulins; Immunity
 
 
 175                                NAL Call. No.: S544.3.A2C47
 Feeding and management of dairy heifers: 6 months to calving.
 Moss, B.R.; Coleman, D.A.; Floyd, J.
 Auburn, Ala. : The Service; 1992 May.
 Circular ANR - Alabama Cooperative Extension Service, Auburn
 University (632): 6 p.; 1992 May.  In subseries: Animal
 Science.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alabama; Heifers; Dairy cows; Nutrient
 requirements; Body weight; Age at first calving; Breeding;
 Efficiency; Cattle feeding; Cow housing
 
 
 176                                 NAL Call. No.: 275.29 AL14
 Feeding and management of the dairy calf: birth to 6 months.
 Moss, B.R.; Coleman, D.A.
 Auburn, Ala. : The Service; 1991 Nov.
 Circular HE - Alabama Cooperative Extension Service, Auburn
 University (609): 8 p.; 1991 Nov.  In subseries: Animal
 Science.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Calves; Dairy cattle; Calf feeding; Cow
 colostrum; Feed grains; Calf housing; Cattle husbandry
 
 
 177                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Feeding behavior of dairy cattle.
 Albright, J.L.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1993
 Feb. Journal of dairy science v. 76 (2): p. 485-498; 1993 Feb. 
 Literature review. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Feeding behavior; Grazing;
 Rumination; Mangers; Literature reviews
 
 Abstract:  Feed accessibility may be more important to cows
 than the actual amount of nutrients provided. Competition for
 feed, water, and space can be reduced by fenceline feeding of
 TMR, which allows all cows to eat at once. Holstein cows that
 were fenceline fed a TMR of corn silage and concentrates ate
 26% longer following feeding than the same size group eating
 from bunks around which they traveled. Many dairies practice
 fenceline feeding during which cows' heads are in the natural
 grazing position. Cows eating with their heads in the downward
 position produce 17% more saliva, which directly affects rumen
 function, than cows eating with heads held horizontally. When
 fed in shallow, elevated bunks, 10% of cows exhibited year-
 round rooting, sorting, feed tossing behavior, and feed
 wastage (0 to 5%). Groups fed at ground level or in headlocks
 showed little or no feed tossing behavior. This apparent
 livestock engineering problem is remedied easily by feeding
 cows in the natural head down position. Concrete mangers
 renovated with epoxy-type finishes, wood, or tile aid feed
 consumption. Social facilitation strongly influences eating
 bouts and feed consumption in cows reared in group housing
 compared with isolated cows. Palatability has a major
 influence on feed intake in ruminants, and the sense of taste
 is highly developed in cattle. Pasturing supposedly would
 reduce stocking density, environmental pollution (waste
 disposal, odor, nuisance), energy costs, and use of housing.
 Detailed observations, using intact and ruminally cannulated
 cows, suggest a behavioral need for the cow to rest and to
 ruminate on her left side.
 
 
 178                                 NAL Call. No.: S544.3.A6C6
 Feeding/health care of dairy calves under 300 pounds.
 Harper, J.
 Tucson, Ariz. : The Service; 1985 May.
 [Publication] - Cooperative Extension Service, University of
 Arizona, College of Agriculture (8503): 7 p.; 1985 May. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Calves; Animal feeding; Animal
 health; Guidelines
 
 
 179                                  NAL Call. No.: QP251.A1T5
 Fertility and hormonal responses to temporary relief of heat
 stress in lactating dairy cows.
 Wise, M.E.; Rodriguez, R.E.; Armstrong, D.V.; Huber, J.T.;
 Wiersma, F.; Hunter, R.
 Stoneham, Mass. : Butterworth Publishers; 1988 May.
 Theriogenology v. 29 (5): p. 1027-1035; 1988 May.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Lactating females; Heat stress;
 Female fertility; Reproductive ability; Pregnancy; Estradiol;
 Progesterone; Cortisol; Cooling
 
 
 180                                    NAL Call. No.: 21.5 Z15
 Fertility characteristics of different dairy genotypes under
 different management conditions.
 Ivancsics, J.; Bader, E.; Kovacs, K.G.
 Ljubljana : Fakulteta; 1985.
 Zbornik Biotehniske fakultete univerze Edvarda Kardelja v
 Ljubljani : Kmetijstvo (46): p. 95-100; 1985.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Hungary; Dairy bulls; Dairy cows; Animal
 fertility; Genotypes; Loose housing; Milk production
 
 
 181                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69
 The final step in improving milk production of a model dairy:
 implementation of recommendations.
 Dahl, J.C.; Holmes, B.J.; Wollenzien, A.C.
 Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Co; 1991 Apr.
 Veterinary medicine v. 86 (4): p. 439-449; 1991 Apr.  Fourth
 of a series.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Farm dairies; Models; Milk
 production; Improvement; Cost benefit analysis; Profitability
 
 
 182                                  NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Florida dairy cooling methods.
 Bucklin, R.A.; Beede, D.K.; Bray, D.R.; Strickland, J.T.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1988.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche
 collection) (fiche no. 88-4051): 8 p. ill; 1988.  Paper
 presented at the 1988 Summer Meeting of the American Society
 of Agricultural Engineers. Available for purchase from: The
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950
 Niles Road, St. Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order
 Dept. at (616) 429-0300 for information and prices.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Cow housing; Cooling; Techniques;
 Shading; Ventilation; Heat stress
 
 
 183                              NAL Call. No.: TD930.I57 1985
 Flush cleaning dairy barns--case studies.
 Hermanson, R.E.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1985. Agricultural waste utilization and management
 : proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on
 Agricultural Wastes, December 16-17, 1985, Hyatt Regency
 Chicago, Illinois Center, Chicago, Illinois. p. 590-597. ill;
 1985. (ASAE publication ; 13-85).  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Washington; Lagoons; Cattle manure; Dairy cows;
 Waste disposal; Tanks; Flushing; Design criteria; Case studies
 
 
 184                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 Am32P
 Forced evaporative cooling of dairy cows: on-farm
 demonstration results. Turner, L.W.; Warner, R.C.; Chastain,
 J.P.; Elder, H.F.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers,; 1991. Paper / (91-4023): 11 p.; 1991.  Paper
 presented at the "1991 International Summer Meeting sponsored
 by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers," June
 23-26, 1991, Albuquerque, New Mexico.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kentucky; Cabt; Dairy cows; Evaporative cooling;
 Heat stress
 
 
 185                                     NAL Call. No.: QL55.H8
 Forgotten and new humane innovations for cattle.
 Tacreiter, H.
 Washington Grove, MD : Psychologists for the Ethical Treatment
 of Animals, c1991-; 1993.
 Humane innovations and alternatives v. 7: p. 447-450; 1993. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Animal welfare
 
 
 186                                 NAL Call. No.: SF967.M3N32
 Free stall base and bedding materials: effect on cow comfort.
 Rodenburg, J.; House, H.K.; Anderson, N.G.
 Arlington, Va. : The Council; 1994.
 Annual meeting /. p. 286-291; 1994.  Meeting held on January
 31-February 2, 1994, Orlando, Florida.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy herds; Cubicles; Litter; Animal welfare;
 Hygiene
 
 
 187                                 NAL Call. No.: SF967.M3N32
 Freestall designs with cow comfort in mind.
 McFarland, D.F.; Gamroth, M.J.
 Arlington, Va. : The Council; 1994.
 Annual meeting /. p. 270-285; 1994.  Meeting held on January
 31-February 2, 1994, Orlando, Florida.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Cubicles; Structural design; Space
 requirements; Dimensions; Animal welfare
 
 
 188                                    NAL Call. No.: QP501.C6
 Glucose entry rate in dairy cattle as determined by stable
 isotope 13C-labelled glucose at different stages of
 reproduction. Schulze, E.; Fuhrmann, H.; Neitzel, E.S.; Giese,
 W.W.; Sallmann, H.P. Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Comparative biochemistry and physiology : B : Comparative
 biochemistry v. 100 (1): p. 167-171; 1991.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Glucose; Carbohydrate metabolism;
 Kinetics; Radioactive tracers; Quantitative analysis;
 Pregnancy; Lactation stage
 
 Abstract:  Uniformly labelled stable 13C-glucose was used to
 study glucose in high yielding Holstein cows (n = 8) under
 normal production conditions. The single injection technique
 was repeated at three different reproductive phases. A two
 compartment model was applied to calculate mean entry rates of
 glucose resulting in: (1) Terminal phase of pregnancy (2 weeks
 a.p.): 0.41 g/hr/kg0.75; (2) Peak lactation (6 weeks p.p.):
 0.97 g/hr/kg0.75; (3) End of lactation (37 weeks p.p.); 0.61
 g/hr/kg0.75. Data from studies using radioactively labelled
 tracers are in good agreement with our results obtained
 without any restrictions implied by the handling with
 radioactive substances.
 
 
 189                                  NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Grounding resistance and ground currents in dairy facilities.
 Stetson, L.E.; Bodman, G.R.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1987.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche
 collection) (fiche no. 87-3033): 14 p. ill; 1987.  Paper
 presented at the 1987 Summer Meeting of the American Society
 of Agricultural Engineers. Available for purchase from: The
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950
 Niles Road, St. Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order
 Dept. at (616) 429-0300 for information and prices.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cow housing; Facilities; Electric current; Flow;
 Energy; Losses
 
 
 190                                    NAL Call. No.: SF191.K4
 Group handling of dairy cows.
 Lane, G.T.; Riddell, D.O.; Olson, K.L.
 Lexington, Ky., The Service; 1985 Dec.
 ASC - University of Kentucky, Cooperative Extension Service
 v.): 3 p.; 1985 Dec.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kentucky; Dairy cows; Milk production; Groups;
 Handling; Lactation stage; Loose housing
 
 
 191                                  NAL Call. No.: SF601.V535
 Grouping management and physical facilities.
 Sniffen, C.J.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders Company; 1991 Jul.
 The Veterinary clinics of North America : food animal practice
 v. 7 (2): p. 465-471; 1991 Jul.  In the series analytic: Dairy
 nutrition management / edited by C. J. Sniffen and T. H.
 Herdt.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Farm management; Groups; Animal
 behavior; Cow housing; Replacement; Dry period; Lactating
 females
 
 
 192                                NAL Call. No.: SF91.I5 1988
 Health and physiology of newborn calves housed in severe cold.
 Rawson, R.E.; Bates, D.W.; Dziuk, H.E.; Ruth, G.R.; Good,
 A.L.; Serfass, R.C.; Anderson, J.F.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1988. Livestock environment III : proceedings of
 the Third International Livestock Environment Symposium, April
 25-27, 1988, Constellation Hotel, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. p.
 365-368; 1988. (ASAE publication ; 1-88).  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Minnesota; Dairy cattle; Calf housing; Winter;
 Newborn animals; Pens; Environmental control; Hemorrhage;
 Animal health
 
 
 193                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.I4
 Health and welfare of animals in modern husbandry systems--
 dairy cattle. Webster, J.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1986 May.
 In practice v. 8 (3): p. 85-89. ill; 1986 May.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Animal health; Animal welfare;
 Stress; Infectious diseases; Lameness; Bovine mastitis;
 Cubicles; Cattle husbandry
 
 
 194                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Health care of holsteins selected for large or small body
 size. Mahoney, C.B.; Hansen, L.B.; Young, C.W.; Marx, G.D.;
 Reneau, J.K. Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science
 Association; 1986 Dec. Journal of dairy science v. 69 (12): p.
 3131-3139; 1986 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Holstein-friesian; Selection;
 Selection criteria; Size; Body measurements; Animal health;
 Health care; Digestive disorders; Costs
 
 
 195                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3
 Health management of dairy herds treated with bovine
 somatotropin. Kronfeld, D.S.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1994 Jan01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 204
 (1): p. 116-130; 1994 Jan01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Herds; Somatotropin; Safety;
 Efficacy; Milk production; Animal nutrition; Stress; Animal
 health; Cattle diseases; Literature reviews
 
 
 196                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Health, welfare and fertility implications of the use of
 bovine somatotrophin in dairy cattle.
 Whitaker, D.A.; Smith, E.J.; Kelly, J.M.; Hodgson-Jones, L.S.
 London : The Association; 1988 May21.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 122 (21): p. 503-505; 1988 May21.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Milk production; Somatotropin; Animal
 health; Female fertility
 
 
 197                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.B6
 Heat Stress. 2. Effects of high environmental temperature on
 production, reproduction, and health of dairy cattle.
 Shearer, J.K.; Beede, D.K.
 Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Publishing
 Company; 1990 Sep. Agri-Practice v. 11 (5): p. 6-8, 10-11,
 14-16; 1990 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Heat stress; Reproduction; Milk
 production; Milk yield
 
 
 198                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Heat stress and milk production in the South Carolina coastal
 plains. Linvill, D.E.; Pardue, F.E.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1992
 Sep. Journal of dairy science v. 75 (9): p. 2598-2604; 1992
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South Carolina; Dairy cows; Heat stress; Milk
 production; Computer software; Computer simulation; Milk yield
 
 Abstract:  A model developed for the South Carolina coastal
 plains relates hours with temperature-humidity index values
 above 74 and 80 to summer season daily milk production. When
 tested on an independent production data set for 1985, the
 root mean square model error was less than 1.3 kg/d per cow.
 The model can be used to develop expected summer season dairy
 production climatologies. Realtime milk production forecasts
 obtained using daily predicted maximum and minimum
 temperatures can be used in herd management to reduce effects
 of heat stress on productivity.
 
 
 199                               NAL Call. No.: 275.29 N811NC
 Heat stress can be reduced with shading and water misting.
 Whitlow, L.W.
 Raleigh, N.C. : North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service;
 1987 Jun. North Carolina dairy extension newsletter. p. 3-6;
 1987 Jun.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Carolina; Dairy cows; Heat stress;
 Reproductive performance; Mists; Shade; Cattle husbandry
 
 
 200                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 ON1
 Heat stress in dairy cattle and other livestock under Southern
 African conditions. I. Temperature-humidity index mean values
 during the four main seasons.
 Du Preez, J.H.; Giesecke, W.H.; Hattingh, P.J.
 Pretoria : South Africa Department of Agriculture and Water
 Supply; 1990 Mar. The Onderstepoort journal of veterinary
 research v. 57 (1): p. 77-87; 1990 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Southern  Africa; Namibia; Dairy cows; Livestock;
 Heat stress; Air temperature; Humidity; Seasons; Seasonal
 variation; Indexes; Milk production
 
 
 201                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 ON1
 Heat stress in dairy cattle and other livestock under southern
 African conditions. III. Monthly temperature-humidity index
 mean values and their significance in the performance of dairy
 cattle.
 Du Preez, J.H.; Hattingh, P.J.; Giesecke, W.H.; Eisenberg,
 B.E. Pretoria : South Africa Department of Agriculture and
 Water Supply; 1990 Dec. The Onderstepoort journal of
 veterinary research v. 57 (4): p. 243-248; 1990 Dec.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South  Africa; Namibia; Dairy cows; Heat stress;
 Temperature; Humidity; Indexes; Seasonal variation; Risk
 
 
 202                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 ON1
 Heat stress in dairy cattle under southern African conditions.
 II. Identification of areas of potential heat stress during
 summer by means of observed true and predicted temperature-
 humidity index values. Du Preez, J.H.; Giesecke, W.H.;
 Hattingh, P.J.; Eisenberg, B.E. Pretoria : South Africa
 Department of Agriculture and Water Supply; 1990 Sep. The
 Onderstepoort journal of veterinary research v. 57 (3): p.
 183-187; 1990 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South  Africa; Namibia; Dairy cows; Heat stress;
 Environmental temperature; Humidity; Indexes; Summer
 
 
 203                                  NAL Call. No.: SF601.V535
 Heat stress in dairy cows: its effect on reproduction.
 Thatcher, W.W.; Drost, M.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders Company; 1987 Nov.
 The Veterinary clinic of North America : food animal practice
 v. 3 (3): p. 609-618; 1987 Nov.  In the series analytic:
 Bovine reproduction / edited by R.H. BonDurant.  Literature
 review.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Heat stress; Estrus; Blood flow;
 Embryonic development; Fetal growth; Milk yield; Reproduction
 
 
 204                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Heat stress interaction with shade and cooling.
 Armstrong, D.V.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1994
 Jul. Journal of dairy science v. 77 (7): p. 2044-2050; 1994
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Cabt; Dairy cows; Heat stress; Shade;
 Evaporative cooling; Pens; Fans; Climatic zones; Relative
 humidity; Environmental temperature; Literature reviews
 
 Abstract:  Hot weather causes heat stress in dairy cattle.
 Although effects are more severe in hot climates, dairy cattle
 in areas with relatively moderate climates also are exposed to
 periods of heat stress. The resultant decrease in milk
 production and reproductive efficiency can be offset by
 implementation of a program consisting of cooling through
 shades, ventilation and spray, and fans. The economic benefit
 should be determined before installation of equipment to
 reduce heat stress.
 
 
 205                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Heat transfer properties of dry and wet furs of dairy cows.
 Arkin, H.; Kimmel, E.; Berman, A.; Broday, D.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1991 Nov. Transactions of the ASAE v. 34 (6): p.
 2550-2558. ill; 1991 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle housing; Dairy cows; Energy metabolism;
 Fur; Evaporative cooling; Heat stress; Heat transfer;
 Mathematical models; Theory
 
 Abstract:  Heat and mass transfer properties of an Israeli-
 Holstein dairy cow fur were examined. The skin was stretched
 over a heat flux assembly, inserted into a wind tunnel, and
 heat and mass transfer were examined at different air
 velocities with fur either dry or wet. The dry coat was
 divided into two layers - the fur and the boundary layer. The
 thermal resistance of the fur itself hardly changed with air
 velocity. The resistance to heat transfer of the coat boundary
 layer was found to be proportional to the square root of air
 velocity, similar to a flat plate. However, at low air
 velocity, the resistance of the coat boundary layer was found
 to be somewhat lower than that of a plate, while at high air
 velocities, it was higher than that of a plate. For the wet
 fur, the efficiency of forced evaporative cooling was
 determined by a single parameter of "wettedness", which
 equaled unity for a saturated fur and decreased as the coat
 got drier. This parameter is specific for a given coat and is
 directly related to the water content within the fur.
 Experiments were performed to measure the relationship between
 the wettedness and the amount of water sprinkled over the fur.
 The maximum water content of a coat wet by means of a
 commercially available sprinkler was some 230 g/m2 which
 corresponded to wettedness of 0.6. The results of this
 investigation may be used to design the most cost effective
 procedure of forced evaporative cooling for the relief of heat
 stress in cattle.
 
 
 206                                    NAL Call. No.: SF191.D3
 Heat-stress cures.
 Klingborg, D.J.
 Minnetonka, Minn. : Miller Publishing Company; 1990 Jun.
 Dairy herd management v. 27 (6): p. 38; 1990 Jun.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Heat stress
 
 
 207                                      NAL Call. No.: 6 AR44
 Heat-stressed dairy cows--ways to improve production,
 reproduction. Zaugg, N.L.
 Tempe, Ariz. : Arizona Farmer-Stockman; 1987 Jul.
 Arizona farmer-stockman v. 66 (7): p. 6. ill; 1987 Jul.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Dairy cows; Heat stress; Milk
 production; Feed intake; Water intake; Humidity; Cooling
 
 
 208                              NAL Call. No.: SF239.I45 1985
 Herringbone and side-opening milking parlors., [Rev.].
 Bickert, W.G.; Armstrong, D.V.
 Ames, Iowa : The Service; 1985.
 Illinois-Iowa dairy handbook / University of Illinois at
 Urbana-Champaign [and] Iowa State University at Ames,
 Cooperative Extension Service. 6 p. ill; 1985.  Illinois-Iowa
 Dairy Guide (401), September, 1980.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Michigan; Arizona; Dairy cows; Milking parlors;
 Mechanization; Design; Milking; Operating costs
 
 
 209                           NAL Call. No.: SF967.H65N63 1993
 Hoof care for dairy cattle.
 Nocek, James E.
 Fort Atkinson, WI : Hoard's Dairyman,; 1993.
 32 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.  Cover title.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Hoofs; Dairy cattle; Hoofs; Dairy cattle
 
 
 210                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Hormonal alterations in the lactating dairy cow in response to
 thermal stress. Wise, M.E.; Armstrong, D.V.; Huber, J.T.;
 Hunter, R.; Wiersma, F. Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy
 Science Association; 1988 Sep. Journal of dairy science v. 71
 (9): p. 2480-2485; 1988 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Lactating females; Heat stress;
 Progesterone; Estradiol; Cortisol; Lh; Estrous cycle; Hormone
 secretion
 
 
 211                                  NAL Call. No.: SF55.A78A7
 Housing and management of dairy cattle in small scale farms of
 East Java, in Indonesia.
 Djoharjani, S.T.; Ibrahim, M.N.M.
 Suweon, Korea : Asian-Australasian Association of Animal
 Production Societies, c1988-; 1993 Sep.
 Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v. 6 (3): p.
 389-394; 1993 Sep. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Indonesia; Cabt; Dairy cows; Cattle husbandry;
 Cow housing; Tethered housing; Small farms
 
 
 212                                NAL Call. No.: S544.3.W6W53
 Housing dairy replacements.
 Holmes, B.J.
 Madison, Wis. : The Service; 1985.
 Publication - University of Wisconsin, Cooperative Extension
 Service (A3307): 22 p.; 1985.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Cow housing; Construction;
 Planning; Barns; Litter; Calves; Heifers; Stalls; Slatted
 floors
 
 
 213                                   NAL Call. No.: aZ5071.N3
 Housing, husbandry, and welfare of dairy cattle: January 1982
 - Aug 1993. Berry, D.
 Beltsville, Md., National Agricultural Library; 1993 Aug.
 Quick bibliography series - National Agricultural Library
 (93-58): 63 p.; 1993 Aug.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Animal welfare; Cattle housing;
 Cattle husbandry; Bibliographies
 
 
 214                                 NAL Call. No.: SF967.M3N32
 Housing management in small dairies.
 Johnson, A.P.
 Arlington, Va. : The Council; 1988.
 Annual meeting - National Mastitis Council, Inc (27th): p.
 18-22; 1988.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Farm dairies; Cow housing; Small farms; Farm
 management; Milking parlors
 
 
 215                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32P
 How does natural ventilation work and why?.
 Timmons, M.B.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1990.
 Paper - American Society of Agricultural Engineers (90-4551):
 15 p.; 1990. Paper presented at the "1990 International Winter
 Meeting sponsored by The American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers," December 18-21, 1990, Chicago, Illinois.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ventilation; Models; Nomograms; Dairy cattle
 
 
 216                                    NAL Call. No.: SF191.D3
 How to handle bulls.
 Wilson, M.; Seykora, T.
 Minneapolis : Miller Publishing Co; 1986 Aug.
 Dairy herd management v. 23 (8): p. 26-27. ill; 1986 Aug.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy bulls; Handling
 
 
 217                              NAL Call. No.: S494.5.B563N33
 Impact of animal growth promotants on the dairy industry.
 Kalter, R.J. \u Cornell University
 Ithaca, N.Y. : National Agricultural Biotechnology Council;
 1989. NABC report / (1): p. 190-193; 1989.  In the series
 analytic: Biotechnology and sustainable agriculture : Policy
 alternatives / edited by J.F. McDonald. Paper presented at the
 first annual National Agricultural Biotechnology Council
 meeting, May 22-24, 1989.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Growth promoters; Utilization; Dairy
 industry; Farm structure; Milk production; Profitability;
 Agricultural policy
 
 
 218                                 NAL Call. No.: SF967.M3N32
 The impact of free-stall housing on somatic cell counts in
 bulk-tank milk. Lehenbauer, T.; Jones, T.; Collar, L.
 Arlington, Va. : The Council; 1994.
 Annual meeting /. p. 250-261; 1994.  Meeting held on January
 31-February 2, 1994, Orlando, Florida.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Cabt; Dairy cows; Cow housing; Bulk
 milk; Somatic cell count; Seasonal variation; Bovine mastitis
 
 
 219                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Implications of dairy herd size for farm material transport,
 plant nutrient management, and water quality.
 Lanyon, L.E.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1992
 Jan. Journal of dairy science v. 75 (1): p. 334-344; 1992 Jan. 
 Paper presented at the symposium "Nutritional Factors
 Affecting Animal Water and Waste Quality", August 27, 1990. 
 Literature review.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Livestock numbers; Dairy farms;
 Fertilizers; Soil analysis; Farm management; Runoff water;
 Water quality; Literature reviews
 
 Abstract:  Farm material transport to, from, and within dairy
 farms can create zones of plant nutrient depiction and
 accumulation that range in scale from local to international.
 The introduction, adoption, and use of fertilizers have
 resulted in substantial movement of plant nutrients to dairy
 farms. Fertilizers contributed to enhanced crop growth and
 frequently the correction of sod nutrient deficiencies. They
 also represented an opportunity to replace plant nutrients
 exported from a farm in crops so that it was possible for some
 farms to specialize in the production of crops. These exported
 crops often became imports for other farms that specialized in
 livestock. However, the nutrient-holding capacity of sod on
 any farm is limited, so the potential for additions to the
 stock of nutrients, especially of P and K, on a farm can be
 expected to decrease with time. After a period of net nutrient
 additions on a dairy farm, the quantity of nutrients that can
 be accommodated is controlled by the productivity of the
 animals, the management of the animal handling facilities, and
 the off-farm purchases of feeds and other materials for the
 animals. Field and biophysical-economic simulation studies
 have demonstrated that interactions between alternative
 management strategies and societal perspectives about water
 quality and the biological and economic performance of dairy
 farms may sometimes lead to unexpected outcomes.
 
 
 220                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 The importance of udder and teat conformation for teat seeking
 by the newborn calf.
 Ventorp, M.; Michanek, P.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1992
 Jan. Journal of dairy science v. 75 (1): p. 262-268; 1992 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Calves; Newborn animals; Teats;
 Udders; Colostrum; Suckling; Feeding behavior; Height; Body
 measurements
 
 Abstract:  Because antibody levels in colostrum and the
 efficiency of the intestinal absorption of these antibodies
 decrease with time after birth, late suckling newborn calves
 risk receiving passive immunity. The influence of the
 conformation and size of the udder and teats of the dam on the
 teat-seeking behavior of newborn calves with respect to the
 time they first suckle was studied in 42 cow-calf pairs housed
 in individual calving pens. A smaller distance from udder to
 floor (e.g., low slung udders) led to increased variation and
 a significant increase in the time spent teat seeking; it also
 had a significant effect on the time of the first suckle. The
 variation in the distance from udder to floor accounted for 24
 and 15% of the variations in rank order of the calves with
 respect to duration of active teat seeking before first
 suckling and to the time to first suckle, respectively. The
 results of this study showed that calves born to cows or
 heifers with low slung udders cannot be expected to obtain
 colostrum soon enough by natural suckling. They should either
 be helped to suckle or be hand fed to ensure that they receive
 a good and adequate passive immunity.
 
 
 221                              NAL Call. No.: S600.2.C6 1985
 Improving dairy production in hot arid climates.
 Wiersma, F.; Armstrong, D.V.
 Boston : The Society; 1985.
 17th Conference on Agricultural and Forest Meteorology and
 seventh Conference on Biometeorology and Aerobiology, May
 21-24, 1985, Scottsdale, Ariz. : [preprint volume] / sponsored
 by the American Meteorological Society. p. 377-379; 1985.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Heat stress; Milk production; Arid
 zones; Cooling
 
 
 222                        NAL Call. No.: Videocassette no.567
 Improving milk quality produced by Department of Agricultural
 Journalism in cooperation with Agriculture/Agri-Business
 Program, University of Wisconsin-Extension, Cooperative
 Extension Service..  Managing your environment Using
 monitoring systems
 University of Wisconsin-Extension, Agriculture-Agribusiness
 Program, University of Wisconsin, Dept. of Agricultural
 Jounalism
 Madison, Wis. : The Dept.,; 1987.
 2 videocassettes (35 min., 56 sec.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. 
 VHS.  Produced through the facilities of WHA-TV, University of
 Wisconsin-Extension, Madison, WI.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Housing; Milk production; Milking;
 Mastitis; Prevention
 
 
 223                                  NAL Call. No.: QP251.A1T5
 In vitro evaluation of early embryo viability and development
 in summer heat-stressed, superovulated dairy cows.
 Monty, D.E. Jr; Racowsky, C.
 Los Altos, Calif. : Geron-X; 1987 Oct.
 Theriogenology v. 28 (4): p. 451-465; 1987 Oct.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Embryos (animal); Embryonic
 development; Heat stress; Infertility; Viability;
 Superovulation
 
 
 224                                 NAL Call. No.: SF967.M3N32
 The incidence of clinical mastitis in cows exposed to cooling
 ponds for heat stress management.
 Shearer, J.K.; Bray, D.R.; Elvinger, F.C.; Reed, P.A.
 Arlington, Va. : The Council; 1987.
 Annual meeting - National Mastitis Council, Inc (26th): p.
 66-70; 1987. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Dairy cows; Bovine mastitis; Heat
 stress; Cooling; Ponds
 
 
 225                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 C162
 The incidence of cystic ovaries in dairy cattle housed in a
 total confinement system.
 Hackett, A.J.; Batra, T.R.
 Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1985 Jan.
 Canadian journal of comparative medicine; Revue canadienne de
 medecine comparee v. 49 (1): p. 55-57; 1985 Jan.  Includes 21
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Ovarian cysts; Cow housing
 
 
 226                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 The influence of intensively managed rotational grazing,
 traditional continuous grazing, and confinement housing on
 bulk tank milk quality and udder health.
 Goldberg, J.J.; Wildman, E.E.; Pankey, J.W.; Kunkel, J.R.;
 Howard, D.B.; Murphy, B.M.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1992
 Jan. Journal of dairy science v. 75 (1): p. 96-104; 1992 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Vermont; Dairy cows; Rotational grazing; Zero
 grazing; Selective grazing; Bovine mastitis; Udders; Teats;
 Bulk milk; Milk tanks; Dairy farms; Teat dip; Microbial
 contamination; Milk quality; Plate count
 
 Abstract:  Monthly bulk tank milk samples and veterinary
 records were analyzed for 1 yr on 15 Vermont dairy farms. Data
 were evaluated using ANOVA to compare effects of grazing
 management systems on milk quality and udder health. Systems
 evaluated were intensively managed rotational grazing,
 traditional continuous grazing, and confinement housing. Bulk
 tank samples were evaluated for standard plate count,
 bacterial type counts on tryptose-blood-esculin agar, and SCC.
 Veterinary records were evaluated for incidence of clinical
 mastitis, udder edema, and teat injuries. Within- and between-
 treatment group analyses were conducted by season, herd size,
 and udder sanitation systems. Mean standard plate counts were
 lower in rotationally grazed herds than counts of confined
 herds during die grazing season. Similarly, rotationally
 grazed herds with fewer than 60 cows had lower standard plate
 counts than confined herds of similar size. Mean bulk tank
 counts of streptococci other than Streptococcus agalactiae
 during the grazing season differed among treatments. The
 lowest counts occurred in rotationally grazed herds. Among
 herd using predip products recognized as efficacious, fewer
 streptococci other than S. agalactiae were isolated from bulk
 tank milk of rotationally grazed herds than confined herds.
 Rotationally grazed herds using postdips recognized as
 efficacious had lower SCC than those using unrecognized
 postdips. No udder health differences were observed among
 grazing treatments.
 
 
 227                                   NAL Call. No.: 58.8 C164
 Influence of manure-handling systems on heat and moisture
 loads in free-stall dairy housing.
 Quille, T.J.; McQuitty, J.B.; Clark, P.C.
 Ottawa : Canadian Society of Agricultural Engineering; 1986
 Jul. Canadian agricultural engineering v. 28 (2): p. 175-181;
 1986 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alberta; Cattle manure; Handling; Cow housing;
 Slatted floors; Stalls; Heat production; Moisture
 
 
 228                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 The influence of premilking teat preparation and attachment
 delay on milk yield and milking performance.
 Rasmussen, M.D.; Frimer, E.S.; Galton, D.M.; Petersson, L.G.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1992
 Aug. Journal of dairy science v. 75 (8): p. 2131-2141; 1992
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Milk yield; Machine milking; Teats;
 Dairy breeds; Milk flow; Milk composition; Lactation stage;
 Breed differences; Lactation number
 
 Abstract:  Premilking teat preparation and attachment delay
 were varied in four experiments conducted with American
 Holstein, Danish Holstein, and Danish Jersey cows. Premilking
 teat preparation varied from 10 to 30 s and consisted of
 wiping teats for 6 to 20 s and stripping one to five squirts
 of milk from each teat. Attachment delay from beginning of
 premilking teat preparation until machine attachment varied
 from .5 to 3.0 min. Longer preparation significantly increased
 milk yield for Danish Jersey cows, but not for American or
 Danish Holstein cows. Older Danish Jersey cows were more
 sensitive to premilking teat preparation than first lactation
 cows. Attachment delay influenced the milk yield in Danish
 Jersey cows, amount of residual fat in American Holsteins, and
 fat percentage in the residual milk of American and Danish
 Holstein cows. A 1.3-min delay can be generally recommended
 for the whole herd with only small or no milk loss for cows in
 early stage of lactation. Milk yield decreased for Danish
 Jersey cows and tended to decrease for American Holstein cows
 when machine attachment was delayed to 3.0 min, regardless of
 stage of lactation. The lack of treatment effects for Danish
 Holstein cows may be due to a lack of conditioned stimulation
 for cows milked in their tie stalls compared with the response
 of cows moved to milking parlors for milking. Added duration
 of teat wiping, vigorousness of teat stripping, and delay of
 machine attachment hastened steady milk flow. Conversely,
 advanced days in lactation delayed steady milk flow. The high
 fat content of Danish Jerseys did not delay the start of
 steady milk flow compared with the American and Danish
 Holsteins. In late stage of lactation, 30 s of teat
 preparation and 1.3 min of machine attachment delay minimized
 time until steady milk flow as well as 10 s of teat
 preparation and 3.0 min of attachment delay.
 
 
 229                                   NAL Call. No.: 340.8 IN8
 Influence of season and microclimate on fertility of dairy
 cows in a hot-arid environment.
 Ray, D.E.; Jassim, A.H.; Armstrong, D.V.; Wiersma, F.; Schuh,
 J.D. Berlin, W. Ger. : Springer International; 1992.
 International journal of biometeorology v. 36 (3): p. 141-145;
 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Dairy cows; Calving interval; Heat
 stress; Microclimate; Shade; Evaporative cooling; Fogging;
 Arid climate; Climatic factors; Seasonal fluctuations
 
 Abstract:  Records were obtained over a 3 year period from six
 Holstein dairy farms of 300 to 500 cows each in the Phoenix,
 Ariz. area. Dairies were selected on the basis of similar
 management practices, herd size, milk production and
 facilities (with the exception of cooling systems).
 Microclimatic modifications (two dairies each) were shade only
 (approximately 3.7 m2/cow), evaporative -cooled shades and
 low-pressure water foggers under the shades. Data were
 categorized by season of calving (spring, Feb.-May; summer,
 June-Sept.; and fall, Oct. - Jan.). Traits evaluated were
 calving interval, days open and services/conception. Calving
 interval was shortest for cows calving in the spring (378
 days), intermediate in fall (382 days) and longest in summer
 (396 days). Similar seasonal trends were observed for days
 open (103, 103 and 119 days, respectively) and
 services/conception (1.54, 1.81 and 1.93, respectively). All
 differences between spring and summer were significant (P <
 0.05). Calving interval and days open were less for
 evaporative-cooled groups (374 and 98 days, respectively),
 with no difference between shade only and foggers (391 and 392
 days, 112 and 116 days, respectively). Services/conception
 were similar for all groups (1.72 to 1.79). A significant
 interaction between microclimate and season for
 services/conception could be interpreted as (i) smaller season
 differences for evaporative-cooled groups than for shade or
 foggers, or (ii) a change in the ranking of control and fogger
 groups during summer versus fall. Evaporative cooling was more
 effective than fogging for reducing the detrimental effects of
 seasonal high temperatures on fertility.
 
 
 230                                    NAL Call. No.: 23 AU792
 The influence of shade on milk production of Holstein-Friesian
 cows in a tropical upland environment.
 Davison, T.M.; Silver, B.A.; Lisle, A.T.; Orr, W.N.
 Melbourne : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research
 Organization; 1988.
 Australian journal of experimental agriculture v. 28 (2): p.
 149-154; 1988. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Queensland; Holstein-friesian; Dairy cows; Milk
 production; Shade; Milk yield; Milk composition; Tropical
 zones; Upland areas; Heat stress; Yield response functions
 
 
 231                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 The influence of social factors on allogrooming in cows.
 Sato, S.; Tarumizu, K.; Hatae, K.
 Amsterdam ; New York : Elsevier, 1984-; 1993 Dec.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 38 (3/4): p. 235-244; 1993
 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Beef cows; Grooming; Kinship; Social
 structure; Spatial distribution; Social interaction; Altruism
 
 
 232                                  NAL Call. No.: QP251.A1T5
 Influence of summer heat stress on pregnancy rates of
 lactating dairy cattle following embryo transfer or artificial
 insemination.
 Putney, D.J.; Drost, M.; Thatcher, W.W.
 Stoneham, Mass. : Butterworth Publishers; 1989 Apr.
 Theriogenology v. 31 (4): p. 765-778; 1989 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Dairy cows; Lactating females;
 Pregnancy; Heat stress; Embryos (animal); Transfers;
 Artificial insemination; Summer; Estrous cycle; Superovulated
 females; Cattle breeds
 
 
 233                                   NAL Call. No.: 340.8 IN8
 The influence of thermal conditions on rectal temperature,
 respiration rate and pulse rate of lactating Holstein-Friesian
 cows in the humid tropics. Kabuga, J.D.
 Berlin, W. Ger. : Springer International; 1992.
 International journal of biometeorology v. 36 (3): p. 146-150;
 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Lactating females; Holstein-friesian;
 Heat stress; Milk yield; Body temperature; Respiration rate;
 Pulse rate; Air temperature; Relative humidity; Rain; Diurnal
 variation; Environmental factors; Correlation
 
 Abstract:  The effect of minimum, maximum and mean ambient air
 temperatures and the temperature-humidity index (THI) of the
 same and the previous day on morning (a.m.) and afternoon
 (p.m.) rectal temperatures (RT), respiration rates (RR) and
 pulse rates (PR) were studied in 17 Holstein-Friesian cows
 over the first 125 days in the 3rd and 4th lactations.
 Physiological responses showed a diurnal pattern, being lower
 in the mornings than the afternoons: 38.6 vs 39.0 degrees C
 for RT, 52.2 vs 60.7 breaths/min for RR and 58.1 vs 64.1
 beats/ min for PR. Correlations between RT and RR (r = - 0.043
 to -0.046) and RT and PR (r = - 0.178 to - 0.261) were low (P
 > 0.05). Correlations between RR and PR (r = 0.353 to 0.365)
 were moderate (P < 0.05). Weather variables, especially
 ambient temperature of the previous day, were more important
 and influenced physiological responses to a greater extent
 than other thermal factors the same day. Generally,
 physiological responses were influenced to a greater extent by
 ambient temperature than THI. Weather variables explained
 variations in RT (5.1-59.6%), in RR (13.0-17.8%) and in PR
 (22.1-25.4%). Relationships between weather variables the
 previous day and physiological responses were contradictory,
 with minimum and maximum values showing a negative
 relationship in contrast with a positive relationship for mean
 values.
 
 
 234                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 W89
 Intensification of cattle milk production in Mediterranean
 countries: low forage systems.
 Susmel, P.; Spanghero, M.; Mills, C.R.
 Rome : International Publishing Enterprises; 1990 Apr.
 World review of animal production v. 25 (2): p. 59-68; 1990
 Apr.  Literature review.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mediterranean countries; Dairy cattle; Milk
 production; Intensive livestock farming; Limiting factors
 
 
 235                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Interactions of heat stress and bovine somatotropin affecting
 physiology and immunology of lactating cows.
 Elvinger, F.; Natzke, R.P.; Hansen, P.J.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1992
 Feb. Journal of dairy science v. 75 (2): p. 449-462; 1992 Feb. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Somatotropin; Heat stress; Milk
 yield; Body temperature; Mammary glands; Lymphocytes; Immune
 response; Environmental temperature; Hydrocortisone; Cell
 counting
 
 Abstract:  During summer, 34 cows received daily injections of
 placebo or 25 mg of bST and were placed in a thermoregulated
 or a heat stress environment. Heat stress increased rectal
 temperatures, respiration rates, and plasma cortisol
 concentrations and decreased milk yield. Four of 9 bST-treated
 cows and none of 8 control cows became atactic on the 1st d of
 heat stress. When exposed to beat stress, cows treated with
 bST experienced higher rectal temperatures throughout the
 trials than cows treated with placebo. Nonetheless, bST
 increased milk yields in both environments. The major effect
 of heat stress on immune function was decreased migration of
 leukocytes to the mammary gland after chemotactic challenge.
 This effect of heat stress was not altered by bST. In summary,
 hyperthermia induced by beat stress and associated changes
 were greater for cows treated with bST. Detected effects of
 heat stress on the immune system were few and were not
 alleviated by bST. Use of bST during summer in subtropical
 climate zones requires careful management to avoid
 overexposure of bST-treated cows to heat stress.
 
 
 236                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3
 An international perspective on bovine somatotropin and
 clinical mastitis. Willeberg, P.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1994 Aug15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 205
 (4): p. 538-541; 1994 Aug15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Somatotropin; Bovine mastitis;
 Incidence; Animal welfare
 
 
 237                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 W89
 The introduction of temperate dairy cattle into tropical and
 sub-tropical areas and the subsequent effects on milk
 production.
 Esmail, S.H.M.
 Rome : International Publishing Enterprises; 1988 Oct.
 World review of animal production v. 24 (4): p. 23-29; 1988
 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Heat stress; Milk production;
 Tropical zones; Subtropics; Milk yield; Milk production; Milk
 composition; Heat tolerance; Diet
 
 
 238                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 B872
 An investigation into the heat stress suffered by imported
 Holstein-Friesian cows in the humid tropics.
 Kabuga, J.D.; Agyemang, K.
 Nairobi : Inter-African Bureau for Animal Resources; 1992 Dec.
 Bulletin of animal health and production in Africa; Bulletin
 de la sante et de la production animales en Afrique v. 40 (4):
 p. 245-252; 1992 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Heat stress
 
 
 239                         NAL Call. No.: 49.9 Ut72R no.B-267
 De invloed van overbezetting op de individuele ruwvoeropname
 van melkkoeien = The influence of overcrowding on the
 individual roughage intake of dairy cows..  Influence of
 overcrowding on the individual roughage intake of dairy cows
 Hopster, H.
 Zeist : Instituut voor Veeteeltkundig Onderzoek "Schoonoord",;
 1986. 62 p. : ill. ; 30 cm. (Rapport / Instituut voor
 Veeteeltkundig Onderzoek "Schoonoord" ; B-267).  English
 summary.  Juni 1986.  Bibliography: p. 45-46.
 
 Language:  Dutch
 
 
 240                                 NAL Call. No.: 286.81 F322
 Japanese dairy industry faces pressures like that of U.S.
 Simpson, J.R.; Blokland, P.J. van
 Minnetonka, Minn. : Miller Publishing Co; 1993 Jun14.
 Feedstuffs v. 65 (24): p. 16-17; 1993 Jun14.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Japan; U.S.A.; Dairy industry; Agricultural
 structure; Dairy farms; Outturn; Comparisons; Dairy cows
 
 
 241                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AC87
 Ketosis in Norwegian dairy herds--some epidemiological
 associations. Riemann, H.P.; Larssen, R.B.; Simensen, E.
 Copenhagen : Danske Dyrlaegeforening; 1985.
 Acta veterinaria scandinavica v. 26 (4): p. 482-492; 1985. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Norway; Dairy cattle; Ketosis; Animal feeding;
 Animal housing; Dairy farming; Farm management
 
 
 242                                 NAL Call. No.: 275.29 W27P
 Keys to dairy manure management for water quality.
 Hermanson, R.E.
 Pullman, Wash. : The Service; 1992 Jun.
 Extension bulletin - Washington State University, Cooperative
 Extension Service (1658): 7 p.; 1992 Jun.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy wastes; Cattle manure; Farm management;
 Feces collection; Waste treatment; Water quality
 
 
 243                                NAL Call. No.: SF91.I5 1988
 Kinetic analysis on walking behavior of cows.
 Sato, Y.; Tsutsui, Y.; Shishido, H.; Yamagishi, N.; Furukawa,
 R. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1988. Livestock environment III : proceedings of
 the Third International Livestock Environment Symposium, April
 25-27, 1988, Constellation Hotel, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. p.
 171-178. ill; 1988. (ASAE publication ; 1-88).  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Japan; Dairy cows; Farm dairies; Floors;
 Locomotion; Slip resistant finishes; Kinetics; Instrumentation
 
 
 244                              NAL Call. No.: 104 D41 no.682
 Koens naermiljo adfaerd og trykpavirkninger i relation til
 udformning af foderbord og bindseltype = Constructions of tie-
 stalls for dairy cows : behaviour and pressure recordings at
 different tie-systems and constructions of the manger.. 
 Constructions of tie-stalls for dairy cows Munksgaard, Lene
 Foulum : Statens Husdyrbrugsforsog,; 1990.
 31 p. : ill. ; 21 cm. (Beretning fra Statens Husdyrbrugsforsog
 ; 682.). Abstract and subtitles in English.  Includes
 bibliographical references (p. 31).
 
 Language:  Danish
 
 
 245                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Lactation, health, and reproduction of dairy cows receiving
 daily injection of sustained-release somatotropin.
 Zhao, X.; Burton, J.H.; McBride, B.W.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1992
 Nov. Journal of dairy science v. 75 (11): p. 3122-3130; 1992
 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Somatotropin; Subcutaneous injection;
 Controlled release; Milk composition; Milk yield; Lactation
 number; Feed intake; Dry matter; Energy intake; Body weight;
 Animal health; Animal welfare; Reproductive performance; Drug
 formulations
 
 Abstract:  Seventy-four Holstein cows (26 primiparous) were
 utilized to compare the efficacy and safety of sustained-
 release versus daily injectable formulations of recombinant
 bST. Twenty-four control cows were injected biweekly with oil
 microsphere; 25 cows were injected biweekly with 350 mg of bST
 microsphere; and 25 cows were injected daily with 10.3 mg of
 bST. Injections were initiated between wk 4 and 5 of lactation
 and continued for 280 d. Administration of bST caused a
 moderate increase in milk and FCM production and improved the
 efficiency of feed and energy conversions. Most health-related
 and reproduction-related variables did not differ among
 treatment groups. However, incidence of teat and udder
 disorders and feet and leg problems tended to be higher during
 the 40-wk injection period for the bST-treated cows than for
 the control cows. Incidence of GnRH therapy and number of days
 to first service were higher for daily bST-treated cows than
 for controls. No differences existed between sustained-release
 and daily bST-treated cows for any parameters monitored.
 
 
 246                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Lactational response of Jersey cows to bovine somatotropin
 administered daily or in a sustained-release formulation.
 Jenny, B.F.; Grimes, L.W.; Pardue, F.E.; Rock, D.W.;
 Patterson, D.L. Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science
 Association; 1992 Dec. Journal of dairy science v. 75 (12): p.
 3402-3407; 1992 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Somatotropin; Milk yield; Milk
 composition; Feed intake; Dry matter; Feed conversion;
 Controlled release; Injection; Body weight; Body condition;
 Bovine mastitis
 
 Abstract:  Twenty-four Jersey cows were administered either 0
 or 15.5 mg of bST/d or 310 mg of bST/14 d to determine the
 effect on milk yield, milk composition, feed intake, and body
 weight. Administration of bST was from wk 14 through 42
 postpartum. Cows were housed in a tie-stall barn and fed for
 ad libitum intake a TMR adjusted to one of two energy protein
 densities according to milk yield. Milk yield of cows
 administered bST daily or by sustained-release vehicle
 increased 27.6 and 24.7%, respectively, over that of control
 cows; FCM increased by 30.3 and 26.7%. Percentages of fat and
 protein in milk were unaffected by bST treatment. Dry matter
 intake of cows administered bST was greater than that of
 control cows, whether expressed as kilograms per day or as a
 percentage of body weight. Apparent efficiency of yield
 increased in cows administered bST. No significant change in
 body weight occurred; however, cows administered bST had lower
 body condition scores at 42 wk postpartum. This trial
 demonstrated comparable effects of bST on lactational
 performance when administered daily or in a 14-d sustained-
 release vehicle.
 
 
 247                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Liner collection cone and pH effects on postthaw motility,
 staining, and acrosomes of bovine spermatozoa.
 Smith, J.F.; Merilan, C.P.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1991
 Apr. Journal of dairy science v. 74 (4): p. 1310-1313; 1991
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy bulls; Semen; Collection; Artificial
 vagina; Liners; Polyethylene; Rubber; Spermatozoa; Motility;
 Acrosome; Ph; Semen diluents; Heat stress; Frozen semen
 
 Abstract:  Sixteen ejaculates were collected, four each from
 four bulls, using artificial vaginas with polyethylene or
 rubber liner collection cones in a crossover design
 experiment. The ejaculates were diluted with egg yolk-citrate
 extender at pH 6.4 or 7.2, cooled, glycerolated, equilibrated,
 packaged in .5-ml French straws, frozen in nitrogen vapor, and
 stored in liquid nitrogen. Thirty frozen straws from each
 ejaculate were thawed rapidly (46.5 degrees C for 12 s),
 pooled, and then incubated at 46.5 degrees C for periodic
 evaluation of progressive motility, differential staining, and
 acrosome morphology under thermal stress conditions. The
 postthaw motility of spermatozoa and percentage of unstained
 cells were higher both when collected in polyethylene than in
 rubber and when extended at pH 7.2 vs. 6.4, but no interaction
 was found between liner collection cone composition and pH for
 postthaw motility. Retention of spermatozoan motility during
 incubation under thermal stress was greater for cells
 collected in polyethylene, but not different due to pH.
 Neither pH nor composition of liner correction cone had an
 effect on postthaw acrosomal scores, but the time required for
 a 50% increase in severely damaged acrosomes was greater for
 spermatozoa collected in polyethylene than in rubber liner
 collection cones.
 
 
 248                              NAL Call. No.: SF91.I568 1987
 Locomotion of cattle in loose housing systems.
 Kampkens, K.; Boxberger, J.
 St. Joseph, Mich.? : The Society; 1987.
 Latest developments in livestock housing : Seminar of the 2nd
 Technical Section of the C.I.G.R. / Univ of Illinois, Urbana-
 Champaign, Illinois, USA, June 22-26, 1987 ; hosted by
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers. p. 179-190. ill;
 1987. (Reports / International Commission of Agricultural
 Engineering).  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: German federal republic; Cattle housing; Pens;
 Slatted floors; Farm dairies; Dairy cows; Locomotion; Loose
 housing
 
 
 249                                    NAL Call. No.: 23 AU792
 Maize silage for the pasture-fed dairy cow. 2. A comparison
 between two systems for feeding silage while grazing perennial
 pastures in the spring. Moran, J.B.; Jones, D.
 East Melbourne : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial
 Research Organization; 1992.
 Australian journal of experimental agriculture v. 32 (3): p.
 287-292; 1992. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Victoria; Dairy cows; Friesian; Feed intake;
 Grazing; Irrigated pastures; Maize silage; Rumen digestion;
 Spring; Milk fat; Milk protein; Milk yield
 
 
 250                                NAL Call. No.: S544.3.A2C47
 Management and care of the dry cow.
 Moss, B.R.
 Auburn, Ala. : The Service; 1988 Jul.
 Circular ANR - Alabama Cooperative Extension Service, Auburn
 University (289): 4 p.; 1988 Jul.  In subseries: Agriculture &
 Natural Resources. Animal Science.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alabama; Dairy herds; Dry lot feeding
 
 
 251                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Management and economic implications of intensive grazing on
 dairy farms in the northeastern states.
 Parker, W.J.; Muller, L.D.; Buckmaster, D.R.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1992
 Sep. Journal of dairy science v. 75 (9): p. 2587-2597; 1992
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pennsylvania; Dairy cows; Grazing; Dry feeding;
 Forage; Alfalfa; Maize; Land use; Agricultural land; Herbage
 
 Abstract:  The effects of intensive grazing by dairy cattle on
 annual herbage utilization, forage and crop production, and
 net returns were compared with a drylot feeding system for a
 typical Pennsylvania dairy farm using linked spreadsheet
 models. The 80-ha case farm supported a herd of 53 cows and 48
 replacements with a herd average of 6800 kg of milk/yr per
 cow. Annual feed consumption for the grazing farm included
 173, 182, and 118 tonnes of pasture, stored forage, and
 concentrate DM, respectively. Corresponding tonnes of DM for
 the drylot feeding system were 47, 293, and 114. Net herbage
 production of 6589 kg of DM/ha was used for grazing (5350 kg
 of Dm/ha) and for hay (970 kg of Dm/ha), and 269 kg/ha were
 not utilized on the grazing farm. On the confined farm,
 herbage was used primarily for hay (4484 kg of Dm/ha) rather
 than for grazing (1446 kg of Dm/ha), and herbage loss amounted
 to 659 kg of Dm/ha. The gross margin was $121 per cow higher
 on the grazing farm. Despite this potential to improve the
 profitability of dairy farms, the low usage of intensive
 grazing in the northeastern US is likely to continue until
 dairy producers become confident 1) that milk production per
 cow can be maintained at a level similar to that for confined
 feeding or 2) that the relative price of concentrates, stored
 forage, and pasture change to favor grazing more.
 
 
 252                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Managerial determinants of intramammary coliform and
 environmental streptococci infections in Ohio dairy herds.
 Bartlett, P.C.; Miller, G.Y.; Lance, S.E.; Heider, L.E.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1992
 May. Journal of dairy science v. 75 (5): p. 1241-1252; 1992
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ohio; Dairy cows; Dairy herds; Bovine mastitis;
 Coliform bacteria; Coliform count; Dairy hygiene; Sanitation;
 Streptococcus; Farm comparisons; Farm management
 
 Abstract:  Forty-eight dairy herds in Ohio were selected as a
 stratified random sample for participation in a disease
 monitoring study to relate die prevalence of IMI with coliform
 and environmental streptococci to herd management and
 environmental conditions. Management and environmental
 conditions were assessed by farm inspection and by an
 interview with the dairy producers. A separate analysis for
 each independent variable identified many potential disease
 determinants. A multivariable analysis of a covariance model
 to predict the prevalence of coliforms had 6 model df (R2 =
 .47). Increased prevalence of coliform infection was
 associated with an increased amount of milk remaining in the
 udder after milking, use of free stalls, regular use of a
 running water wash, increased person hours per cow spent
 milking, and poor sanitation. The multivariable model for
 environmental streptococci used 5 model df (R2 = .51).
 Increased prevalence of environmental streptococci was
 associated with poor sanitation, increased number of days dry,
 use of tie stalls, no use of a shared wash cloth, and no use
 of an individual dry cloth.
 
 
 253                                 NAL Call. No.: 275.29 G29B
 Managing & feeding lactating dairy cows in hot weather.
 West, J.W.
 Athens, Ga. : The Service; 1987 Jun.
 Bulletin - Cooperative Extension Service, University of
 Georgia, College of Agriculture (956): 15 p.; 1987 Jun.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Heat stress; Lactation; Shade; Feed
 rations
 
 
 254                                  NAL Call. No.: 100 C12CAG
 Manger misting improves dairy cows' appetite.
 Shultz, T.A.; Morrison, S.R.
 Berkeley, Calif. : The Station; 1987 May.
 California agriculture - California Agricultural Experiment
 Station v. 41 (5/6): p. 12-13. ill; 1987 May.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Dairy cows; Mangers; Mists;
 Environmental control; Appetite; Heat stress; Feed intake;
 Milk yield; Mortality; Reproductive performance
 
 
 255                             NAL Call. No.: SF206.M37  1986
 Mari membangun dan menyempurnakan kandang sapi perah kita
 masing-masing serta memberi makan sebaik-baiknya, agar sapi
 kita sehat dan produksi susunya selalu meningkat  [Improving
 the housing and feeding of dairy cattle to increase  the milk
 production].
 Indonesia, Departemen Pertanian, Kantor Wilayah Daerah Khusus
 Ibukota Jakarta Jakarta : KANWIL Pertanian, DKI Jakarta,;
 1986.
 ii, 18 p. : ill. ; 19 cm. (Seri peternakan ; no.
 001/NAK/vi/86).  Includes bibliographical references (p. 18).
 
 Language:  Indonesian
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle
 
 
 256                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 Mastitis control in the confinement freestall barn.
 Britten, A.M.
 Lawrenceville, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company;
 1987 Feb. The Compendium on continuing education for the
 practicing veterinarian v. 9 (2): p. F45-F46, F48-F49. ill;
 1987 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Bovine mastitis; Disease control;
 Stalls; Loose housing; Design; Litter
 
 
 257                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Maternal behaviour of dairy heifers and sucking of their
 newborn calves in group housing.
 Illmann, G.; Spinka, M.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1993 Apr.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 36 (2/3): p. 91-98; 1993
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Maternal behavior; Calves
 
 
 258                             NAL Call. No.: 49.9 N76 nr.240
 Melkingsavdeling, melkerom og birom i sma losdriftsfjos =
 Milking compartment, dairy and service rooms in small loose
 housing barns for dairy cows..  Milking compartment, dairy and
 science rooms in small loose housing barns for dairy cows
 As : Norges landbrukshogskole, Institutt for bygningsteknikk,;
 1987. 33 p. : ill. ; 30 cm. (IBT-rapport ; nr.240).  Summary
 and captions in English.  Includes bibliographical references
 (p. 33).
 
 Language:  Norwegian
 
 
 259                                   NAL Call. No.: SF208.M53
 Milchkuhe Haltungssysteme, Herdenfuhrung, Futterung,
 Futtergewinnung, Gesundheit, Stallgebaude  [Dairy cows. 
 rearing systems, herd management, feeding, feed production,
 health, housing].
 rearing systems, herd management, feeding, feed production,
 health, housing Wolke, H.; Hoges, J.; Coenen, J.
 Gruppe Tierische Veredlungswirtschaft
 Bonn : Landwirtschaftskammer Rheinland, [1985?]; 1985.
 95 p. : ill. ; 30 cm. (Beitrage zur tierischen
 Veredelungswirtschaft).  Cover title.  Mai 1985.
 
 Language:  German
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle
 
 
 260                                      NAL Call. No.: S1.N32
 Milk cows faster: low-cost swing parlors help family dairies
 compete--without rBGH.
 Cramer, C.
 Emmaus, Pa. : Rodale Institute; 1994 Sep.
 The New farm v. 16 (6): p. 36-39, 41-42; 1994 Sep.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy farming; Milking parlors; Family farms
 
 
 261                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32P
 Milk production with voltage exposure during entire lactation.
 Aneshansley, D.J.; Price, L.R.; Gorewit, R.C.; Czarniecki,
 C.S. St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1990.
 Paper - American Society of Agricultural Engineers (90-3502):
 16 p.; 1990. Paper presented at the "1990 International Winter
 Meeting sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers," December 18-21, Chicago, Illinois.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Holstein-friesian; Lactation; Milk
 production; Milking parlors; Stray voltage
 
 
 262                                 NAL Call. No.: SF967.M3N32
 Milking procedures and their effect on milk quality.
 Armstrong, D.V.
 Washington, D.C. : The Council; 1985.
 Annual meeting - National Mastitis Council, Inc (24th): p.
 49-51; 1985. Includes 3 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Milking; Milking parlors; Teat dip;
 Milk quality
 
 
 263                                  NAL Call. No.: SF196.U5A8
 Milking routine and performance of large herringbone milking
 parlor. Armstrong, D.V.
 Tucson, Ariz. : The Service; 1988 Jan.
 Arizona dairy newsletter - University of Arizona, Cooperative
 Extension Service. p. 2-5; 1988 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Milking parlors; Milking rate; Milk
 production
 
 
 264                                    NAL Call. No.: 58.8 J82
 A model of evaporative cooling in a wetted hide.
 Kimmel, E.; Arkin, H.; Broday, D.; Berman, A.
 London : Academic Press; 1991 Jul.
 Journal of agricultural engineering research v. 49 (3): p.
 227-241; 1991 Jul. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Hides and skins; Wetting; Evaporative cooling;
 Models; Equations; Heat transfer
 
 Abstract:  A theoretical model is presented for the
 simultaneous transfer of heat and mass in a wet fur that
 occurs when an animal is cooled by blowing air over its wetted
 coat. This method for reducing severe heat stress in cows is
 referred to as forced evaporative cooling. Previously
 published models for latent heat loss from the body surface of
 mammals assume that the skin surface is the only site where
 evaporation occurs, while the rest of the coat remains dry.
 This assumption is only appropriate for a model to describe
 sweating, but is not suited to cope with the prevailing
 conditions during forced evaporative cooling. By allowing for
 evaporation throughout the entire depth of the coat, the
 present model enables the evaluation of integrated parameters
 that characterize the cooling capacity of a wet hide, such as
 "evaporative effectiveness" or "effective wettedness". The
 application of these parameters is demonstrated with
 experimental data obtained using an excised fur of a dairy
 cow. Simulation runs showed that these parameters depend on
 ambient thermal parameters (temperature, humidity and air
 velocity) and on intrinsic local properties such as water
 content and distribution within the hide. The results of this
 study contribute to the development of a rational design of a
 forced evaporative cooling strategy.
 
 
 265                                      NAL Call. No.: HD1.A3
 A model to estimate the performance, revenues and costs of
 dairy cows under different production and price situations.
 Arendonk, J.A.M. van
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1985.
 Agricultural systems v. 16 (3): p. 157-189. ill; 1985. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Netherlands; Dairy cows; Costs; Returns;
 Production structure; Milk production; Carcass yield;
 Simulation models
 
 
 266                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Modulation of function of bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes
 and lymphocytes by high temperature in vitro and in vivo.
 Elvinger, F.; Hansen, P.J.; Natzke, R.P.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1991 Oct. American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (10):
 p. 1692-1698; 1991 Oct. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Leukocytes; Lymphocyte
 transformation; Hyperthermia; Neutrophils; Lymphocytes; Blood;
 Milk; Teats; Immune response
 
 Abstract:  Function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) and
 proliferation of lymphocytes after stimulation with mitogens
 were evaluated in vitro at incubation temperatures of 38.5 and
 42 C, and after in vivo heat stress of lactating Holstein
 cows. Cytochrome-c reduction and random migration of PMNL were
 reduced when cells were preincubated or incubated at 42 C, but
 high incubation temperature had little or no effect on
 phagocytosis and killing of Escherichia coli, Proliferation of
 lymphocytes was reduced when cells were incubated for 60 hours
 at 42 C after stimulation with phytohemagglutinin, pokeweed
 mitogen, or concanavalin A. After stimulation with
 phytohemagglutinin, lymphocytes were most sensitive to high
 temperature during the first 24 hours of the 60-hour culture
 period. High incubation temperature had little effect on
 viability of cells. In vivo heat stress had no significant
 effect on responses of PMNL in vitro, but the decrease in
 proliferation of lymphocytes in vitro at high temperature was
 less when cells were obtained from heat-stressed cows. Total
 leukocyte counts in blood and somatic cell counts in milk were
 higher in heat-stressed cows. Results indicate that: exposure
 to high temperature in vitro can depress responses of PMNL and
 lymphocytes; apparent adaptive mechanisms induced by in vivo
 heat stress provide protection from effects of high
 temperature seen in vitro; and evidence could not be found to
 support the hypothesis that reduction in immune function is
 the basis for increases in the incidence of mastitis during
 the summer.
 
 
 267                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 N-Acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activities, milk somatic cell
 counts, and blood leukocyte and erythrocyte counts in cows
 after heat-induced stress or after intravenous administration
 of adrenocorticotropic hormone. Berning, L.M.; Paape, M.J.;
 Miller, R.H.; LeDane, R.A.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1987 Jul. American journal of veterinary research v. 48 (7):
 p. 1157-1161; 1987 Jul. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Heat stress; Adrenal cortex hormones;
 Enzymes; Milk; Blood plasma; Leukocyte count; Erythrocyte
 count; Milk production
 
 
 268                              NAL Call. No.: SF208.C53 1987
 Nai niu ssu yang shih yung chi shu  [Practical knowledge of
 raising and feeding dairy cattle]..  Nai niu si yang shi yong
 ji shu, Ti 1 pan.. Chang, Ta-li
 Ha-erh-pin : Hei-lung-chiang jen min ch'u pan she,; 1987. 3,
 63 p. ; 19 cm. (Ssu yang chi shu ts'ung shu).  Colophon title
 also in Pinyin: Nai niu si yang shi yong ji shu.
 
 Language:  Chinese
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Breeding; Dairy cattle; Housing;
 Dairy cattle; Feeding and feeds
 
 
 269                               NAL Call. No.: SF208.W8 1988
 Nai niu ti ssu yang  [Raising and feeding dairy cattle]., Ti 1
 pan.. Wu, Tao-chung
 Ch'ang-ch'un-shih? : Chi-lin k'o hsueh chi shu ch'u pan she :
 Fa hsing Chi-lin sheng hsin hua hsu tien,; 1988.
 2, 199 p. : ill. ; 19 cm. (Nung yeh shih yung chi shu ts'ung
 shu).
 
 Language:  Chinese
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Dairy cattle; Breeding; Dairy
 cattle; Feeding and feeds; Dairy cattle; Housing
 
 
 270                                    NAL Call. No.: SF961.A5
 New systems of ventilation and environmental control in dairy
 barns. Kains, F.A.
 Stillwater, Okla. : The Association; 1985, reprinted 1986.
 Proceedings ... annual convention - American Association of
 Bovine Practitioners 1986). (18th): p. 60-66. ill; 1985,
 reprinted 1986.  Includes 9 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ontario; Dairy herds; Cow housing; Ventilation;
 Barns; Environmental control
 
 
 271                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 New technologies and decision making in high producing herds.
 Spahr, S.L.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1993
 Oct. Journal of dairy science v. 76 (10): p. 3269-3277; 1993
 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy herds; Dairy farming; Decision making;
 Dairy technology; Farm management; Machine milking; Milking
 parlors; Data collection; Milk recording; Estrus
 
 Abstract:  New technologies have evolved for improved
 management of on-farm records and their use in decision
 making. Computerized on-farm record systems, coupled with
 automated monitoring of individual animal performance and
 electronic transfer of data between the on-farm database and
 mainframe systems, have enhanced the capability for herd
 management. Electronic aids for decision making may be
 embedded into on-farm management programs to allow more
 detailed data to be available with ease and convenience.
 Technological advances and their application toward improved
 operational decisions concerning production monitoring,
 reproductive management, genetic improvement, feeding, and
 health in a 300-cow dairy herd are presented as examples.
 Substantial advances have been made in technologies that
 improve management and decision making. Evolving technologies
 promise to enhance further the capabilities for improved
 management and decision making in high producing herds.
 
 
 272                                 NAL Call. No.: S544.3.N5F7
 The nitrate problem in dairy cattle.
 Wright, F.A.; Oleskie, E.T.
 New Brunswick, N.J. : The Service; 1985.
 FS - Cooperative Extension Service, Cook College (118): 2 p.;
 1985.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New Jersey; Dairy cattle; Nitrates; Ingestion
 toxicity; Silos; Ventilation
 
 
 273                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 A note on resting behaviour of cows before and after calving
 in two different housing systems.
 Dechamps, P.; Nicks, B.; Canart, B.; Gielen, M.; Istasse, L.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1989 May.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 23 (1/2): p. 99-105. ill;
 1989 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Rest; Animal behavior; Prepartum
 period; Postpartum interval; Cow housing; Lactation stage;
 Pregnancy
 
 
 274                            NAL Call. No.: S13.V43 no.90/22
 Nove poznatky a racionalizacni trendy reseni progresivnich
 staji pro dojnice studie VTR = Novye dannye i
 ratsionalizatorskie trendy v razrabotke peredovykh korovnikov
 : obzor = New data and rationalization trends of the design of
 progressive animal houses for dairy cows : review..  Novye
 dannye i ratsionalizatorskie trendy v razrabotke peredovykh
 korovnikov New data and rationalization trends of the design
 of progressive animal houses for dairy cows
 Wierderman, Gustav
 Praha : Ustav vedeckotechnickych informaci pro zemedelstvi,;
 1990. 99 p. : ill. ; 21 cm. (Vedeckotechnicky rozvoj v
 zemedelstvi ; 90/22.). Summary in English and Russian. 
 Includes bibliographical references (p. 92-98).
 
 Language:  Czech
 
 
 275                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Nycterohemeral patterns of acid-base status, mineral
 concentrations and digestive function of lactating cows in
 natural or chamber heat stress environments.
 Schneider, P.L.; Beede, D.K.; Wilcox, C.J.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1988
 Jan. Journal of animal science v. 66 (1): p. 112-125; 1988
 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Acid base equilibrium; Heat stress;
 Hyperthermia; Rumen digestion; Mineral content; Respiration
 rate; Body temperature; Gases
 
 
 276                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32P
 Occurrence of neutral-to-earth (N-E) voltage in the cow
 contact area and its relationship to milk production on
 randomly selected Wisconsin dairy farms: field survey.
 Hendrikson, S.R.; Harvey, T.J.; Bringe, A.N.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1990.
 Paper - American Society of Agricultural Engineers (90-3507):
 18 p.; 1990. Paper presented at the "1990 International Winter
 Meeting sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers," December 18-21, Chicago, Illinois.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Wisconsin; Dairy cows; Milk production; Mastitis;
 Stray voltage; Cow housing
 
 
 277                                 NAL Call. No.: HD1773.A3N6
 Optimal dairy policy with bovine somatotropin.
 Tauer, L.W.; Kaiser, H.M.
 East Lansing, Mich. : Michigan State University; 1991 Jan.
 Review of agricultural economics v. 13 (1): p. 1-17; 1991 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Dairy cows; Somatotropin; Dairy industry;
 Agricultural policy; Production controls; Milk production;
 Milk prices; Price support; Government; Removal; Surpluses;
 Economic impact; Profitability; Innovation adoption; Social
 welfare; Optimization; Dynamic models
 
 Abstract:  A control model of the U.S. dairy sector was
 constructed to determine optimal policy when bovine
 somatotropin is released. Social welfare, defined as consumer
 plus producer surplus minus adjustment and net government
 costs, was maximized. Control variables were the milk support
 price and government purchases of cows. Compared to previous
 simulation research where government policy and adoption are
 modeled exogenously, the results show that decreases in milk
 prices and farm profits are not as severe.
 
 
 278                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Oxidative stress, antioxidants, and animal function.
 Miller, J.K.; Brzezinska-Slebodzinska, E.; Madsen, F.C.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1993
 Sep. Journal of dairy science v. 76 (9): p. 2812-2823; 1993
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Free radicals; Oxygen; Steroid
 hormones; Steroidogenesis; Antioxidants; Parturition; Blood
 plasma; Placental retention; Feed supplements; Mammary edema;
 Selenium; Stress; Biochemical pathways; Literature reviews
 
 Abstract:  Reactive oxygen metabolites generated during normal
 metabolism and metabolism stimulated by xenobiotics can enter
 into reactions that, when uncontrolled, can impair performance
 of dairy cows. Direct effects include peroxidative changes in
 membranes and other cellular components. Indirectly,
 competitive consumption of reducing equivalents can interfere
 with important metabolic functions and divert glucose from
 other pathways by inducing the monophosphate shunt. Normally,
 the body is protected by a wide range of antioxidant systems
 working in concert. Metal catalysts of oxidative reactions are
 removed in extracellular fluids by metal-binding
 macromolecules. Superoxide dismutases, glutathione peroxidase,
 and catalase within cells remove superoxide and peroxides
 before they react with metal catalysts to form more reactive
 species. Finally, peroxidative chain reactions initiated by
 reactive species that escaped enzymatic degradation are
 terminated by chain-breaking antioxidants, including water-
 soluble ascorbate, glutathione, and urate and lipid-soluble
 vitamin E, ubiquinone, and beta-carotene. To optimize
 performance, oxidative stress in high producing cows must be
 controlled by supplying all known antioxidant nutrients and by
 minimizing effects of substances that stimulate reactive
 oxygen metabolites.
 
 
 279                                      NAL Call. No.: 6 AR44
 Parallel parlors--a return to between-the-legs cow milking.
 Armstrong, D.V.
 Spokane, Wash. : The Journal; 1989 Feb.
 Arizona farmer-stockman v. 68 (2): p. 6-7. ill; 1989 Feb.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairying; Milking parlors; Dairy performance;
 Safety
 
 
 280                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32P
 PARSIM: a stochastic simulation model for determining cow
 throughput and labor utilization in dairy parlors.
 Burks, T.F.; Turner, L.W.; Crist, W.L.; Taraba, J.L.; Gates,
 R.S. St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1989.
 Paper - American Society of Agricultural Engineers (89-7036):
 21 p.; 1989. Paper presented at the 1989 International Summer
 Meeting, June 25-28, 1989, Quebec, PQ, Canada.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Milking parlors; Stochastic models; Computer
 simulation; Dairy cows
 
 
 281                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Physiological, productive, and economic benefits of shade,
 spray, and fan system versus shade for Holstein cows during
 summer heat. Igono, M.O.; Johnson, H.D.; Steevens, B.J.;
 Krause, G.F.; Shanklin, M.D. Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy
 Science Association; 1987 May. Journal of dairy science v. 70
 (5): p. 1069-1079; 1987 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Missouri; Dairy cows; Holstein-friesian; Heat
 stress; Shade; Spraying; Fans; Milk yield; Body temperature;
 Milk; Temperatures; Somatotropin; Plasma; Economic analysis
 
 
 282                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Physiology of mastitis and factors affecting somatic cell
 counts. Harmon, R.J.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1994
 Jul. Journal of dairy science v. 77 (7): p. 2103-2112; 1994
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Bovine mastitis; Somatic cell count;
 Pathogens; Inflammation; Milk composition; Plasmin; Enzyme
 activity; Potassium; Calcium; Age differences; Lactation
 stage; Literature reviews
 
 Abstract:  Inflammation of the mammary gland that results from
 the introduction and multiplication of pathogenic
 microorganisms in the mammary gland is a complex series of
 events leading to reduced synthetic activity, compositional
 changes, and elevated SCC. The magnitude and temporal
 relationships of these responses vary with nutritional status,
 other animal factors, and the pathogen involved. Because the
 elevation of SCC is a response to an insult to the mammary
 gland and is modulated by inflammatory mediators, the major
 factor influencing SCC is infection status. The effects of
 stage of lactation, age, season, and various stresses on SCC
 are minor if the gland is uninfected. Except for normal
 diurnal variation, few factors other than infection status
 have a significant impact on milk SCC.
 
 
 283                                    NAL Call. No.: 100 UT1F
 Plastic domes too hot for calves.
 Logan, Utah : The Station; 1990.
 Utah Science - Utah Agricultural Experiment Station v. 51 (4):
 p. 178; 1990.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Housing
 
 
 284                              NAL Call. No.: SF239.I45 1985
 Polygon milking parlors., [Rev.].
 Bickert, W.G.; Armstrong, D.V.
 Ames, Iowa : The Service; 1985.
 Illinois-Iowa dairy handbook / University of Illinois at
 Urbana-Champaign [and] Iowa State University at Ames,
 Cooperative Extension Service. 5 p. ill; 1985.  Illinois-Iowa
 Dairy Guide (402), September, 1980.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Michigan; Mechanization; Dairy cows; Milking
 parlors; Design; Pens; Milking; Operating costs; Investment
 
 
 285                                    NAL Call. No.: S671.A66
 Prediction of dairy heifer numbers for the design of housing
 facilities. Segerlind, L.J.
 St. Joseph, MI : American Society of Agricultural Engineers,
 1985-; 1994 May. Applied engineering in agriculture v. 10 (3):
 p. 413-415; 1994 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Calf housing; Design; Heifers; Replacement;
 Prediction; Stochastic models
 
 Abstract:  A stochastic model was used to predict replacement
 heifer numbers. The estimates were generated using a random
 number technique to simulate the birth process. Tables,
 equations, and approximate percentages that estimate the
 number of heifers in four age groups are presented. The
 estimates can be used to determine the number of individual
 stalls or the pen size needed for different stages of heifer
 growth in a herd with uniform calving. The design values
 presented would be exceeded 10% or less of the time in a five-
 year period.
 
 
 286                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Prediction of individual cow milking time for milking parlor
 simulation models.
 Thomas, C.V.; DeLorenzo, M.A.; Bray, D.R.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1993
 Aug. Journal of dairy science v. 76 (8): p. 2184-2194; 1993
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Milking parlors; Milking; Time;
 Simulation models; Prediction; Pulsation; Ratios; Milk yield;
 Vacuum; Equations
 
 Abstract:  A prediction method for individual cow milking time
 for use in milking parlor simulation models was formulated as
 a function of pulsation ratio, vacuum, and milk yield per cow
 per milking. Milking time was divided into two components: lag
 time, consisting of time from milking unit attachment to
 initiation of milk flow, and milk flow time, consisting of
 time from initiation of milk flow to end of measurable milk
 flow. Least squares ANOVA indicated that linear effects of
 pulsation ratio, vacuum, and milk yield and quadratic and
 cubic effects of milk yield affected milk flow time and lag
 time. Quadratic effects of pulsation ratio and vacuum and the
 interaction between pulsation ratio and vacuum only affected
 milk flow time. Small but significant effects on milk yield
 per milking were due to pulsation ratio (linear), vacuum
 (linear and quadratic), and pulsation ratio X vacuum
 interaction. Based on the analysis, a prediction equation for
 milking time was formulated, tested, and found to be
 unsuitable for generation of simulated milking times. Fitting
 shifted gamma probability distributions to the milk flow time
 data at various pulsation ratios, vacuums, and milk yields per
 milking was suitable for generation of simulated milking
 times.
 
 
 287                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Preference of dairy cattle for stall options in free stall
 housing. Gebremedhin, K.G.; Cramer, C.O.; Larsen, H.J.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1985 Sep.
 Transactions of the ASAE - American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers v. 28 (5): p. 1637-1640. ill; 1985 Sep.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Stalls; Cattle housing; Animal
 behavior
 
 
 288                                  NAL Call. No.: QP251.A1T5
 Pregnancy rates in dairy cows following the administration of
 a GnRH analogue at the time of artificial insemination or at
 mid-cycle post insemination. Ryan, D.P.; Kopel, E.; Boland,
 M.P.; Godke, R.A.
 Stoneham, Mass. : Butterworth-Heinemann; 1991 Sep.
 Theriogenology v. 36 (3): p. 367-377; 1991 Sep.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Saudi arabia; Dairy cows; Estrous cycle; Gnrh;
 Pregnancy rate; Analogs; Artificial insemination; Heat stress;
 Ovulation rate
 
 Abstract:  Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n = 1,533) were
 allocated to one of three treatment groups, with Group I
 (n=514) receiving 10 microgram of a GnRH analogue (buserelin)
 at artificial insemination (AI) and Group II (n=503) receiving
 10 microgram of the same analogue at both the time of AI and
 at 12 days post AI. Herdmates in Group M (n=516) were
 inseminated on the same day and served as contemporary AI
 controls. The trial was conducted on five large dairy farms
 during the spring and summer months in Saudi Arabia. Pregnancy
 rates were determined by palpation per rectum between 33 and
 50 days following AI. The first service pregnancy rate for the
 control cows (42.4%) was lower (P < 0.05) than that for cows
 treated with the GnRH analogue at AI (48.8%) or for the
 combined treatment at Al and at Day 12 post AI (51.5%). No
 additive effect on the pregnancy rate was noted from the
 combined analog treatment. The overall increase in pregnancy
 rate from the analogue treatment at AI resulted from an 11%
 increase in pregnancy rate in first parity cows over that of
 contemporary controls (P < 0.05) and a 14.7% increase in
 pregnancy for cows mated at 40 to 59 days post partum and
 treated with the analogue at Al over that of the corresponding
 controls (P < 0.05). The pregnancy rates from repeat AI
 (interval less than or equal to 30 days) were similar across
 treatments (45.7% for Group I, 42.9% for Group II and 47.8%
 for Group III). In this study, the GnRH analogue may have
 enhanced the ovulation rate and possibly luteal function in
 cows with reduced hypothalamic GnRH release under
 environmental stress.
 
 
 289                                NAL Call. No.: 275.29 SO85C
 Preparing for hot weather.
 Owens, M.
 Brookings, S.D. : The Service; 1988 Jun.
 South Dakota D.H.I.A. news - South Dakota State University,
 Cooperative Extension Service. p. 1; 1988 Jun.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South Dakota; Dairy cows; Heat stress; Water
 intake; Shade
 
 
 290                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.B6
 Preventing disease in neonatal calves. 3.
 McGuirk, S.; DeGroff, T.; Gay, C.; Grover, W.; Mechor, G.;
 Shearer, J.K. Santa Barbara, CA : Veterinary Practice Pub.
 Co., [c1983-; 1994 Mar. Agri-Practice v. 15 (3): p. 10-13;
 1994 Mar.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Calves; Newborn animals; Maternal immunity; Cow
 colostrum; Igg; Blood serum; Blood plasma; Monoclonal
 antibodies; Dairy cattle; Heat stress; Calf diarrhea rotavirus
 
 
 291                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32P
 Principles and guidelines for natural ventilation of warm
 dairy housing. Choiniere, Y.; Munroe, J.A.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1990.
 Paper - American Society of Agricultural Engineers (90-4552):
 19 p.; 1990. Paper presented at the "1990 International Winter
 Meeting sponsored by The American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers," December 18-21, 1990, Chicago, Illinois.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal housing; Natural ventilation; Dairy cattle
 
 
 292                                NAL Call. No.: SF233.D44M55
 Principles of housing dairy cattle.
 Baxter, S.H.
 Edinburgh : University of Edinburgh, Centre for Tropical
 Veterinary Medicine; 1985.
 Milk production in developing countries : proceedings of the
 conference held in Edinburgh from the 2nd to 6th April 1984 /
 organised by the Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine ;
 edited by A.J. Smi. p. 368-385. ill; 1985. Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Cattle housing; Barns; Climate
 control
 
 
 293                              NAL Call. No.: SF208.L36 1991
 Proceedings 1991 Large Dairy Herd Conference, April 3, 4, 5,
 1991..  1991 Large Dairy Herd Conference, April 3, 4, 5, 1991
 Cornell Cooperative Extension
 Large Dairy Herd Conference 1991.
 Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell Cooperative Extension : Dept. of Animal
 Science, N.Y. State College of Agriculture and Life Sciences,
 Cornell University,; 1991. 272 p. ; 28 cm. (Animal science
 mimeograph series ; no. 147).  Cover title. April, 1991. 
 Includes bibliographical references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Milking parlors
 
 
 294                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V6456
 Protocols for herd health and productivity control in dairy
 herds: young dairy stock.
 Hill, F.W.G.; Schukken, Y.H.
 London : Wright; 1990.
 The Veterinary annual (30): p. 23-33; 1990.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy herds; Health; Growth; Calves; Calf
 production; Health care
 
 
 295                                 NAL Call. No.: SF967.M3N32
 Psychological interaction between the milker and the dairy
 cows. Seabrook, M.F.
 Arlington, Va. : The Council; 1994.
 Annual meeting /. p. 163-174; 1994.  Meeting held on January
 31-February 2, 1994, Orlando, Florida.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Interactions; Man; Perception; Cattle
 husbandry; Animal welfare
 
 
 296                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Public mood and how we respond.
 Curtis, S.E.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1987
 Dec. Journal of dairy science v. 70 (12): p. 2708-2710; 1987
 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Animal welfare; Conferences; Public
 opinion; Education
 
 
 297                                 NAL Call. No.: S544.3.N7A4
 Putting calves in hutches can virtually eliminate lice.
 Lang, S.
 Middletown, N.Y. : Cornell Cooperative Ext.--Orange County
 Agriculture Program, Education Center; 1992 Nov.
 Agfocus : publication of Cornell Cooperative Extension--Orange
 County. p. 5; 1992 Nov.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Calves; Dairy cattle; Phthiraptera; Cow housing;
 Integrated pest management
 
 
 298                                NAL Call. No.: 275.29 K13EX
 Raising dairy heifers.
 Morrill, J.L; Dunham, J.R.; Call, E.P.
 Manhattan, Kan. : The Service; 1991 Jan.
 C - Kansas State University, Cooperative Extension Service
 (721): 15 p.; 1991 Jan.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kansas; Heifers; Dairy cows; Feed requirements;
 Calves; Calf housing; Calf diseases
 
 
 299                                 NAL Call. No.: 275.29 G29B
 Raising dairy herd replacements.
 Guthrie, L.D.; Ely, L.O.
 Athens, Ga. : The Service; 1992 Aug.
 Bulletin - Cooperative Extension Service, University of
 Georgia, College of Agriculture v.): 47 p. ill; 1992 Aug. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Breeding; Feeding; Housing
 
 
 300                                     NAL Call. No.: S544.N6
 Raising dairy replacements.
 Crowley, J.; Jorgensen, N.; Howard, T.; Hoffman, P.; Shaver,
 R. East Lansing, Mich. : The Service; 1991 Mar.
 North Central regional extension publication, Cooperative
 Extension Service (205): 61 p.; 1991 Mar.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Heifers; Breeding programs; Dairy bulls; Dairy
 cattle; Cattle husbandry; Calves; Calf feeding; Cow colostrum;
 Nutrition programs; Growth rate; Replacement; Calf housing;
 Calf diseases; Calf production
 
 
 301                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Raising dairy replacements to meet the needs of the 21st
 century. Heinrichs, A.J.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1993
 Oct. Journal of dairy science v. 76 (10): p. 3179-3187; 1993
 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Heifers; Liveweight gain; Milk yield;
 Cattle feeding; Replacement; Calves; Cow housing; Mortality;
 Milk production costs; Age at first calving; Literature
 reviews
 
 Abstract:  Producing high quality replacement heifers at
 minimum cost will be one of the many challenges facing the
 dairy farm of the 21st century. Because replacement heifers
 represent a large portion of the total cost of milk
 production, dairy farmers will have to meet the replacement
 needs of their lactating herds at minimum cost to maintain the
 farm's profitability. To keep the US dairy industry
 competitive into the 21st century, researchers, extension,
 industry, and producers must examine the database of research
 in order to determine how to apply the known information to
 current production and research efforts. Important research is
 needed to improve the dairy heifers of the future. This review
 summarizes research of the past 12 yr related to dairy
 replacements and incorporates those findings into possible
 scenarios for future dairy calf and heifer management systems.
 Additional research is needed to determine how dairy
 replacement raising systems affect the lifetime productivity
 and profitability of the dairy cow.
 
 
 302                                   NAL Call. No.: 49.9 IN23
 Raising dariy replacement heifers: from birth to breeding.
 Knutson, R.J.; Allrich, R.D.; Cunningham, M.D.
 West Lafayette, Ind. : The Service; 1988 Feb.
 Animal Sciences AS - Cooperative Extension Service, Purdue
 University (454): 7 p. ill; 1988 Feb.  In subseries: Dairy.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Heifers; Cattle husbandry; Dairy cows;
 Replacement; Animal nutrition; Calving; Animal health; Cow
 housing; Animal breeding
 
 
 303                                   NAL Call. No.: SF600.C82
 Reactions of dairy cattle and pigs to humans.
 Seabrook, M.F.
 Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1990.
 Current topics in veterinary medicine and animal science v.
 53: p. 110-120; 1990.  In the series analytic: Social stress
 in domestic animals / edited by R. Zayan and R. Dantzer. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Pigs; Man; Interactions; Stress
 
 
 304                                  NAL Call. No.: SF196.U5A8
 Recent research suggests new approaches to alleviate summer
 heat-stress infertility in dairy cows.
 Monty, D.E. Jr
 Tucson, Ariz. : The Service; 1989 May.
 Arizona dairy newsletter - University of Arizona, Cooperative
 Extension Service. p. 1-4; 1989 May.  Literature review. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Lactating females; Heat stress;
 Conception rate; Veterinary education
 
 
 305                           NAL Call. No.: 7 C16Pu no.1853/E
 Recommended code of practice for the care and handling of
 dairy cattle. Canadian Federation of Humane Societies, Canada,
 Agriculture Canada Ottawa, Ont. : Available from
 Communications Branch, Agriculture Canada,; 1990.
 41 p. ; 23 cm. (Agriculture Canada publication ; 1853/E). 
 Produced by Research Program Service.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Dairy cattle
 
 
 306                                    NAL Call. No.: S671.A66
 Reducing heat stress in dairy cows through sprinkler and fan
 cooling. Turner, L.W.; Chastain, J.P.; Hemken, R.W.; Gates,
 R.S.; Crist, W.L. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers; 1992 Mar. Applied engineering in
 agriculture v. 8 (2): p. 251-256; 1992 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Heat stress; Cooling systems;
 Performance testing
 
 Abstract:  Heat stress in dairy cows can reduce both cow
 comfort and milk production. Sprinkler and fan cooling offers
 promise as means of reducing heat stress in cows. This article
 describes a sprinkler and fan cooling system installed at a
 feed bunk and evaluates system performance in a temperate,
 humid climate. The results indicate the system increased cow
 comfort and milk production during the test period.
 
 
 307                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 N812
 Reducing morbidity in dairy cattle.
 Jones, G.
 Santa Barbara, Calif. : American Veterinary Publications; 1985
 Mar. Modern veterinary practice v. 66 (3): p. 206-207; 1985
 Mar.  Includes 3 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Cattle housing; Morbidity;
 Ventilation
 
 
 308                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Relationship between an increase in plasma cortisol during
 transport-induced stress and failure of oestradiol to induce a
 luteinising hormone surge in dairy cows.
 Nanda, A.S.; Dobson, H.; Ward, W.R.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1990 Jul.
 Research in veterinary science v. 49 (1): p. 25-28; 1990 Jul. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Cortisol; Blood plasma; Stress;
 Transport of animals; Estradiol; Lh; Postpartum interval;
 Estrous cycle
 
 
 309                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Relationship of linear type traits and herd life under
 different management systems.
 Burke, B.P.; Funk, D.A.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1993
 Sep. Journal of dairy science v. 76 (9): p. 2773-2782; 1993
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Dairy herds; Type score;
 Conformation; Productive life; Cow housing; Litter; Hooves;
 Legs; Dairy traits; Regression analysis
 
 Abstract:  The relationship of conformation traits,
 particularly locomotive traits, and herd life under different
 management systems was investigated. Herd life to 84 mo was
 regressed on measures of linear type and production for
 139,998 cows in 6277 herds. Linear traits accounted for 14% of
 explained variation for herd life after effects for herds and
 production were considered. Udder traits explained more herd-
 life variation than other conformation traits. Fore udder
 attachment and udder depth explained the most variation when
 production was included in analyses. Udder depth explained the
 least amount of herd-life variation among six udder traits
 when production was not included in the analyses. The
 relationship between locomotive traits and herd life differed
 by type of housing. Cows with intermediate curvature of the
 rear legs had longer herd life in all housing types, but the
 absolute difference between optimum and extreme was greater
 for cows in confinement than for cows in loose housing.
 Relationship between cows' genetic merit for curvature of the
 rear legs and herd life, however, was near zero. Cows with
 steeper foot angles had longer herd life in all housing types.
 Regressions of herd life on nonlocomotive type traits for
 different housing systems were always greater for cows in tie-
 stall environments compared with cows in loose housing.
 Personal preference for type traits by dairy producers within
 housing systems may partly explain herd-life results.
 
 
 310                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Relationships among udder and teat morphology and milking
 characteristics. Rogers, G.W.; Spencer, S.B.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1991
 Dec. Journal of dairy science v. 74 (12): p. 4189-4194; 1991
 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Udders; Teats; Animal anatomy;
 Teatcup liner; Milk yield; Milking rate; Milking
 
 Abstract:  Teat cup liner slips, manual milking machine
 adjustments, milk yields, and milking times were recorded
 during both morning and evening milkings for 9 d on 97
 Holstein cows in The Pennsylvania State University dairy herd.
 Fore and rear udder heights (distance from floor to udder),
 udder levelness, distances between teats (before and after
 milking), teat lengths, teat diameters, and teat end shapes
 were measured on the same cows. Product-moment correlations
 among the morphological characteristics, liner slips, manual
 adjustments, milk yields, and milking times were determined.
 Residual correlations from a model including lactation number
 and DIM (linear and quadratic) were also calculated. The
 variation among cows in machine liner slips and manual
 adjustments within and across lactation number and DIM can be
 partially explained by udder and teat morphology. Wider teats
 were associated with increased liner slips and increased
 manual adjustments. More tilted udders (rear quarters lower
 than front quarters) were associated with increased liner
 slips and tended to be associated with increased manual
 adjustments. In addition, larger teat diameters and longer
 teats tended to be associated with increased liner slips.
 
 
 311                                    NAL Call. No.: 100 AL1H
 Response of dairy cows to elevated environmental temperatures.
 Cummins, K.A.
 Auburn, Ala. : The Station; 1987.
 Highlights of agricultural research - Alabama Agricultural
 Experiment Station v. 34 (3): p. 11. ill; 1987.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Environmental temperature; Heat
 stress; Summer; Shade; Ventilation; Holstein-friesian; Jersey;
 Breed differences
 
 
 312                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 W89
 Resting behaviour of Friesian bulls 5 and 12 months old in a
 tie stall barn. Nicks, B.; Dechamps, P.; Canart, B.; Istasse,
 L.
 Rome : International Publishing Enterprises; 1991 Jan.
 World review of animal production v. 26 (1): p. 51-54; 1991
 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy bulls; Barns; Animal behavior; Age
 differences
 
 
 313                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 C163
 Resumption of ovarian activity and estrus postpartum in dairy
 cows maintained indoors year-round.
 Hackett, A.J.; Lin, C.Y.; McAllister, A.J.
 Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada; 1985 Jun.
 Canadian journal of animal science v. 65 (2): p. 391-398. ill;
 1985 Jun. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Cow housing; Ovaries (animal);
 Estrus; Postpartum interval
 
 
 314                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Reverse pressure gradients across the teat canal related to
 machine milking. Rasmussen, M.D.; Frimer, E.S.; Decker, E.L.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1994
 Apr. Journal of dairy science v. 77 (4): p. 984-993; 1994 Apr. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Teats; Machine milking; Vacuum;
 Pressure regulators; Automatic control; Computer techniques;
 Pressure; Teatcup liner
 
 Abstract:  Miniature pressure transducers were inserted
 through the udder cistern wall of 10 cows and placed into the
 teat cistern and, in addition, beneath the teat end. Data were
 sampled every millisecond and collected during 59 sequences of
 manual teat handling pre- and postmilking, 575 attachments,
 384 sequences of 30-s milking, and 623 sequences of
 detachment. Attachment and detachment were mainly done during
 overmilking in short sequences lasting 8 to 20 s. Reverse
 pressure gradients across the teat canal occurred during
 manual teat handling (54%), attachment of the milking unit
 (29%), milking (1%), and detachment (26%). Overall risk
 included empty teats. Risk factors at pre- and postmilking
 teat handling were the compression of teats and the following
 movement back to normal shape. When the diameter of the
 mouthpiece orifice of the liner was larger than the teat
 diameter, the frequency of reverse pressure gradients at
 attachment was halved compared with attachment of more narrow
 liners. The method of attaching the milking unit on empty
 teats without the risk of creating reverse pressure gradients
 was not identified. Reverse pressure gradients in empty teats
 may be avoided during detachment of liners if the mouthpiece
 orifice diameter is greater than the teat diameter. Detachment
 with the liner in open position reduced the risk of reverse
 pressure gradients compared with that from the closed
 position.
 
 
 315                                  NAL Call. No.: QP251.A1T5
 A review and an update of cystic ovarian degeneration in
 ruminants. Lopez-Diaz, M.C.; Bosu, W.T.K.
 Stoneham, Mass. : Butterworth-Heinemann; 1992 Jun.
 Theriogenology v. 37 (6): p. 1163-1183; 1992 Jun.  Literature
 review. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Ewes; Ovarian cysts; Pituitary;
 Hypothalamic regulation; Hormone secretion; Ovaries;
 Follicles; Gnrh; Lh; Stress; Literature reviews
 
 
 316                             NAL Call. No.: KF27.A366 1986a
 Review of status and potential impact of bovine growth hormone
 hearing before the Subcommittee on Livestock, Dairy, and
 Poultry of the Committee on Agriculture, House of
 Representatives, Ninety-ninth Congress, second session, June
 11, 1986.
 United States. Congress. House. Committee on Agriculture.
 Subcommittee on Livestock, Dairy, and Poultry
 Washington, [D.C.] : U.S. G.P.O. : For sale by the Supt. of
 Docs., Congressional Sales Office, U.S. G.P.O.,; 1987.
 iv, 302 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.  Distributed to some depository
 libraries in microfiche.  Serial no. 99-51.  Includes
 bibliographies.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Hormones in animal nutrition; Dairy cattle;
 United States; Milk production; United States
 
 
 317                              NAL Call. No.: SF239.I45 1985
 Rotary milking parlors., [Rev.].
 Bickert, W.G.; Armstrong, D.V.
 Ames, Iowa : The Service; 1985.
 Illinois-Iowa dairy handbook / University of Illinois at
 Urbana-Champaign [and] Iowa State University at Ames,
 Cooperative Extension Service. 4 p. ill; 1985.  Illinois-Iowa
 Dairy Guide (403), September, 1980.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Michigan; Dairy cows; Milking parlors; Design;
 Types; Mechanization; Milking; Operating costs; Investment
 
 
 318                                   NAL Call. No.: 19.5 P752
 Rozbor microklimatickych faktorov vo velkokapacitnom ustajneni
 dojnic v podhorskej oblasti v zimnom a letnom obdobi 
 [Analysis of microclimatic factors in large-capacity housing
 of milk cows in a submotane area at winter and summer
 seasons].
 Vavak, V.; Kotvas, R.
 Bratislava, Czechoslovakia : Slovenskej akademia vied; 1985.
 Pol'nohospodarstvo; Agriculture v. 31 (5): p. 438-447; 1985. 
 Includes 15 references.
 
 Language:  Slovak
 
 Descriptors: Microclimate; Large scale husbandry; Dairy cows;
 Winter; Summer; Cattle housing
 
 
 319                                 NAL Call. No.: SF967.M3N32
 Sand bedding in the stall operations.
 Niles, D.E.
 Arlington, Va. : The Council; 1994.
 Annual meeting /. p. 300-302; 1994.  Meeting held on January
 31-February 2, 1994, Orlando, Florida.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy herds; Dairy cows; Litter; Sand; Stalls
 
 
 320                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Season and lactation number effects on milk production and
 reproduction of dairy cattle in Arizona.
 Ray, D.E.; Halbach, T.J.; Armstrong, D.V.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1992
 Nov. Journal of dairy science v. 75 (11): p. 2976-2983; 1992
 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Dairy cows; Lactation number; Seasons;
 Heat stress; Environmental temperature; Relative humidity;
 Milk production; Calving interval; Pregnancy rate
 
 Abstract:  Records representing 19,266 Holstein cows from
 Arizona DHIA data over a 5-yr period were analyzed to
 determine the effects of season and lactation number on milk
 production and reproduction. Seasons were winter (December,
 January, and February), spring (March April and May), summer
 (June, July, and August), and fall (September, October, and
 November). Traits analyzed by least squares ANOVA were 305-d
 FCM, complete lactation milk calving interval, and services
 per conception. All sources of variation were significant
 except the interaction between lactation number and season of
 calving for complete lactation milk. Milk production was
 depressed for cows calving in summer and fall. First lactation
 cows had lowest milk production, and highest production
 occurred in either lactation 4 or 5. Cows calving in spring
 and summer had reduced reproductive performance, as measured
 by calving interval and services per conception. First
 lactation cows had lowest values for both reproductive traits.
 Previous days dry was negatively related to milk production
 for spring calving but was positively related for all other
 seasons. Cows with higher milk production had reduced
 reproductive performance. Partial regression coefficients for
 calving interval and services per conception were 12 d and .25
 services per conception per 1000 kg of 305-d FCM,
 respectively. Despite the negative effects of stress, milk
 production add fertility in this study were not depressed as
 severely as in previous research reported from Arizona.
 Calving schedules may be adjusted to minimize the adverse
 effect of heat stress.
 
 
 321                                  NAL Call. No.: QP251.A1T5
 Secretion of PGF2 alpha and oxytocin during hyperthermia in
 cyclic and pregnant heifers.
 Wolfensen, D.; Bartol, F.F.; Badinga, L.; Barros, C.M.;
 Marple, D.N.; Cummins, K.; Wolfe, D.; Lucy, M.C.; Spencer,
 T.E.; Thatcher, W.W.
 Stoneham, Mass. : Butterworth-Heinemann; 1993 May.
 Theriogenology v. 39 (5): p. 1129-1141; 1993 May.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Hormone secretion; Heat stress
 
 Abstract:  The effects of acute heat stress (HS) and oxytocin
 (OT) injection on plasma concentrations of PGF2 alpha and OT
 were examined in cyclic (C; n = 15) and pregnant (P; n = 11)
 dairy heifers. On Day 17 of synchronized estrous cycles,
 animals were randomly assigned to either thermoneutral (TN; 20
 degrees C, 20% RH) or HS (42 degrees C, 60% RH) chambers. The
 jugular vein of each heifer was cannulated and blood samples
 collected hourly for 4 h, then every 15 min for an additional
 3 h. Oxytocin (100 IU) was injected (IV) 5 h after the start
 of blood collection. Plasma samples were assayed subsequently
 for concentrations of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto PGF2 alpha (PGFM)
 and OT. During the 7-h experiment, body temperature of HS
 heifers reached 41.2 degrees C as compared to 38.5 degrees C
 in control heifers. Plasma concentrations of PGFM increased (P
 < 0.05) and peaked 30 min after OT injection in C (890 pg/ml)
 and P (540 pg/ml) heifers. In C heifers, heat stress failed to
 alter PGFM concentrations either before or after OT injection.
 In the P group, PGFM concentrations following OT injection
 tended to be higher in HS heifers than in TN heifers (peak
 values of 690 vs. 410 pg/ml). Pregnant TN and HS heifers were
 further classified as responders or non-responders to OT
 challenge according to a cutoff value for PGFM of 193 pg/ml
 (overall mean of C heifers minus 1 SD). Five of six HS and one
 of five TN pregnant heifers were classified as responders (P <
 0.06). Oxytocin concentrations in plasma prior to injection of
 exogenous OT were not affected by HS or pregnancy status. It
 is concluded that in C heifers, acute HS in vivo does not
 cause any further rise in PGF2 alpha secretion. However, in P
 heifers, HS appears to antagonize suppressive effects of the
 embryo on uterine secretion of PGF2 alpha, as indicated by the
 larger proportion of P heifers responding to OT challenge.
 
 
 322                               NAL Call. No.: aS21.A8U5/ARS
 Shelters and environmental modification.
 Hahn, G.L.
 Washington, D.C. : The Service; 1986.
 Reprints - U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural
 Research Service [470]: 13 p.; 1986.  Indexed from reprint:
 Limiting the Effects of Stress on Cattle / edited by G.P.
 Moberg, 1986. (W-135 Western Regional Research Pub. No. 9). p.
 47-59.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Performance; Environmental factors;
 Stress; Shelters; Environmental temperature; Dairy cows; Dairy
 performance
 
 
 323                                  NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Simulating cow throughput and labor efficiency in dairy
 parlors. Burks, T.F.; Turner, L.W.; Crist, W.L.; Taraba, J.L.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1987.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche
 collection) (fiche no. 87-4503): 7 p.; 1987.  Paper presented
 at the 1987 Winter Meeting of the American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers. Available for purchase from: The
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950
 Niles Road, St. Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order
 Dept. at (616) 429-0300 for information and prices.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Simulation models; Educational methods; Milking
 parlors; Labor; Efficiency; Milking interval; Milk production
 
 
 324                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Simulating individual cow milk yield for milking parlor
 simulation models. Thomas, C.V.; DeLorenzo, M.A.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1994
 May. Journal of dairy science v. 77 (5): p. 1285-1295; 1994
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Cabt; Dairy cows; Milking parlors;
 Simulation models; Computer simulation; Milk yield;
 Mathematical models
 
 Abstract:  A method of simulating individual cow milk yield
 per milking as a function of herd milk yield and month was
 formulated for milking parlor simulation models. Milk yield
 per milking was modeled for each month in three herd milk
 yield categories: 8165, 8845, and 9525 kg/yr of milk per cow.
 Actual individual cow DHIA test day milk weight data for three
 Florida dairy herds in each herd milk yield category and month
 were adjusted to the mean of their respective actual milk
 shipped per cow on test day then pooled and converted to a
 basis of three times per day milk yield per milking. After
 minor truncation, Weibull probability distributions fitted to
 these data sets adequately modeled milk yield per milking per
 cow. Analysis of simulation results for milk yield per milking
 per cow indicated no significant differences between actual
 and simulated means for any herd milk yield category or month.
 Simulations of monthly and yearly total herd milk yield for
 each herd indicated that fitted Weibull distributions also
 adequately modeled monthly and yearly herd milk yield
 characteristics and reflected seasonal herd milk yield
 patterns typical of Florida.
 
 
 325                          NAL Call. No.: TH4911.A1U6 no.156
 Slapp korna loss for battre miljo och hygien = Loose housing
 for dairy cows : for better environment and hygiene..  Loose
 housing for dairy cows Ekelund, Karl
 Lund : Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Institutionen for
 lantbrukets byggnadsteknik, Avdelningen for jordbrukets
 byggnads- och klimatteknik,; 1988. 1 v. (various pagings) :
 ill. ; 30 cm. (Specialmeddelande / Sveriges
 lantbruksuniversitet. Institutionen for lantbrukets
 byggnadsteknik, 156). Summary in English.  Bibliography: p.
 28-29.
 
 Language:  Swedish
 
 
 326                                  NAL Call. No.: SF55.A78A7
 Small scale dairying in three farming systems in East Java. I.
 Farmer's income and household characteristics.
 Widodo, M.W.; Jong, R. de; Udo, H.M.J.
 Suweon, Korea : Asian-Australasian Association of Animal
 Production Societies, c1988-; 1994 Mar.
 Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v. 7 (1): p.
 19-29; 1994 Mar. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Java; Cabt; Dairy farming; Zero grazing; Farmers'
 income; Farming systems; Cassava; Sugarcane; Agricultural
 byproducts; Farm area; Milk yield; Dairy cows; Horticultural
 crops
 
 
 327                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Social dominance in dairy cattle and the influences of housing
 and management. Wierenga, H.K.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1990 Sep.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 27 (3): p. 201-229; 1990
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Social dominance; Cubicles; Cattle
 husbandry; Aggressive behavior
 
 
 328                                     NAL Call. No.: 49 AN55
 Some effects of housing on the social behavior of dairy cows.
 Miller, K.; Wood-Gash, D.G.M.
 East Lothian, Scotland : Durrant; 1991 Dec.
 Animal production v. 53 (pt.3): p. 271-278; 1991 Dec. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Cow housing; Social dominance;
 Agonistic behavior; Grazing behavior; Animal welfare; Time
 allocation; Rest
 
 
 329                                     NAL Call. No.: 49 AN55
 Some factors related to the voluntary intake of silage by
 individual dairy cows housed as a group during two winter-
 feeding periods. Little, W.; Manston, R.; Wilkinson, J.I.D.;
 Tarrant, M.E. East Lothian, Scotland : Durrant; 1991 Aug.
 Animal production v. 53 (pt.1): p. 19-25; 1991 Aug.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Somatotropin; Feed intake; Grass
 silage; Concentrates; Fiber content; Starch; Protected
 protein; Milk yield; Energy requirements
 
 
 330                                      NAL Call. No.: HD1.A3
 Speculating on long-term changes in UK dairy farming and the
 implications for research: a quantitative approach.
 Doyle, C.J.; Mainland, D.D.; Thomas, C.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1991.
 Agricultural systems v. 37 (3): p. 243-258; 1991.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Uk; Dairy farming; Milk production; Mathematical
 models; Prediction; Technical progress; Resource utilization;
 Agricultural structure; Farm income; Innovation adoption;
 Somatotropin; Grass sward
 
 
 331                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Sperm in poor quality semen from bulls during heat stress have
 a lower affinity for binding hydrogen-3 heparin.
 Ax, R.L.; Gilbert, G.R.; Shook, G.E.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1987
 Jan. Journal of dairy science v. 70 (1): p. 195-200; 1987 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy bulls; Semen characters; Male fertility;
 Heat stress; Hydrogen; Heparin
 
 
 332                                  NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Sprinkling and fan evaporative cooling for dairy cattle in
 Florida. Strickland, J.T.; Bucklin, R.A.; Nordstedt, R.A.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1988.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche
 collection) (fiche no. 88-4042): 13 p. ill; 1988.  Paper
 presented at the 1988 Summer Meeting of the American Society
 of Agricultural Engineers. Available for purchase from: The
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950
 Niles Road, St. Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order
 Dept. at (616) 429-0300 for information and prices.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Cow housing; Evaporative cooling; Fans;
 Cooling systems; Milk production; Economic analysis; Heat
 stress
 
 
 333                              NAL Call. No.: SF206.R67 1991
 Stalle per vacche da latte  [Stables for dairy cows].
 Rossi, Paolo,; Betti, Sandra,
 Centro ricerche produzioni animali
 Verona : Edizioni L'Informatore Agrario,; 1991.
 ix, 91 p. : ill. ; 29 cm.  "Autori, Paolo Rossi ... Sandra
 Betti."--P. viii. Includes bibliographical references (p. 91).
 
 Language:  Italian
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Cattle
 
 
 334                           NAL Call. No.: S760.G3F67 Nr.182
 Stallsysteme fur die Milchviehhaltung im Vergleich Methode und
 Ergebnisse [Housing systems for the dairy cattle husbandry in
 comparison]. Auernhammer, Hermann
 Germany : Arbeitskreis Forschung und Lehre der Max-Eyth-
 Gesellschaft (MEG),; 1990.
 xvi, 185, [36] p. : ill. ; 21 cm. (Forschungsbericht
 Agrartechnik des Arbeitskreises Forschung und Lehre der Max-
 Eyth-Gesellschaft (MEG), 182). Includes bibliographical
 references (p. 177-184).
 
 Language:  German
 
 
 335                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Staphylococcus aureus colonization of teat skin as affected by
 postmilking teat treatment when exposed to cold and windy
 conditions. Fox, L.K.; Norell, R.J.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1994
 Aug. Journal of dairy science v. 77 (8): p. 2281-2288; 1994
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Teats; Skin; Winter; Ointments;
 Lesions; Staphylococcus aureus; Bacterial count; Healing
 
 Abstract:  Study 1 was conducted to determine whether
 postmilking teat treatment with ointment before exposure to
 cold and wind resulted in better skin health than standard
 teat treatment. Teat treatments tested were 1% I(2) and 10%
 glycerin, ointment with 1% chloroxylenol, ointment with .3% 8-
 hydroxyquinoline sulfate, and no treatment (control).Teats
 were treated 7 d prior to chapping. A broth culture of
 Staphylococcus aureus was applied once to teats after chapping
 was established. Treatments were applied after milking and
 before sample collection for 11 d following S. aureus
 application. Milk samples were collected aseptically, teat
 skin swabbing solutions were collected, and teat condition was
 scored. Cows were exposed to ambient winter conditions, and a
 wind velocity of 152.4 m/min was applied to the mammary gland
 surface for 15 min immediately postmilking. Ointment and
 control teats had significantly better skin condition than
 teats treated with I2 solution. Colonization of S. aureus was
 greatest on ointment treated teats. Study 2 was conducted to
 determine whether teat condition of cows receiving postmilking
 I(2) solution treatments would be improved if teats were
 blotted dry before exposure to wind and cold ambient
 conditions. Two mammary quarters of each cow received I(2)
 solution treatment of study 1, but teats were blotted dry
 prior to exit from the milking parlor. No treatment was
 applied to the other teats. Teat condition scores were similar
 between treatments, but S. aureus colonization was
 significantly greater on control teats. Results indicate a
 possible disadvantage to treating teats with ointments after
 milking, as evidenced by increased S. aureus colonization. The
 best postmilking teat treatment prior to exposure to cold,
 windy conditions may be blot-drying teats after disinfectant
 solution application.
 
 
 336                                  NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Structural methods for cooling dairy cows in the southeast.
 Barth, C.L.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1988.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche
 collection) (fiche no. 88-4054): 7 p.; 1988.  Paper presented
 at the 1988 Summer Meeting of the American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers. Available for purchase from: The
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950
 Niles Road, St. Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order
 Dept. at (616) 429-0300 for information and prices.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South Carolina; Cow housing; Barns; Building
 construction; Design; Heat stress; Stalls
 
 
 337                               NAL Call. No.: 275.29 N811NC
 Summer infertility--it's that time again.
 Washburn, S.P.
 Raleigh, N.C. : North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service;
 1987 May. North Carolina dairy extension newsletter. p. 3-4;
 1987 May.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Carolina; Dairy cattle; Heat; Stress;
 Conception rate; Temperature; Drinking water
 
 
 338                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Suppressing immature house and stable flies in outdoor calf
 hutches with sand, gravel, and sawdust bedding.
 Schmidtmann, E.T.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1991
 Nov. Journal of dairy science v. 74 (11): p. 3956-3960; 1991
 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Musca domestica; Stomoxys calcitrans; Calves;
 Litter; Larvae; Sawdust; Gravel; Sand; Straw
 
 Abstract:  Sand, gravel, sawdust, and pine shavings were used
 as bedding in outdoor calf hutches and compared with straw
 relative to the density of immature (maggot) house flies,
 Musca domestica, and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans. In 6-
 wk field trials, average densities of house and stable fly
 maggots in concrete mix sand ranged from only .3 to 1.6 and 0
 to .1 maggots/L, respectively; pea size gravel bedding also
 strongly suppressed densities from <.1 to .3 and <.1 to .1
 maggots/L, respectively. These densities represent reductions
 of 76 to >99% relative to straw bedding, but both sand and
 gravel compacted and became soiled with calf feces, which
 resulted in unacceptable bedding sanitation and foul odors.
 Densities of house and stable fly maggots in pine shavings did
 not differ from those in straw bedding. Nevertheless, in
 sawdust bedding, maggot density was limited to averages of 1.4
 to 8.3 house and 9.8 to 11.8 stable fly maggots/ L; this
 represented reductions of 45 to 91% relative to straw. In a
 follow-up trial, house and stable fly maggot densities in
 sawdust averaged 11.3 and 43.9 maggots/L, respectively,
 reductions of 77 and 46%. These findings suggest that bedding
 calf hutches with sawdust during warm weather can be useful as
 an ecologically sound approach to controlling muscoid fly
 populations on dairy farms.
 
 
 339                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Survey of calf and heifer housing of Pennsylvania dairy farms.
 Heinrichs, A.J.; Graves, R.E.; Kiernan, N.E.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1987
 Sep. Journal of dairy science v. 70 (9): p. 1952-1957; 1987
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pennsylvania; Calves; Heifers; Calf housing; Cow
 housing; Dairy farming; Surveys
 
 
 340                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Survival of coliform bacteria in static compost piles of dairy
 waste solids intended for freestall bedding.
 Mote, C.R.; Emerton, B.L.; Allison, J.S.; Dowlen, H.H.;
 Oliver, S.P. Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science
 Association; 1988 Jun. Journal of dairy science v. 71 (6): p.
 1676-1681; 1988 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Farm dairies; Cattle manure; Solid waste;
 Composts; Coliform bacteria; Coliform count; Litter; Loose
 housing
 
 
 341                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Symposium: Dairy Animal Welfare. Introduction.
 Blosser, T.H.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1987
 Dec. Journal of dairy science v. 70 (12): p. 2705-2707; 1987
 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Animal welfare; Conferences
 
 
 342                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3
 Tarsal lameness of dairy bulls housed at two artificial
 insemination centers: 24 cases (1975-1987).
 Bargai, U.; Cohen, R.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1992 Oct01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 201
 (7): p. 1068-1069; 1992 Oct01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Israel; Cabt; Dairy bulls; Tarsus; Lameness; Ai
 bulls; Disease prevalence; Floors; Semen; Collection; Age
 
 
 343                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Thermal, productive, and reproductive responses of high
 yielding cows exposed to short-term cooling in summer.
 Her, E.; Wolfenson, D.; Flamenbaum, I.; Folman, Y.; Kaim, M.;
 Berman, A. Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science
 Association; 1988 Apr. Journal of dairy science v. 71 (4): p.
 1085-1092; 1988 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Summer; Milk production; Reproductive
 performance; Body temperature; Cooling; Cow housing;
 Ventilation; Heat stress
 
 
 344                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.B6
 Thermoregulation and physiological responses of dairy cattle
 in hot weather. Shearer, J.K.; Beede, D.K.
 Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Publishing
 Company; 1990 Jul. Agri-Practice v. 11 (4): p. 5-8, 13, 16-17;
 1990 Jul.  Literature review. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Heat stress; Body temperature
 regulation; Physiological functions; Body heat loss;
 Evaporative cooling
 
 
 345                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Time and motion to measure milking parlor performance.
 Armstrong, D.V.; Quick, A.J.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1986
 Apr. Journal of dairy science v. 69 (4): p. 1169-1177; 1986
 Apr.  Includes 35 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Milking parlors; Dairy performance;
 Milking machines; Milk production; Time and motion studies
 
 
 346                                    NAL Call. No.: S671.A66
 Transient hazardous conditions in animal buildings due to
 manure gas released during slurry mixing.
 Patni, N.K.; Clarke, S.P.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1991 Jul. Applied engineering in agriculture v. 7
 (4): p. 478-484; 1991 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal housing; Slurries; Mixing; Health hazards;
 Safety; Hydrogen sulfide; Ammonia; Carbon dioxide; Methane;
 Measurement; Monitoring
 
 Abstract:  Concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia
 (NH3), carbon dioxide CO2), and methane (CH4) were monitored
 during mixing of slurry in subfloor manure storage pits in
 dairy-cattle, swine, and caged-layer barns. Transient short-
 term high concentrations of H2S indicated the potential for
 hazardous conditions inside barns during slurry mixing.
 Because of this, time-weighted average concentrations of H2S
 are of little value in terms of gas hazard indication. The
 degree of manure slurry turbulence and its splashing in pit
 free space may be the dominant factor in the control of rapid
 release of H2S and its high concentration compared to other
 factors such as animal diet and species, ventilation
 conditions, etc. For operator and animal safety, it is highly
 desirable to use a submerged recirculation pipe for mixing
 slurry in subfloor pits in animal buildings and to prevent
 free-falling or splashing of manure, or blowing of air into
 manure. Remote warning devices to indicate failure of pit
 exhaust fans would also be very useful for taking rapid
 remedial action against high H2S concentration inside the
 barn, such as shutting off manure pump(s).
 
 
 347                                  NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Transmission of neutral/earth current in dairy barns.
 Ludington, D.C.; Pellerin, R.A.; Aneshansley, D.J.; Gorewit,
 R.C. St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1987.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche
 collection) (fiche no. 87-3032): 20 p. ill; 1987.  Paper
 presented at the 1987 Summer Meeting of the American Society
 of Agricultural Engineers. Available for purchase from: The
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950
 Niles Road, St. Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order
 Dept. at (616) 429-0300 for information and prices.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cow housing; Electric current; Flow; Energy;
 Losses
 
 
 348                                  NAL Call. No.: SF196.R6T7
 Tratat de crestere a bovinelor  [Treatise on raising dairy
 cows]. Georgescu, Gheorghe
 Bucuresti : Editura Ceres,; 1989.
 322 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.  Added tables of contents in English,
 German and Russian.  Includes bibliographical references.
 
 Language:  Romanian
 
 Descriptors: Dairy farming; Romania; Dairy cattle; Romania;
 Dairy cattle; Housing; Romania
 
 
 349                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Trends in herd age structure and the relationships with
 management characteristics in Wisconsin Holstein herds.
 Sattler, C.G.; Dentine, M.R.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1989
 Apr. Journal of dairy science v. 72 (4): p. 1027-1034; 1989
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Wisconsin; Dairy cows; Dairy herds; Age
 structure; Culling; Cattle husbandry; Trends
 
 
 350                              NAL Call. No.: SF239.I45 1985
 The trigon milking parlor., [Rev.].
 Armstrong, D.V.
 Ames, Iowa : The Service; 1985.
 Illinois-Iowa dairy handbook / University of Illinois at
 Urbana-Champaign [and] Iowa State University at Ames,
 Cooperative Extension Service. 5 p. ill; 1985.  Illinois-Iowa
 Dairy Guide (400), September, 1980.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Dairy cows; Milking; Milking parlors;
 Stalls; Mechanization; Operating costs
 
 
 351                                  NAL Call. No.: TK4018.R86
 Understanding and dealing with stray voltage in livestock
 facilities. Gustafson, R.J.
 New York, N.Y. : Institute of Electrical and Electronics
 Engineers; 1985. Papers presented at the ... annual conference
 - Rural Electric Power Conference (29th): p. C2/1-C2/19. ill;
 1985.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock housing; Electricity; Losses; Shock;
 Dairy cows; Disorders; Prevention
 
 
 352                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V643
 Update on dairy cow housing with particular reference to
 flooring. Barnes, M.M.
 London : Bailliere Tindall; 1989 Sep.
 British veterinary journal v. 145 (5): p. 436-445. ill; 1989
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Cattle housing; Floors; Concrete;
 Design; Cattle manure; Animal feeding
 
 
 353                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Upper critical temperatures and forced ventilation effects for
 high-yielding dairy cows in a subtropical climate.
 Berman, A.; Folman, Y.; Kaim, M.; Mamen, M.; Herz, Z.;
 Wolfenson, D.; Arieli, A.; Graber, Y.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1985
 Jun. Journal of dairy science v. 68 (6): p. 1488-1495; 1985
 Jun.  Includes 33 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Israel; Subtropics; Dairy cows; Heat stress; Body
 temperature; Artificial ventilation; Air temperature
 
 
 354                                     NAL Call. No.: 80 Ac82
 Use of herbal medicines in modern dairy farming--a breeding
 efficiency programme.
 Wheeler, G.E.; Wait, C.
 Wageningen : International Society for Horticultural Science;
 1993 Nov. Acta horticulturae (333): p. 299-308; 1993 Nov. 
 Paper presented at the First World Congress on "Medicinal and
 Aromatic Plants for Human Welfare (WOCMAP): Quality,
 Phytochemistry, Industrial Aspects, Economical Aspects," July
 19-25, 1992, Maastricht, Netherlands.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Medicinal plants; Dairy cows; Milk production;
 Improvement; Plant products; Treatment; Reproductive
 physiology; Reproductive disorders
 
 
 355                         NAL Call. No.: SF768.2.C3U83  1993
 Utero-ovarian-conceptus response to heat stress in the dairy
 cow and its involvement in low summer fertility.
 Wolfenson, D.
 United States-Israel Binational Agricultural Research and
 Development Fund Bet Dagan, Israel : BARD,; 1993.
 173 leaves : ill. ; 30 cm.  Final report.  Project no.
 IS-1475-88.  Includes bibliographical references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Heat
 
 
 356                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 C163
 Validation of a heart-rate monitor for measuring a stress
 response in dairy cows.
 Hopster, H.; Blokhuis, H.J.
 Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada; 1994 Sep.
 Canadian journal of animal science v. 74 (3): p. 465-474; 1994
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Stress; Heart rate; Monitoring;
 Validity
 
 
 357                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R312
 Variation in blood flow to and from the bovine mammary gland
 measured using transit time ultrasound and dye dilution.
 Metcalf, J.A.; Roberts, S.J.; Sutton, J.D.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1992 Jul.
 Research in veterinary science v. 53 (1): p. 59-63; 1992 Jul. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Mammary glands; Blood flow;
 Measurement; Ultrasound; Dilution; Posture
 
 Abstract:  Blood flow across the lactating bovine mammary
 gland was measured by two techniques. The use of transit time
 flow probes appeared to give flows which correlated well with
 dye dilution in only one of five cows, although the relative
 changes in flow were similar between the techniques in four of
 the cows. Further studies were made on the effect of posture
 on mammary blood flow using both techniques. The crossover of
 venous blood from one side of the mammary gland was also
 studied using the dye dilution technique, and revealed large
 differences between animals and also with posture. These
 observations suggest that particular care should be taken when
 sampling blood from the milk vein of cows, if a representative
 sample is required. Changes in blood flow with posture may be
 indicative of a repartitioning of flow within the body, and
 the physiology of such a mechanism would be of interest in
 itself. The control of this mechanism may be useful in
 modifying blood flow to the mammary gland and thus milk yield,
 since blood flow is related to the level of milk production.
 
 
 358                         NAL Call. No.: 18 L2353 Suppl. 124
 Verfahrens- und futterungstechnische Untersuchungen zur
 Konzeption und Entwicklung eines computergestutzten
 Herdenmanagementsystems fur Milchkuhe im Anbindestall und
 dessen okonomische Bewertung  [Process and feeding engineering
 studies on the concept and development of a computer supported
 herd management system for dairy cows in tether stalls and
 their economic assessment].
 Stumpenhausen, Jorn
 Braunschweig : Bundesforschungsanstalt fur Landwirtschaft
 Braunschweig-Volkenrode,; 1991.
 x, 182, [2] p. : ill. ; 30 cm. (Landbauforschung Volkenrode.
 Sonderheft, 124).  English summary.  Includes bibliographical
 references (p. 161-182).
 
 Language:  German
 
 
 359                                      NAL Call. No.: SF1.P7
 Vliv technologie dojeni na stani na denni rezim a chovani
 dojnic  [Effect of milking techniques "in pen" on the daily
 regimen and behavior of dairy cows]. Navratil, J.; Veris, J.;
 Jisa, J.; Jirak, J.; Vostrel, F. Praha : Vysoka Skola
 Zemedelska; 1985.
 Sbornik. Rada B: Zivocisna vyroba - Prague, Vysoka skola
 zemedelska, Fakulta agronomicka (43): p. 157-171. ill; 1985. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  Czech
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Animal behavior; Pipeline milking
 machines
 
 
 360                                    NAL Call. No.: 49.9 C33
 Vplyv pseusunu starsich krav na farmu s volnym ustajnenim na
 uzitkovost [Effect of the transfer of older cows to a farm
 with loose housing system on their efficiency].
 Brestensky, V.; Szabova, G.; Mihina, S.; Broucek, J.
 Praha : Ustav; 1986 Jan.
 Zivocisna vyroba - Ceskoslovenska akademie zemedelska, Ustav
 vedeckotechnickych informaci pro zemedelstvi v. 31 (1): p.
 15-19; 1986 Jan. Includes references.
 
 Language:  Slovak
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Cattle housing; Loose housing;
 Transfers; Milk yield; Animal fertility
 
 
 361                                    NAL Call. No.: SF191.D3
 A warm, naturally ventilated barn that works.
 Christenson, L.E.
 Minneapolis : Miller Publishing Co; 1985 Jan.
 Dairy herd management v. 22 (1): p. 58, 61-62. ill; 1985 Jan.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Cow housing; Ventilation; Winter;
 Heating
 
 
 362                                    NAL Call. No.: S671.A66
 Water application rates for a sprinkler and fan dairy cooling
 system in hot, humid climates.
 Means, S.L.; Bucklin, R.A.; Nordstedt, R.A.; Beede, D.K.;
 Bray, D.R.; Wilcox, C.J.; Sanchez, W.K.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1992 May. Applied engineering in agriculture v. 8
 (3): p. 375-379; 1992 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Heat stress; Dairy performance;
 Cooling systems; Evaporative cooling; Water use
 
 Abstract:  Three water application rates were compared for a
 sprinkler and fan dairy cooling system in an open-sided feed
 barn in a hot, humid climate. The effects of cooling were
 monitored on 36 mid-lactation, Holstein dairy cows for water
 application rates of 313.4, 492.9, and 704.1 L/h per nozzle at
 69 kPa (1.4, 2.2, and 3.1 gpm at 10 psi) per nozzle. No
 statistically significant differences were detected between
 water application rates for daily milk yield, daily 3.5% fat-
 corrected milk yield, dry matter intake, fat yield, protein
 yield, percent protein, respiration rate, and rectal
 temperature. The percentage of milk fat was significantly
 affected by water application rate. These results indicate
 that sprinkler and fan cooling systems can provide effective
 heat stress relief at the lowest water application rate
 tested, thus, reducing the amount of water consumed and the
 amount of waste water that must be handled.
 
 
 363                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Welfare implications of modern artificial breeding techniques
 for dairy cattle and sheep.
 Murray, R.; Ward, W.R.
 London : The British Veterinary Association; 1993 Sep18.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 133 (12): p. 283-286; 1993 Sep18.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Sheep; Animal welfare; Animal
 breeding methods
 
 
 364                                    NAL Call. No.: SF191.D3
 What's new for freestalls.
 Annexstad, J.
 Minnetonka, Minn. : Miller Publishing Co; 1986 Jul.
 Dairy herd management v. 23 (7): p. 24-27, 38. ill; 1986 Jul.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Dairy cows; Cow housing; Stalls; Loose
 housing
 
 
 365                                  NAL Call. No.: BJ52.5.J68
 What's wrong with animal by-products?.
 Varner, G.E.
 Guelph, Ont. : University of Guelph, 1991-; 1994.
 Journal of agricultural & environmental ethics v. 7 (1): p.
 7-17; 1994. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Cabt; Hens; Egg production; Poultry
 industry; Dairy cows; Milk production; Dairy industry;
 Productive life; Longevity; Slaughter; Animal welfare; Ethics
 
 
 366                               NAL Call. No.: 275.29 N811NC
 Why do some folks have heifers to sell?.
 Washburn, S.P.
 Raleigh, N.C. : North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service;
 1989 Aug. North Carolina dairy extension newsletter. p. 5-8;
 1989 Aug.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Carolina; Dairy farming; Herd structure;
 Heifers; Sustained yield management
 
 
 367                                    NAL Call. No.: SF191.D3
 Will your ventilation keep cows healthy?.
 Bodman, G.R.
 Minnetonka, Minn. : Miller Publishing Co; 1986 Jul.
 Dairy herd management v. 23 (7): p. 31-33. ill; 1986 Jul.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Environmental control; Cow housing;
 Ventilation; Barns; Building construction
 
 
 368                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69
 Working up the subfertile dairy herd: assessing estrus
 detection and semen handling.
 Gaines, J.D.
 Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Company; 1989
 Jun. Veterinary medicine v. 84 (6): p. 636-644. ill; 1989 Jun. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Reproductive disorders; Estrus;
 Detection; Artificial insemination; Semen; Techniques;
 Gonadotropin releasing hormone; Reproductive ability
 
 
 369                                      NAL Call. No.: 26 L53
 Zu einigen technologischen Untersuchungen an
 Milchproduktionsanlagen in der Republik Kuba  [Technological
 studies of milk production units in the Republic of Cuba].
 Lommatzsch, R.
 Leipzig, E. Ger. : Karl-Marx-Universitat; 1988.
 Beitrage zur tropischen Landwirtschaft und Veterinarmedizin v.
 26 (3): p. 245-253; 1988.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  German
 
 Descriptors: Cuba; Cow housing; Dairy cows; Design; Milk
 production; Stalls
 
 
 370                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 EX7
 Zur Anwendung einheitlicher Prufprogramme fur die komplexe
 veterinarmedizinische Kontrolle der Melktechnik. 3.
 Untersuchungen uber die Vakuumverhaltnisse im Melkbecherinnen-
 und Melkbecherzwischernraum im Melkkarussel Typ M 691-40  [Use
 of integrated test programmes for complex veterinary control
 of milking equipment. 3. Vacuum conditions in the between
 milking cups in type M 691-40 milking caroussel].
 Eichel, H.; Planert, Ch; Wolsky, J.
 Leipzig, E. Ger. : S. Hirzel; 1985 Mar.
 Archiv fur experimentelle Veterinarmedizin v. 39 (2): p.
 207-213; 1985 Mar. Includes references.
 
 Language:  German
 
 Descriptors: Milking parlors; Dairy cows; Teatcups; Vacuums;
 Pressure; Pressure gauges; Milking
 

Go to: Author Index | Subject Index | Top of Document

Author Index

 Adkinson, R.W. 161
 Adriaens, F. 44
 Agabriel, C. 43, 126
 Agarwal, S.B. 72
 Aguilar, A.A. 133
 Agyemang, K. 238
 Ahmad, Z. 155
 Aii, T. 100
 Akers, R.M. 57
 Albright, J.L. 63, 177
 Albutt, R. 87
 Ali, T. 109
 Allen, M.S. 51
 Allison, J.S. 340
 Allrich, R.D. 302
 Allrich, R.D. \u Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 148
 Althouse, J.R. 86
 Alwang, Jeffrey R. 6
 Amaral, L.R. 162
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers 73
 Amyot, E. 89
 Anderson, J.F. 192
 Anderson, J.H. 10
 Anderson, N.G. 186
 Andersson, M. 130
 Aneshansley, D.J. 59, 78, 141, 142, 261, 347
 Annexstad, J. 21, 364
 Anthony, T.Y. 62
 Araki, C.T. 90
 Arambel, M.J. 22
 Arave, C.W. 22
 Arendonk, J.A.M. van 265
 Arieli, A. 353
 Ark, H. van 104
 Arkin, H. 205, 264
 Armstrong, D.V. 1, 116, 179, 204, 208, 210, 221, 229, 262,
 263, 279, 284, 317, 320, 345, 350
 Ash, K.A. 119
 Auernhammer, Hermann 334
 Ax, R.L. 331
 Baccari, F. Jr 120
 Bachman, K.C. 120
 Bader, E. 180
 Badinga, L. 99, 321
 Baeta, F.C. 154
 Baile, C.A. 136
 Bailey, C. 133
 Baker, E.S. 36
 Bame, J.H. 134
 Bargai, U. 342
 Barkema, H.W. 42
 Barnes, M.M. 352
 Barnett, J.L. 127
 Barnouin, J. 77
 Barros, C.M. 321
 Barth, C.L. 336
 Bartlett, P.C. 252
 Bartol, F.F. 321
 Basson, R.P. 7
 Bates, D.W. 192
 Bath, Donald L. 64
 Batra, T.R. 225
 Bauman, D.E. 35, 123
 Baxter, S.H. 292
 Beall, Gary, 64
 Beauchemin, K.A. 19, 49
 Becker, B.A. 102, 136
 Beede, D.K. 16, 56, 117, 137, 138, 143, 152, 182, 197, 275,
 344, 362
 Berger, P.J. 155
 Berman, A. 91, 105, 205, 264, 343, 353
 Berning, L.M. 267
 Berry, D. 213
 Betti, Sandra, 333
 Bickert, W.G. 84, 150, 163, 208, 284, 317
 Bjotvedt, G. 153
 Bkhiet, H.A. 45
 Black, W.D. 15, 68
 Blakewood, E.G. 106
 Block, E. 96
 Blokhuis, H.J. 356
 Blokland, P.J. van 240
 Blosser, T.H. 341
 Bodman, G.R. 189, 367
 Boland, M.P. 288
 Bonaiti, B. 43, 126
 Boosinger, J. 56
 Bosu, W.T.K. 315
 Bowers, C.L. 46
 Boxberger, J. 248
 Brand, A. 42
 Brasington, C.F. 97
 Bray, D.R. 56, 152, 160, 182, 224, 286, 362
 Brestensky, V. 360
 Bringe, A.N. 276
 Brinkman, G.L. 40
 Britten, A.M. 69, 256
 Broadway, R. 3
 Broday, D. 205, 264
 Broucek, J. 156, 360
 Brumback, T.B. Jr 111
 Brunscwig, G. 126
 Brunsvold, R.E. 23
 Bryner, J.H. 124
 Brzezinska-Slebodzinska, E. 278
 Buchanan-Smith, J.G. 19
 Buck, N.L. 93
 Bucklin, R.A. 152, 182, 332, 362
 Bucklin, Ray 73
 Buckmaster, D.R. 251
 Bundesanstalt fur Alpenlandische Landwirtschaft Gumpenstein 32
 Buonomo, F.C. 117
 Burke, B.P. 309
 Burks, T.F. 280, 323
 Burton, J.H. 245
 Call, E.P. 298
 Canadian Federation of Humane Societies, Canada, Agriculture
 Canada 305
 Canart, B. 273, 312
 Carrano, J.A. 18
 Centro ricerche produzioni animali 333
 Cermak, J. 82, 83
 Chang, Ta-li 268
 Chassagne, M. 77
 Chastain, J.P. 184, 306
 Choiniere, Y. 291
 Christenson, L.E. 361
 Christiansen, W.C. 145
 Christopher, E.E. 110
 Clark, E. 13
 Clark, P.C. 4, 227
 Clarke, N.L. 90
 Clarke, S.P. 346
 Coenen, J. 259
 Cohen, R. 342
 Cole, J.A. 118
 Coleman, D.A. 125, 175, 176
 Collar, L. 218
 Collier, R.J. 16, 44, 102, 117, 136, 138, 143
 Coppock, C.E. 97
 Cornell Cooperative Extension 293
 Coulon, J.B. 43, 126
 Cowan, R.T. 169
 Cramer, C. 260
 Cramer, C.O. 23, 166, 287
 Crist, W.L. 280, 306, 323
 Crowder, Bradley M. 6
 Crowley, J. 300
 Cummins, K. 321
 Cummins, K.A. 34, 125, 311
 Cunningham, M.D. 302
 Curtis, S.E. 296
 Czarniecki, C.S. 261
 Dado, R.G. 51
 Dahl, J.C. 181
 Davison, T.M. 169, 230
 Dechamps, P. 273, 312
 Decker, E.L. 314
 DeGroff, T. 290
 DeJarnette, J.M. 134
 Deldar, A. 7
 DeLorenzo, M.A. 56, 117, 138
 Delorenzo, M.A. 160
 DeLorenzo, M.A. 286, 324
 Denise, S.K. 116
 Dentine, M.R. 349
 DePeters, Ed 64
 Diaz, T. 99
 Djoharjani, S.T. 211
 Dobson, H. 308
 Domecq, J.J. 167
 Dowlen, H.H. 340
 Doyle, C.J. 330
 Drapala, W.J. 129
 Drost, M. 16, 88, 99, 203, 232
 Du Preez, J.H. 103, 104, 200, 201, 202
 Dumelow, J. 79, 87
 Dunham, J.R. 298
 Dziuk, H.E. 192
 Ealy, A.D. 88
 Eichel, H. 370
 Eisenberg, B.E. 201, 202
 Ekelund, Karl 325
 Elder, H.F. 184
 Elvinger, F. 235, 266
 Elvinger, F.C. 56, 224
 Ely, L.O. 299
 Emerton, B.L. 340
 Erb, H.N. 123
 Esmail, S.H.M. 237
 Ewer, T.K. 12
 Ezra, E. 132
 Fagiri, I. 45
 Fales, W.H. 110
 Faye, B. 77
 Fernandez-van Cleve, J. 50
 Fisher, L. 7
 Flamenbaum, I. 91, 343
 Floyd, J. 175
 Folman, Y. 343, 353
 Fox, G. 9, 40
 Fox, L.K. 335
 Fox, M.W. 67
 Freeman, A.E. 95
 French, D.D. 62
 Friend, T.H. 46
 Frimer, E.S. 228, 314
 Fuhrmann, H. 188
 Funk, D.A. 309
 Fuquay, J.W. 129, 157, 158
 Furukawa, R. 243
 Gaines, J.D. 368
 Gallo, G.F. 96
 Galton, D.M. 123, 131, 228
 Gamroth, M.J. 85, 187
 Garssen, G.J. 139
 Gates, R.S. 280, 306
 Gay, C. 290
 Gebremedhin, K.G. 287
 Genest, M. 77
 Genner, D. 19
 Georgescu, Gheorghe 348
 Gielen, M. 273
 Giese, W.W. 188
 Giesecke, W.H. 103, 114, 200, 201, 202
 Gilad, E. 105
 Gilbert, G.R. 331
 Giller, P.S. 168
 Goddard, M.E. 17
 Godke, R.A. 106, 288
 Goldberg, J.J. 226
 Good, A.L. 192
 Gorewit, R.C. 59, 78, 141, 142, 261, 347
 Gough, R.H. 161
 Graber, Y. 105, 353
 Grainger, C. 113
 Grant, R.J. 112
 Graves, R.E. 75, 149, 339
 Grimes, L.W. 246
 Grissom, K.K. 46
 Grover, W. 290
 Gruppe Tierische Veredlungswirtschaft 259
 Guard, C.L. 42
 Gustafson, R.J. 351
 Guthrie, L.D. 299
 Gwazdauskas, F.C. 111
 Hackett, A.J. 225, 313
 Hahn, G.L. 322
 Halbach, T.J. 320
 Hansen, C. 127
 Hansen, L.B. 194
 Hansen, P.J. 88, 118, 122, 235, 266
 Hard, D.L. 44
 Harmon, R.J. 282
 Harper, J. 178
 Harris, B.L. 95
 Hartman, D.A. 2
 Hartnell, G.F. 44, 133
 Harvey, T.J. 276
 Hassall, S.A. 128
 Hatae, K. 231
 Hattingh, P.J. 200, 201, 202
 Head, H.H. 120
 Healey, M.H. 155
 Heider, L.E. 252
 Heinrichs, A.J. 75, 301, 339
 Hemken, R.W. 306
 Hemsworth, P.H. 127
 Hendrikson, S.R. 276
 Her, E. 343
 Herdt, T.H. 150
 Hermanson, R.E. 183, 242
 Herz, Z. 353
 Hill, F.W.G. 294
 Hintz, R.L. 44
 Hodgson-Jones, L.S. 196
 Hoffman, P. 300
 Hoges, J. 259
 Holmes, B.J. 166, 181, 212
 Hopster, H. 101, 239, 356
 House, H.K. 186
 Howard, D.B. 226
 Howard, T. 300
 Huber, J.T. 179, 210
 Hunter, R. 179, 210
 Huntington, G.B. 117, 138
 Hurnik, J.F. 24, 89
 Hutjens, M.F. 174
 Ibrahim, M.N.M. 211
 Igono, M.O. 153, 281
 Illmann, G. 257
 Imtiaz Hussain, S.M. 158
 Indonesia, Departemen Pertanian, Kantor Wilayah Daerah Khusus
 Ibukota
 Jakarta 255
 Ingawa, K.H. 161
 Ingraham, R.H. 62
 Institut fur Rinderproduktion Iden-Rohrbeck (Akademie der
 Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR) 144
 Istasse, L. 273, 312
 Ivancsics, J. 180
 Jarrett, J.A. 151
 Jassim, A.H. 229
 Jenkins, O.C. 46
 Jenny, B.F. 246
 Jirak, J. 359
 Jisa, J. 359
 Johnson, A.P. 214
 Johnson, H.D. 102, 136, 154, 281
 Johnson, J.C. Jr 119
 Jonasen, B. 25
 Jones, B. 8
 Jones, D. 249
 Jones, G. 307
 Jones, T. 218
 Jong, R. de 326
 Jonker, L.J. 139
 Jordan, D.C. 133
 Jorgensen, N. 300
 Kabuga, J.D. 233, 238
 Kahl, S. 57
 Kahn, H.E. 115
 Kaim, M. 343, 353
 Kains, F.A. 270
 Kaiser, H.M. 170, 277
 Kalter, R.J. \u Cornell University 217
 Kam, L.W.G. 90
 Kammel, D.W. 8, 166
 Kampkens, K. 248
 Kappel, L.C. 62
 Kehrli, M. 124
 Kelly, J.M. 196
 Kelly, M. 171
 Kenealy, M.D. 174
 Kerchove, G. de 44
 Kiernan, N.E. 75, 339
 Kilmer, L.H. 174
 Kimbrell, A. 61
 Kimmel, E. 205, 264
 King, V.L. 116
 Kingdon, L.B. 54
 Kleiber, Hans, 144
 Klingborg, D.J. 206
 Klopfenstein, T.J. 112
 Knott, F.N. 55
 Knutson, R.J. 302
 Koenig, B.E. 10
 Koenig, H.E. 10
 Kondo, S. 24
 Konggaard, S.P. 29
 Kopel, E. 288
 Kotvas, R. 318
 Kovacs, K.G. 180
 Kovalcuj, K. 156
 Krause, G.F. 110, 281
 Kristensen, E.S. 66
 Krohn, C.C. 25, 26, 29
 Kronfeld, D.S. 195
 Kume, S. 100, 109
 Kunkel, J.R. 226
 Kurihara, M. 100, 109
 Lamb, R.C. 22
 Lance, S.E. 252
 Lane, G.T. 190
 Lang, S. 297
 Lanham, J.K. 97
 Lanyon, L.E. 219
 Larsen, H.J. 23, 287
 Larssen, R.B. 241
 Lautenbach, K. 28
 Lay, D.C. Jr 46
 Leaver, J.D. 65
 LeDane, R.A. 267
 Lee, C.N. 33
 Lefcourt, A.M. 57
 Lefebvre, D.M. 96
 Lehenbauer, T. 218
 Lemerle, C. 17
 Lescourret, F. 77
 Letkovivova, M. 156
 Li, R. 102, 136
 Lin, C.Y. 313
 Lin, J.C. 125
 Linvill, D.E. 198
 Lisle, A.T. 230
 Little, W. 329
 Lommatzsch, R. 369
 Lopez-Diaz, M.C. 315
 Lotan, E. 132
 Lovendahl, P. 135
 Lucy, M.C. 321
 Ludington, D.C. 78, 347
 Luescher, U.A. 41
 Lynn, J.W. 106
 Madsen, F.C. 278
 Madsen, K.S. 44, 133
 Mahoney, C.B. 194
 Mainland, D.D. 330
 Mamen, M. 353
 Manalu, W. 136
 Manston, R. 329
 Maree, C. 103
 Marple, D.N. 321
 Martin, R.O. 164
 Marty, G. 43
 Marx, G.D. 194
 McAllister, A.J. 313
 McBride, B.W. 245
 McClure, A.M. 110
 McEwen, S.A. 15, 68
 McFarland, D.F. 187
 McFate, K.L. 146
 McGilliard, M.L. 134, 167
 McGuffey, R.K. 7
 McGuire, M.A. 117, 138
 McGuirk, S. 290
 McKeown D.B. 41
 McQuitty, J.B. 4, 227
 Meador, N.F. 154
 Meaney, W.J. 168
 Means, S.L. 362
 Mechor, G. 290
 Meek, A.H. 15, 68
 Meidan, R. 105
 Merilan, C.P. 247
 Metcalf, J.A. 357
 Metz, J.H.M. 101
 Michanek, P. 60, 220
 Mickan, F.J. 107
 Mihina, S. 360
 Milam, K.Z. 97
 Miller, G.Y. 252
 Miller, J.K. 278
 Miller, K. 328
 Miller, R.H. 267
 Mills, C.R. 234
 Milne, R.J. 165
 Miramonti, J. 110
 Molnar, J.J. 34
 Monty, D.E. Jr 223, 304
 Moore, A.B. 157
 Moore, J.A. 36, 85
 Moore, R.B. 129
 Moran, J.B. 249
 Morgan, E.B. 62
 Morrill, J.L 298
 Morrison, S.R. 254
 Moschini, G. 9
 Moss, B.R. 125, 175, 176, 250
 Moss, C. 31
 Mote, C.R. 340
 Muller, C. 126
 Muller, L.D. 251
 Mullinix, B.G. 119, 121
 Munksgaard, L. 25, 26, 135
 Munksgaard, Lene 244
 Munroe, J.A. 291
 Munyakazi, L. 106
 Murphy, B.M. 226
 Murray, R. 363
 Murray, R.D. 28, 128
 Naas, I.A. 162
 Nakamura, R.M. 90
 Nanda, A.S. 308
 Natzke, R.P. 235, 266
 Navratil, J. 359
 Nebel, R.L. 167
 Neitzel, E.S. 188
 Nickerson, S.C. 11
 Nicks, B. 273, 312
 Niles, D.E. 319
 Nocek, James E. 209
 Nordstedt, R.A. 332, 362
 Norell, R.J. 335
 Nostrand, S.D. 123
 Nowak, P.F. 34
 Nyamusika, N. 31
 O'Connell, J.M. 168
 Oldenbroek, J.K. 139
 Oleskie, E.T. 272
 Oliver, S.P. 340
 Olson, J.D. 133
 Olson, K.E. 94
 Olson, K.L. 190
 Oltenacu, P.A. 170
 Orr, W.N. 169, 230
 Ostergaard, V. 66
 Owens, M. 289
 Oxley, J. 9
 Paape, M.J. 267
 Pankey, J.W. 226
 Pardue, F.E. 198, 246
 Parker, W.J. 251
 Pasquino, A.T. 167
 Patni, N.K. 346
 Patterson, D.L. 246
 Pearson, R.E. 111
 Pellerin, R.A. 78, 347
 Perera, K.S. 111
 Petersson, L.G. 131, 228
 Phillips, C.J.C. 98
 Planert, Ch 370
 Poole, D.A. 5
 Price, L.R. 59, 141, 142, 261
 Purcell, D. 22
 Putney, D.J. 232
 Putney, J. 16
 Quick, A.J. 345
 Quille, T.J. 227
 Racowsky, C. 223
 Rae, O. 31
 Randel, P.F. 48, 50
 Rasmussen, M.D. 131, 228, 314
 Rawson, R.E. 192
 Ray, D.E. 229, 320
 Reed, P.A. 56, 224
 Reese, N.D. 86
 Ren, J. 93
 Reneau, J.K. 194
 Reynolds, C.K. 117, 138
 Richard, J.I. 108
 Richardson, C.W. 38
 Riddell, D.O. 190
 Riechers, R. 172
 Riemann, H.P. 241
 Roberts, B. 40
 Roberts, S.J. 357
 Rock, D.W. 246
 Rode, L.M. 49
 Rodenburg, J. 186
 Rodriguez, R.E. 179
 Rogers, G.W. 310
 Rossi, Paolo, 333
 Ruth, G.R. 192
 Ryan, D.P. 106, 288
 Saacke, R.G. 134
 Saama, P.M. 10
 Sallmann, H.P. 188
 Samuels, W.A. 44
 Sanchez, W.K. 362
 Sandifer, T.G. 121
 Sanford-Crane, H.T. 153
 Sato, S. 231
 Sato, Y. 243
 Sattler, C.G. 349
 Sauber, C.M. 53
 Schmidtmann, E.T. 338
 Schneider, P.L. 137, 275
 Schofield, S.A. 98
 Schuh, J.D. 229
 Schukken, Y.H. 42, 294
 Schulze, E. 188
 Schupp, A. 172
 Seabrook, M.F. 295, 303
 Segerlind, L.J. 285
 Serfass, R.C. 192
 Seykora, T. 216
 Shain, D.H. 112
 Shanklin, M.D. 154, 281
 Sharma, K.N.S. 72
 Sharples, T. 79
 Shaver, R. 300
 Shearer, J.K. 56, 152, 197, 224, 290, 344
 Shibata, M. 100
 Shishido, H. 243
 Shook, G.E. 331
 Shultz, T.A. 39, 254
 Silver, B.A. 230
 Simensen, E. 241
 Simpson, J.R. 240
 Sindt, M.H. 112
 Singh, S.S. 28
 Sinnett-Smith, P.A. 30
 Slee, J. 30
 Smith, A.E. 157
 Smith, E.J. 196
 Smith, J.F. 247
 Smith, R.C. III 125
 Smith, T.R. 170
 Sniffen, C.J. 191
 Sommer, M. 76
 Sorbet, R.H. 44
 Sorensen, J.T. 66
 Spahr, S.L. 93, 271
 Spanghero, M. 234
 Spencer, S.B. 310
 Spencer, T.E. 321
 Spencer-Johnson, K.J. 136
 Spinka, M. 257
 Spreen, T.H. 31
 Steevens, B.J. 281
 Stermer, R.A. 97
 Stetson, L.E. 189
 Stock, R.A. 112
 Strickland, J.T. 182, 332
 Stull, Carolyn 64
 Stumpenhausen, Jorn 358
 Sturman, H. 132
 Suliman, H.B. 45
 Sumner, J. 81
 Surbrook, T.C. 86
 Susmel, P. 234
 Sutton, J.D. 357
 Sydenstricker, K. 162
 Szabova, G. 360
 Tacreiter, H. 185
 Takahashi, S. 109
 Taraba, J.L. 280, 323
 Tarrant, M.E. 329
 Tarumizu, K. 231
 Tauer, L.W. 277
 Taylor, V.N. 119
 Teigen, L.D. 58
 Terblanche, S.J. 103
 Thatcher, W.W. 16, 99, 143, 203, 232, 321
 Thomas, C. 330
 Thomas, C.V. 160, 286, 324
 Thomas, G.W. 107
 Thompson, P.B. 159
 Thysen, I. 66
 Tilbrook, A.J. 127
 Timmons, M.B. 215
 Tonkinson, L.V. 7
 Torabi, M. 116
 Tsutsui, Y. 243
 Turner, L.W. 184, 280, 306, 323
 Udo, H.M.J. 326
 United States, Dept. of Agriculture, Natural Resource
 Economics Division 6
 United States, Dept. of Agriculture, Washington State
 University 20
 
 United States-Israel Binational Agricultural Research and
 Development
 Fund 355
 United States. Congress. House. Committee on Agriculture.
 Subcommittee on
 Livestock, Dairy, and Poultry 140, 316
 University of Wisconsin-Extension, Agriculture-Agribusiness
 Program, University
 of Wisconsin, Dept. of Agricultural Jounalism 222
 Van Der Maaten, M.J. 124
 Varner, G.E. 365
 Vavak, V. 318
 Ventorp, M. 60, 220
 Veris, J. 359
 Visser, R.Q. 47
 Vogler, C.J. 134
 Vostrel, F. 359
 Wait, C. 354
 Wallah, M.W. 80
 Walters, J.L. 22
 Ward, W.R. 28, 128, 308, 363
 Warner, R.C. 184
 Washburn, S.P. 52, 337, 366
 Watson, G.A.L. 74
 Webster, J. 193
 Weeks, S.A. 164
 Welding, M.C. 103
 Weller, J.I. 132
 Wells, G.D. 145
 Wesley, I.V. 124
 West, J.W. 119, 121, 253
 Weyden, G.C. van der 42
 Wheeler, G.E. 354
 Whitaker, D.A. 196
 White, T.C. 44
 Whitlow, L.W. 199
 Whittaker, W.G. 70
 Widodo, M.W. 326
 Wiebold, J.L. 147
 Wierderman, Gustav 274
 Wierenga, H. K. 27
 Wierenga, H.K. 101, 327
 Wiersma, F. 116, 179, 210, 221, 229
 Wilcox, C.J. 16, 117, 120, 137, 138, 143, 275, 362
 Wildman, E.E. 226
 Wilkinson, J.I.D. 139, 329
 Willeberg, P. 236
 Willemse, J.J.C. 104
 Wilson, M. 216
 Wise, M.E. 1, 179, 210
 Wolfe, D. 321
 Wolfensen, D. 321
 Wolfenson, D. 91, 99, 105, 343, 353, 355
 Wolff, W.A. 110
 Wolke, H. 259
 Wollenzien, A.C. 181
 Wolsky, J. 370
 Wood-Gash, D.G.M. 328
 Woolliams, J.A. 30
 Wright, F.A. 272
 Wu, Tao-chung 269
 Yamagishi, N. 243
 Younas, M. 157, 158
 Young, C. Edwin 6
 Young, C.W. 194
 Zaugg, N.L. 207
 Zelin, S. 19
 Zhao, X. 245
 Zoa-Mboe, A. 120
 


Go to: Author Index | Subject Index | Top of Document


Subject Index

 4-h clubs 2
 Abortion 142
 Abuse 14
 Acclimatization 108
 Acid base equilibrium 137, 275
 Acrosome 247
 Adrenal cortex hormones 267
 Age 129, 342
 Age at first calving 42, 155, 175, 301
 Age differences 155, 282, 312
 Age structure 349
 Aggressive behavior 327
 Agonistic behavior 24, 328
 Agricultural byproducts 326
 Agricultural land 251
 Agricultural policy 217, 277
 Agricultural regions 31
 Agricultural structure 240, 330
 Agricultural wastes 6
 Ai bulls 342
 Air conditioning 55
 Air quality 4, 150
 Air temperature 103, 200, 233, 353
 Alabama 175, 250
 Alberta 4, 227
 Alfalfa 251
 Alfalfa hay 49
 Altruism 231
 American brown swiss 48
 Ammonia 4, 346
 Analogs 288
 Animal anatomy 11, 310
 Animal behavior 22, 23, 25, 26, 28, 29, 57, 59, 60, 63, 86,
 101, 127, 191, 273, 287, 312, 359
 Animal breeding 12, 72, 302
 Animal breeding methods 363
 Animal feeding 12, 37, 65, 66, 72, 82, 174, 178, 241, 352
 Animal fertility 180, 360
 Animal health 37, 38, 92, 114, 123, 133, 139, 178, 192, 193,
 194, 195, 196, 245, 302
 Animal housing 72, 111, 166, 241, 291, 346
 Animal husbandry 12, 14, 92
 Animal nutrition 195, 302
 Animal research 66
 Animal welfare 7, 13, 14, 29, 44, 46, 47, 59, 61, 63, 65, 67,
 92, 94, 128, 142, 159, 173, 185, 186, 187, 193, 213, 236, 245,
 295, 296, 328, 341, 363, 365
 Antibiotic residues 15, 68
 Antioxidants 278
 Appetite 254
 Arid climate 153, 229
 Arid zones 221
 Arizona 53, 54, 116, 153, 204, 207, 208, 229, 320, 350
 Artificial insemination 232, 288, 368
 Artificial vagina 247
 Artificial ventilation 157, 353
 Assessment 17
 Automatic control 314
 Automation 18, 19
 Bacterial count 131, 161, 335
 Bacterial spores 131
 Bangladesh 80
 Barns 4, 80, 84, 163, 164, 165, 212, 270, 292, 312, 336, 367
 Barriers 82
 Beef bulls 42, 82
 Beef cattle 31, 146, 171, 172
 Beef cows 231
 Beef industry 144
 Behavior patterns 98
 Behavior problems 41
 Behavioral resistance 46
 Bibliographies 213
 Biochemical pathways 278
 Biotechnology 34
 Birth weight 91
 Blood 266
 Blood chemistry 102, 121, 139, 156
 Blood composition 136
 Blood flow 138, 203, 357
 Blood picture 139
 Blood plasma 46, 117, 135, 138, 139, 267, 278, 290, 308
 Blood serum 59, 157, 290
 Body composition 132
 Body condition 112, 119, 133, 246
 Body heat loss 344
 Body measurements 194, 220
 Body temperature 88, 90, 97, 117, 119, 136, 157, 158, 233,
 235, 275, 281, 343, 353
 Body temperature regulation 344
 Body weight 49, 119, 133, 139, 142, 175, 245, 246
 Bovine mastitis 44, 56, 110, 142, 151, 160, 161, 193, 218,
 224, 226, 236, 246, 252, 256, 282
 Bovine respiratory syncytial virus 31
 Bowl drinkers 130
 Branding 46, 67, 173
 Breed differences 228, 311
 Breeding 175, 268, 269, 299
 Breeding programs 300
 Brood care 146
 Brown swiss 50
 Buffaloes 72, 155
 Building construction 74, 336, 367
 Bulk milk 218, 226
 Cabt 31, 40, 44, 44, 47, 58, 104, 126, 169, 184, 204, 211,
 218, 324, 326, 342, 365
 Caesarean section 42
 Calcium 100, 282
 Calcrete 47
 Calf diarrhea rotavirus 290
 Calf diseases 2, 298, 300
 Calf feeding 2, 176, 300
 Calf housing 2, 37, 38, 71, 150, 176, 192, 285, 298, 300, 339
 Calf production 31, 294, 300
 California 39, 218, 254
 Calves 2, 22, 23, 30, 37, 60, 75, 91, 112, 174, 176, 178, 212,
 220, 257, 290, 294, 297, 298, 300, 301, 338, 339
 Calving 107, 302
 Calving interval 42, 127, 229, 320
 Canada 40, 68
 Carbohydrate metabolism 188
 Carbon dioxide 4, 106, 346
 Carcass yield 265
 Case studies 183
 Cassava 326
 Catheters 96
 Cattle 32, 144, 144, 333
 Cattle breeds 42, 48, 232
 Cattle diseases 142, 195
 Cattle feeding 77, 126, 175, 301
 Cattle housing 8, 14, 22, 23, 28, 65, 79, 83, 86, 149, 170,
 171, 205, 213, 248, 287, 292, 307, 318, 352, 360
 Cattle husbandry 13, 37, 65, 66, 69, 84, 176, 193, 199, 211,
 213, 295, 300, 302, 327, 349
 Cattle manure 36, 183, 227, 242, 340, 352
 Cattle trade 140
 Cattle weighers 93
 Cell counting 235
 Chilling 97
 Cleaning 161
 Climate 116
 Climate control 292
 Climatic factors 229
 Climatic zones 204
 Coat 116, 122
 Cold stress 30, 102, 156
 Coliform bacteria 110, 252, 340
 Coliform count 252, 340
 Collection 247, 342
 Color 116, 122
 Colostrum 220
 Compaction 49
 Comparisons 240
 Competition, Unfair 140
 Complete feeds 48
 Composts 340
 Computer hardware 51
 Computer simulation 162, 198, 280, 324
 Computer software 10, 51, 162, 198
 Computer techniques 93, 314
 Concentrates 12, 126, 329
 Conception 107, 115
 Conception rate 52, 62, 103, 104, 167, 304, 337
 Concrete 87, 352
 Conferences 63, 296, 341
 Conformation 309
 Congresses 144, 144, 144, 144
 Construction 212
 Consumer attitudes 94
 Control methods 68
 Controlled release 245, 246
 Cooling 1, 39, 56, 90, 146, 179, 182, 207, 221, 224, 343
 Cooling systems 53, 125, 152, 306, 332, 362
 Corpus luteum 148
 Correlation 233
 Correlation analysis 57, 156
 Corticotropin 135
 Cortisol 96, 127, 179, 210, 308
 Cost benefit analysis 172, 181
 Costs 8, 66, 194, 265
 Covers 47
 Cow colostrum 174, 176, 290, 300
 Cow housing 3, 4, 5, 21, 29, 39, 41, 66, 71, 74, 76, 80, 81,
 85, 89, 98, 151, 162, 175, 182, 189, 191, 211, 212, 214, 218,
 225, 227, 270, 273, 276, 297, 301, 302, 309, 313, 328, 332,
 336, 339, 343, 347, 361, 364, 367, 369
 Cows 72
 Crossbreds 113
 Crude protein 112
 Cryopreservation 134
 Cuba 369
 Cubicles 28, 47, 69, 81, 98, 101, 149, 168, 171, 186, 187,
 193, 327
 
 Culling 139, 155, 349
 Dairy breeds 17, 228
 Dairy bulls 134, 180, 216, 247, 300, 312, 331, 342
 Dairy cattle 6, 6, 8, 13, 17, 20, 20, 22, 23, 36, 37, 38, 40,
 45, 63, 64, 65, 71, 73, 74, 75, 78, 83, 104, 106, 149, 150,
 152, 163, 164, 165, 166, 169, 171, 172, 176, 177, 185, 192,
 193, 195, 197, 209, 209, 212, 213, 215, 221, 222, 234, 237,
 241, 255, 259, 268, 268, 268, 269, 269, 269, 269, 272, 287,
 290, 291, 292, 293, 296, 297, 299, 300, 303, 305, 305, 307,
 316, 333, 337, 341, 344, 348, 348, 355, 363, 368
 Dairy cooperatives 70
 Dairy cows 1, 5, 7, 11, 12, 16, 18, 19, 21, 24, 25, 26, 28,
 29, 33, 35, 41, 42, 43, 44, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 54,
 55, 56, 57, 59, 60, 61, 62, 66, 67, 69, 77, 79, 80, 81, 82,
 85, 86, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100,
 101, 102, 103, 105, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114,
 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126,
 127, 128, 129, 130, 132, 133, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 141,
 142, 143, 147, 148, 151, 153, 154, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160,
 161, 167, 168, 170, 173, 175, 178, 179, 180, 181, 183, 184,
 187, 188, 190, 191, 194, 196, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203,
 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 210, 211, 217, 218, 219, 220, 223,
 224, 225, 226, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 235, 236, 238,
 240, 243, 245, 246, 248, 249, 251, 252, 253, 254, 256, 257,
 261, 262, 263, 265, 266, 267, 273, 275, 276, 277, 278, 280,
 281, 282, 283, 284, 286, 288, 289, 295, 298, 301, 302, 304,
 306, 308, 309, 310, 311, 313, 314, 315, 317, 318, 319, 320,
 321, 322, 324, 326, 327, 328, 329, 335, 343, 345, 349, 350,
 351, 352, 353, 354, 356, 357, 359, 360, 361, 362, 364, 365,
 367, 369, 370
 Dairy equipment 71, 146
 Dairy farming 10, 64, 72, 76, 146, 241, 260, 271, 326, 330,
 339, 348, 366
 Dairy farms 15, 43, 58, 70, 145, 219, 226, 240
 Dairy herds 14, 43, 53, 66, 70, 77, 104, 126, 167, 186, 250,
 252, 270, 271, 294, 309, 319, 349
 Dairy hygiene 161, 252
 Dairy industry 9, 34, 70, 94, 217, 240, 277, 365
 Dairy legislation 14
 Dairy performance 30, 111, 130, 160, 167, 279, 322, 345, 362
 Dairy research 40, 63
 Dairy technology 94, 271
 Dairy traits 95, 309
 Dairy wastes 242
 Dairying 15, 20, 144, 279
 Data collection 271
 Databases 77
 Decision making 271
 Deglutition 51
 Dehorning 2
 Demonstration farms 76
 Denmark 29, 66
 Design 39, 79, 80, 81, 82, 208, 256, 284, 285, 317, 336, 352,
 369
 Design criteria 183
 Detection 89, 368
 Dexamethasone 124
 Diet 112, 237
 Diets 12
 Digestibility 49
 Digestive disorders 194
 Dilution 357
 Dimensions 187
 Disease control 31, 65, 256
 Disease prevalence 342
 Disease prevention 38, 92
 Disease resistance 114
 Disorders 351
 Diurnal variation 89, 153, 233
 Dosage effects 7, 35
 Drainage systems 171
 Drinking behavior 78, 130
 Drinking water 97, 337
 Drug formulations 245
 Dry feeding 251
 Dry lot feeding 250
 Dry matter 120, 132, 245, 246
 Dry period 42, 91, 118, 129, 191
 Duration 139, 158
 Dust 4
 Dynamic models 277
 Dystocia 42
 Economic analysis 31, 281, 332
 Economic dualism 58
 Economic impact 9, 34, 35, 95, 277
 Education 296
 Educational methods 323
 Effects 159
 Efficacy 195
 Efficiency 175, 323
 Egg production 365
 Electric current 8, 57, 59, 189, 347
 Electric heaters 146
 Electrical energy 145, 146
 Electricity 59, 141, 142, 146, 351
 Embryo culture 106
 Embryo mortality 88, 147
 Embryonic development 88, 106, 203, 223
 Embryos 88
 Embryos (animal) 223, 232
 Energy 189, 347
 Energy balance 10, 30, 49, 112
 Energy consumption 145
 Energy intake 245
 Energy metabolism 205
 Energy requirements 329
 Environment 114, 151, 154
 Environmental aspects 6
 Environmental control 150, 192, 254, 270, 367
 Environmental engineering 144
 Environmental factors 16, 22, 102, 169, 233, 322
 Environmental impact 159
 Environmental temperature 17, 100, 104, 108, 117, 136, 153,
 158, 169, 202, 204, 235, 311, 320, 322
 Enzyme activity 282
 Enzymes 267
 Equations 264, 286
 Erythrocyte count 267
 Estradiol 105, 148, 179, 210, 308
 Estrous behavior 89
 Estrous cycle 16, 98, 105, 157, 158, 210, 232, 288, 308
 Estrus 89, 148, 203, 271, 313, 368
 Ethics 159, 365
 Europe 44
 Evaporative coolers 54
 Evaporative cooling 184, 204, 205, 229, 264, 332, 344, 362
 Ewes 315
 Experimental stations 3
 Expert systems 167
 Extensive livestock farming 25, 26
 Externalities 10
 Faces 67
 Facilities 8, 189
 Falkland Islands 74
 Family farms 260
 Fans 55, 146, 157, 204, 281, 332
 Farm area 326
 Farm buildings 171
 Farm comparisons 252
 Farm dairies 3, 18, 66, 87, 181, 214, 243, 248, 340
 Farm equipment 71, 84
 Farm income 330
 Farm management 15, 68, 77, 191, 214, 219, 241, 242, 252, 271
 Farm structure 34, 217
 Farm surveys 9, 18, 68, 126
 Farm tests 102
 Farmers 159
 Farmers' income 326
 Farming 75, 146
 Farming systems 326
 Fasting 30, 100
 Fatty acids 121
 Feasibility studies 172
 Feces collection 242
 Federal government 40
 Feed composition tables 50
 Feed conversion 136, 246
 Feed grains 176
 Feed intake 5, 48, 50, 51, 102, 112, 113, 117, 119, 120, 125,
 132, 136, 138, 139, 156, 207, 245, 246, 249, 254, 329
 Feed rations 253
 Feed requirements 298
 Feed supplements 48, 137, 278
 Feeding 100, 299
 Feeding and feeds 268, 269
 Feeding behavior 19, 60, 177, 220
 Feeding preferences 25
 Feeds 82
 Fees 172
 Female fertility 129, 132, 139, 142, 179, 196
 Fence lines 39
 Fertilizers 219
 Fetal death 142
 Fetal growth 203
 Fiber content 329
 Floors 83, 87, 243, 342, 352
 Florida 53, 56, 143, 182, 224, 232, 324, 332
 Flow 189, 347
 Flushing 183
 Fodder crops 146
 Fogging 229
 Follicles 315
 Food contamination 68
 Food safety 34, 94, 159
 Forage 12, 251
 France 126
 Free radicals 278
 Friesian 103, 249
 Frozen semen 247
 Fsh 105
 Functional disorders 147
 Fur 205
 Gases 275
 Genetic defects 147
 Genetic differences 30
 Genetic effects 22, 44
 Genotypes 180
 Geographical distribution 170
 German federal republic 248
 Gestation period 42
 Glucose 188
 Gnrh 105, 288, 315
 Gonadotropin releasing hormone 96, 368
 Government 277
 Graafian follicles 99
 Grain drying 146
 Grass silage 329
 Grass sward 330
 Gravel 338
 Grazing 66, 70, 177, 249, 251
 Grazing behavior 328
 Green fodders 50
 Grooming 231
 Groups 190, 191
 Growth 294
 Growth promoters 217
 Growth promoting substances 20
 Growth rate 300
 Guidelines 178
 Handbooks 71
 Handling 6, 20, 127, 146, 174, 190, 216, 227
 Haryana 72
 Hay 12, 50
 Healing 335
 Health 294
 Health care 194, 294
 Health hazards 346
 Heart rate 24, 46, 356
 Heat 337, 355
 Heat production 121, 136, 227
 Heat resistance 122
 Heat stress 1, 16, 17, 33, 39, 45, 52, 53, 55, 56, 62, 88, 91,
 97, 100, 103, 104, 105, 106, 108, 109, 115, 116, 117, 118,
 119, 120, 121, 122, 125, 129, 132, 134, 136, 137, 138, 143,
 152, 153, 154, 158, 169, 179, 182, 184, 197, 198, 199, 200,
 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 210, 221, 223, 224, 229,
 230, 232, 233, 235, 237, 238, 247, 253, 254, 267, 275, 281,
 288, 289, 290, 304, 306, 311, 320, 321, 331, 332, 336, 343,
 344, 353, 362
 Heat sums 129
 Heat tolerance 88, 237
 Heat transfer 205, 264
 Heating 146, 150, 361
 Heifers 42, 75, 82, 107, 175, 212, 285, 298, 300, 301, 302,
 339, 366
 Height 220
 Hemorrhage 192
 Hens 365
 Heparin 331
 Herbage 251
 Herd size 80
 Herd structure 95, 155, 366
 Herds 195
 Hides and skins 264
 Hired labor 172
 Holstein-friesian 30, 48, 50, 108, 111, 113, 116, 119, 120,
 122, 134, 138, 147, 194, 230, 233, 261, 281, 311
 Hoofs 209, 209
 Hooves 142, 309
 Hormone secretion 105, 135, 157, 210, 315, 321
 Hormone supplements 102
 Hormones 16, 120, 147
 Hormones in animal nutrition 316
 Horticultural crops 326
 Housing 75, 78, 144, 222, 268, 269, 283, 299, 348
 Housing area 24
 Housing density 29, 101
 Housing temperature and humidity 111
 Humidity 121, 200, 201, 202, 207
 Hungary 180
 Hydrocortisone 46, 59, 158, 235
 Hydrogen 331
 Hydrogen sulfide 4, 346
 Hygiene 47, 69, 186
 Hyperthermia 266, 275
 Hypothalamic regulation 315
 Igg 290
 Illumination 89
 Immune response 235, 266
 Immunity 174
 Immunoglobulins 174
 Immunosuppression 124
 Improvement 181, 354
 Inbred lines 113
 Incentives 170
 Incidence 42, 82, 110, 236
 Indexes 153, 200, 201, 202
 Indonesia 211
 Infectious diseases 193
 Infertility 223
 Inflammation 282
 Information needs 70
 Ingestion toxicity 272
 Inhibitors 68
 Injection 123, 132, 246
 Injuries 41, 82
 Innovation adoption 9, 34, 277, 330
 Inspection 20
 Installations 8, 39
 Instrumentation 87, 243
 Instruments 51
 Insulation 134, 149
 Insulin 30, 139
 Insulin-like growth factor 117
 Integrated pest management 297
 Intensive livestock farming 25, 26, 234
 Interactions 295, 303
 International trade 94
 Investment 284, 317
 Iodine 131, 161
 Iodophors 131
 Irrigated pastures 249
 Israel 132, 342, 353
 Japan 240, 243
 Java 326
 Jersey 113, 119, 311
 Kansas 298
 Kentucky 184, 190
 Ketosis 241
 Kinetics 188, 243
 Kinship 231
 Kleiber, Hans 1920- 144
 L-thyroxine 139
 Labor 323
 Laboratory tests 102, 108
 Lactating females 102, 105, 118, 137, 147, 153, 179, 191, 210,
 232, 233, 304
 Lactation 1, 7, 33, 35, 107, 108, 113, 114, 142, 153, 154,
 158, 253, 261
 Lactation number 42, 49, 59, 110, 129, 139, 228, 245, 320
 Lactation stage 44, 110, 111, 129, 132, 141, 188, 190, 228,
 273, 282
 Lagoons 183
 Lameness 28, 87, 128, 193, 342
 Land use 251
 Large scale husbandry 318
 Larvae 338
 Learning ability 22
 Lectins 112
 Legislation 67, 173
 Legs 309
 Lesions 335
 Leukocyte count 267
 Leukocytes 266
 Lh 96, 105, 157, 210, 308, 315
 Life history 77
 Limiting factors 234
 Linear models 95
 Linear programming 95
 Liners 247
 Listeria monocytogenes 124
 Literature reviews 35, 44, 148, 177, 195, 204, 219, 278, 282,
 301, 315
 Litter 47, 69, 186, 212, 256, 309, 319, 338, 340
 Livestock 140, 200, 322
 Livestock housing 351
 Livestock numbers 58, 219
 Liveweight 48, 93, 107
 Liveweight gain 31, 132, 301
 Loads 79
 Location of production 34
 Locomotion 243, 248
 Longevity 365
 Loose housing 25, 29, 130, 149, 151, 180, 190, 248, 256, 340,
 360, 364
 Losses 189, 347, 351
 Louisiana 62, 172
 Lymphocyte transformation 266
 Lymphocytes 235, 266
 Machine milking 160, 228, 271, 314
 Magnesium 100
 Maize 112, 251
 Maize byproducts 47
 Maize silage 249
 Male fertility 331
 Mammary development 11
 Mammary edema 278
 Mammary glands 11, 235, 357
 Mammary tissue 11
 Man 295, 303
 Management 6, 6
 Managers 82
 Mangers 39, 177, 254
 Manure 6, 6
 Manure spreading 36
 Manures 6
 Marginal analysis 58
 Mastication 49, 51
 Mastitis 123, 133, 222, 276
 Material balance 10
 Maternal behavior 257
 Maternal immunity 290
 Mathematical models 31, 205, 324, 330
 Mating 107
 Measurement 19, 51, 346, 357
 Meat industry and trade 140
 Mechanization 208, 284, 317, 350
 Medicated feeds 68
 Medicinal plants 354
 Mediterranean countries 234
 Metabolism 143
 Metabolites 30, 138, 139
 Methane 346
 Michigan 163, 208, 284, 317
 Microbial contamination 226
 Microclimate 229, 318
 Milk 15, 68, 121, 124, 131, 159, 266, 267, 281
 Milk composition 35, 43, 49, 59, 102, 112, 113, 120, 123, 125,
 133, 139, 141, 143, 161, 228, 230, 237, 245, 246, 282
 Milk ejection 11, 123
 Milk fat 43, 249
 Milk fat percentage 126, 129, 132, 136
 Milk fat yield 132
 Milk flow 228
 Milk prices 95, 170, 277
 Milk production 1, 5, 30, 34, 43, 50, 54, 65, 70, 77, 91, 94,
 102, 107, 111, 115, 116, 122, 125, 133, 153, 154, 156, 160,
 170, 180, 181, 190, 195, 196, 197, 198, 200, 207, 217, 221,
 222, 230, 234, 237, 237, 261, 263, 265, 267, 276, 277, 316,
 320, 323, 330, 332, 343, 345, 354, 365, 369
 Milk production costs 95, 301
 Milk protein 43, 249
 Milk protein percentage 132, 136
 Milk protein yield 132
 Milk quality 56, 151, 226, 262
 Milk recording 271
 Milk secretion 11
 Milk supply 34
 Milk synthesis 11
 Milk tanks 226
 Milk yield 11, 35, 44, 48, 49, 57, 59, 102, 112, 113, 118,
 119, 120, 123, 125, 129, 132, 136, 139, 141, 143, 153, 156,
 161, 197, 198, 203, 228, 230, 233, 235, 237, 245, 246, 249,
 254, 281, 286, 301, 310, 324, 326, 329, 360
 Milk-yielding animals 155
 Milking 3, 11, 72, 131, 146, 161, 208, 222, 262, 284, 286,
 310, 317, 350, 370
 Milking interval 90, 127, 133, 323
 Milking machines 345
 Milking parlors 15, 73, 84, 90, 93, 160, 208, 214, 260, 261,
 262, 263, 271, 279, 280, 284, 286, 293, 317, 323, 324, 345,
 350, 370
 Milking rate 59, 263, 310
 Mineral content 275
 Mineral metabolism 100, 109
 Minerals 137
 Minnesota 192
 Mississippi 3, 129, 157
 Missouri 281
 Mists 39, 199, 254
 Mixing 346
 Models 77, 104, 181, 215, 264
 Moisture 4, 227
 Monitoring 77, 346, 356
 Monoclonal antibodies 290
 Morbidity 307
 Mortality 31, 45, 110, 254, 301
 Morula 106
 Motility 247
 Musca domestica 338
 Namibia 200, 201, 202
 Natural ventilation 163, 164, 166, 291
 Netherlands 265
 Network analysis 10
 Neutrophils 266
 New Jersey 272
 New York 53, 170
 Newborn animals 60, 192, 220, 290
 Nitrates 272
 Nitrogen fertilizers 169
 Nomograms 215
 North Carolina 199, 337, 366
 Northeastern states of U.S.A. 164
 Norway 241
 Nutrient content 112
 Nutrient intake 49
 Nutrient requirements 175
 Nutrient uptake 138
 Nutrition programs 300
 Nutritional state 137
 Ohio 252
 Ointments 335
 Ontario 9, 165, 270
 Operating costs 172, 208, 284, 317, 350
 Optimization 277
 Outturn 240
 Ovarian cysts 225, 315
 Ovaries 315
 Ovaries (animal) 313
 Ovulation 148
 Ovulation rate 288
 Oxygen 278
 Oxytocin 123
 Pain 46, 92
 Pakistan 158
 Papua new guinea 17
 Parturition 278
 Pastures 98, 113
 Pathogens 282
 Pathology 45
 Pennsylvania 75, 251, 339
 Pens 192, 204, 248, 284
 Perception 295
 Performance 322
 Performance testing 306
 Ph 51, 247
 Phosphorus 100
 Phthiraptera 297
 Physiological functions 120, 122, 344
 Pig farming 146
 Pig housing 12, 171
 Pigs 12, 303
 Pipeline milking machines 359
 Pituitary 315
 Placental retention 278
 Planes 8
 Planning 18, 84, 212
 Plant products 354
 Plasma 281
 Plasmin 282
 Plate count 226
 Pneumonia 45
 Politics 14, 34
 Polyethylene 247
 Ponds 56, 224
 Portal vein 138
 Postpartum interval 96, 273, 308, 313
 Postpartum period 60
 Posture 357
 Potassium 282
 Potassium chloride 137
 Poultry farming 146
 Poultry industry 365
 Practice 75
 Precipitation 129
 Prediction 104, 285, 286, 330
 Pregnancy 179, 188, 232, 273
 Pregnancy rate 169, 288, 320
 Prepartum period 91, 273
 Pressure 314, 370
 Pressure gauges 370
 Pressure regulators 314
 Prevention 15, 83, 222, 351
 Price elasticities 40
 Price policy 40
 Price support 34, 277
 Probability 31
 Probability analysis 155
 Production controls 277
 Production costs 35, 58, 70, 170
 Production functions 58
 Production structure 265
 Productive life 155, 309, 365
 Productivity 159
 Proestrus 148
 Profitability 70, 181, 217, 277
 Progesterone 91, 148, 157, 158, 179, 210
 Programmed feed dispensers 3
 Prostaglandins 106, 157
 Protected protein 329
 Protein digestion 112
 Public opinion 14, 296
 Puerto Rico 48, 50
 Pulsation 160, 286
 Pulsators 160
 Pulse rate 233
 Quantitative analysis 153, 188
 Quantitative techniques 19
 Queensland 169, 230
 Questionnaires 15
 Quotas 9, 95
 Radioactive tracers 188
 Radioimmunoassay 16
 Rain 110, 169, 233
 Ratios 286
 Regression analysis 68, 103, 309
 Relative humidity 103, 104, 153, 204, 233, 320
 Removal 277
 Replacement 191, 285, 300, 301, 302
 Reproduction 65, 197, 203
 Reproductive ability 179, 368
 Reproductive disorders 96, 354, 368
 Reproductive efficiency 167
 Reproductive performance 16, 116, 199, 245, 254, 343
 Reproductive physiology 354
 Research support 40
 Residual milk 59
 Residues 131
 Resource utilization 330
 Respiration rate 97, 233, 275
 Rest 273, 328
 Restricted feeding 48, 117
 Returns 31, 40, 265
 Risk 42, 44, 201
 Romania 348, 348, 348
 Rotational grazing 226
 Rubber 247
 Rumen 51
 Rumen digestion 112, 126, 137, 249, 275
 Rumination 19, 49, 177
 Runoff water 219
 Safety 195, 279, 346
 Safety measures 20
 Salmonella typhimurium 110
 Sand 47, 319, 338
 Sanitation 252
 Saudi arabia 1, 288
 Sawdust 338
 Scotland 76
 Scrotum 134
 Seasonal fluctuations 43, 111, 115, 126, 229
 Seasonal variation 103, 104, 169, 200, 201, 218
 Seasonality 170
 Seasons 25, 200, 320
 Selection 2, 194
 Selection criteria 194
 Selective grazing 226
 Selenium 278
 Semen 247, 342, 368
 Semen characters 134, 331
 Semen diluents 247
 Semen preservation 134
 Sex differences 22
 Sexual behavior 98
 Shade 99, 120, 122, 199, 204, 229, 230, 253, 281, 289, 311
 Shading 182
 Sheep 12, 363
 Shelters 322
 Shock 57, 351
 Silage 12
 Silos 171, 272
 Simulation 87
 Simulation models 9, 115, 265, 286, 323, 324
 Sires 22, 42
 Size 107, 194
 Skin 335
 Slatted floors 79, 212, 227, 248
 Slaughter 365
 Slip resistant finishes 87, 243
 Slips 83
 Slurries 171, 346
 Small farms 211, 214
 Social consciousness 159
 Social dominance 327, 328
 Social interaction 231
 Social structure 130, 231
 Social welfare 277
 Societies 67
 Sodium chloride 137
 Sodium propionate 30
 Soil analysis 219
 Solar radiation 118, 122
 Solid waste 340
 Somatic cell count 139, 218, 282
 Somatotropin 7, 9, 33, 34, 35, 44, 61, 92, 96, 102, 117, 118,
 119, 120, 121, 132, 133, 135, 136, 139, 159, 195, 196, 235,
 236, 245, 246, 277, 281, 329, 330
 Sorting 18
 South
 Africa 47, 103, 104, 201, 202
 South Carolina 53, 198, 336
 South Dakota 289
 Southern
 Africa 200
 Soybean husks 112
 Soybean soapstock 112
 Space requirements 187
 Spacing 101
 Spatial distribution 231
 Spermatozoa 134, 247
 Spraying 281
 Spring 249
 Stalls 24, 25, 85, 149, 151, 162, 212, 227, 256, 287, 319,
 336, 350, 364, 369
 Staphylococcus aureus 335
 Starch 329
 Statistical analysis 111
 Steroid hormones 278
 Steroidogenesis 278
 Steroids 147
 Stochastic models 280, 285
 Stomoxys calcitrans 338
 Storage 146
 Storage equipment 36
 Straw 338
 Stray voltage 78, 86, 261, 276
 Streptococcus 110, 252
 Stress 57, 92, 96, 114, 124, 127, 147, 193, 195, 278, 303,
 308, 315, 322, 337, 356
 Stress conditions 154
 Structural change 9, 34, 58
 Structural design 84, 187
 Subcutaneous injection 245
 Subsidies 34
 Subtropics 99, 237, 353
 Suckling 60, 220
 Sudan 45
 Sugarcane 326
 Summer 45, 52, 99, 136, 157, 158, 169, 202, 232, 311, 318, 343
 Superovulated females 232
 Superovulation 223
 Supply functions 40
 Surface roughness 87
 Surfaces 83
 Surpluses 9, 277
 Surveys 339
 Survival 155
 Sustained yield management 366
 Symptoms 45
 Systems analysis 10
 Tanks 183
 Tarsus 342
 Teat dip 131, 161, 226, 262
 Teatcup liner 310, 314
 Teatcups 370
 Teats 2, 11, 41, 60, 131, 161, 220, 226, 228, 266, 310, 314,
 335
 Technical progress 34, 159, 330
 Techniques 182, 368
 Technological innovations 144, 144
 Technology 9
 Technology transfer 94
 Temperament 24
 Temperature 121, 156, 201, 337
 Temperature relations 23
 Temperatures 97, 281
 Testing 68
 Tethered housing 211
 Texas 53
 Theory 205
 Thyroid hormones 117
 Time 60, 161, 286
 Time allocation 328
 Time and motion studies 345
 Time series 40
 Toxoids 110
 Transfers 232, 360
 Transit time 49
 Transport of animals 308
 Treatment 354
 Trends 81, 94, 349
 Tropical climate 108, 143
 Tropical zones 230, 237
 Tropics 108, 169
 Type score 309
 Types 317
 U.S.A. 7, 14, 31, 44, 58, 67, 71, 173, 240, 277, 364, 365
 Udders 11, 69, 114, 160, 220, 226, 310
 Uk 81, 330
 Ultrasound 357
 United Kingdom 65, 87
 United States 6, 20, 140, 140, 140, 316, 316
 Unrestricted feeding 48, 50, 113
 Upland areas 169, 230
 Usda 67
 Uterus 147
 Utilization 168, 217
 Vaccination 31, 110
 Vacuum 286, 314
 Vacuums 370
 Validity 356
 Vegetables 146
 Ventilation 4, 146, 149, 150, 164, 165, 171, 182, 215, 270,
 272, 307, 311, 343, 361, 367
 Vermont 145, 226
 Veterinary education 304
 Veterinary pharmacology 20
 Veterinary services 172
 Viability 223
 Victoria 107, 113, 249
 Visitor centers 76
 Volatile fatty acids 112, 126
 Walking 25
 Washing 161
 Washington 85, 147, 183
 Wastage 82
 Waste disposal 183
 Waste treatment 242
 Water excretion 108
 Water intake 51, 108, 141, 207, 289
 Water quality 56, 219, 242
 Water use 362
 Weather 25, 121
 Weather data 153
 Welfare economics 9
 West scotland 171
 Wetting 264
 Winter 102, 192, 318, 335, 361
 Wisconsin 166, 276, 349
 Yield forecasting 156
 Yield response functions 230
 Zero grazing 226, 326
 


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