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Housing, Husbandry, and Welfare of Swine

Animal Welfare Information Center
United States Department of Agriculture
National Agricultural Library

ISSN: 1052-5378

Quick Bibliography Series, QB 95-06
January 1991 - January 1995
Updates QB 94-14
306 citations from AGRICOLA
February 1995

Updated by: Information Resources on Swine Housing, Care and Welfare

Compiled By:
Michael D. Kreger
Animal Welfare Information Center, Information Centers Branch
National Agricultural Library, Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture
10301 Baltimore Ave., Beltsville, Maryland 20705-2351


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National Agricultural Library Cataloging Record:

 Kreger, Michael D.
   Housing, husbandry, and welfare of swine : January 1991-
 January 1995.
   (Quick bibliography series ; 95-06)
   1. Swine--Bibliography. 2. Swine--Housing--Bibliography. 3.
 Swine--Health--Bibliography. I. Title.
 aZ5071.N3 no.95-06
 

Search Strategy

 
 Line Command
 1.   (SWINE OR SUIDEA OR SUIS OR PIG OR PIGS OR BOAR? OR SOW?
 OR PIGLET? OR BARROW? OR GILT? OR HOG?)/TI,DE
 
 2.   (ENVIRONMENT?(N)ENRICH? OR HOUS? OR FACILIT? OR CRATE? OR
 STALL? OR BARN? OR SLAUGHTER? OR CONFINE? OR PEN OR
 PENS)/TI,DE
 
 3.   (WELFARE OR WELL(W)BEING OR WELLBEING OR HUMANE OR PAIN?
 OR DISTRESS? OR STRESS? OR CARE OR HANDL? OR HUSBANDRY OR
 TRANSPORT? OR FEAR)/TI,DE
 
 4.   S1 AND (S2 OR S3)
 
 5.   S4 NOT (GUINEA)
 
 6.   S5 AND PY=1991:1995
 

 1                                   NAL Call. No.: 389.8 F7322
 Acid base status of stress susceptible pigs affects sensory
 quality of loin roasts.
 Boles, J.A.; Shand, P.J.; Patience, J.F.; McCurdy, A.R.;
 Schaefer, A.L. Chicago, Ill. : Institute of Food
 Technologists; 1993 Nov. Journal of food science v. 58 (6): p.
 1254-1257; 1993 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Stress; Susceptibility; Halothane; Acid
 base equilibrium; Exudative meat; Loins; Meat cuts; Food
 quality; Sensory evaluation; Organoleptic traits; Food
 acceptability
 
 Abstract:  Halothane positive pigs (24) were placed on water
 treatments containing sodium bicarbonate (BC, 12.6 g/L),
 ammonium chloride (AC, 8 g/L) or no additive for 4 days and
 slaughtered. Halothane negative pigs (8) also were
 slaughtered. Loin roasts were aged for periods of 1 or 7 days.
 Loin roasts from animals treated with AC were scored (p <
 0.05) less firm, juicy, more tender and mealy than roasts from
 other halothane positive and halothane negative animals. No
 difference in sensory properties occurred with aging.
 Juiciness and off-flavor intensity were positively related to
 blood bicarbonate and base excess.
 
 
 2                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AU72
 The adoption of management and husbandry procedures by Western
 Australian pig farmers.
 Robertson, I.D.; Hampson, D.J.; Mhoma, J.R.L.
 Brunswick, Victoria : Australian Veterinary Association; 1991
 Sep. Australian veterinary journal v. 68 (9): p. 291-293; 1991
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Western australia; Pig farming; Animal husbandry;
 Farm surveys
 
 
 3                                   NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Airflow characteristics in the floor region of a slot
 ventilated room (isothermal).
 Jin, Y.; Ogilvie, J.R.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1992 Mar. Transactions of the ASAE v. 35 (2): p.
 695-702. ill; 1992 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pig housing; Air flow; Design; Floor area;
 Ventilation; Simulation models
 
 Abstract:  Accurate flow information was obtained through use
 of hot-wire anemometry and special calibration devices in a
 comprehensive experiment. Velocities in the floor region
 (0-0.6 m above the floor) correlated well with the inlet
 configuration while airflow stayed fully rotary. Non-linear
 models through dimensional analysis showed that the mean and
 the turbulent fluctuation of floor velocity were nearly
 proportional to the incoming air speed at the inlet and to the
 inlet height raised to the 0.6 power. Furthermore these flow
 parameters can be expressed in terms of the jet momentum
 number or the inlet height and the pressure difference.
 Stability of airflow patterns, inadequacy of air mixing and
 excessive air speeds at the floor are shown on an airflow rate
 plan based on inlet velocity versus inlet height. These are
 shown as system characteristic graphs which include pressure
 difference, zone boundaries for flow patterns, floor air
 speeds and RMS values, inlet jet momentum numbers, a typical
 fan characteristic, and a four-stage ventilation strategy for
 a pig barn.
 
 
 4                                     NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 Ammonia, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydroden sulfide,
 and methane in swine confinement facilities.
 Gerber, D.B.; Veenhuizen, M.A.; Shurson, G.C.
 Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company; 1991 Sep.
 The Compendium on continuing education for the practicing
 veterinarian v. 13 (9): p. 1483-1489; 1991 Sep.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ohio; Pigs; Pig housing; Air pollutants; Toxic
 gases; Safety at work; Ventilation; Air flow; Ammonia; Carbon
 dioxide; Carbon monoxide
 
 
 5                                     NAL Call. No.: TA166.T72
 Animal genetics--of pigs, oncomice and men.
 Webster, J.
 New York, N.Y. : Elsevier Science Publishing Co; 1993 Jan.
 Trends in biotechnology v. 11 (1): p. 1-2; 1993 Jan.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Transgenics; Biotechnology; Animal welfare
 
 
 6                                   NAL Call. No.: aS21.D27S64
 Animal models in biomedical research: swine.
 Smith, C.P.
 Beltsville, Md. : The Library; 1991 Mar.
 Special reference briefs - National Agricultural Library
 (U.S.). (91-06): 61 p.; 1991 Mar.  Bibliography.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Medical research; Animal models;
 Bibliographies; Cardiovascular system; Hemodynamics;
 Hematology; Digestive system; Nutrition; Urinary tract;
 Reproduction; Immunology; Stress; Skeletomuscular system;
 Dermatology; Puerperium; Toxicology; Pharmacodynamics; Eyes;
 Mouth; Teeth; Surgery; Laboratory methods; Animal husbandry;
 Animal welfare
 
 
 7                                    NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Application of bacterial product for zero-liquid-discharge pig
 waste management under tropical conditions.
 Ong, H.K.; Choo, P.Y.; Soo, S.P.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1993.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 27 (1):
 p. 133-140; 1993.  In the series analytic: Appropriate waste
 management technologies / edited by G. Ho and K. Mathew.
 Proceedings of the International Conference, held November
 27-28, 1991, Perth, Australia.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Malaysia; Pig housing; Litter; Sawdust; Waste
 treatment; Aerobic treatment; Bacterial products; Carcass
 quality
 
 
 8                                NAL Call. No.: SF395.H67 1992
 Artgemasse Schweinehaltung Grundlagen und Beispiele aus der
 Praxis  [Swine husbandry appropriate to the species].
 Horning, Bernhard; Raskopf, Sabine; Simantke, Christel;
 Boehncke, Engelhard; Walter, Jurgen,_1950-; Schneider, Manuel
 Karlsruhe : C.F. Muller,; 1992.
 256, [8] p. of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 20 cm. (Alternative
 Konzepte ; 78).  Includes bibliographical references (p.
 220-232).
 
 Language:  German
 
 Descriptors: Swine; Swine
 
 
 9                                      NAL Call. No.: 58.8 J82
 Assessment of dustfall collectors used in livestock buildings.
 Barber, E.M.; Dawson, J.R.; Battams, V.A.
 London : Academic Press; 1991 Oct.
 Journal of agricultural engineering research v. 50 (2): p.
 157-165; 1991 Oct. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pig housing; Air pollution; Dust; Collectors;
 Collection; Efficiency; Deposition; Sampling; Measurement;
 Accuracy
 
 Abstract:  The relative collection efficiency of several
 different types of dustfall collector was assessed over
 different collection intervals in a piggery. Flat plate
 collectors and collectors with sidewalls 10 and 50 mm high
 were placed on a slow-speed turntable to minimize positional
 effects. For each sampler type, collection intervals of 1, 3,
 6 and 12 weeks were used. The collection medium was generally
 a 47 mm glass fibre filter located on a 75 mm diameter
 aluminium disc. Cellulose nitrate membrane filters were used
 for one treatment. The dust sedimentation rate determined from
 the weekly samples varied from 80 to 200 mg m-2h-1 over the
 12-week period. Dust deposits on the filters varied linearly
 with time from 2.3 mg/cm2 of collector surface for the 1-week
 interval to 27.9 mg/cm2 over 12 weeks. The measured dust
 sedimentation rate was about 3.0% less on the membrane filters
 than on the glass fibre filters and also for those collectors
 with the 50 mm high sidewall when compared with the flat plate
 collectors. The length of sample collection interval did not
 significantly affect the measured dust sedimentation rate. It
 is suggested that handling errors and edge effects may affect
 accuracy when deposits are greater than about 7 mg/cm2 of
 collector surface.
 
 
 10                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Association between growth indicators and volume of lesions in
 lungs from pigs at slaughter.
 Hill, M.A.; Scheidt, A.B.; Teclaw, R.F.; Clark, L.K.; Knox,
 K.E.; Jordan, M. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary
 Medical Association; 1992 Dec. American journal of veterinary
 research v. 53 (12): p. 2221-2223; 1992 Dec. Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Pneumonia; Growth
 
 Abstract:  Conflicting findings exist among studies on the
 effect of pneumonia on growth in pigs. We determined the
 extent of pneumonia in market-weight pigs by use of an
 objective, volumetric method and linear regression analyses of
 mean daily gain and days-to-slaughter weight on the percentage
 of pneumonic lung. In a range of extent of pneumonia between
 1.33 and 70.44%, a 10% increase in the volume of pneumonic
 lung was associated with a decrease in mean daily gain by 41.1
 g and a 16.7-day increase in number of days to a slaughter
 weight of 104.5 kg.
 
 
 11                                       NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Association between low birth weight and increased
 adrenocortical function in neonatal pigs.
 Klemcke, H.G.; Lunstra, D.D.; Brown-Borg, H.M.; Borg, K.E.;
 Christenson, R.K. Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal
 Science; 1993 Apr. Journal of animal science v. 71 (4): p.
 1010-1018; 1993 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Piglets; Newborn animals; Birth weight;
 Fostering; Adrenal cortex; Hydrocortisone; Slaughter weight;
 Fetal growth; Blood plasma; Cell cultures
 
 Abstract:  This study examined differences in adrenocortical
 function between low- and high-birthweight female neonatal
 pigs. Pigs born to unilaterally hysterectomized,
 ovariectomized sows were grouped by birth weight; "small" were
 less than or equal to 1.2 kg and "large" were > 1.2 kg. Pigs
 were cross-fostered such that each sow had six to eight pigs
 that were either small or large. At 3 or 7 d of age a blood
 sample was obtained by venipuncture, pigs were killed, and
 adrenocortical cells were isolated. Adrenal weights
 (milligrams/ kilogram BW) in small pigs were 46% greater (P =
 .001) than those in large pigs at both ages. Compared with
 those in large pigs, plasma cortisol concentrations were 70%
 greater (P = .006) in small pigs at 3 d and 199% greater at 7
 d of age. Sensitivity of adrenocortical cell response to ACTH
 was enhanced at both ages in small pigs (P = .001).
 Corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) binding capacity in
 small pigs was 75% greater (P = .03) than that in large pigs
 at 3 d and 26% greater at 7 d of age. Significant negative
 correlations existed between birth weight and relative adrenal
 weight, plasma cortisol, slopes of in vitro adrenocortical
 cell response curves to ACTH, and CBG binding capacity,
 irrespective of birth weight group classification. Such data
 indicate an association between adrenal function during early
 neonatal life and birth weight in female pigs. The current
 study does not indicate whether increased adrenal function
 causes or merely reflects conditions associated with low birth
 weight. However, we hypothesize that increased adrenal
 function is initiated prenatally and causes some instances of
 low birth weight.
 
 
 12                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3A
 Association of environmental air contaminants with disease and
 productivity in swine.
 Donham, K.J.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1991 Oct. American journal of veterinary research v. 52 (10):
 p. 1723-1730; 1991 Oct. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sweden; Pigs; Air quality; Swine diseases;
 Productivity; Air pollutants; Air microbiology; Stocking
 density; Pig housing; Guidelines
 
 Abstract:  A cross-sectional epidemiologic study associating
 air quality with swine health was conducted on 28 swine farms
 in southern Sweden. Correlation of housing air environment to
 swine diseases and productivity (data collected over the
 preceding 12 months) were investigated. The most prevalent
 swine health problems detected at slaughter were pneumonia and
 pleuritis. In farrowing and nursery operations, the most
 prevalent problem was neonatal pig mortality. Several air
 contaminants (dust, ammonia, carbon dioxide, and microbes)
 were found to be correlated with these swine health problems.
 Maximal safe concentrations of air contaminants were estimated
 on the basis of dose-response correlation to swine health or
 human health problems. Recommended maximal concentrations of
 contaminants were: dust, 2.4 mg/m3; ammonia, 7 ppm; endotoxin,
 0.08 mg/m3; total microbes, 10(5) colony-forming units/m3; and
 carbon dioxide, 1,540 ppm. The overall quality of the
 ventilation system was correlated with lower concentration of
 ammonia, carbon dioxide, microorganisms, and endotoxin, but
 not with dust concentrations. High animal density was related
 to high ammonia and air microbe concentrations. Animal density
 measured as kilograms of swine per cubic meter (compared with
 kilograms of pig weight or swine per square meter) had the
 highest correlation to animal health and air contaminants.
 
 
 13                           NAL Call. No.: KyUThesis 1992 Chi
 Automated weighing system for group housed swine.
 Chi, Hsien-Chung,
 1992; 1992.
 xi, 101 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.  Includes vita and abstract. 
 Includes bibliographical references (l. 98-100).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Swine; Weighing systems, Electronic
 
 
 14                            NAL Call. No.: TH4911.A1S9 no.85
 Avvanjning av grisar i ett suggstyrt och i ett konventionellt
 inhysningssystem = weaning of pigs in a sow-controlled and in
 a conventional housing system.. Weaning of pigs in a sow-
 controlled and in a conventional housing system Rantzer, Dan
 Lund : Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Institutionen for
 lantbrukets byggnadsteknik,; 1993.
 102 p. : ill. ; 29 cm. (Rapport (Sveriges
 lantbruksuniversitet. Institutionen for lantbrukets
 byggnadsteknik) ; 84.).  In Swedish, with English summary.
 Includes bibliographical references (p. 59-71).
 
 Language:  Swedish
 
 
 15                                     NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 The bases of sow--piglet identification. 2. Cues used by
 piglets to identify their dam and home pen.
 Horrell, I.; Hodgson, J.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1992 Jun.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 33 (4): p. 329-343; 1992
 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Piglets; Sows; Dams (mothers); Identification;
 Senses; Farrowing pens; Feces; Urine; Litter; Udders; Odors;
 Vocalization
 
 
 16                               NAL Call. No.: DISS  F1992260
 Befruchtungsraten und uterotubaler Spermientransport nach
 instrumenteller Besamung zu verschiedenen Zeiten vor und nach
 der Ovulation beim Schwein [Fertility rates and uterotubal
 sperm transport in the pig after artificial insemination at
 various times before and after ovulation]. Gleumes, Thomas
 Hannover : [s.n.],; 1992.
 82 p. : ill. ; 21 cm.  Summary in English.  Includes
 bibliographical references (p. 65-81).
 
 Language:  German
 
 
 17                                     NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Behavior and extensive management of domestic sows (Sus
 scrofa) and litters. Dellmeier, G.R.; Friend, T.H.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1991 Feb.
 Applied animal behaviour science. p. 327-341; 1991 Feb.  Paper
 presented at the "Conference on Ungulate Behavior and
 Management," May 23-27, 1988, College Station, Texas. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Piglets; Animal behavior; Animal husbandry
 
 
 18                                       NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 The behavior of gestating swine housed in the Hurnik-Morris
 system. Morris, J.R.; Hurnik, J.F.; Friendship, R.M.; Buhr,
 M.M.; Allen, O.B. Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal
 Science; 1993 Dec. Journal of animal science v. 71 (12): p.
 3280-3284; 1993 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Sow pregnancy; Animal welfare; Pig housing;
 Feeding behavior; Pig feeding
 
 Abstract:  A group housing system for sows, the Hurnik-Morris
 (HM) system, was developed to address several of the perceived
 animal welfare limitations of existing housing methods. The HM
 system permits socially coordinated eating and resting,
 controlled and socially undisturbed feed intake, physical
 exercise, and regular exposure to boars.The HM system
 effectively uses and reinforces the behavioral phenomenon of
 the social synchronization of feeding and provides a less
 restrictive housing environment. The system provides housing
 for sows in small groups and an individual, non-competitive
 feeding environment using electronic feeding compartments.
 Gilts reared during gestation in the HM system were observed
 to spend less time lying in sternal recumbency (31 vs 21%; P =
 .004) and performing stereotypies (.10 vs .56%; P = .034) and
 to spend more time participating in social activities (1.4 vs
 .19%; P = .0007) than similar gilts kept in gestation crates
 (GC). The HM sows revealed a significantly longer latent
 period to postprandial lying than did GC gilts (64 vs 32 min;
 P =.0001). The order of gilt entry into the feeding
 compartments tended to be more consistent than the sequence of
 feeding compartments being entered (W = .57 vs .41; P = .06).
 This indicates that social factors seemed to be more important
 than spatial ones in determining the order of entry into the
 feeder compartments.
 
 
 19                                     NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 The behaviour of primiparous sows around farrowing in response
 to restraint and straw bedding.
 Cronin, G.M.; Smith, J.A.; Hodge, F.M.; Hemsworth, P.H.
 Amsterdam ; New York : Elsevier, 1984-; 1994 Mar.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 39 (3/4): p. 269-280; 1994
 Mar.  In the special issue: Advances in pig behavior science /
 edited by Judith K. Blackshaw.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Nesting; Maternal behavior; Animal
 behavior; Piglets; Survival; Litter; Straw; Farrowing pens;
 Pig housing
 
 
 20                                     NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Behavioural observations of piglets undergoing tail docking,
 teeth clipping and ear notching.
 Noonan, G.J.; Rand, J.S.; Priest, J.; Ainscow, J.; Blackshaw,
 J.K. Amsterdam ; New York : Elsevier, 1984-; 1994 Mar.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 39 (3/4): p. 203-213; 1994
 Mar.  In the special issue: Advances in pig behavior science /
 edited by Judith K. Blackshaw.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Piglets; Animal behavior; Tail; Docking; Teeth;
 Clipping; Marking; Animal welfare; Stress; Restraint of
 animals
 
 
 21                                     NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Boar presence reduces fighting in mixed slaughter-weight pigs.
 Grandin, T.; Bruning, J.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1992 May.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 33 (2/3): p. 273-276; 1992
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Gilts; Boars; Fighting; Mixing; Wounds;
 Incidence
 
 
 22                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.V535
 Breeding and gestation facilities for swine: matching biology
 to facility design.
 Ruen, P.D.; Dial, G.D.; Polson, D.D.; Marsh, W.E.
 Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders Company; 1992 Nov.
 The Veterinary clinics of North America : food animal practice
 v. 8 (3): p. 475-502; 1992 Nov.  In the series analytic: Swine
 reproduction / edited by R.C. Tubbs and A.D. Leman.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Pig housing; Animal breeding
 
 
 23                                   NAL Call. No.: RC963.A1A7
 Bronchial responsiveness to methacholine in swine confinement
 building workers.
 Bessette, L.; Boulet, L.P.; Tremblay, G.; Cormier, Y.
 Washington, D.C. : Heldref Publications; 1993 Mar.
 Archives of environmental health v. 48 (2): p. 73-77; 1993
 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pig housing; Farm workers; Occupational
 disorders; Respiratory diseases; Bronchi; Lungs; Physiological
 functions
 
 
 24                                       NAL Call. No.: S1.N32
 Build a better hog hut.
 Cramer, C.
 Emmaus, Pa. : Rodale Institute; 1994 Sep.
 The New farm v. 16 (6): p. 50-52; 1994 Sep.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pig housing; Design; Farrowing; Pig farming
 
 
 25                            NAL Call. No.: SF393.M55C37 1993
 Care and management of miniature pet pigs guidelines for the
 veterinary practitioner., 1st ed..
 Reeves, David E.; Becker, H. Neil
 American Association of Swine Practitioners
 Santa Barbara, Calif. : Veterinary Practice Pub. Co.,; 1993.
 ix, 117 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.  "Published in cooperation with the
 American Association of Swine Practitioners"--Cover.  Includes
 bibliographical references and index.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Miniature pigs as pets; Miniature pigs
 
 
 26                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69
 Caring for potbellied pigs.
 Bradford, J.R.
 Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Co; 1991 Dec.
 Veterinary medicine v. 86 (12): p. 1173-1181; 1991 Dec. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Miniature pigs; Animal husbandry; Animal health;
 Nutrient requirements
 
 
 27                                    NAL Call. No.: HV4731.C3
 The Casualty pig.
 Pig Veterinary Society
 Cambridge : The Society,; 1991.
 20 p. : ill. ; 21 cm.  Cover title.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Swine; Slaughtering and slaughter-houses;
 Euthanasia
 
 
 28                                     NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Changes in nursing and suckling behaviour of sows and their
 piglets in farrowing crates.
 Gotz, M.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1991 Aug.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 31 (3/4): p. 271-275; 1991
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Piglets; Suckling; Behavior change;
 Farrowing pens; Postpartum interval; Animal behavior
 
 
 29                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.A47
 Characterization of particles, ammonia and endotoxin in swine
 confinement operations.
 Pickrell, J.A.; Heber, A.J.; Murphy, J.P.; Henry, S.C.; May,
 M.M.; Nolan, D.; Oehme, F.W.; Gillespie, J.R.; Schoneweis, D.
 Manhattan, Kan. : Kansas State University; 1993 Oct.
 Veterinary and human toxicology v. 35 (5): p. 421-428; 1993
 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pig housing; Intensive farming; Intensive
 husbandry; Dust; Pig manure; Ammonia; Endotoxins; Particle
 size; Spatial variation; Ventilation; Spring; Summer; Winter
 
 
 30                                   NAL Call. No.: QP251.A1T5
 Chromosomal pericentric inversion detected in a sow and her
 piglets. Miyake, Y.I.; Matsubara, T.; Hata, M.; Kaneda, Y.
 Newton, Mass. : Butterworth-Heinemann; 1994.
 Theriogenology v. 42 (2): p. 241-246; 1994.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Pericentric inversion; Chromosomes; Porcine
 stress syndrome; Chromosome analysis
 
 Abstract:  Forty-four pigs with the suspicious symptoms of
 porcine stress syndrome (PSS) were selected for chromosome
 analysis. Cytogenetic evaluation by means of the G-banding
 technique revealed that one sow had an abnormal [38,XX, inv (1
 p+q-) (2.1; 1.1)] karyotype. The same abnormality was also
 detected in 8 of 13 offspring of this sow. However, there was
 no correlation between the chromosome abnormality and PSS. The
 chromosome abnormality did not give rise to a reduction in the
 fertility of this sow or in the viability of her offspring.
 This case represents the first reported instance of
 pericentric inversion in swine.
 
 
 31                                    NAL Call. No.: SF395.P62
 Combining swine housing units into a system of buildings.
 Muehling, A.J.; Collins, E.R. Jr; Mohling, S.; Mohling, K.
 West Lafayette, Ind. : Cooperative Extension Service, Purdue
 University, [1978?-1990]; 1991.
 Pork industry handbook. 4 p.; 1991.  In the subseries:
 Housing. (PIH-22), revised December 1991.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Pigs; Pig housing; Site selection;
 Drainage; Pig manure; Farrowing houses; Fire prevention;
 Building construction; Landscaping
 
 
 32                                  NAL Call. No.: 275.29 M58B
 Combining swine housing units into a system of buildings.
 Muehling, A.J.; Collins, E.R. Jr; Mohling, K.
 East Lansing, Mich. : The Service; 1992 Jun.
 Extension bulletin E - Cooperative Extension Service, Michigan
 State University v.): 4 p.; 1992 Jun.  In subseries: Pork
 Industry Handbook. Housing.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pig housing; Site factors; Farm planning
 
 
 33                                    NAL Call. No.: SF623.A64
 Comparing swine preweaning death losses between total
 confinement farrowing facilities and open barns and huts.
 Bowman, G.; Ott, S.L.
 Fort Collins, CO : USDA:APHIS:VS,; 1993.
 Animal health insight /. p. 1-7; 1993.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Mortality; Preweaning period; Farrowing
 houses; Piglet production; Litter size
 
 
 34                                     NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Comparison of behaviour patterns of sows and litters in a
 farrowing crate and a farrowing pen.
 Blackshaw, J.K.; Blackshaw, A.W.; Thomas, F.J.; Newman, F.W.
 Amsterdam ; New York : Elsevier, 1984-; 1994 Mar.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 39 (3/4): p. 281-295; 1994
 Mar.  In the special issue: Advances in pig behavior science /
 edited by Judith K. Blackshaw.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Litters; Behavior patterns; Farrowing pens;
 Pig housing; Animal behavior; Mortality
 
 
 35                                    NAL Call. No.: 448.3 AP5
 Comparison of bioaerosol sampling methods in barns housing
 swine. Thorne, P.S.; Kiekhaeffer, M.S.; Whitten, P.; Donham,
 K.J. Washington, D.C. : American Society for Microbiology;
 1992 Aug. Applied and environmental microbiology v. 58 (8): p.
 2543-2551; 1992 Aug. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Pig housing; Aerosols; Sampling;
 Comparisons
 
 Abstract:  The air in livestock buildings contains bioaerosol
 levels that are sufficiently high to cause adverse health
 effects in animals and workers. These bioaerosols are complex
 mixtures of live and dead microorganisms and their products as
 well as other aeroallergens. The effectiveness of sampling
 methods used for quantifying the very high concentrations of
 microorganisms in these environments has not been well
 studied. To facilitate an accurate assessment of respiratory
 hazards from viable organisms in agricultural environments,
 three bioaerosol sampling methods were investigated: the
 Andersen microbial sampler method (AMS), the all-glass
 impinger method (AGI), and the Nuclepore filtration-elution
 method (NFE). These methods were studied in a parallel fashion
 in 24 swine confinement buildings. Measurements were taken in
 two seasons with three types of culture media in duplicate to
 assess total bacteria, gram-negative enteric bacteria, and
 total fungi. Methods were analyzed for the proportion of
 samples yielding data within the limits of detection,
 intraclass reliability, and correlation between methods. For
 sampling viable bacteria, the AMS had a poor data yield
 because of overloading and demonstrated weak correlation with
 the AGI. Conversely, the AGI and NFE gave sufficient numbers
 of valid data points (90%), yielded high intraclass
 reliabilities (alpha greater than or equal to 0.92), and were
 highly correlated with each other (r = 0.86). The AGI and the
 NFE were suitable methods for assessing bacteria in this
 environment, but the AMS was not. The AMS was the only method
 that consistently recovered enteric bacteria (73% data yield).
 For sampling fungi, the AGI and AMS both yielded sufficient
 data and all three methods demonstrated high intraclass
 reliability. The AGI and AMS correlated moderately with each
 other, but each correlated well with the NFE. However, the AGI
 measured significantly higher airborne fungal concentrations
 than did the AMS. Thus, the AGI was the
 
 
 36                                     NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 A comparison of operant responding by farrowing sows for food
 and nest-building materials.
 Hutson, G.D.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1992 Aug.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 34 (3): p. 221-230; 1992
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Nesting; Feeds; Straw; Materials;
 Conditioned reflexes; Motivation; Animal welfare; Farrowing
 pens
 
 
 37                                  NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Computer simulation assessment of the thermal microenvironment
 of growing pigs under summer conditions.
 Axaopoulos, P.; Panagakis, P.; Kyritsis, S.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1992 May. Transactions of the ASAE v. 35 (3): p.
 1005-1009; 1992 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Greece; Pigs; Buildings; Computer simulation;
 Environmental temperature; Heat stress; Microenvironments;
 Relative humidity; Simulation models; Summer; Weather data
 
 Abstract:  The effects of outside climatic conditions on the
 thermal microenvironment inside a building for growing pigs
 (50 kg mean) were studied using a 30-year period set of hourly
 real weather data from the Athenian region. Transient computer
 simulation allowed hourly prediction of air temperature and
 relative humidity inside the swine unit for each year. Under
 Greek summer conditions (May to September) pigs are subjected
 to heat stress of considerable duration and intensity due to
 temperature, while few problems due to relative humidity
 occur. Furthermore, inside THI values exceeded 85 only a few
 hours, therefore THI cannot effectively be used as a heat-
 stress index.
 
 
 38                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 C163
 Concentration of respirable dust and bioaerosols and
 identification of certain microbial types in a hog-growing
 facility.
 Butera, M.; Smith, J.H.; Morrison, W.D.; Hacker, R.R.; Kains,
 F.A.; Ogilvie, J.R.
 Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada; 1991 Jun.
 Canadian journal of animal science v. 71 (2): p. 271-277; 1991
 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Dust; Aerosols; Ventilation; Particle size;
 Air; Air quality; Microbial contamination; Bacteria; Molds;
 Environmental temperature; Relative humidity
 
 
 39                                     NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Contributions of pig behavior research to animal production.
 Blackshaw, J.K.
 Amsterdam ; New York : Elsevier, 1984-; 1994 Mar.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 39 (3/4): p. 195-202; 1994
 Mar.  In the special issue: Advances in pig behavior science /
 edited by Judith K. Blackshaw.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Animal behavior; Agricultural research;
 Animal welfare; Animal production; Animal husbandry
 
 
 40                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 Control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
 transmission: handling infected seedstock.
 Dee, S.; Joo, H.S.; Pijoan, C.
 Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company; 1994 Jul.
 The Compendium on continuing education for the practicing
 veterinarian v. 16 (7): p. 927-933, 943; 1994 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Swine diseases; Viral diseases; Disease
 control; Strain differences; Arterivirus; Serology;
 Immunofluorescence; Sentinel animals; Pig farming
 
 
 41                                  NAL Call. No.: 275.29 M58B
 Controlling rats and mice in swine facilities.
 Timm, R.M.; Marsh, R.E.; Corrigan, R.M.; Holscher, K.
 East Lansing, Mich. : The Service; 1992 Feb.
 Extension bulletin E - Cooperative Extension Service, Michigan
 State University v.): 4 p.; 1992 Feb.  In Subseries: Pork
 Industry Handbook. Management.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pig housing; Rodent control; Disease control;
 Diseases; Trapping; Rodenticides; Fumigants
 
 
 42                                    NAL Call. No.: SF395.P62
 Cooling swine.
 Jones, D.D.; Driggers, L.B.; Fehr, R.L.
 West Lafayette, Ind. : Cooperative Extension Service, Purdue
 University, [1978?-1990]; 1992.
 Pork industry handbook. 6 p.; 1992.  In the subseries:
 Housing. (PIH-87), revised December 1992.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Pigs; Pig housing; Cooling systems;
 Shade; Insulation; Ventilation
 
 
 43                                       NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Cortisol, growth hormone, and testosterone concentrations
 during mating behavior in the bull and boar.
 Borg, K.E.; Esbenshade, K.L.; Johnson, B.H.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1991
 Aug. Journal of animal science v. 69 (8): p. 3230-3240; 1991
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Boars; Bulls; Testosterone; Hydrocortisone;
 Somatotropin; Mating; Sexual behavior; Hormone secretion;
 Blood serum; Stress response
 
 Abstract:  Two experiments were conducted to evaluate
 peripheral concentrations of cortisol (C), growth hormone
 (GH), and testosterone (T) in bulls and boars during mating
 and to correlate mating behaviors with endocrine secretion in
 the presence of an estrous female. In Exp. 1, six sexually
 inexperienced mature bulls were bled every 15 min for 2 h
 before and 2 h after a 30-min exposure to a single,
 restrained, estrous cow; sampling occurred every 5 min during
 exposure. In Exp. 2, six sexually experienced boars were bled
 similarly before and after exposure to a sow and every 5 min
 during a 15-min exposure to a freely moving, estrous sow.
 Behavioral events recorded during exposure to a female
 included the following: flehmen responses (bulls only),
 mounts, penis extensions, intromissions, ejaculations, and
 time to first mount and first ejaculation. Of the six bulls,
 four completed at least one service (intromission +
 ejaculation), and three of six mounted the estrous cow eight
 or more times. Completion of one or more services resulted in
 significant elevations in serum C and GH concentrations, but
 not T concentrations, during the exposure period. Bulls
 mounting eight or more times also experienced significant
 elevations in C concentrations during exposure. Three of six
 boars completed at least one service. Servicing and mounting
 the sow fewer than five times were both associated with
 significant elevations in serum C concentrations. Serum
 concentrations of T were also elevated as a result of exposure
 to an estrous sow. Collectively, these data support the
 suggestion that specific events during natural mating activity
 can alter endocrine secretions of C and GH in bulls and C and
 T in boars.
 
 
 44                                  NAL Call. No.: 290.9 Am32P
 Costs of environmental changes in pig housing.
 Foster, M.P.; Lemin, C.D.; Casey, K.D.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers,; 1991. Paper / (91-4030): 7 p.; 1991.  Paper
 presented at the "1991 International Summer Meeting sponsored
 by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers," June
 23-26, 1991, Albuquerque, New Mexico.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Australia; Cabt; Pig housing; Design;
 Environmental control; Costs; Models
 
 
 45                                     NAL Call. No.: 58.8 J82
 A data-acquisition system for electronic identification,
 monitoring and control of group-housed pigs.
 Goedseels, V.; Geers, R.; Truyen, B.; Wouters, P.; Goossens,
 K.; Ville, H.; Janssens, S.
 London : Academic Press; 1992 May.
 Journal of agricultural engineering research v. 52 (1): p.
 25-33; 1992 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pig housing; Groups; Data collection; Systems;
 Measurement; Body weight; Feed intake; Body temperature;
 Physical activity; Electronics; Identification; Monitoring;
 Automatic control; Information storage; Computers
 
 Abstract:  This paper describes a data-acquisition system
 which has been developed to measure, in parallel, individual
 body weight and feed intake of growing pigs kept within a
 group, their body temperature and physical activity. This
 multitude of signals originating from physiological and
 behavioural parameters can be collected in relation to
 environmental parameters on a continuous and long-term basis.
 A modular distributed multiprocessor architecture was
 developed to allow easy post-processing of collected data and
 to guarantee a flexible integration of data into a more
 extended data management system. A periodical and complete
 automatic transfer of locally stored data to a central
 computer unit has been implemented. Communication protocols
 are standardized allowing data transfer to and from other
 networks. The availability of an electronic identification
 system combined with various sensors will provide
 opportunities to study possible improvements of handling,
 housing and transport of farm animals.
 
 
 46                                     NAL Call. No.: 58.8 J82
 Determination of minimum ventilation rate in pig houses with
 natural ventilation based on carbon dioxide balance.
 Klooster, C.E. van't; Heitlager, B.P.
 London ; Orlando : Academic Press, 1956-; 1994 Apr.
 Journal of agricultural engineering research v. 57 (4): p.
 279-287; 1994 Apr. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pig housing; Ventilation; Measurement; Models;
 Carbon dioxide; Ecological balance
 
 
 47                                  NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Development of a portable microprocessor for measuring
 selected stress responses of growing pigs.
 Feddes, J.J.R.; DeShazer, J.A.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1993 Jan. Transactions of the ASAE v. 36 (1): p.
 201-204; 1993 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Blood pressure; Body temperature; Movement;
 Stress; Measurement; Microprocessors; Computers; Design; Pig
 housing
 
 Abstract:  The development of a non-restrictive method for
 measuring selected stress responses of growing pigs in their
 environment is important to assess the acceptability of an
 environment for the pig. Blood pressure, body temperature, and
 animal activity are three measurements that can relate to
 stress of an environment. A portable microprocessor-controlled
 data logger was developed to measure these three parameters
 every 16 min over several days. These measurements were found
 to be accurate when obtained from the data logger strapped to
 a pig. Surgical techniques were developed to obtain blood
 pressure and body temperature. Specific data collected from
 this study showed that typical blood pressure for a growing
 pig (35 kg) is 80 +/- 5 mm Hg, blood temperature varied
 between 39 degrees C (thermoneutral) and 42 degrees C
 (surgical recovery) and the pig was active 26% of the time.
 
 
 48                                       NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 The development of pain in young pigs associated with
 castration and attempts to prevent castration-induced
 behavioral changes.
 McGlone, J.J.; Nicholson, R.I.; Hellman, J.M.; Herzog, D.N.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1993
 Jun. Journal of animal science v. 71 (6): p. 1441-1446; 1993
 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Pain; Castration; Analgesics; Animal
 welfare; Age differences; Animal behavior; Liveweight gain;
 Survival
 
 Abstract:  Four experiments were conducted to examine the
 development of castration-induced behavioral changes, the
 effects of castration age on pig weight gain, and the efficacy
 of common analgesics for use in castrated pigs. In Exp. 1,
 behavioral changes associated with castration of pigs at 1, 5,
 10, 15, or 20 d of age were evaluated. Castration caused
 measurable changes (reduced suckling, reduced standing, and
 increased lying times, P < .05) in the behavior of young pigs
 compared with that of intact pigs at all ages tested. Effects
 of age and interactions between age and castration treatment
 were not significant (P > .10) for any behaviors evaluated. In
 Exp. 2, the performance of pigs castrated at 1 d of age was
 compared with the performance of those castrated on d 14 and
 female littermates. Birth weights, weaning weights, and
 mortality were recorded. Pigs that were castrated on d 14 were
 heavier (P = .05) at weaning and had a higher (P < .05) weight
 gain during lactation compared to pigs castrated on d 1 of
 age. Pig mortality was similar among the treatments. In Exp. 3
 and 4, the efficacies of pain-reducing drugs (non-narcotic
 analgesics) were evaluated for effectiveness in reducing
 castration-induced behavioral changes in 8-wk-old pigs.
 Although castration reduced (P < .05) feeding time and weight
 gain, neither aspirin nor butorphanol influenced behavioral
 changes associated with castration. We conclude that pigs show
 similar behavioral changes (and probably pain perception) when
 castrated from 1 to 20 d of age. However, pig performance data
 favored castration at 14 d rather than at 1 d of age. Among
 older pigs, which show much greater behavioral effects of
 castration, analgesics (aspirin and butorphanol), used at
 recommended doses, provided no measurable effect on
 castration-induced behavioral changes.
 
 
 49                                   NAL Call. No.: SB950.A1V4
 Development of rodent control technology for confined swine
 facilities. Corrigan, R.M.; Towell, C.A.; Williams, R.E.
 Davis, Calif. : University of California; 1992 Aug.
 Proceedings ... Vertebrate Pest Conference (15): p. 280-285;
 1992 Aug. Meeting held March 3-5, 1992, Newport Beach, CA. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mus musculus; Rattus norvegicus; Pig housing;
 Rodent control; Rodenticides; Baiting
 
 
 50                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of porcine proliferative
 enteritis. Connor, J.F.
 Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company; 1991 Jul.
 The Compendium on continuing education for the practicing
 veterinarian v. 13 (7): p. 1172-1176, 1178; 1991 Jul. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Tissue proliferation; Enteritis;
 Campylobacter; Ileum; Hemorrhagic enteritis; Histopathology;
 Differential diagnosis; Antibiotics; Stress factors
 
 
 51                                     NAL Call. No.: S671.A66
 Drip vs. wetted-pad evaporative cooling of farrowing houses in
 Oklahoma. Harp, S.L.; Huhnke, R.L.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1991 Jul. Applied engineering in agriculture v. 7
 (4): p. 461-464; 1991 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oklahoma; Pigs; Farrowing houses; Cooling
 systems; Comparisons; Performance testing
 
 Abstract:  A comparison of drip cooling vs. wetted-pad
 evaporative cooling was performed on 61 sows over three
 farrowings. There were no significant differences between
 cooling methods for piglet weight gain, percentage of piglets
 weaned or sow weight loss. There was a significant difference
 in respiration rates between cooling methods. Respiration rate
 was a function of wet-bulb depression.
 
 
 52                                  NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Durability of truss connections in a naturally ventilated
 swine barn. Masse, D.I.; Munroe, J.A.; Phillips, P.A.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1991 Mar. Transactions of the ASAE v. 34 (2): p.
 625-627; 1991 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pig housing; Trusses; Joints (timber); Creosote;
 Decay; Durability; Loads; Natural ventilation; Wood strength
 
 Abstract:  This study investigated the effect of a four-year
 exposure in a naturally ventilated building (NVB) environment
 on the lateral load capacity and stiffness of truss
 connections. Untreated and creosote brush treated joints
 exposed in the NVB were compared with matched specimens that
 had been stored under laboratory conditions. It was found that
 there was no statistical difference (P=0.05) in ultimate
 strength and axial stiffness between joints exposed in the
 barn and joints exposed in the laboratory considering either
 the steel gussets or plywood gussets. Other observations
 indicated that this barn was not a "worst case" concerning
 harshness of the environment local to the exposed joints.
 
 
 53                                  NAL Call. No.: 286.81 F322
 Economics behind trend to free-stall farrowing.
 Marberry, S.
 Minnetonka, Minn. : Miller Publishing Company; 1993 Jul26.
 Feedstuffs v. 65 (1): p. 13, 20; 1993 Jul26.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Farrowing; Trends
 
 
 54                                     NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 The effect of a foraging device (The 'Edinburgh Foodball') on
 the behaviour of pigs.
 Young, R.J.; Carruthers, J.; Lawrence, A.B.
 Amsterdam ; New York : Elsevier, 1984-; 1994 Mar.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 39 (3/4): p. 237-247; 1994
 Mar.  In the special issue: Advances in pig behavior science /
 edited by Judith K. Blackshaw.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Foraging; Feed dispensers; Enrichment;
 Animal welfare
 
 
 55                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69
 The effect of all-in/all-out management on pigs from a herd
 with enzootic pneumonia.
 Clark, L.K.; Scheidt, A.B.; Armstrong, C.H.; Knox, K.;
 Mayrose, V.B. Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing
 Co; 1991 Sep. Veterinary medicine v. 86 (9): p. 946, 948-951;
 1991 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Pneumonia; Mycoplasma; Disease control;
 Disease prevalence; Disease course; Pig housing; Liveweight
 gain; Animal husbandry
 
 
 56                                     NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Effect of dietary fibre and feeding system on activity and
 oral behaviour of group housed gilts.
 Brouns, F.; Edwards, S.A.; English, P.R.
 Amsterdam ; New York : Elsevier, 1984-; 1994 Mar.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 39 (3/4): p. 215-223; 1994
 Mar.  In the special issue: Advances in pig behavior science /
 edited by Judith K. Blackshaw.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Gilts; Diet; Fiber content; Unrestricted feeding;
 Restricted feeding; Pregnancy; Behavior patterns; Maternal
 nutrition; Abnormal behavior; Feeding behavior
 
 
 57                                     NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 The effect of environment on behaviour, plasma cortisol and
 prolactin in parturient sows.
 Lawrence, A.B.; Petherick, J.C.; McLean, K.A.; Deans, L.A.;
 Chirnside, J.; Vaughan, A.; Clutton, E.; Terlouw, E.M.C.
 Amsterdam ; New York : Elsevier, 1984-; 1994 Mar.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 39 (3/4): p. 313-330; 1994
 Mar.  In the special issue: Advances in pig behavior science /
 edited by Judith K. Blackshaw.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Nesting; Prolactin; Hydrocortisone; Stress;
 Farrowing pens; Pig housing; Litter; Animal behavior;
 Gestation period; Litter size; Litter weight
 
 
 58                                       NAL Call. No.: 49 W89
 Effect of environmental factors on humoral and cell mediated
 immune parameters of growing pigs.
 Rafai, P.; Kovacs, F.; Tuboly, S.; Biro, H.
 Rome : International Publishing Enterprises; 1991 Jan.
 World review of animal production v. 26 (1): p. 9-16; 1991
 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Hungary; Pigs; Immune response; Cell mediated
 immunity; Humoral immunity; Selenium; Stress; Corticotropin;
 Environmental temperature; Microclimate; Feed additives;
 Vitamin e; Liveweight gain; Blood plasma; Hydrocortisone;
 Cytotoxicity; Seasons; Pig fattening
 
 
 59                                     NAL Call. No.: 382 SO12
 Effect of feeding a high level of sugar in the diet for the
 last 12 days before slaughter on muscle glycolytic potential
 and meat quality traits in pigs.
 Fernandez, X.; Tornberg, E.; Magard, M.; Goransson, L.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science; 1992.
 Journal of the science of food and agriculture v. 60 (1): p.
 135-138; 1992. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Diet; Pigmeat; Meat quality; Glycolysis; Sugar;
 Pigs
 
 Abstract:  The aim of this work was to study the effects of
 500 12 kg-1 sucrose diet and of type of food distribution (ad
 libitum or two meals daily without food restriction) during
 the last 12 days before slaughter on glycolytic potential (GP,
 an estimate of resting muscle glycogen content) in pig
 Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle, and on meat quality traits in
 muscles LD and Biceps femoris. The pigs used were three-way
 crossbred ((Yorkshire X Landrace) X Hampshire). Samples of LD
 were taken intra vitam, immediately before and after
 treatment, using a biopsy technique. Muscle metabolites, GP
 and meat quality traits such as pH, internal light scattering
 or drip loss did not vary significantly between the
 treatments. A significant decrease in GP was noted after
 feeding the conventional diet ad libitum. The lack of effect
 of the sugar diet on muscle glycogen content might be
 attributed to the overnight fast (approximately 15 h)
 preceding the second sampling. It was therefore hypothesised
 that sugar feeding has no significant long-term effect on
 muscle glycogen stores. The pigs exhibited a wide individual
 variability in GP changes during the feeding period. Pigs fed
 the conventional diet showed a marked trend towards a
 decreased GP after 12 days. This decrease in GP might be
 attributed to a sampling date effect, the reasons for which
 remain unknown.
 
 
 60                                     NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Effect of group composition and pen size on behavior,
 productivity and immune response of growing pigs.
 Moore, A.S.; Gonyou, H.W.; Stookey, J.M.; McLaren, D.G.
 Amsterdam ; New York : Elsevier, 1984-; 1994 Apr.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 40 (1): p. 13-30; 1994
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Groups; Body weight; Aggressive behavior;
 Pens; Size; Trauma; Immune response; Cell mediated immunity;
 Liveweight gain; Physical activity; Animal welfare; Mixing
 
 
 61                                     NAL Call. No.: 382 So12
 The effect of housing system on apparent digestibility in
 pigs, using the classical and marker (chromic oxide, acid-
 insoluble ash) techniques, in relation to dietary composition.
 Bakker, G.C.M.; Jongbloed, A.W.
 Sussex : John Wiley & Sons Limited; 1994.
 Journal of the science of food and agriculture v. 64 (1): p.
 107-115; 1994. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pig farming; Pig housing; Pig feeding; Diet;
 Maize starch; Cellulose; Toasting; Soybeans; Hulls; Fats;
 Digestibility; Laboratory methods; Chromic oxide; Acids;
 Solubility; Ash
 
 Abstract:  The present study examined differences in faecal
 digestibilities of organic matter (dOM) and crude protein
 (dXP), between growing pigs housed either in pens as groups or
 individually in metabolism cages. In addition, a study was
 made of the influence of dietary composition on these observed
 differences. Four experimental diets were composed by iso-
 energetic exchange of maize starch in the control diet with
 purified cellulose (260 g kg-1), toasted soyabean hulls (280 g
 kg-1) or renderers fat (67 g kg-1), respectively. Both in pens
 and in metabolism cages, dOM and dXP were measured, using both
 chromic oxide (Cr2O3) and acid-insoluble ash (AIA) as markers.
 In metabolism cages, the results of the marker method were
 compared to those of the classical method, where dOM and dXP
 were measured by collecting faeces quantitatively. Recoveries
 of both markers were measured, after a period of 10 and 3
 days. With Cr2O3 as marker, pen-housing resulted in a dOM
 which was on average 2.5 (1.7-4.5) units lower and a dXP
 averaging 4.5 (3.0-5.8) units lower than measured in the
 metabolism cages (P < 0.001). No significant interactions were
 demonstrated between housing system and dietary composition.
 In contrast, with AIA as marker significantly higher
 digestibility values were observed for pigs in pens, when fed
 the cellulose diet. With this diet, the dOM was on average
 14.7 units higher and the dXP was on average 10.9 units higher
 for the penned pigs. For the pigs fed one of the other three
 diets, the dOM was on average 1.5 (0.1-2.7) units lower and
 the dXP was on average 3.7 (1.9-5.7) units lower. Thus, with
 AIA as a marker, the effect of housing system on digestibility
 interacted with the type of diet (P < 0.05 on dOM and P < 0.01
 on dXP). Comparison between the marker method with the
 classical method, showed that Cr2O3 provided similar results.
 In contrast, AIA displayed significantly higher dOM and dXP,
 except with the cellulose diet. This could be explained by
 differences in the recoveries of both markers. For Cr2O3 this
 was close to 100% and for AIA it varied from 97% on the
 cellulose diet to 183% on the control diet. The analytical
 procedure for AIA requires more research. Shortening the
 measuring period from 10 to 3 days did not prove to be
 significant, but increased the standard deviations. It was
 concluded that for practical application, faecal
 digestibilities should be measured with penned pigs. According
 to the findings, under such conditions Cr2O3 a good marker.
 AIA was found to be unsuitable.
 
 
 62                                       NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Effect of initial breeding weight and management system using
 a high-producing sow genotype on resulting reproductive
 performance over three parities. Newton, E.A.; Mahan, D.C.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1993
 May. Journal of animal science v. 71 (5): p. 1177-1186; 1993
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Gilts; Body weight; Farrowing pens;
 Reproductive performance; Crates; Lactation number; Sow
 lactation; Feed intake; Weight losses; Sow milk; Milk
 composition; Culling; Survival; Litter size
 
 Abstract:  A study was conducted with sows of a high-producing
 genotype to evaluate their reproductive performance using
 three breeding weights over a three-parity period in two
 management systems. A total of 114 F1 gilts (Landrace X
 Yorkshire) were used in a split-plot, randomized, complete
 block experiment conducted as a 3 X 2 factorial arrangement of
 treatments in two replicates. Three gilt breeding weights of
 120, 135, and 150 kg were achieved by feeding 1.8, 2.3, or 3.2
 kg/d of a .73% lysine corn-soybean meal (C-SBM) diet,
 respectively, from 5 to 8 mo of age. Two locations, each with
 different management systems, were considered the main plot
 and consisted of 1) outside, concrete-floored gestation lots
 and indoor farrowing pens or 2) indoor gestation pens and
 farrowing crates. All sows were fed 1.8 (Parity 1) or 2.1
 (Parity 2 and 3) kg/d of a .73% lysine C-SBM diet during the
 breeding and gestation periods, whereas a .82% lysine C-SBM
 diet with 5% added fat was available ad libitum during
 lactation. All sows lost weight during the first lactation;
 larger weight losses occurred as breeding weight increased (P
 < .01). During the second and third lactations the 135- and
 150-kg sow breeding groups had less lactation weight change,
 whereas the 120-kg group lost more weight, resulting in a
 breeding weight X parity interaction (P < .01). The 120-kg
 breeding weight group consumed less feed (P < .05) for the
 three lactation periods than did the heavier weight groups.
 Initial breeding weight had no effect on number of pigs born
 (total, live) or pig and litter weights at birth. Pig
 mortality increased with increasing breeding weight (P < .01)
 and parity (P < .05), a response that was exacerbated when
 sows farrowed in pens vs crates. Postweaning breeding
 intervals and sow removal from the experiment were not
 significantly affected by initial breeding weight, but a
 numerically higher percentage of sows in the 120-kg group were
 anestrous or failed to conceive than the percentage of s
 
 
 63                                NAL Call. No.: 275.29 N272EX
 Effect of Luprosil NC on pig performance.
 Danielson, M.; Saner, R.; Wenninghoff, J.; Wiseman, S.
 Lincoln, Neb. : The Service; 1992.
 EC - Cooperative Extension Service, University of Nebraska
 (91-219-A): p. 16-17; 1992.  In the series analytic: 1992
 Nebraska Swine report / Compiled by W.T. Ahlschwede.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Stress factors; Feed additives; Feed
 intake; Liveweight gain
 
 
 64                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Effect of management practices on the Streptococcus suis
 carrier rate in nursery swine.
 Dee, S.A.; Carlson, A.R.; Winkelman, N.L.; Corey, M.M.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1993 Jul15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 203
 (2): p. 295-299; 1993 Jul15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Colorado; Kentucky; Minnesota; Montana; North
 Dakota; South Dakota; Pigs; Streptococcus suis; Carrier state;
 Incidence; Animal husbandry
 
 
 65                                     NAL Call. No.: TX373.M4
 Effect of oral loading of acid or base on the incidence of
 pale soft exudative port (PSE) in stress-susceptible pigs.
 Boles, J.A.; Patience, J.F.; Schaefer, A.L.; Aalhus, J.L.
 Oxford : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1994.
 Meat science v. 37 (2): p. 181-194; 1994.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigmeat; Exudative meat; Incidence; Acid base
 equilibrium; Meat quality
 
 
 66                                       NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Effect of pasture, confinement, and diet fortification with
 vitamin E and selenium on reproducing gilts and their progeny.
 Mutetikka, D.B.; Mahan, D.C.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1993
 Dec. Journal of animal science v. 71 (12): p. 3211-3218; 1993
 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Gilts; Dietary minerals; Selenium; Vitamin e;
 Maize; Soybean oilmeal; Pastures; Grasses; Alfalfa; Sow
 lactation; Intensive livestock farming; Nutrient requirements;
 Female fertility; Blood serum; Vitamin supplements; Mineral
 supplements; Colostrum; Tissues
 
 Abstract:  A total of 48 gilts were used to evaluate the
 effects of a corn-soybean meal diet with or without vitamin E
 and Se fed on pasture or in confinement. The effects of these
 treatments on gilt serum and tissue alpha-tocopherol and Se
 concentrations and those of their progeny at weaning (28 d)
 were evaluated. During gestation, the experiment was a 2 X 2
 factorial arrangement of treatments in a split-plot design
 that compared the housing system (pasture or confinement) and
 the effect of diets fortified with or without vitamin E (22
 IU/kg) and Se (.3 ppm). The lactation study was a 2 X 2
 factorial arrangement of treatments in a split-plot design
 evaluating the two housing systems during gestation or
 lactation only when gilts were fed the unfortified basal diet.
 The gilts fed the vitamin E- and Se-supplemented diet remained
 either on pasture or in confinement during both reproductive
 phases and served as positive controls.Gilts were bled at
 breeding, at 30, 60, and 90 d postcoitum, at farrowing, and at
 weaning (28 d). Three pigs per litter were bled from all
 litters at weaning. Six pigs per treatment group were killed
 at weaning and livers were collected. Pasture lots contained
 orchardgrass, ryegrass, and alfalfa; different lots were used
 during each reproductive phase. Grass species predominated (>
 90%) during gestation, but alfalfa was the major species (>
 50%) during lactation. Forage samples during gestation were
 analyzed as containing.036 ppm of Se and 29 mg of alpha-
 tocopherol/kg of DM, but during lactation the forages
 contained .046 ppm of Se and 106 mg of alpha-tocopherol/ kg of
 DM. Serum and colostrum alpha-tocopherol concentrations during
 gestation increased when the vitamin E- and Se-fortified diet
 was fed, but gilts fed on pasture had higher serum alpha-
 tocopherol concentrations than those in confinement, resulting
 in a housing system X diet interaction (P < .01). No effects
 on serum Se or glutathione peroxidase activity were detected
 whether gilts were in confinement or on pasture or whether the
 diet was fortified with vitamin E and Se during gestation. At
 weaning, serum and milk alpha-tocopherol and Se contents were
 higher in gilts on pasture fed the unfortified diet than in
 gilts in confinement. Pigs from sows fed the unfortified diet
 had higher serum alpha-tocopherol (P < .01), liver alpha-
 tocopherol (P < .01), and liver Se (P < .01) concentrations
 when they and their dams were on pasture rather than in
 confinement. These results suggest that both diet and pasture
 contributed to the vitamin E and Se status of both gilts and
 litters in an additive manner, but vitamin E was influenced
 more than Se.
 
 
 67                                     NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 The effect of piglet stimuli on the posture changing behaviour
 of recently farrowed sows.
 Cronin, G.M.; Cropley, J.A.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1991 Apr.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 30 (1/2): p. 167-172; 1991
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Postpartum interval; Posture; Change;
 Piglets; Sounds; Touch; Stimulation; Maternal behavior;
 Farrowing pens
 
 
 68                                     NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 The effect of playback volume and duration on the response of
 sows to piglet distress calls.
 Hutson, G.D.; Price, E.O.; Dickenson, L.G.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1993 Jun.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 37 (1): p. 31-37; 1993
 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Piglets; Vocalization
 
 
 69                          NAL Call. No.: MnSUThesis vet noye
 The effect of pneumonia monitored during lifetime and at
 slaughter on growth in swine.
 Noyes, Elizabeth Pearsall
 1992; 1992.
 xii, 142 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.  Includes bibliographical
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 
 70                                       NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Effect of porcine somatotropin, stress susceptibility, and
 final end point of cooking on the sensory, physical, and
 chemical properties of pork loin chops. Boles, J.A.; Parrish,
 F.C. Jr; Skaggs, C.L.; Christian, L.L. Champaign, Ill. :
 American Society of Animal Science; 1991 Jul. Journal of
 animal science v. 69 (7): p. 2865-2870; 1991 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Somatotropin; Stress; Porcine stress
 syndrome; Susceptibility; Meat cuts; Meat quality; Pigmeat;
 Exudative meat; Tenderness; Sensory evaluation; Proximate
 analysis; Fat percentage; Genotypes; Temperature
 
 Abstract:  Forty-eight pigs of three known stress
 susceptibility classes were injected daily with porcine
 somatotropin (pST; 4 mg/d) or a placebo. Each pig was injected
 in the neck once daily until taken off test, starting when the
 pigs weighed 59 kg. The PST treatment was terminated at weekly
 intervals when individual pigs reached 109 kg, but animals
 continued to be fed for six additional days to allow for
 required withdrawal time. The effect of pST and stress
 classification on the sensory, physical, and chemical
 characteristics of pork chops was observed. Also, the effect
 of two end-point temperatures (71 and 77 degrees C) on the
 sensory attributes was observed. The pST treatment of animals
 resulted in a small but significant decrease in panel scores
 for tenderness, juiciness, and flavor. Stress susceptibility
 class, however, decreased panel scores for tenderness only.
 The pST treatment reduced intramuscular fat and increased
 moisture in the longissimus muscle, but stress susceptibility
 class had no effect on proximate composition. The pST
 treatment and stress susceptibility decreased and increased
 Hunter L values of chops, respectively, indicating darker and
 lighter colors, respectively. Furthermore, a greater end-point
 temperature reduced sensory scores for tenderness and
 juiciness. These results suggest that PST treatment does not
 cause an increased incidence of pale, soft, exudative muscle.
 Also, the use of a lower temperature of end-point doneness (71
 degrees C) should be implemented to optimize palatability of
 broiled pork chops regardless of PST treatment.
 
 
 71                                     NAL Call. No.: TX373.M4
 Effect of pre-scalding brushing on contamination level of pork
 carcsses during the slaughtering process.
 Rahkio, M.; Korkeala, H.; Sippola, I.; Peltonen, M.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1992.
 Meat science v. 32 (2): p. 173-183; 1992.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Slaughter; Carcasses; Contamination;
 Prevention; Brushes; Bacterial count
 
 
 72                                       NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Effect of preslaughter anesthesia on muscle metabolism and
 meat quality of pigs of different halothane genotypes.
 Klont, R.E.; Lambooy, E.; Logtestijn, J.G. van
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1993
 Jun. Journal of animal science v. 71 (6): p. 1477-1485; 1993
 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Porcine stress syndrome; Pigmeat; Meat
 quality; Genotypes; Halothane; Color; Postmortem changes;
 Muscle physiology; Blood chemistry; Metabolites; Enzyme
 activity
 
 Abstract:  Pigs of different halothane genotypes were
 anesthetized 45 min before slaughter. During the period of
 anesthesia blood samples and muscle biopsy samples were taken
 to investigate muscle energy metabolism by measuring different
 metabolites. After exsanguination, the same metabolites and
 some meat quality characteristics were determined. Minimal
 differences in resting muscle metabolism seemed to exist
 between the halothane genotypes. Some significant differences
 in ante- and postmortem metabolism were found, particularly in
 creatine and lactate concentrations, but these were not
 reflected in ultimate meat quality. None of the pigs showed
 PSE meat and there were no differences in muscle pH and
 temperature at 45 min and 18 h postmortem. However, rigor,
 drip loss, and color still showed a significant genotype
 effect. It was concluded that due to the method of anesthesia
 there were no differences in muscle metabolism at the moment
 of slaughter. This may have led to a more uniform ultimate
 meat quality between pigs differing in their genetic
 susceptibility toward stress. There were differences in color
 and drip loss between the halothane genotypes that cannot be
 explained by differences in pH and carcass temperature at 45
 min postmortem.
 
 
 73                                     NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 The effect of space restriction and provision of toys during
 rearing on the behaviour, productivity and physiology of male
 pigs.
 Pearce, G.P.; Paterson, A.M.
 Amsterdam ; New York : Elsevier, 1984-; 1993 Mar.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 36 (1): p. 11-28; 1993
 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Pig housing; Crowding; Stocking density;
 Toys; Stress; Animal behavior
 
 
 74                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 AN55
 The effect of straw on farrowing site choice and nest building
 behaviour in sows.
 Arey, D.S.; Petchey, A.M.; Fowler, V.R.
 East Lothian, Scotland : Durrant; 1992 Feb.
 Animal production v. 54 (pt.1): p. 129-133; 1992 Feb. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Farrowing; Straw; Nesting; Animal behavior;
 Animal welfare
 
 
 75                                     NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Effect of straw on the behaviour of growing pigs.
 Fraser, D.; Phillips, P.A.; Thompson, B.K.; Tennessen, T.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1991 May.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 30 (3/4): p. 307-318; 1991
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Straw; Litter; Agonistic behavior; Animal
 behavior; Diurnal activity; Young animals; Age differences;
 Pig housing
 
 
 76                                     NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Effect of subclinical infection with Actinobacillus
 pleuropneumoniae in commingled feeder swine.
 Rohrbach, B.W.; Hall, R.F.; Hitchcock, J.P.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1993 Apr01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 202
 (7): p. 1095-1098; 1993 Apr01.  Paper presented at the
 symposium on "Animals and the environment: Impacts on
 veterinary medicine," Boston, Massachusetts.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae; Latent
 infections; Growth rate; Feed conversion efficiency; Age;
 Slaughter
 
 
 77                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Effect of the angle of slope on the ease with which pigs
 negotiate loading ramps.
 Warriss, P.D.; Bevis, E.A.; Edwards, J.E.; Brown, S.N.;
 Knowles, T.G. London : The Association; 1991 May04.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 128 (18): p. 419-421; 1991 May04.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Transport of animals; Slopes; Chutes;
 Spacing
 
 
 78                                     NAL Call. No.: TX373.M4
 Effect of time between adrenaline injection and slaughter on
 the rate and extent of post-mortem metabolism in porcine
 skeletal muscle. Fernandez, X.; Forslid, A.; Magard, M.;
 Moller, B.M.; Tornberg, E. Essex : Elsevier Applied Science
 Publishers; 1992.
 Meat science v. 31 (3): p. 287-298; 1992.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Epinephrine; Injection; Time; Slaughter;
 Skeletal muscle; Metabolism
 
 
 79                                       NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Effect of vitamin E and fat source in sows' diets on immune
 response of suckling and weaned piglets.
 Babinszky, L.; Langhout, D.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hartog, L.A.
 den; Joling, P.; Nieuwland, M.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1991
 May. Journal of animal science v. 69 (5): p. 1833-1842; 1991
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Piglets; Alpha-tocopherol; Dietary fat;
 Pregnancy; Lactation; Sunflower oil; Fats; Slaughterhouse
 waste; Colostrum; Sow milk; B lymphocytes; Blood serum; Igg;
 Lysozyme; Antibody formation
 
 Abstract:  Thirty-six 7-mo-old gilts were used to study the
 effects of dietary vitamin E and fat source (5% sunflower oil
 or animal fat) in pregnant and lactating sow diets on serum
 vitamin E concentration and on cell-mediated and humoral
 immune response in suckling and weaned piglets. Six gilts each
 received one of six diets throughout pregnancy and lactation.
 The basal diets (13 mg alpha-tocopherol/kg diet) were
 supplemented with dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate to 48 and 136 mg
 alpha- tocopherol/kg of feed (average analyzed values). After
 weaning (at 4 wk of age) all pigs received identical diets (20
 mg of alpha-tocopherol/kg feed). One week after weaning, pigs
 were immunized (i.m. with ovalbumin and tetanus toxoid) and
 antibody production was measured. Blood samples were taken
 immediately after birth, at 1 wk after birth, at weaning, and
 at four weekly intervals after weaning. Samples were analyzed
 for alpha-tocopherol concentration, total number of
 leukocytes, T- and B-lymphocytes, lymphocyte stimulation with
 concanavalin A, lysozyme activity, and immunoglobulin
 concentrations. It was concluded that a high vitamin E level
 in the sow's diet increased serum vitamin E concentration of
 1-wk-old pigs (P < .05). Immune response against ovalbumin was
 increased (P < .05) at 1 wk of age after immunization for
 weaned pigs from sows fed the high level of vitamin E. Also,
 the phagocytic measures of pigs at 1 wk of age were increased
 by the medium vitamin E level (P < .05). Fat sources in the
 sow's diet had no consistent effect on the immunological
 measures of pigs.
 
 
 80                                       NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Effects of a porcine somatotropin implant on tissue mineral
 status of finishing pigs exposed to a thermoneutral or cold
 environment. Ledoux, D.R.; Knight, C.D.; Becker, B.A.; Baile,
 C.A.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1993
 Aug. Journal of animal science v. 71 (8): p. 2180-2186; 1993
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Diet studies; Feed supplements;
 Implantation; Somatotropin; Temperature; Animal tissues; Cold
 stress; Heat stress; Mineral content; Carcass composition
 
 Abstract:  An experiment was conducted with 24 crossbred
 (Landrace X Yorkshire X Duroc) finishing pigs (mean BW 85 kg)
 to study the effects of a single 100-mg recombinant porcine
 somatotropin (rpST) implant on the tissue mineral status of
 pigs exposed to either a thermoneutral (TN; 18 to 21 degrees
 C, 50 to 55% RH) or cold (C; 5 to 15 degrees C, 50 to 70% RH)
 environment until BW averaged 110 kg. The implants used in
 this study delivered an average 2.4 to 2.5 mg of rpST/d during
 the course of the study. Control pigs were implanted with a
 placebo. All diets were supplemented with minerals at levels
 that either met or exceeded the requirements of an 85-kg pig.
 At slaughter (mean BW 110 kg), tissues were collected and
 analyzed for selected macro- and microminerals. Pigs treated
 with rpST had higher (P < .05) Ca concentrations and total Ca
 in liver and kidney and higher (P < .05) Ca concentrations in
 muscle. Total P, Mg, Na, and K were all higher (P < .05) in
 the liver and kidneys of rpST-treated pigs. In general, rpST
 had little influence on Cu, Zn, and Fe in tissues. No
 consistent trend was evident in the response of tissue
 minerals to environmental temperature. Results indicated that
 pigs treated with rpST and supplemented with adequate minerals
 accumulated more minerals in certain tissues than did pigs not
 given rpST.
 
 
 81                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Effects of abattoir and slaughter handling systems on stress
 indicators in pig blood.
 Weeding, C.M.; Hunter, E.J.; Guise, H.J.; Penny, R.H.C.
 London : The Association; 1993 Jul03.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 133 (1): p. 10-13; 1993 Jul03.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Stress; Slaughter
 
 
 82                                     NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Effects of accommodation type and straw bedding around
 parturition and during lactation on the behaviour of
 primiparous sows and survival and growth of piglets to
 weaning.
 Cronin, G.M.; Smith, J.A.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1992 May.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 33 (2/3): p. 191-208; 1992
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Piglets; Farrowing pens; Crates; Straw;
 Litter; Farrowing; Sow lactation; Litter size; Survival;
 Growth; Maternal behavior; Weaning weight; Vocalization
 
 
 83                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Effects of acute physical stress on immune competence in pigs.
 Waern, M.J.; Fossum, C.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1993 Apr. American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (4):
 p. 596-601; 1993 Apr. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Immune competence; Exercise; Interferon;
 Lymphocyte transformation; Interleukin 2; Blood plasma;
 Hydrocortisone; Lactates; Hypoxanthines
 
 Abstract:  Some interrelations between physical stress and
 immune competence were studied in pigs. One group of pigs
 underwent 2 intense short-term treadmill exercise tests,
 separated by an interval of 1 week, and another group served
 as controls. In vitro production of interferon alpha by blood
 mononuclear cells and the ability of lymphocytes to
 proliferate and produce interleukin 2 were chosen as markers
 of immune competence; plasma concentrations of cortisol,
 lactate, and purines were used as markers of physical stress.
 Blood samples were drawn from a catheter in situ 60 minutes
 before, immediately after, and at 10, 30, and 60 minutes, and
 7, 24, and 72 hours after exercise. Physical stress resulted
 in immediate increase in the plasma concentrations of
 cortisol, lactate, and hypoxanthine, but had no effect on the
 blastogenic capability of lymphocytes or on their
 interleukin-2 production on either of the test occasions.
 Ability of blood mononuclear cells to produce interferon alpha
 in vitro was not affected by exercise stress.
 
 
 84                                     NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 The effects of aversively handling pigs, either individually
 or in groups, on their behaviour, growth and corticosteroids.
 Hemsworth, P.H.; Barnett, J.L.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1991 Apr.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 30 (1/2): p. 61-72; 1991
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Gilts; Treatment; Handling; Stress; Animal
 behavior; Growth; Reproductive performance; Corticoids;
 Groups; Individuals
 
 
 85                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.C24
 Effects of continuous stray voltage on health, growth, and
 welfare of fattening pigs.
 Robert, S.; Lennoxville, Quebec; Matte, J.J.; Bertin-Mahieux,
 J.; Martineau, G.P.
 Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1991 Oct.
 Canadian journal of veterinary research; Revue canadienne de
 recherche veterinaire v. 55 (4): p. 371-376; 1991 Oct. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Stray voltage; Feeding frequency; Animal
 welfare; Drinking behavior; Feed intake; Blood chemistry; Pig
 fattening
 
 
 86                                     NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Effects of design of individual cage-stalls on the behavioural
 and physiological responses related to the welfare of pregnant
 pigs. Barnett, J.L.; Hemsworth, P.H.; Cronin, G.M.; Newman,
 E.A.; McCallum, T.H. Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers,
 B.V.; 1991 Oct.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 32 (1): p. 23-33; 1991
 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Pig housing; Animal welfare; Aggressive
 behavior; Hydrocortisone; Stress; Design; Animal behavior
 
 
 87                                       NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Effects of dietary lysine levels on performance and immune
 response of weanling pigs housed at two floor space
 allowances.
 Kornegay, E.T.; Lindemann, M.D.; Ravindran, V.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1993
 Mar. Journal of animal science v. 71 (3): p. 552-556; 1993
 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Piglets; Lysine; Stocking density; Floor space;
 Liveweight gain; Feed intake; Feed conversion efficiency;
 Antibody formation; Crowding; Performance; Variation
 
 Abstract:  Three 35-d trials involving 288 crossbred weanling
 pigs (initial weight, 7.1 kg; age, 28 d) were used to
 determine the separate and interactive effects of two floor
 space allowances (.28 and .14 m2/pig) and three dietary lysine
 levels (NRC recommended, NRC + .1% crystalline lysine-HCl, and
 NRC + .2% crystalline lysine-HCl) on growth performance and
 several factors that measure variation within pens. Each trial
 was conducted as a 2 X 3 factorial arrangement of treatments
 in a randomized complete block design. There were four pens
 (four pigs per pen) for each of the six treatment combinations
 in each trial. The lysine X floor space allowance interaction
 was not significant (P = .25) for daily gain, daily feed
 intake, or gain/feed. Restriction of the floor space allowance
 decreased (P < .001) daily gain and daily feed intake, but
 gain/feed was not affected. The humoral immune response, as
 measured by the level of antibodies produced after two
 injections of ovalbumin, was not affected by floor space
 allowance. Addition of .1 and .2% crystalline lysine-HCl
 improved daily gain (P < .07), gain/feed (P < .10), and
 humoral immune response (P < .05) and was without effect (P =
 .28) on feed intake. Natural logarithms of variance,
 coefficients of variation, and range of daily gain and body
 weights were not changed by floor space allowance or dietary
 lysine level. Pigs on adequate and restricted floor space
 allowances responded similarly to dietary lysine levels. These
 results suggest that the addition of lysine to the diet was
 not effective in overcoming the reduction in performance in
 weanling pigs caused by the restricted floor space allowance.
 
 
 88                                       NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 The effects of diets formulated on an ideal protein basis on
 growth performance, carcass characteristics, and thermal
 balance of finishing gilts housed in a hot, diurnal
 environment.
 Lopez, J.; Goodband, R.D.; Allee, G.L.; Jesse, G.W.; Nelssen,
 J.L.; Tokach, M.D.; Spiers, D.; Becker, B.A.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1994
 Feb. Journal of animal science v. 72 (2): p. 367-379; 1994
 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Gilts; Feed supplements; Pig feeding; Diet;
 Lysine; Amino acids; Environmental temperature; Nutrient
 requirements; Heat stress; Fattening performance; Protein
 intake; Protein efficiency ratio; Carcass composition; Growth
 rate; Organs; Weight; Body temperature
 
 Abstract:  Forty-eight finishing gilts (initial BW = 70.6 +/-
 .95 kg) were randomly assigned to one of eight experimental
 treatments in a 2 X 2 X 2 factorial arrangement with main
 effects including dietary lysine (.60 vs 1.00%), source of
 amino acid fortification (intact protein vs synthetic amino
 acids formulated on an ideal protein basis), and environmental
 temperature (thermoneutral [TN]: 20 degrees C vs hot, diurnal
 [HD]: 27.7 to 35 degrees C). The ideal protein diets were
 formulated by using corn and soybean meal to meet the fifth-
 limiting amino acid; synthetic lysine, threonine, tryptophan,
 methionine, or isoleucine were added to meet the gilts'
 estimated requirements. The ratios of other total amino acids
 relative to lysine were as follows: threonine, 66%;
 tryptophan, 17%; methionine and cystine, 56%; and isoleucine,
 63%. Average daily gain, ADFI, and feed efficiency (G/F) were
 similar for gilts fed the intact and those fed the ideal
 proteins diets (P > .10). Increasing dietary lysine improved d
 0 to 14 ADG (P < .01), but no differences were observed for
 the overall experiment. Gilts in the HD environment ate less
 feed and had lower ADG than gilts in the TN environment (P <
 .01). A temperature X lysine interaction was observed (P <
 .02) for G/F. Increasing dietary lysine had no effect on G/F
 of gilts in the TN environment but improved G/F of gilts in
 the HD environment. Gilts fed the intact protein diets had
 higher (P < .01) N intake and plasma urea concentrations.
 Gilts fed the ideal protein diets had lower (P < .05) plasma
 essential amino acids, with the exception of lysine. Carcass
 protein and lipid contents were improved (P < .01) for gilts
 in the HD environment and for those fed 1.00% lysine. Backfat
 thickness and longissimus muscle area (P < .01) were improved
 and lipid accretion rate tended to decrease (P < .08) in gilts
 fed 1.00% lysine. The source of amino acid fortification did
 not influence carcass characteristics (P > .10). Rectal, skin,
 and ear temperatures were higher for gilts in the HD
 environment (P < .05). Metabolic heat production was elevated
 by feeding gilts the ideal protein diets (P < .03). In
 conclusion, increased dietary lysine improved G/F and carcass
 leanness in gilts to a greater extent in HD than in TN
 environments. However, no improvements in growth performance
 or carcass traits resulted from feeding ideal protein diets.
 
 
 89                                     NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 The effects of early contact with humans on the subsequent
 level of fear of humans in pigs.
 Hemsworth, P.H.; Barnett, J.L.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1992 Oct.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 35 (1): p. 83-90; 1992
 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Fearfulness; Man
 
 
 90                                     NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 The effects of modifying the farrowing environment on sow
 behaviour and survival and growth of piglets.
 Cronin, G.M.; Amerongen, G. van
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1991 May.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 30 (3/4): p. 287-298; 1991
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Farrowing pens; Maternal behavior; Piglets;
 Farrowing; Nesting; Survival; Growth rate
 
 
 91                                     NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Effects of naloxone on stereotypic and normal behaviour of
 tethered and loose-housed sows.
 Schouten, W.; Rushen J.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1992 Mar.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 33 (1): p. 17-26; 1992
 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Naloxone; Animal behavior; Abnormal
 behavior; Loose housing; Tethered housing
 
 
 92                                     NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Effects of pen size, partial stalls and method of feeding on
 welfare-related behavioural and physiological responses of
 group-housed pigs. Barnett, J.L.; Hemsworth, P.H.; Cronin,
 G.M.; Newman, E.A.; McCallum, T.H. Amsterdam : Elsevier
 Science Publishers, B.V.; 1992 Aug.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 34 (3): p. 207-220; 1992
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Gilts; Animal welfare; Pens; Stalls; Pig housing;
 Space requirements; Pig feeding; Stress; Immunological
 deficiency; Aggressive behavior; Injuries; Hydrocortisone
 
 
 93                                     NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Effects of pen size/shape and design on aggression when
 grouping unfamiliar adult pigs.
 Barnett, J.L.; Cronin, G.M.; McCallum, T.H.; Newman, E.A.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1993 Apr.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 36 (2/3): p. 111-122; 1993
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Aggressive behavior; Pig housing
 
 
 94                                       NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Effects of porcine somatotropin on growth and carcass
 composition of Meishan and Yorkshire barrows.
 White, B.R.; Lan, Y.H.; McKeith, F.K.; McLaren, D.G.;
 Novakofski, J.; Wheeler, M.B.; Kasser, T.R.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1993
 Dec. Journal of animal science v. 71 (12): p. 3226-3238; 1993
 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Somatotropin; Pig breeds; Breed
 differences; Slaughter weight; Age differences; Growth rate;
 Carcass composition; Carcass weight; Meat cuts; Weight;
 Carcass quality; Meat quality
 
 Abstract:  Effects of porcine somatotropin (PST) on growth and
 carcass characteristics of Meishan (Ms) and Yorkshire (Y)
 barrows given 3 mg of PST or saline daily were determined for
 two end points. First, 26 Ms and 26 Y barrows were treated
 from 119 d of age until the Y barrows reached 108 kg. Second,
 another 18 Ms barrows were treated to 108 kg BW. Age- and
 weight-matched treatments were analyzed. Results for both
 groups indicated PST effects (P < .05) for feed conversion (+)
 and intake (-), dressing percentage (-), percentage of carcass
 fat (-) and protein and water (+), leaf fat (-), backfat (BF)
 thickness (-), longissimus muscle area (LMA; +), skin
 thickness (+), muscle firmness and marbling scores (-), organ
 weights (+), belly (-), clear plate (-), ham (+), and total
 boneless cuts (BC; ). Somatotropin effects were also present
 for loin (-) and boneless Boston butt (BBB; +) in the age-
 matched group and for ADG (+), carcass weight (-), loin (-),
 jowl (-), and tenderloin (+) in the weight-matched group.
 Breed effects (P < .05), in favor of Y barrows, in both
 treatments existed for ADG (+) and feed intake (+), carcass
 weight (+), dressing percentage (+), LNU (+), skin thickness
 (-), muscle color and firmness scores (-), muscling score (+),
 all wholesale cuts (WC; +) except clear plate (age-matched),
 all trimmed cuts (TC; +) except picnic shoulder (weight-
 matched), and all BC (+). Breed effects, in favor of Y
 barrows, were also determined for carcass length (+),
 percentage of carcass ash leaf fat (+), average BF thickness
 (+), and heart and liver (-) weights in age-matched animals
 and percentage of carcass fat (-), protein (+), water (+),
 leaf fat (-), 10th rib, average, and P2 BF thicknesses (-),
 marbling score(-), femur length (-), and liver weights (+) in
 weight-matched animals. A higher response to PST (P < .05) was
 determined in Ms barrows than in Y barrows for percentage of
 carcass protein (+), liver (+), and heart (+) in the age-
 matched treatment and 10th rib BF thickness (-) and heart
 weight (+) in the weight-matched treatment. Yorkshire barrows
 treated with PST had more improved values for color score (+;
 age-matched) and BBB (+; weight-matched).
 
 
 95                                     NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 The effects of providing sawdust to pre-parturient sows in
 farrowing crates on sow behaviour, the duration of parturition
 and the occurrence of intra-partum stillborn piglets.
 Cronin, G.M.; Schirmer, B.N.; McCallum, T.H.; Smith, J.A.;
 Butler, K.L. Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.;
 1993 May.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 36 (4): p. 301-315; 1993
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Sawdust; Farrowing
 
 
 96                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Effects of short term exposure of unmedicated pigs to
 sulphadimidine contaminated housing.
 Elliott, C.T.; McCaughey, W.J.; Crooks, S.R.H.; McEvoy, J.D.G.
 London : The British Veterinary Association; 1993 Apr23.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 134 (17): p. 450-451; 1993 Apr23.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Sulfadimidine; Drug residues; Pigmeat; Pig
 housing; Exposure
 
 
 97                                       NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Effects of the interrelationship between genotype, sex, and
 dietary lysine on growth performance and carcass composiiton
 in finishing pigs fed to either 104 or 127 kilograms.
 Friesen, K.G.; Nelssen, J.L.; Unruh, J.A.; Goodband, R.D.;
 Tokach, M.D. Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal
 Science; 1994 Apr. Journal of animal science v. 72 (4): p.
 946-954; 1994 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Fattening performance; Lysine; Sex
 differences; Diet; Genotypes; Carcass composition; Slaughter
 weight; Amino acids; Genotype nutrition interaction; Organs;
 Weight
 
 Abstract:  One hundred twenty pigs (initially 44 kg BW) were
 used to determine effects of the interrelationship between
 genotype, sex, and dietary lysine on growth performance and
 carcass composition in a 2 X 2 X 2 factorial arrangement.
 Genetic comparisons were made between pigs characterized with
 either a high or medium potential for lean tissue gain. Within
 genotype, barrows and gilts were separately fed either a .90
 or .70% lysine diet until the mean weight of pigs in each pen
 of three reached 104 kg. One pig per pen was slaughtered to
 determine carcass characteristics and chemical composition.
 From 104 to 127 kg, dietary lysine was lowered to .75 or .55%
 for pigs fed .90 or .70% dietary lysine, respectively. When
 the pigs' mean weight met or exceeded 127 kg, both pigs were
 slaughtered to determine carcass characteristics and chemical
 composition. Carcass length, longissimus muscle area, average
 backfat thickness, and 10th rib fat depth were measured 24 h
 postmortem on the chilled carcasses. The right side of each
 carcass was then ground and chemically analyzed to determine
 protein and lipid accretion rates. No interactions were
 detected from 44 to 104 kg; therefore, main effect means will
 be discussed. At 104 kg, high-lean pigs had increased ADG (P <
 .01) and gain:feed ratio (G/F; P < .05) compared with medium-
 lean pigs. Barrows had increased (P < .05) ADG and ADFI but
 exhibited a poorer (P < .01) G/F than gilts. Pigs fed .90%
 lysine had improved (P < .01) ADG compared with pigs fed .70%
 lysine. High-lean pigs had increased CP accretion (P < .01)
 and lipid accretion (P < .05) compared with medium-lean pigs.
 Gilts had larger longissimus muscle area and less backfat (P <
 .01) than barrows. Similarly, gilts had increased (P < .01) CP
 accretion and decreased (P < .01) lipid accretion compared
 with barrows. Cumulative ADG (44 to 127 kg) was greater (P <
 .05) in high-lean pigs, in barrows, and in pigs fed the
 .90/.75% lysine regimen. Average daily feed intake was
 increased (P < .05) in barrows compared with gilts.
 Differences between genotypes were greater at 127 kg; high-
 lean pigs had larger (P < .01) longissimus muscle area and
 longer carcasses than medium-lean pigs. Gilts also had
 increased (P < .05) longissimus muscle area, greater CP
 accretion, and decreased backfat thickness compared with
 barrows. Crude protein accretion was greater in high-lean pigs
 than in medium-lean pigs; high-lean gilts had the greatest
 magnitude of response to increased dietary lysine.
 
 
 98                                  NAL Call. No.: 442.8 J8222
 Effects of treatment with butylated hydroxytoluene on the
 susceptibility of boar spermatozoa to cold stress and
 dilution.
 Bamba, K.; Cran, D.G.
 Colchester : The Journal; 1992 May.
 Journal of reproduction and fertility v. 95 (1): p. 69-77;
 1992 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Boars; Spermatozoa; Butylated hydroxytoluene;
 Cold shock; Cold resistance; Semen diluents; Semen diluent
 additives; Egg yolk; Semen preservation; Motility; Acrosome
 
 
 99                                    NAL Call. No.: SF395.P62
 Electrical wiring for swine buildings.
 Collins, E.R. Jr; Bodman, G.R.; Stetson, L.E.
 West Lafayette, Ind. : Cooperative Extension Service, Purdue
 University, [1978?- ]; 1994 Jun.
 Pork industry handbook. --. p. 1-8; 1994 Jun.  Herd health,
 (PIH-110), revised, June 1994.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pig housing; Electrical safety; Electric power;
 Electric circuits; Materials; Moisture
 
 
 100                                     NAL Call. No.: 49 An55
 Electrocardiagram parameters of piglets during housing,
 handling and transport.
 Ville, H.; Bertels, S.; Geers, R.; Janssens, S.; Goedseels,
 V.; Parduyns, G.; Bael, J. van; Goossens, K.; Bosschaerts, L.;
 Ley, J. de
 East Lothian, Scotland : Durrant; 1993 Apr.
 Animal production v. 56 (pt.2): p. 211-216; 1993 Apr. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Piglets; Line differences; Stress;
 Susceptibility; Electrocardiograms; Heart rate; Arrhythmia;
 Pig housing; Handling; Transport
 
 
 101                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Electronic animal identification for controlling feed delivery
 and detecting estrus in gilts and sows in outside pens.
 Blair, R.M.; Nichols, D.A.; Davis, D.L.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1994
 Apr. Journal of animal science v. 72 (4): p. 891-898; 1994
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Sow feeding; Estrus; Detection; Body
 weight; Backfat; Automatic feed dispensers; Boars;
 Identification; Proestrus
 
 Abstract:  The objective of the present study was to evaluate
 the feasibility of delivering feed and detecting estrous
 behavior by computer-controlled equipment in a nonconfinement
 environment. In Exp. 1, gilts were assigned to treatment when
 detected pregnant by ultrasound at 30 to 35 d after artificial
 insemination. They were assigned to be fed individually in
 stalls once/day (0830) with a scoop (controls, n = 20) or with
 an electronic sow feeding station (ESF, n = 20). The ESF gilts
 received their feed in 98.6-g aliquots at 80-s intervals as
 they visited the feeding station. Control vs ESF gilts did not
 differ (P > .8) for backfat (2.2 vs 2.1 cm) or weight (170 vs
 172 kg) before farrowing, total and live pigs/litter (9.3 and
 8.7 vs 9.1 and 8.8), or litter birth weight (12.7 vs 12.1). In
 Exp. 2, proceptive behavior, as measured by visits to a boar's
 pen, were recorded electronically, and observed estrus was
 evaluated in two groups of sows during their first (n = 11)
 and second and third (n = 19) estrous cycles and in one group
 of gilts (n = 14). A partition prevented visual and physical
 contact between the boar and the visiting females except where
 the electronic estrus detection (EED) station was installed.
 Feed delivery software was used to monitor boar visitation
 even though no feed delivery equipment was present at the boar
 pen. Results indicated a close relationship between
 electronically detected boar visitation and observed estrus as
 well as high correlations (r > .5; P < .05) for boar
 visitation by individual sows during consecutive periods of
 estrus. We concluded that electronic identification coupled
 with feed delivery and a monitor of boar visitation may be
 useful tools for managing gilts and sows in outside pens.
 
 
 102                                   NAL Call. No.: SF395.P62
 Energy conservation in ventilating and heating swine
 buildings. Fehr, R.L.
 West Lafayette, Ind. : Cooperative Extension Service, Purdue
 University, [1978?-1990]; 1991.
 Pork industry handbook. 5 p.; 1991.  In the subseries:
 Housing. (PIH-92), revised December 1991.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Pigs; Pig housing; Energy conservation;
 Ventilation; Heating costs; Temperature; Fans
 
 
 103                                 NAL Call. No.: 275.29 M58B
 Energy conservation in ventilating and heating swine
 buildings. Fehr, R.L.; Huhnke, R.L.
 East Lansing, Mich. : The Service; 1992 Jun.
 Extension bulletin E - Cooperative Extension Service, Michigan
 State University v.): 5 p.; 1992 Jun.  In subseries: Pork
 Industry Handbook. Housing.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pig housing; Ventilation; Insulation; Energy
 conservation
 
 
 104                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Energy metabolism of growing pigs after transportation,
 regrouping, and exposure to new housing conditions as affected
 by feeding level. Barrio, A.S. del; Schrama, J.W.; Hel, W. van
 der; Beltman, H.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1993
 Jul. Journal of animal science v. 71 (7): p. 1754-1760; 1993
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Transport of animals; Plane of nutrition;
 Growth rate; Heat production; Energy metabolism; Energy
 retention; Adaptation
 
 Abstract:  An experiment was performed to evaluate alterations
 of energy metabolism with time in 10 groups of 16 barrows just
 after transportation. Ten-week-old pigs were fed at once (four
 groups; LF) or twice (three groups; MF) maintenance level (35
 and 75 g.kg-.75.d-1, respectively), or allowed ad libitum
 access to feed (three groups; HF). The 13.5-d experimental
 period was divided into two balance periods. Heat production
 (HP) decreased with time. The changes in HP with time were
 different among feeding level groups (P < .001); the LF group
 had the greatest decrease. Metabolizable energy intake
 remained constant with time for the LF and MF groups and
 decreased for the HF group. Requirements for maintenance
 energy and efficiency of ME for growth decreased with time.
 Feeding level influenced (P < .001) energy retention (ER)
 during the total experimental period. The LF group had a
 negative ER -65 kJ.kg-.75.d-1), whereas in the MF and HF
 groups positive values for ER were obtained (346 and 757
 kJ.kg-.75.d-1, respectively). At all feeding levels, animals
 had a positive protein gain. The level differed between
 feeding levels (P < .001). Differences among groups (P <.001)
 were observed in energy retained as fat. Data from the present
 experiment show that young pigs are not in a steady state of
 energy metabolism during the 2 wk after transportation. During
 this period, the relationship between metabolic rate and feed
 intake alters with time.
 
 
 105                                     NAL Call. No.: QL55.I5
 Environment enrichment for the laboratory pig.
 Batchelor, G.R.
 Sussex : The Institute; 1991 Dec.
 Animal technology : journal of the Institute of Animal
 Technology v. 42 (3): p. 185-189; 1991 Dec.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Environment; Enrichment; Animal welfare;
 Animal husbandry
 
 Abstract:  This brief paper attempts to illustrate the simple
 ideas that can he used to enhance the environment of the
 laboratory pig. ideas that have been part of the husbandry
 routine at Stanmore for over five years. It does not describe
 the behaviour of the pig in any detail but suggests that with
 a little time and effort, and in our case at no cost, the
 environment of the laboratory pig can be made more
 stimulating, resulting in animals that have an increased
 behavioural repertoire, are largely stress-free and are a
 constant pleasure to work with (Figure 1).
 
 
 106                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 Am32P
 Environmental evaluation of an outdoor shelter for swine.
 Zhang, Q.; Britton, M.G.; Connor, M.L.; Parker, R.J.; Elliot,
 J.I. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers,; 1993. Paper / (934520): 13 p.; 1993.  Paper
 presented at the "1993 International Winter Meeting sponsored
 by The American Society of Agricultural Engineers," December
 12-17, 1993, Chicago, Illinois.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pig housing; Temperature; Relative humidity;
 Litter
 
 
 107                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Environmental factors affecting the severity of pneumonia in
 pigs. Done, S.H.
 London : The Association; 1991 Jun22.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 128 (25): p. 582-586; 1991 Jun22.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Pneumonia; Disease course; Environmental
 factors; Meteorological factors; Populations; Social
 environment; Animal husbandry; Air pollutants
 
 
 108                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 Am32P
 Environmental monitoring in pig housing.
 Lemin, C.D.; Casey, K.D.; Foster, M.P.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers,; 1991. Paper / (91-4029): 10 p.; 1991.  Paper
 presented at the "1991 International Summer Meeting sponsored
 by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers," June
 23-26, 1991, Albuquerque, New Mexico.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Australia; Cabt; Pig housing; Design;
 Environment; Monitoring
 
 
 109                                     NAL Call. No.: 410 B77
 Environmental requirements of pigs measured by behavioural
 demand functions. Matthews, L.R.; Ladewig, J.
 London : Academic Press; 1994 Mar.
 Animal behaviour v. 47 (pt.3): p. 713-719; 1994 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Environmental factors; Animal welfare;
 Measurement; Stimuli
 
 Abstract:  Individual domestic pigs, Sus scrofa, were given
 the opportunity in daily test sessions to work on fixed ratio
 (FR) schedules of reinforcement for access to one of three
 different commodities (food, contact with a partner animal,
 and a stimulus change called 'door opening'). The amount of
 work required for access to each reinforcer was varied
 systematically by changing the size of the FR schedule (FR 1,
 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30). Demand curves, analogous to those
 used in economics, were derived for each commodity. The slopes
 of these curves were shallowest (inelastic demand) for food,
 an apparently essential item, and were steepest (more elastic
 demand) for door opening, an apparently less essential item.
 Demand functions could be generated for a range of different
 stimuli and demand elasticity appeared to provide a useful
 quantitative index of the relative importance of different
 environmental features to pigs.
 
 
 110                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Environmental temperature control by the pig's comfort
 behavior through image analysis.
 Geers, R.; Ville, H.; Goedseels, V.; Houkes, M.; Goossens, K.;
 Parduyns, G.; Van Bael, J.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1991 Nov. Transactions of the ASAE v. 34 (6): p.
 2583-2586; 1991 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Animal behavior; Body temperature
 regulation; Pig housing; Environmental temperature; Heat
 regulation
 
 Abstract:  During four experiments with six female piglets,
 the thermoregulatory behavior of the piglets was quantified by
 visual observation and by automated image analysis. The
 collection number of images representing pigs sleeping side by
 side and touching each other, as well as the occupation ratio
 of piglets being calculated on pixel values within predefined
 windows, may serve as set-point values for environmental
 temperature controllers. But this observational procedure has
 to be linked to the engineering of a gradient of an effective
 environmental temperature within a pen.
 
 
 111                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 Enzootic mortality among piglets between birth and weaning.
 Vaillancourt, J.P.; Dial, G.D.; Tubbs, R.C.
 Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company, Inc; 1991
 Oct. The Compendium on continuing education for the practicing
 veterinarian v. 13 (10): p. 1642-1645, 1648-1650; 1991 Oct. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Piglets; Weaning; Preweaning period; Perinatal
 mortality; Trauma; Diarrhea; Infection; Deformities; Record
 keeping; Validity; Environmental temperature; Litter size;
 Birth weight; Animal nutrition; Pig feeding; Pig housing;
 Floors; Litter; Animal husbandry; Farrowing; Sex differences;
 Genetics; Seasonal fluctuations; Medical treatment
 
 
 112                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69
 Establishing an in-house diagnostic laboratory in your swine
 practice. Dee, S.A.; Corey, M.M.; Gibbons, R.
 Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Co; 1992 Jun.
 Veterinary medicine v. 87 (6): p. 607-620; 1992 Jun.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Veterinary practice; Laboratory diagnosis;
 Laboratory equipment; Laboratory tests; Laboratory methods
 
 
 113                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 Evaluating porcine reproductive failure by the use of
 slaughterchecks. Almond, G.W.; Richards, R.G.
 Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company, Inc; 1992
 Apr. The Compendium on continuing education for the practicing
 veterinarian v. 14 (4): p. 542-547; 1992 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Reproductive disorders; Slaughter;
 Diagnosis; Epidemiology; Postmortem examinations; Morphology;
 Zearalenone; Toxicity; Cystitis; Ovaries; Uterus; Pathology
 
 
 114                                    NAL Call. No.: S671.A66
 Evaluation of a pig nursery annex ventilation system operating
 under summer conditions.
 Panagakis, P.; Kyritsis, S.; Tambouratzis, D.; Papadopoulos,
 G. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1991 May. Applied engineering in agriculture v. 7
 (3): p. 353-357; 1991 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pig housing; Ventilation; Field tests; Evaluation
 
 Abstract:  Two field trials, lasting five weeks each, were
 conducted during the summer of 1989 to evaluate the
 effectiveness of an annex ventilation system used to supply
 summer ventilation rates in a swine nursery building.
 Assessment was based both on climatic environment data and
 growth response of 96 early weaned crossbred pigs, three to
 four weeks old when weaned. Under mild summer conditions the
 ventilation system provided sufficient control of the
 environment and resulted in animal heat stress of short
 duration and intensity. During periods of very hot weather the
 system failed to provide a thermal microenvironment within
 acceptable limits and pigs were subjected to longer intervals
 of heat stress. Heat stress degree-hours during Trial II were
 more than two times those of Trial I, but this did not seem to
 have a negative effect on the animals' growth performance.
 
 
 115                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Evaluation of crates and girth tethers for sows: reproductive
 performance, immunity, behavior and ergonomic measures.
 McGlone, J.J.; Salak-Johnson, J.L.; Nicholson, R.I.; Hicks, T.
 Amsterdam ; New York : Elsevier, 1984-; 1994 Mar.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 39 (3/4): p. 297-311; 1994
 Mar.  In the special issue: Advances in pig behavior science /
 edited by Judith K. Blackshaw.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Gilts; Pig housing; Reproductive
 performance; Immunity; Animal behavior; Abnormal behavior;
 Litter size; Stress; Animal welfare; Capture of animals;
 Piglets
 
 
 116                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Evaluation of housing systems for sows.
 Hartog, L.A. den; Backus, G.B.C.; Vermeer, H.M.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1993
 May. Journal of animal science v. 71 (5): p. 1339-1344; 1993
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pig housing; Sows; Animal welfare; Sow feeding;
 Feed intake; Body weight; Reproductive performance; Animal
 behavior; Groups
 
 Abstract:  Housing systems of sows have to meet the
 requirements of the sow and the requirements of the producer.
 Criteria that have to be taken into account are productivity,
 labor input and management , welfare and health, and economy.
 Different housing systems for sows are described with respect
 to these criteria.
 
 
 117                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C24
 Evaluation of rapid gross visual appraisal of swine lungs at
 slaughter as a diagnostic screen for enzootic pneumonia.
 Hurnik, D.; Hanna, P.E.; Dohoo, I.R.
 Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1993 Jan.
 Canadian journal of veterinary research; Revue canadienne de
 recherche veterinaire v. 57 (1): p. 37-41; 1993 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Lungs; Visual grading; Screening;
 Pneumonia; Lesions; Histology; Postmortem examinations;
 Accuracy
 
 
 118                               NAL Call. No.: S494.5.D3C652
 Extending the snake image processing algorithm for outlining
 pigs in scenes. Marchant, J.A.; Schofield, C.P.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1993 Jun.
 Computers and electronics in agriculture v. 8 (4): p. 261-275;
 1993 Jun. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Algorithms; Image processors; Pens
 
 
 119                                NAL Call. No.: S494.5.S86S8
 Facility design and practices of a low-input housing system
 for a feeder-pig operation.
 Arellano, P.E.; Pijoan, C.; Jacobson, L.D.
 Binghamton, N.Y. : Food Products Press; 1993.
 Journal of sustainable agriculture v. 3 (3/4): p. 49-61; 1993. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pig housing; Design
 
 
 120                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Factors affecting excretory behavior of pigs.
 Hacker, R.R.; Ogilvie, J.R.; Morrison, W.D.; Kains, F.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1994
 Jun. Journal of animal science v. 72 (6): p. 1455-1460; 1994
 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Excretion; Stocking density; Pig housing;
 Partitions; Environmental temperature; Feces; Hygiene;
 Liveweight gain; Animal behavior; Structural design
 
 Abstract:  A 24 factorial experiment with six pens per
 treatment was conducted to examine the factors affecting the
 excretory behavior of growing-finishing pigs. The factors
 investigated were partition type (open or closed), pig density
 (9 or 14 pigs/pen, size: 2 m X 4.5 m), position of nipple
 drinker in the pen (back wall of the pen or side in front of
 slatted area), and prior experience of pigs (training or no
 training). A total of 1,104 pigs at a weight interval of 28.4
 +/- .2 to 91.4 +/- .4 kg were used in this study. Pen
 cleanliness was assessed by a dung scoring system, and growth
 rate was determined over the growing-finishing period.
 Partition type, nipple drinker position, or prior training of
 pigs had no effect on growth rate. Stocking pigs at 14
 pigs/pen reduced growth rate (P < .05) compared with 9
 pigs/pen (.80 vs .83 kg/d). Significant differences for pen
 dirtiness were found for partition type. Pens with closed
 partitions were cleaner than those with open partitions (P =
 .0001) and pens became significantly dirtier as pigs grew
 older or heavier (P < .01). There was a significant
 interaction effect between pen partition and pig density as
 well as an interaction among pen partition, pig density, and
 water position (P < .05).
 
 
 121                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Factors affecting the choice of farrowing site in sows.
 Haskell, M.J.; Hutson, G.D.
 Amsterdam ; New York : Elsevier, 1984-; 1994 Mar.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 39 (3/4): p. 259-268; 1994
 Mar.  In the special issue: Advances in pig behavior science /
 edited by Judith K. Blackshaw.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Farrowing; Farrowing pens; Reproductive
 behavior; Feed dispensers; Drinkers; Restricted feeding;
 Access
 
 
 122                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Factors associated with spread of pseudorabies virus among
 breeding swine in quarantined herds.
 Duffy, S.J.; Morrion, R.B.; Thawley, D.G.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1991 Jul01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 199
 (1): p. 66-70; 1991 Jul01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Aujeszky virus; Aujeszky's disease; Spread;
 Herds; Quarantine; Incidence; Risk; Pig farming; Pig housing
 
 
 123                                     NAL Call. No.: 49 An55
 Factors influencing the welfare and carcass and meat quality
 of pigs: the use of water sprays in lairage.
 Weeding, C.M.; Guise, H.J.; Penny, R.H.C.
 East Lothian, Scotland : Durrant; 1993 Jun.
 Animal production v. 56 (3): p. 393-397; 1993 Jun.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Sprays; Abattoirs; Water; Water intake;
 Animal welfare; Pigmeat; Meat quality; Carcass quality; Animal
 behavior; Physical activity; Longissimus dorsi; Intermittent
 spraying
 
 
 124                         NAL Call. No.: HD1761.A1M5 no.91-1
 Farm animal welfare crisis or opportunity for agriculture?.
 Halverson, Marlene
 University of Minnesota, Dept. of Agricultural and Applied
 Economics St. Paul, Minn. : Dept. of Agricultural and Applied
 Economics, University of Minnesota,; 1991.
 68 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm. (Staff paper P 91-1).  January 1991. 
 Includes bibliographical references (leaves 52-59).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal welfare; Animal health; Livestock; Swine
 
 
 125                               NAL Call. No.: SF91.F38 1992
 Farm animals and the environment.
 Phillips, Clive; Piggins, David
 Wallingford : C.A.B. International,; 1992.
 xii, 430 p. ; 25 cm.  "... international conference on Farm
 Animals and the Environment held on 4-5 September 1991 at the
 University College of North Wales, Bangor"--P. xi.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Animal welfare; Domestic animals
 
 
 126                                  NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Fate of biological and chemical contaminants from on-site
 disposal of liquid piggery wastes: results from a soil column
 study.
 Lam, K.C.; Ng, S.L.; Neller, R.J.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1993.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 27 (1):
 p. 63-75; 1993.  In the series analytic: Appropriate waste
 management technologies / edited by G. Ho and K. Mathew.
 Proceedings of the International Conference, held November
 27-28, 1991, Perth, Australia.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Hong kong; Pig housing; Waste disposal sites;
 Liquid wastes; Application to land
 
 
 127                               NAL Call. No.: 275.29 N272EX
 Feed intake patterns on Midwest hog farms.
 Brumm, M.C.; Gourley, G.G.; Fraser, D.K.; Greenley, W.M.
 Lincoln, Neb. : The Service; 1991.
 EC - Cooperative Extension Service, University of Nebraska
 (91-219): p. 26-27; 1991.  In the series analytic: 1991
 Nebraska Swine report / compiled by W.T. Ahlschwede.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Iowa; Minnesota; Pigs; Feed intake; Pig housing;
 Seasonal fluctuations; Crowding; Liveweight
 
 
 128                                NAL Call. No.: S544.3.A2C47
 Feeding and managing growing-finishing hogs.
 Auburn Ala. : Alabama Cooperative Extension Service, Auburn
 University,; 1992 May.
 Circular ANR (672): 8 p.; 1992 May.  In subseries: Animal
 Science.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Pig fattening; Pig feeding; Pig housing;
 Environmental factors; Disease control; Marketing
 
 
 129                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Feeding order of sows at an individual electronic feed station
 in a dynamic group-housing system.
 Bressers, H.P.M.; Brake, J.H.A. te; Engel, B.; Noordhuizen,
 J.P.T.M. Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1993
 Apr.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 36 (2/3): p. 123-134; 1993
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Feeding behavior; Pig housing
 
 
 130                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 Findings from slaughterchecks of swine during a four-year
 period. Straw, B.E.; Dewey, C.E.; Marrero, C.E.
 Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company; 1994 Feb.
 The Compendium on continuing education for the practicing
 veterinarian v. 16 (2): p. 245-251; 1994 Feb.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Swine diseases; Slaughter; Disease
 prevalence; Incidence; Pneumonia; Pleurisy; Atrophic rhinitis;
 Ascarididae; Animal parasitic nematodes; Infestation; Animal
 health; Disease surveys
 
 
 131                                NAL Call. No.: 275.29 IO9PA
 Flat bottom gravity drain gutters for swine manure.
 Meyer, V.M.
 Ames, Iowa : Iowa State University, Cooperative Extension
 Service; 1992 Aug. PM v.): 4 p.; 1992 Aug.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pig manure; Pig housing; Piggery effluent;
 Drainage systems; Design
 
 
 132                                     NAL Call. No.: QL55.I5
 The floor pen for laboratory animals--a mixed blessing?.
 Davys, J.S.
 Sussex : The Institute; 1994 Aug.
 Animal technology : journal of the Institute of Animal
 Technicians v. 45 (2): p. 95-100; 1994 Aug.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rabbits; Guinea pigs; Floor pens; Animal welfare;
 Laboratory rearing
 
 
 133                                   NAL Call. No.: SF395.P62
 Flooring for swine.
 Harmon, J.D.; Muehling, A.J.
 West Lafayette, Ind. : Cooperative Extension Service, Purdue
 University, [1978?- ]; 1993 Dec.
 Pork industry handbook. -- v.): p. 1-6; 1993 Dec.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Floors; Floor type; Defecation; Pig
 housing; Feet; Lesions; Sanitation; Pig manure
 
 
 134                                     NAL Call. No.: S37.F72
 Fly control for beef, dairy, poultry and swine producers.
 Jones, B.F.; Johnson, D.R.
 Little Rock, Ark. : The Service; 1993 Apr.
 FSA - Cooperative Extension Service, University of Arkansas
 (7029): 4 p.; 1993 Apr.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Musca; Animal housing; Sanitation; Insect
 control; Insecticides
 
 
 135                                     NAL Call. No.: 49 An55
 The food intake, performance and carcass charace teristics of
 two pig genotypes grown to 120 kg live w eight.
 Chadd, S.A.; Cole, D.J.A.; Walters, J.R.
 East Lothian, Scotland : Durrant; 1993 Dec.
 Animal production v. 57 (pt.3): p. 473-481; 1993 Dec. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Crossbreds; Genotypes; Pig feeding;
 Backfat; Fat thickness; Feed intake; Sex differences;
 Slaughter weight; Fattening performance
 
 
 136                          NAL Call. No.: TH4911.A1U6 no.194
 Gipsskivor i lantbruksbyggnader, konstruktioner for
 stallmiljoer = Plaster boards in farm buildings, constructions
 for livestock building enviornments. Sloth-Andersen, Ulrik
 Lund : Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Institutionen fhor
 lantbrukets byggnadsteknik,; 1992.
 85, [1] : ill. ; 30 cm. (Specialmeddelands ; 194.).  In
 Swedish, with English summary.  Includes bibliographical
 references.
 
 Language:  Swedish
 
 
 137                             NAL Call. No.: SF757.R36 no.31
 Group-housing of lactating sows studies on health, behaviour
 and nest temperature.
 Ebner, Jakob
 Skara : Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty
 of Veterinary Medicine, Dept. of Animal Hygiene,; 1993.
 108 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. (Rappart (Sveriges
 lantbruksuniversitet. Institutionen for husdjurshygien ; 31.). 
 Abstract inserted.  Includes bibliographical references
 (p.101-108).
 
 Language:  English
 
 
 138                                     NAL Call. No.: 49 AN55
 Growth characteristics and carcass composition of pigs with
 known genotypes for stress susceptibility over a weight range
 of 70 to 120 kg. Aalhus, J.L.; Jones, S.D.M.; Robertson, W.M.;
 Tong, A.K.W.; Sather, A.P. East Lothian, Scotland : Durrant;
 1991 Apr.
 Animal production v. 52 (pt.2): p. 347-353; 1991 Apr. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Growth; Genetic differences; Carcass
 composition; Tissues; Halothane; Genes
 
 
 139                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Growth, development, and carcass composition in five genotypes
 of swine. Gu, Y.; Schinckel, A.P.; Martin, T.G.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1992
 Jun. Journal of animal science v. 70 (6): p. 1719-1729; 1992
 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Pig breeds; Crossbred progeny; Genotypes;
 Unrestricted feeding; Meat cuts; Slaughter weight; Carcass
 composition; Lean; Backfat; Skin; Bone weight; Body fat;
 Carcass weight
 
 Abstract:  An experiment with 127 barrows representing five
 genotypes, 1) H X HD, 2) SYN, 3) HD X L[YD], 4) L X YD, and 5)
 Y X L (H = Hampshire, D = Duroc, SYN = synthetic terminal sire
 line, L = Landrace, and Y = Yorkshire), was conducted to
 evaluate growth and development of swine from 59 to 127 kg
 live weight. Animals were allowed ad libitum access to a
 pelleted finishing diet containing 18.5% CP, .95% lysine, and
 10.5% fat, with an energy density of 3,594 kcal of ME/kg. Pigs
 were serially slaughtered at either 59, 100, 114, or 127 kg
 live BW. After slaughter, carcasses were chilled and backfat
 was measured at four locations. The right side of each carcass
 was fabricated into primal cuts of ham, loin, Boston Butt,
 picnic, and belly. Composition of each primal cut was
 determined by physical dissection into lean, fat, bone, and
 skin. Estimated allometric growth coefficients for carcass
 length, carcass weight, and longissimus muscle area relative
 to BW; carcass lean, fat, bone, and skin relative to both BW
 and carcass weight; and lean in each of the primal cuts
 relative to total carcass lean did not differ (P > .05) among
 genotypes. Relative to BW, the pooled growth coefficient(s)
 for carcass weight was (were) greater (P < .001) than unity,
 whereas those for carcass length, longissimus muscle area, and
 backfat at first rib were smaller (P < .001) than unity. Those
 for other backfat measurements were close to 1.00. Relative to
 either BW or carcass weight, the pooled coefficient(s) for fat
 was (were) greater (P < .001) than unity, whereas those for
 lean, bone, and skin were smaller (P < .001) than unity.
 Growth of lean, backfat, bone, and skin in the carcass were
 nearly linearly associated with increases in BW. The increase
 in fat weight was curvilinear as the pig grew and was
 accelerated in later growth stages, indicating that carcass
 fat percentage increased with increased BW.
 
 
 140                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 W89
 Growth, feed conversion, blood composition and carcass
 evaluation in Hampshire and Yorkshire gilts slaughtered at
 three ages and fed at two planes of nutrition.
 Flipot, P.M. \u Agriculture Canada, Lennoxville, Quebec,
 Canada; Fahmy, M.H.; Dufour, J.J.
 Rome : International Publishing Enterprises; 1992 Jan.
 World review of animal production v. 27 (1): p. 41-48; 1992
 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Gilts; Hampshire; Large white; Breed differences;
 Plane of nutrition; Growth; Slaughter; Age differences; Blood
 chemistry; Feed conversion; Dressing percentage; Fat
 percentage; Lean; Carcass quality; Color
 
 
 141                                     NAL Call. No.: 49 An55
 Growth rate and growth composition of artificially reared
 piglets from specific pathogen free sows.
 Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hel, W. van der; Pijls, F.J.M.
 East Lothian, Scotland : Durrant; 1993 Apr.
 Animal production v. 56 (pt.2): p. 217-223; 1993 Apr. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Piglets; Energy metabolism; Liveweight gain; Body
 composition; Fat percentage; Protein content; Deposition;
 Slaughter; Nitrogen balance; Diet; Chemical composition;
 Artificial rearing
 
 
 142                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Growth, response to humans and corticosteroids in male pigs
 housed individually and subjected to pleasant, unpleasant or
 minimal handling during rearing.
 Paterson, A.M.; Pearce, G.P.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1992 Sep.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 34 (4): p. 315-328; 1992
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Male animals; Growth rate; Handling; Pig
 housing; Man; Interactions; Hydrocortisone; Blood plasma;
 Stress; Animal behavior
 
 
 143                                    NAL Call. No.: TX373.M4
 Haematological and clinico-chemical profiles of barrows at the
 farm and at slaugther.
 Odink, J.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Smeets, J.F.M.; Visser, I.J.R.;
 Alsemgeest, P.; Wijngaards, G.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1992.
 Meat science v. 32 (3): p. 307-310; 1992.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Stress response; Slaughter; Blood chemistry
 
 
 144                               NAL Call. No.: SF89.H85 1991
 Handling and loading of livestock.
 Humane Slaughter Association (1986-); Agricultural Training
 Board Potters Bar, Herts. : Humane Slaughter Association,;
 1991. 35 p. : ill. ; 15 x 21 cm.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal welfare; Animals
 
 
 145                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.A47
 Hazards in confinement housing--gases and dusts in confined
 animal houses for swine, poultry, horses and humans.
 Pickrell, J.
 Manhattan, Kan. : Kansas State University; 1991 Feb.
 Veterinary and human toxicology v. 33 (1): p. 32-39; 1991 Feb. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal housing; Air pollutants
 
 
 146                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 Health security: an increasing role for swine practitioners.
 Friendship, R.M.
 Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company, Inc; 1992
 Mar. The Compendium on continuing education for the practicing
 veterinarian v. 14 (3): p. 425-427; 1992 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North America; Pigs; Animal husbandry; Animal
 health; Swine diseases; Disease prevention; Disease control;
 Control programs; Veterinary services; Roles; Veterinarians
 
 
 147                           NAL Call. No.: SF396.3.H43  1993
 Heat stress in pigs solving the problem.
 Great Britain, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food
 London : MAFF,; 1993.
 12 p. : col. ill. ; 21 cm.  Cover title.  Action on animal
 welfare.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Swine; Heat
 
 
 148                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69
 Helping your clients raise healthy potbellied pigs.
 Braun, W. Jr
 Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Co; 1993 May05.
 Veterinary medicine v. 88 (5): p. 414, 418-419, 422-423, 426,
 428; 1993 May05.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Miniature pigs; Animal health; Piglets; Animal
 husbandry; Pig feeding; Vaccination; Parasites; Zoonoses
 
 
 149                                 NAL Call. No.: 286.81 F322
 Hog industry grappling with PSS-gene problem.
 Marbery, S.
 Minnetonka, Minn. : Miller Publishing Company; 1992 Dec21.
 Feedstuffs v. 64 (52): p. 14-17; 1992 Dec21.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Meat and livestock industry; Porcine stress
 syndrome; Leanness
 
 
 150                                    NAL Call. No.: QL868.D6
 Hormonal changes following an acute stress in control and
 somatostatin-immunized pigs.
 Farmer, C.; Dubreuil, P.; Couture, Y.; Brazeau, P.;
 Petitclerc, D. Stoneham, Mass. : Butterworth-Heinemann; 1991
 Oct.
 Domestic animal endocrinology v. 8 (4): p. 527-536; 1991 Oct. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Immunization; Somatostatin; Stress; Hormone
 secretion
 
 
 151                                   NAL Call. No.: aZ5071.N3
 Housing, husbandry, and welfare of swine: January 1991-January
 1994. Allen, T.
 Beltsville, Md., National Agricultural Library; 1994 Mar.
 Quick bibliography series - National Agricultural Library
 (94-14): 75 p.; 1994 Mar.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Pig housing; Animal husbandry; Animal
 welfare; Bibliographies
 
 
 152                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Hypothalamic neurotransmitter concentrations and meat quality
 in stressed pigs offered excess dietary tryptophan and
 tyrosine.
 Adeola, O.; Ball, R.O.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1992
 Jun. Journal of animal science v. 70 (6): p. 1888-1894; 1992
 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Feed supplements; Tryptophan; Tyrosine;
 Serotonin; Catecholamines; Exudative meat; Pigmeat;
 Hypothalamus; Pig feeding; Stress
 
 Abstract:  Pale, soft, exudative (PSE) pork occurs, for the
 most part, from environmental stress on the pig. Amino acid
 intake may be related to stress susceptibility through hormone
 and neurotransmitter induction. Two experiments were conducted
 to determine whether supplementation of 5 g of tryptophan
 (TRP) or 10 g of tyrosine (TYR) per kilogram of a 14% CP diet
 would alter the response of pigs to stress as measured by
 hypothalamic neurotransmitter concentrations and incidence of
 PSE. Twenty-four (Exp. 1) and 36 (Exp. 2) 92-kg pigs were
 offered one of three diets: control, TRP-, or TYR-supplemented
 for 5 d before slaughter. Dietary TRP or TYR supplementation
 in Exp. 1. doubled (P < .05) plasma TRP and TYR
 concentrations, respectively, and increased (P < .05) 5-
 hydroxytryptamine, dihydroxyphenyl ethylamine, dihydroxyphenyl
 acetic acid, and homovanillic acid concentrations in the
 hypothalamus. Pigs that exhibited stress at slaughter had
 lower (P < .05) hypothalamic concentrations of epinephrine,
 norepinephrine, and 5-hydroxytryptamine. In Exp. 2, pigs were
 trucked 55 km to a commercial meat packing facility and
 slaughtered without a rest period. This handling procedure was
 designed to invoke a high incidence of PSE pork and thus be a
 strong test of treatments. Supplemental dietary amino acids
 seemed to alter the frequency distribution of the severity of
 PSE pork. These data indicate that dietary manipulation of
 amino acid precursors of neurotransmitters may offer a
 practical means of reducing stress response in swine.
 
 
 153                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 The identification of behavioural indicators of 'stress' in
 early weaned piglets.
 Dybkjaer, L.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1992 Nov.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 35 (2): p. 135-147; 1992
 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Piglets; Early weaning; Stress; Stress factors;
 Stocking density; Pig housing; Overcrowding; Abnormal
 behavior; Indicators
 
 
 154                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Immune response and persistence of the porcine reproductive
 and respiratory syndrome virus in infected pigs and farm
 units.
 Albina, E.; Madec, F.; Cariolet, R.; Torrison, J.
 London : The British Veterinary Association; 1994 May28.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 134 (22): p. 567-573; 1994 May28.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Piglets; Arterivirus; Swine diseases;
 Persistence; Antibody formation; Kinetics; Experimental
 infections; Infections; Stress
 
 
 155                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 J82
 Immunopathology in Aujeszky's disease virus-infected pigs
 exposed to fluctuating temperatures.
 Narita, M.; Nanba, K.; Haritani, M.; Kawashima, K.
 London : Academic Press; 1992 Aug.
 Journal of comparative pathology v. 107 (2): p. 221-229; 1992
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Aujeszky virus; Aujeszky's disease;
 Environmental temperature; Cyclic fluctuations; Stress;
 Disease resistance; Susceptibility; Pathology
 
 
 156                              NAL Call. No.: 275.29 ID13IDC
 Improve pork quality reduce PSE and other defects.
 Boggess, M.V.
 Moscow, Idaho : The Service; 1992 Feb.
 Current information series - Cooperative Extension Service,
 University of Idaho (918): 4 p.; 1992 Feb.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigmeat; Exudative meat; Meat quality; Pigs;
 Porcine stress syndrome; Slaughter
 
 
 157                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Incidence and economics of tuberculosis in swine slaughtered
 from 1976 to 1988.
 Dey, B.P.; Parham, G.L.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1993 Aug15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 203
 (4): p. 516-519; 1993 Aug15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Pigs; Mycobacterium; Tuberculosis;
 Incidence; Carcass condemnation; Regulations; Losses
 
 
 158                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 Am32P
 Incorporating some aspects of room air flow into performance
 standards. Ogilvie, J.R.; Barrington, S.F.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers,; 1992. Paper / (92-4046): 12 p.; 1992.  Paper
 presented at the "1992 International Summer Meeting sponsored
 by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers," June
 21-24, 1992, Charlotte, North Carolina.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal housing; Ventilation; Standards; Pigs
 
 
 159                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Increased cortisol response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic
 hormone in chronically stressed pigs: influence of housing
 conditions. Janssens, C.J.J.G.; Helmond, F.A.; Wiegant, V.M.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1994
 Jul. Journal of animal science v. 72 (7): p. 1771-1777; 1994
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Pig housing; Tethered housing; Stress;
 Corticotropin; Blood plasma; Hydrocortisone; Social
 interaction; Animal welfare
 
 Abstract:  In a longitudinal experiment, the influence of
 tethered housing (a condition of chronic stress) on the
 reactivity of the adrenal cortex to exogenous ACTH was
 investigated in gilts. To that end, the plasma cortisol
 response to synthetic ACTH (1-24; 10 micrograms/kg of BW; i.v.
 bolus injection via a permanent catheter) was determined
 before and after prolonged tethered housing. Two systems for
 tethered housing were used, one more restrictive than the
 other with regard to possibilities for visual and tactile
 contacts with conspecifics and visual control over the
 environment. The ACTH treatment induced a marked, transient
 plasma cortisol response in all gilts studied, irrespective of
 their housing conditions. Long-term tethered housing increased
 the ACTH-induced cortisol response. Possible effects of the
 experimental procedure or age-related effects could be
 excluded, because in control gilts, which were housed loose
 during the entire experimental period, the cortisol response
 to ACTH remained unaltered. The chronic stress-induced
 increase in the ACTH-induced cortisol response was
 considerably more pronounced and persistent in gilts that were
 deprived of possibilities for social contacts with
 conspecifics and visual control over the environment than in
 gilts with such possibilities. These data indicate that in
 tethered gilts adaptational changes occur at the level of the
 adrenal cortex that affect the ACTH-induced adrenocortical
 response. In addition, not only physical restraint but also
 restriction of social contact and visual control play an
 important role in the development of these changes.
 
 
 160                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Individual differences in behavioural responses of pigs
 exposed to non-social and social challenges.
 Lawrence, A.B.; Terlouw, E.M.C.; Illius, A.W.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1991 Apr.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 30 (1/2): p. 73-86; 1991
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Gilts; Treatment; Handling; Temperament; Animal
 behavior; Individual characteristics
 
 
 161                                   NAL Call. No.: SF395.P62
 Individual mating facilities for swine.
 Singleton, W.; Levis, D.
 West Lafayette, Ind. : Cooperative Extension Service, Purdue
 University, [1978?-1990]; 1992.
 Pork industry handbook. 7 p.; 1992.  In the subseries:
 Housing. (PIH-69), revised June 1992.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Pigs; Pig housing; Mating; Boars; Sows;
 Temperature; Building construction
 
 
 162                                 NAL Call. No.: 275.29 M58B
 Individual mating facilities for swine.
 Singleton, W.; Bodman, G.R.; Levis, D.
 East Lansing, Mich. : The Service; 1992 Nov.
 Extension bulletin E - Cooperative Extension Service, Michigan
 State University v.): 7 p.; 1992 Nov.  In subseries: Pork
 Industry Handbook. Housing.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Mating; Breeding programs; Design
 
 
 163                                     NAL Call. No.: 49 An55
 The influence of a barrier on the behaviour and growth of
 early-weaned piglets.
 Waran, N.K.; Broom, D.M.
 East Lothian, Scotland : Durrant; 1993 Feb.
 Animal production v. 56 (pt.1): p. 115-119; 1993 Feb. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Piglets; Early weaning; Pens; Space requirements;
 Barriers; Animal behavior; Liveweight gain; Animal welfare;
 Animal husbandry
 
 
 164                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Influence of parity and time since parturition on
 responsiveness of sows to a piglet distress call.
 Hutson, G.D.; Argent, M.F.; Dickenson, L.G.; Luxford, B.G.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1992 Sep.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 34 (4): p. 303-313; 1992
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Piglets; Vocalization; Parous rates;
 Postpartum interval; Time; Responses; Maternal behavior
 
 
 165                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 The influence of pen size on toy preference of growing pigs.
 Apple, J.K.; Craig, J.V.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1992 Nov.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 35 (2): p. 149-155; 1992
 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Gilts; Pig housing; Pens; Stocking density; Toys;
 Play; Stress; Abnormal behavior
 
 
 166                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 The influence of the mineral level in drinking water and the
 thermal environment on the performance and intestinal fluid
 flux of newly-weaned pigs. Maenz, D.D.; Patience, J.F.;
 Wolynetz, M.S.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1994
 Feb. Journal of animal science v. 72 (2): p. 300-308; 1994
 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Piglets; Weaning; Drinking water; Mineral
 content; Sulfate; Cold stress; Environmental temperature;
 Synergism; Feed intake; Water intake; Performance; Dosage
 effects; Diarrhea; Body temperature; Blood chemistry; Blood
 picture; Growth rate; Small intestine; Fluids; Intestinal
 absorption
 
 Abstract:  The effects of drinking water containing high
 levels of dissolved minerals including sulphate (HMW) and a
 chilled environment on the performance of newly-weaned pigs
 were evaluated in three replicate 10-d trials. In each trial,
 12, 28-d-old pigs were taken from the sow and allocated by
 weight and litter to treatment groups following a 2 X 2
 factorial arrangement of HMW vs low-mineral drinking water
 (LMW) and normal (heat lamp) vs chilled (21 degrees C) pen
 temperature. No interactive effects of water mineral level and
 pen temperature on any of the measurements of health and
 productivity were found. Pigs given the HMW consumed more
 water on d 7 to 10 and 1 to 10 (P < .05) and more feed from d
 4 to 6, 7 to 10, and 1 to 10 (P < .05), had greater weight
 gains from d 7 to 10 and 1 to 10 (P < .05), and had higher
 scour scores on d 4 and 7 (P < .05). Pigs maintained in a
 chilled environment had lower body weights on d 3, 6, and 10
 (P < .05), lower feed conversion efficiency from d 7 to 10 (P
 < .05) and 1 to 10 (P < .01), and lower water intake from d 4
 to 6 (P < .05) and 7 to 10 (P < .0.1). Pen temperature had no
 effect on feed intake and scour scores. There was a
 correlation (P < .05) between feed intake and growth rates
 throughout the trial, between feed intake and water intake on
 d 4 to 6, 7 to 10, and 1 to 10, and between water intake and
 growth rate on d 7 to 10. This study suggests that drinking
 water containing high levels of dissolved minerals may promote
 increased water and feed intake during the immediate
 postweaning period.
 
 
 167                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Influences of intermittent daily draught on the behaviour of
 weaned pigs. Scheepens, C.J.M.; Hessing, M.J.C.; Laarakker,
 E.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Tielen, M.J.M.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1991 Jul.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 31 (1/2): p. 69-82; 1991
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Animal behavior; Cold stress; Climatic
 factors
 
 
 168                                     NAL Call. No.: 410 B77
 Ingestion of food facilitates the performance of stereotypies
 in sows. Terlouw, E.M.C.; Wiersma, A.; Lawrence, A.B.;
 MacLeod, H.A. London : Academic Press; 1993 Nov.
 Animal behaviour v. 46 (pt.5): p. 939-950; 1993 Nov.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Vices; Eating
 
 Abstract:  Previous work has shown that chain manipulation and
 excessive drinking develop in sows, Sus scrofa, only when the
 sows are food restricted and confined, and that their
 occurrence is concentrated mainly in the post-feeding period.
 The present study investigated whether ingestion of food
 stimulates the performance of these stereotypies. In
 experiment 1, sows had been exposed to 7 months of restrictive
 housing and feeding conditions (2.5 kg of food/day; normal
 feeding time 0900 hours), during which they had developed
 stereotypies, mainly stereotyped chain manipulation and
 excessive drinking. Treatments, applied at 1350 hours, were
 the introduction of a novel sound (duration 10 min) and
 delivery of an extra meal (ingestion time approximately 10
 min). Each treatment was applied to all sows simultaneously on
 two separate occasions. Levels of stereotypies measured over 2
 h after the novel sound did not differ from preceding control
 days. In contrast, levels of stereotypies measured over the 2
 h following ingestion of the meals were significantly higher
 relative to controls. In experiment 2, subjects were sows
 normally fed a meal of 2.5 kg of concentrated food at 0900
 hours, which had already developed chain manipulation and
 excessive drinking. On treatment days, at 0900 hours, they
 received 0, 0.5, 1.25 or 5 kg of the same food. Non-delivery
 of food was followed by reduced levels of both chain
 manipulation and drinking. Ingestion of a smaller or larger
 meal than usual had little effect on levels of post-feeding
 stereotypies. The results of both experiments suggest that
 ingestion of food stimulates the performance of established
 stereotypies. The effect cannot be explained simply by
 differences in nutritional status, and it is suggested that it
 reflects changes in motivational state and behavioural
 activation.
 
 
 169                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Interactive effects of thermal environment and dietary amino
 acid and fat levels on rate and efficiency of growth of pigs
 housed in a conventional nursery.
 Schenck, B.C.; Stahly, T.S.; Cromwell, G.L.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1992
 Dec. Journal of animal science v. 70 (12): p. 3803-3811; 1992
 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Environmental temperature; Lysine; Dietary
 fat; Growth rate; Amino acids; Diet; Liveweight gain; Feed
 intake; Feed conversion efficiency
 
 Abstract:  In four trials, 480 weanling pigs were housed in a
 conventional nursery maintained at 20 or 30 degrees C, which
 represented a cool and hot thermal environment, respectively.
 They were allowed ad libitum access to corn-soybean meal-dried
 whey diets containing .7, 1.0, or 1.3% lysine and 0 or 5%
 added fat (choice white grease). The pigs were weaned between
 27 and 33 d of age (7.27 +/- .90 kg) and penned in groups of
 five for the duration of the 42-d trials. Pigs housed in the
 cool environment consumed more feed (P < .01), gained more
 weight (P < .01), and utilized feed more efficiently (P < .01)
 than those in the hot environment. As dietary lysine levels
 were increased in the 20 and 30 degrees C environments, daily
 weight gains and gain:feed ratios increased linearly (P < .01)
 from d 0 to 21 and quadratically (P < .01) from d 21 to 42.
 However, the magnitudes of the increases were less in the cool
 environment, resulting in temperature X lysine interactions (P
 < .05). As the pig's feed intake, body weight, and heat
 production increased over time, the 20 and 30 degrees C
 environments became progressively warmer relative to the
 animal's zone of thermoneutrality. The associated reductions
 over time in energy and lysine intakes relative to the pigs'
 maintenance needs resulted in an increase in the concentration
 of dietary lysine needed to maximize rate and efficiency of
 gain in the 30 degrees C environment but not in the 20 degrees
 C environment (temperature X lysine X period interaction, P <
 .10). The addition of fat to the low-lysine diet further
 decreased (P < .05) daily energy and lysine intakes, causing a
 reduction in growth rate of pigs in the 30 degrees C
 environment but not in that of pigs in the 20 degrees C
 environment, which resulted in a temperature X lysine X fat
 interaction (P < .05). Based on these results, the optimal
 dietary amino acid regimen for weaning pigs is dependent on
 the thermal environment in which the pigs are housed.
 
 
 170                                   NAL Call. No.: 389.8 J82
 Intestinal amino acid and monosaccharide transport in suckling
 pigs fed milk replacers with different sources of
 carbohydrate.
 Vega, Y.M.; Puchal, A.A.; Buddington, R.K.
 Bethesda, Md. : American Institute of Nutrition; 1992 Dec. The
 Journal of nutrition v. 122 (12): p. 2430-2439; 1992 Dec. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Sucklings; Diet; Glucose; Galactose;
 Fructose; Nutrient transport; Intestines; Amino acids;
 Monosaccharides
 
 Abstract:  Omnivorous mammals are able to adaptively modulate
 rates of intestinal nutrient transport to match changes in
 diet. Because adaptive responses during suckling, when dietary
 composition is relatively constant, have not been adequately
 determined, we measured in vitro sugar and amino acid uptake
 [nmol/(mg tissue.min)] in suckling pigs fed milk replacers
 with either lactose (LAC) or a 60:40 mixture of maltodextrin
 and sucrose (MDS). The MDS-fed pigs initially grew slower, but
 had intestinal dimensions similar to those of LAC-fed siblings
 when normalized to body weight. Carrier-mediated uptake for
 three monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, fructose) did not
 differ between LAC- and MDS-fed pigs at 5, 10, 15 and 20 d of
 age. Interdiet differences in rates of leucine and proline
 uptake, despite identical types and concentration of protein
 in both milk replacers, are indicative of nonspecific
 responses to diet during suckling. Uptake capacities (grams of
 monosaccharide absorbed per 24 h) never exceeded estimates of
 monosaccharide intake by more than fourfold and were less than
 aldohexose intake during early suckling. Our results indicate
 1) age-related changes in rates of nutrient uptake are
 genetically programmed and little influenced by diet; 2) any
 responses to diet are nonspecific and likely involve a shift
 in the timing of the genetic program; and 3) at birth and
 throughout suckling, pigs are capable of absorbing limited
 quantities of alternative nutrients.
 
 
 171                                   NAL Call. No.: SF774.J68
 An investigation of bacterial causes of arthritis in slaughter
 hogs. Hariharan, H.; MacDonald, J.; Carnat, B.; Bryenton, J.;
 Heaney, S. Lawrence, Kan. : AAVLD; 1992 Jan.
 Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation v. 4 (1): p.
 28-30; 1992 Jan. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Joints (animal); Bacteria; Arthritis; Joint
 diseases
 
 
 172                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R3224
 An investigation of enzootic Glasser's disease in a specific-
 pathogen-free grower-finisher facility using restriction
 endonuclease analysis. Smart, N.L.; Hurnik, D.; MacInnes, J.I.
 Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1993 Aug.
 The Canadian veterinary journal v. 34 (8): p. 487-490; 1993
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Haemophilus
 
 
 173                                   NAL Call. No.: SF774.J68
 Isolation of Leptospira interrogans serovars bratislava and
 hardjo from swine at slaughter.
 Bolin, C.A.; Cassells, J.A.
 Lawrence, Kan. : AAVLD; 1992 Jan.
 Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation v. 4 (1): p.
 87-89; 1992 Jan. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Reproductive disorders; Leptospira
 interrogans; Isolation
 
 
 174                                  NAL Call. No.: BJ52.5.J68
 It is morally permissible to manipulate the genome of domestic
 hogs. Blatz, C.V.
 Guelph, Ontario, Canada : University of Guelph; 1991.
 Journal of agricultural & environmental ethics v. 4 (2): p.
 166-176; 1991. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Genetic engineering; Animal welfare;
 Ethics; Biotechnology; Transgenics
 
 
 175                                     NAL Call. No.: QL55.I5
 Laboratory swine--principles of husbandry and research
 techniques. Dopson, D.C. \u Brompton Hospital, London
 Sussex : The Institute; 1993 Dec.
 Animal technology : journal of the Institute of Animal
 Technicians v. 44 (3): p. 175-200; 1993 Dec.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Laboratory animals; Animal husbandry; Pig
 housing; Handling; Anesthesia; Miniature pigs; Strain
 differences; Veterinary medicine; Animal models
 
 Abstract:  Pigs are anatomically and physiologically similar
 to man in many ways. A fact which is supported by many and
 diverse scientific studies. However, they may be overlooked as
 research models for reasons of the presumed difficulties to be
 encountered in maintaining and handling animals of potentially
 great size. In fact, the type of pig available in the United
 Kingdom ranges from the Large White or Yorkshire pig which may
 weigh > 200 kg to the Yucatan Miniature Pig which is
 considerably smaller and lighter at < 70 kg. There are a
 number of possible advantages to using pigs over other species
 in the laboratory and some selected points will be considered
 in this paper. The requirements for routine care and
 techniques for minor regulated procedures are also described.
 Emphasis is also placed on current perspectives in cardio-
 respiratory research for which the pig is a particularly
 suitable animal model.
 
 
 176                                 NAL Call. No.: 286.81 F322
 Lean growth modeling has potential in swine production.
 Easter, R.A.
 Minnetonka, Minn. : Miller Publishing Company; 1993 Mar22.
 Feedstuffs v. 65 (12): p. 14, 16; 1993 Mar22.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Animal husbandry; Growth models; Animal
 production
 
 
 177                              NAL Call. No.: SF89.G73  1992
 Livestock trucking guide livestock management practices that
 reduce injuries to livestock during transport.
 Grandin, Temple
 Livestock Conservation Institute
 Madison, WI : Livestock Conservation Institute,; 1992.
 16 p. : ill. ; 23 x 10 cm.  Cover title.  "By Temple Grandin"-
 -P. 3.  Includes bibliographical references (p. 16).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Livestock; Swine; Cattle; Sheep
 
 
 178                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Long-term effects of food allowance and housing on developmet
 of stereotypies in pigs.
 Terlouw, E.M.C.; Lawrence, A.B.
 Amsterdam ; New York : Elsevier, 1984-; 1993 Nov.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 38 (2): p. 103-126; 1993
 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Vices
 
 
 179                             NAL Call. No.: SF395.W463 1992
 Lord Emsworth's annotated Whiffle The care of the pig..  Care
 of the pig Whiffle, Augustus; Hogg, James
 New York : Heineman,; 1992.
 xi, 128 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Swine; Swine
 
 
 180                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 Am32P
 A low energy swine farrowing facility: a field study.
 Harmon, J.D.; Christenbury, G.D.; Albrecht, J.E.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers,; 1991. Paper / (91-4028): 18 p.; 1991.  Paper
 presented at the "1991 International Summer Meeting sponsored
 by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers," June
 23-26, 1991, Albuquerque, New Mexico.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South Carolina; Cabt; Pig housing; Design;
 Energy; Economics; Environmental control
 
 
 181                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 Am32P
 A low energy swine nursery facility: a field study.
 Christenbury, G.D.; Harmon, J.D.; Albrecht, J.E.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers,; 1991. Paper / (91-4027): 17 p.; 1991.  Paper
 presented at the "1991 International Summer Meeting sponsored
 by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers," June
 23-26, 1991, Albuquerque, New Mexico.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South Carolina; Cabt; Pig housing; Design;
 Energy; Economics; Environmental control
 
 
 182                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3A
 Lymphocyte proliferative responses in neonatal pigs with high
 or low plasma cortisol concentration after stress induced by
 restraint. Brown-Borg, H.M.; Klemcke, H.G.; Blecha, F.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association;
 1993 Dec. American journal of veterinary research v. 54 (12):
 p. 2015-2020; 1993 Dec. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Piglets; Lymphocyte transformation;
 Hydrocortisone; Blood plasma; Stress; Restraint of animals;
 Interleukin 2; Age differences
 
 Abstract:  High plasma cortisol concentration is associated
 with perception of stress and reduced immune function in pigs.
 Neonatal pigs (12, 19, or 26 days old) were tested to
 determine maximal cortisol response to a mild restraint
 stressor. Pigs were fitted with indwelling jugular cannulas 4
 days prior to restraint. One day before restraint, 10 ml of
 blood was removed for lymphocyte isolation and subsequent in
 vitro lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin 2 (IL-2)
 assays. On the day of restraint, blood samples were drawn 10
 minutes before and 3, 10, and 20 minutes after holding each
 pig in a supine position for 1 minute. Plasma cortisol
 concentration was determined by use of radioimmunoassay. Pigs
 with maximal cortisol response greater than the mean value for
 that age group were classified in the high-responder (HIRES)
 group. Conversely, those with values lower than the mean
 maximal response were assigned to the low-responder (LORES)
 group. The HIRES pigs had larger relative adrenal gland
 weights and higher baseline and maximal cortisol responses,
 compared with LORES pigs (P = 0.0170, P = 0.0002, P = 0.0001,
 respectively). Mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferative
 responses (to phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and pokeweed
 mitogen) were 60% lower (P = 0.0037, P = 0.0432, P = 0.0103,
 respectively) in HIRES vs LORES pigs. In vitro IL-2 production
 did not differ between HIRES and LORES pigs. Lymphocyte
 proliferation induced by the B-cell mitogen, pokeweed mitogen,
 decreased 56% with age (P = 0.0151). Production of IL-2 was
 numerically decreased (P = 0.06) by 50% in 26-day-old pigs,
 compared with earlier ages. These results indicate that
 neonatal pigs with low cortisol response to stress may have an
 advantage, from an immunologic standpoint, over pigs prone to
 stress.
 
 
 183                           NAL Call. No.: TS1966.I8G85 1991
 La macellazione del suino aspetti sanitari, tecnici e
 legislativi [Slaughtering of swine]., 1. ed..
 Guizzardi, Franco; Nigrelli, Arrigo D.; Gatti, Renzo;
 Signorini, F. Bologna : Edagricole,; 1991.
 x, 295 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 24 cm. (Pratica veterinaria).
 
 Language:  Italian
 
 Descriptors: Slaughtering and slaughter-houses; Swine
 
 
 184                                 NAL Call. No.: S544.3.O5O5
 Management and nutrition of the bred gilt and sow.
 Luce, W.G.; Maxwell, C.V.
 Stillwater, Okla. : The Service; 1991 Nov.
 OSU extension facts - Cooperative Extension Service, Oklahoma
 State University v.): 4 p.; 1991 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Gilts; Pig farming; Breeding; Heat stress;
 Nutrition; Supplementary feeding; Feed additives; Feed
 dispensers; Disease control
 
 
 185                                   NAL Call. No.: SF395.P62
 Management and nutrition of the newly weaned pig.
 Aherne, F.; Hogberg, M.G.; Kornegay, E.T.; Shurson, G.C.
 West Lafayette, Ind. : Cooperative Extension Service, Purdue
 University, [1978?-1990]; 1992.
 Pork industry handbook. 4 p.; 1992.  In the subseries:
 Management. (PIH-111), revised December 1992.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Piglets; Nutrient requirements; Piglet
 feeding; Piglet fattening; Creep feeding; Weaning; Medicated
 feeds; Fat consumption; Feed additives; Pig housing
 
 
 186                                 NAL Call. No.: S544.3.O5O5
 Management of growing-finishing swine.
 Luce, W.G.; Huhnke, R.L.
 Stillwater, Okla. : The Service; 1991 Aug.
 OSU extension facts - Cooperative Extension Service, Oklahoma
 State University (3654): 6 p.; 1991 Aug.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Pig fattening; Pig housing; Pig feeding;
 Disease control; Parasites; Insecticides; Dry lot feeding;
 Pastures
 
 
 187                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 Management of internal parasitism in confined swine.
 Moncol, D.J.
 Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company; 1993 May.
 The Compendium on continuing education for the practicing
 veterinarian v. 15 (5): p. 753-755, 767; 1993 May.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Intensive livestock farming; Floors;
 Disease transmission; Ascaris; Early weaning; Anthelmintics;
 Drug therapy; Helminth ova; Strongyloides; Oesophagostomum;
 Disease control; Pig housing; Parasitism; Incidence; Pest
 control
 
 
 188                                   NAL Call. No.: SF395.P62
 Management of the boar.
 Singleton, W.L.; Flowers, W.L.; Reeves, D.E.; Thompson, L.H.
 West Lafayette, Ind. : Cooperative Extension Service, Purdue
 University, [1978?- ]; 1993 Dec.
 Pork industry handbook. -- v.): p. 1-5; 1993 Dec.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Boars; Disease prevention; Boar feeding; Animal
 breeding; Heat stress; Respiration rate
 
 
 189                                 NAL Call. No.: 275.29 M58B
 Management of the boar.
 Singleton, W.L. \u Purdue University; Flowers, W.L.; Reeves,
 D.E.; Thompson, L.H.
 East Lansing : Michigan State University, Cooperative
 Extension Service,; 1994 Apr.
 Extension bulletin (1040): 6 p.; 1994 Apr.  In subseries: Pork
 Industry Handbook: Reproduction.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Boars; Pig farming; Boar progeny testing; Swine
 diseases; Transport of animals; Quarantine; Pig feeding; Pig
 housing; Breeding; Culling
 
 
 190                                 NAL Call. No.: 275.29 G29B
 Management of young pigs.
 Jones, R.
 Athens, Ga. : The Service; 1991 Dec.
 Bulletin - Cooperative Extension Service, University of
 Georgia, College of Agriculture v.): 14 p. ill; 1991 Dec.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Animal husbandry; Piglet production
 
 
 191                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 M69
 Managing and feeding sows for optimum productivity.
 Tubbs, R.C.
 Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Co; 1992 Oct.
 Veterinary medicine v. 87 (10): p. 1048-1056; 1992 Oct. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Gilts; Sows; Sow feeding; Animal husbandry;
 Productivity; Nutrient intake; Plane of nutrition
 
 
 192                                NAL Call. No.: S544.3.A2C47
 Managing purchased feeder pigs.
 VanDyke, N.J.; Owsley, W.F.; Blaylock, R.E.; Floyd, J.G. Jr
 Auburn Ala. : Alabama Cooperative Extension Service, Auburn
 University,; 1993 May.
 Circular ANR (815): 4 p.; 1993 May.  In subseries: Animal
 Science.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Purchasing; Transport; Disease prevention;
 Pig feeding; Pig housing
 
 
 193                                 NAL Call. No.: S544.3.O5O5
 Managing the herd boar.
 Luce, W.G.
 Stillwater, Okla. : The Service; 1991 Sep.
 OSU extension facts - Cooperative Extension Service, Oklahoma
 State University v.): 4 p.; 1991 Sep.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Boars; Mating ability; Mating behavior; Semen
 production; Boar feeding; Pig housing; Breeding methods
 
 
 194                                   NAL Call. No.: QL750.J68
 Maternal behaviour of free-ranging sows during the first 8
 days after farrowing.
 Csermely, D.
 Kyoto, Japan : Japan Ethological Society,; 1994.
 Journal of ethology v. 12 (1): p. 53-62; 1994.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Maternal behavior; Free range husbandry;
 Intensive livestock farming; Farrowing; Abnormal behavior
 
 
 195                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Maternal behaviour of lactating sows in a loose-housing
 system. Boe, K.
 Amsterdam ; New York : Elsevier, 1984-; 1993 Feb.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 35 (4): p. 327-338; 1993
 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Sow lactation; Loose housing; Maternal
 behavior; Piglets; Liveweight gain; Age at weaning
 
 
 196                                     NAL Call. No.: 49 AN55
 Meat quality in pigs reared in groups kept as a unit during
 the fattening period and slaughter.
 Karlsson, A.; Lundstrom, K.
 East Lothian, Scotland : Durrant; 1992 Jun.
 Animal production v. 54 (pt.3): p. 421-426; 1992 Jun. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Meat quality; Group effect
 
 
 197                                    NAL Call. No.: S671.A66
 Mechanical backup systems for electronic environmental
 controllers. Gates, R.S.; Overhults, D.G.; Turner, L.W.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1992 Jul. Applied engineering in agriculture v. 8
 (4): p. 491-497; 1992 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Environmental control; Controllers; Pig housing;
 Poultry housing
 
 Abstract:  A series of mechanical backup systems for
 electronic environmental controllers is presented for a
 typical finishing swine barn and a typical tunnel ventilated
 broiler house. The systems consist of mechanical thermostats
 and timers used in parallel with the electronic controller,
 designed to ensure animal survival in the event of controller
 or related hardware failure. For swine housing, three distinct
 mechanical backup functions are identified; for broiler
 housing, four distinct mechanical backup functions are
 identified. Schematic diagrams of the mechanical backup
 functions are provided and their implementation is described.
 
 
 198                                 NAL Call. No.: 275.29 M58B
 Mechanical ventilation of swine buildings.
 Murphy, J.P.; Jones, D.D.; Christianson, L.L.
 East Lansing, Mich. : The Service; 1991 Jun.
 Extension bulletin E - Cooperative Extension Service, Michigan
 State University v.): 8 p.; 1991 Jun.  In subseries: Pork
 Industry Handbook. Housing.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pig housing; Artificial ventilation; Air flow;
 Fans; Humidity
 
 
 199                           NAL Call. No.: SF393.P74C66 1990
 Mini pet pigs home veterinary & care., 2nd ed..
 Connelly, John; Jennings, Patricia
 Portland, Or. : C.J. Enterprises, 1992; 1992.
 96 leaves : ill. ; 22 cm.  Cover title.  Two tables in pocket. 
 Includes bibliographical references (leaf 93).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Potbellied pig; Swine
 
 
 200                           NAL Call. No.: SF393.M55S76 1992
 Miniature pigs everything about purchase, care, nutrition,
 breeding, behavior, and training.
 Storer, Pat; Storer, Kristin
 New York : Barron's,; 1992.
 88 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 20 cm.  Includes index.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Miniature swine as pets
 
 
 201                                  NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1L33
 Miniature swine in biomedical research: applications and
 husbandry considerations.
 Fisher, T.F.
 New York, N.Y. : Nature Publishing Company; 1993 May.
 Lab animal v. 22 (5): p. 47-50; 1993 May.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Miniature pigs; Animal husbandry; Applications
 
 
 202                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Modelling newborn piglet thermal interactions with a surface
 energy balance model.
 Hoff, S.J.; Janni, K.A.; Jacobson, L.D.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1993 Jan. Transactions of the ASAE v. 36 (1): p.
 151-159; 1993 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Piglets; Newborn animals; Body heat loss;
 Farrowing houses; Interactions; Mathematical models; Relative
 humidity; Temperature
 
 Abstract:  A mathematical model was developed to describe the
 radiative and convective thermal interactions between a
 newborn piglet and it's surroundings. The model incorporates
 surface energy balances for each surface in the enclosure. The
 model was verified with results from a simulated creep area
 and from published calorimetric studies on newborn pigs.
 Mathematical results were all within 5.5% of the measured
 results from a simulated creep-area. Compared with published
 studies, the mathematical model over-predicts heat loss in
 high-demand environments and under predicts heat loss in low-
 demand environments.
 
 
 203                                     NAL Call. No.: 49 An55
 Moderate indoor exercise: effect on production and carcass
 traits, muscle enzyme activities and meat quality in pigs.
 Enfalt, A.C.; Lundstrom, K.; Hansson, I.; Karlsson, A.; Essen-
 Gustavsson, B.; Hakansson, J.
 East Lothian, Scotland : Durrant; 1993 Aug.
 Animal production v. 57 (pt.1): p. 127-135; 1993 Aug. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Exercise; Pig housing; Fattening
 performance; Lactic acid; Muscle tissue; Ph; Enzymes; Enzyme
 activity; Carcass composition; Meat quality
 
 
 204                           NAL Call. No.: SF83.G3S3 Heft 64
 Moglichkeiten der Schlachtkorperbewertung am lebenden Schwein
 mit Hilfe von Ultraschallmessungen  [Possibilities of
 slaughter value evaluation of living swine with use of
 ultrasound measurements].
 Busemann, Eiso,
 Kiel : Selbstverlag des Institutes fur Tierzucht und
 Tierhaltung der Christian-Albrechts-Universitat,; 1991.
 104 p. : ill. ; 21 cm. (Schriftenreihe des Institutes fur
 Tierzucht und Tierhaltung der Christian-Albrechts-Universitat
 zu Kiel, Heft 64).  English summary.  Vita.  Includes
 bibliographical references (p. 89-96).
 
 Language:  German
 
 
 205                                     NAL Call. No.: 49 AN55
 A note of hunger in the pig: sows on restricted rations will
 sustain an energy deficit to gain additional food.
 Hutson, G.D.
 East Lothian, Scotland : Durrant; 1991 Feb.
 Animal production v. 52 (pt.1): p. 233-235; 1991 Feb. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Restricted feeding; Hunger; Conditioning;
 Animal welfare
 
 
 206                                     NAL Call. No.: 49 An55
 A note on the behaviour and performance of growing pigs
 provided with straw in a novel housing system.
 Arey, D.S.; Bruce, J.M.
 East Lothian, Scotland : Durrant; 1993 Apr.
 Animal production v. 56 (pt.2): p. 269-272; 1993 Apr. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Pig housing; Animal behavior; Straw; Growth
 rate; Feed conversion efficiency; Animal welfare; Animal
 husbandry
 
 
 207                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 C163
 A note on the effect of deep-litter housing on growth
 performance of growing-finishing pigs.
 Matte, J.J.
 Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada; 1993 Sep.
 Canadian journal of animal science v. 73 (3): p. 643-647; 1993
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Deep litter housing; Growth rate; Manures;
 Enzymes; Ventilation; Temperature
 
 
 208                                     NAL Call. No.: 49 AN55
 A note on the effects of environmental temperature on live-
 weight gain during fattening of pigs.
 Sakai, T.; Nishino, M.; Hamakawa, M.; Yoon, C.S.;
 Thirapatsakun, T. East Lothian, Scotland : Durrant; 1992 Feb.
 Animal production v. 54 (pt.1): p. 147-149; 1992 Feb. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Pig fattening; Environmental temperature;
 Liveweight gain; Pig housing
 
 
 209                                     NAL Call. No.: 49 AN55
 A note on the IVOG-station: a feeding station to record the
 individual food intake of group-housed growing pigs.
 Haer, L.C.M. de; Merks, J.W.M.; Kooper, H.G.; Buiting, G.A.J.;
 Hattum, J.A. van
 East Lothian, Scotland : Durrant; 1992 Feb.
 Animal production v. 54 (pt.1): p. 160-162; 1992 Feb. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Feed intake; Feeding behavior; Recording;
 Equipment; Feed dispensers
 
 
 210                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Oestrus detection in group-housed sows by analysis of data on
 visits to the boar.
 Bressers, H.P.M.; Te Brake, J.H.A.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1991 Aug.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 31 (3/4): p. 183-193; 1991
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Boars; Estrus; Detection; Groups; Pig
 housing; Prediction; Standing reflex
 
 
 211                               NAL Call. No.: S494.5.D3C652
 An open information system for the swine production and
 marketing industry: its scope, topology and telecommunication
 strategy.
 Groeneveld, E.; Lacher, P.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1992 Jul.
 Computers and electronics in agriculture v. 7 (2): p. 163-185;
 1992 Jul. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Meat and livestock industry; Animal
 production; Information needs; Information systems; Computer
 software; Marketing; Record keeping; Classification;
 Telecommunications; Animal husbandry
 
 
 212                                    NAL Call. No.: HD101.S6
 Optimal hog slaughter weights under alternative pricing
 systems. Boland, M.A.; Preckel, P.V.; Schinckel, A.P.
 Lexington, Ky. : Southern Agricultural Economics Association,
 1993-; 1993 Dec. Journal of agricultural and applied economics
 v. 25 (2): p. 148-163; 1993 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Slaughter weight; Profits; Liveweight;
 Price policy; Growth; Carcass weight; Pigmeat
 
 Abstract:  Three hog genotypes are simulated to determine how
 producer profits, economically optimal slaughter weights, and
 carcass component weights change under three pricing models.
 Live weight pricing pays more for the fatter barrows whereas a
 three component (separate payments for fat, lean, and
 byproducts) and six component (separate payments for major
 primal cuts, other lean, fat, and byproducts) pricing system
 pay more for the leaner gilts. Implications for selection of
 genetic stock and pricing system are presented.
 
 
 213                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 An optimal misting method for cooling livestock housing.
 Gates, R.S.; Usry, J.L.; Nienaber, J.A.; Turner, L.W.;
 Bridges, T.C. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers; 1991 Sep. Transactions of the ASAE v.
 34 (5): p. 2199-2206; 1991 Sep.  Literature review.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pig housing; Cooling; Evaporative cooling; Mists;
 Literature reviews; Mathematical models
 
 Abstract:  A method to analyze the operation of misting
 systems to cool livestock housing by minimizing interior
 Temperature-humidity Index (THI) is presented. The procedure
 is shown to be similar to the analysis for evaporative pad
 cooling, except that interior maximum relative humidity is
 specified instead of pad efficiency. The minimization of THI
 is shown to be equivalent to the minimization of interior dry-
 bulb temperature. If interior heat and moisture loads are
 neglected, the interior state point can be found at an
 intersection of outside wet-bulb temperature and inside
 maximum relative humidity; implications of neglecting these
 loads are quantified. Comparisons between no cooling, pad
 cooling, and misting are made to the resultant interior dry-
 bulb temperature, and to the Gain Reduction Factor (Morrison
 et al., 1968), for the simplified assumptions of no internal
 heat loads. The misting system is shown to compare favorably
 with evaporative pad cooling.
 
 
 214                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AU72
 Oral transmission of transmissible gastroenteritis virus by
 muscle and lymph node from slaughtered pigs.
 Cook, D.R.; Hill, H.T.; Taylor, J.D.
 Brunswick, Victoria : Australian Veterinary Association; 1991
 Feb. Australian veterinary journal v. 68 (2): p. 68-70; 1991
 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Iowa; Australia; Pigs; Transmissible
 gastroenteritis virus; Gastroenteritis; Carcasses; Disease
 transmission; Pigmeat; Disease prevalence; Carrier state;
 Importation
 
 
 215                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 Am32T
 Orienting livestock shelters to optimize natural summer
 ventilation. Barrington, S.; Zemanchik, N.; Choiniere, Y.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers
 1958-; 1994 Jan.
 Transactions of the ASAE v. 37 (1): p. 251-255; 1994 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ontario; Cabt; Animal housing; Pig housing;
 Ventilation; Wind; Orientation
 
 Abstract:  Using the meteorological data of 10 Ontario weather
 stations, natural ventilation rates were computed for a
 typical gable roofed swine shelter, oriented at 6 different
 angles from the north. A nonparametric statistical procedure
 was used to identify that orientation giving the least period
 of ventilation under the required rate, throughout the summer,
 for temperature ranges above 20 degrees C, 25 degrees C, and
 30 degrees C. For all 10 stations, 1 or 2 building
 orientations gave slightly but significantly better
 ventilation rates than all other orientations. Ventilation was
 improved by further extending the period during which minimum
 summer rates were respected Nevertheless, growers using
 properly oriented buildings and natural ventilation can expect
 low summer ventilation rates 12% to 27% of the time. These low
 ventilation conditions can persist over more than 24
 consecutive hours in some locations.
 
 
 216                                    NAL Call. No.: S671.A66
 Parametric design with associated costs and production data of
 swine nurseries.
 Helmink, K.J.; Christianson, L.L.; Riskowski, G.L.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1991 Mar. Applied engineering in agriculture v. 7
 (2): p. 237-247; 1991 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pig housing; Ventilation; Design; Costs;
 Parametric programming; Computer software
 
 Abstract:  The Illinois Nursery Improvement Software (INIS) is
 a computerized, parametric design aid for swine nurseries and
 prenurseries. INIS prepares plan and elevation drawings,
 specifies equipment and materials and compares ventilation
 options. Costs of alternative ventilation systems are
 calculated. Users can estimate productivity improvements (feed
 efficiency, health costs, gain rates, and mortality rates)
 that will result from improved ventilation to compare with
 ventilation system costs.
 
 
 217                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Patterns associated with season and facilities for atrophic
 rhinitis and pneumonia in slaughter swine.
 Cowart, R.P.; Boessen, C.R.; Kliebenstein, J.B.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1992 Jan15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 200
 (2): p. 190-193; 1992 Jan15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Atrophic rhinitis; Pneumonia; Lesions;
 Seasonal variation; Pig housing; Disease course
 
 
 218                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Pen shape and size: effects on pig behavior and performance.
 Wiegand, R.M.; Gonyou, H.W.; Curtis, S.E.
 Amsterdam ; New York : Elsevier, 1984-; 1994 Jan.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 39 (1): p. 49-61; 1994
 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Pens; Shape; Size; Stocking density; Space
 utilization; Social behavior; Performance; Time; Liveweight
 gain; Feed intake; Feed conversion efficiency; Aggressive
 behavior
 
 
 219                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Performance, carcass composition, and blood hormones and
 metabolites of finishing pigs treated with porcine
 somatotropin in hot and cold environments. Becker, B.A.;
 Knight, C.D.; Veenhuizen, J.J.; Jesse, G.W.; Hedrick, H.B.;
 Baile, C.A.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1993
 Sep. Journal of animal science v. 71 (9): p. 2375-2387; 1993
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Diets; Cold stress; Feed intake; Heat
 stress; Hormones; Metabolites; Performance testing;
 Somatotropin; Blood analysis; Carcass composition; Fat;
 Protein content
 
 Abstract:  Two experiments were conducted to assess the
 ability for recombinant porcine somatotropin (rpST)-treated
 pigs to perform and cope with the demands of hot and cold
 environments. In the first experiment, finishing pigs were
 exposed to either a thermoneutral (TN; 18 to 21 degrees C) or
 a hot environment (H; 27 to 35 degrees C) for 35 d. In the
 second experiment, pigs were exposed to a TN or cold
 environment (C; 5 to 15 degrees C). The rpST delivered by a 6-
 wk prolonged-release system had no effect on ADG, whereas both
 H and C reduced ADG by 29.4 and 11.8%, respectively. In the
 first experiment, rpST-treated pigs consumed 17.6% less feed
 than control pigs, whereas rpST-treated pigs in H consumed
 24.4% less feed than rpST-treated pigs in TN. Overall feed/
 gain ratios through the first 4 wk of both studies were
 improved by 21.8 and 14%, respectively, by rpST (P < .05) and
 were 24.3% poorer in C (P <.05) than in H. The changes in
 blood concentrations of pST, IGF-I, and IGF-II associated with
 rpST were not influenced by the different environments. Total
 body composition of rpST-treated pigs had increased amounts of
 protein (P < .05) and decreased amounts of fat (P < .05); H
 further reduced fat (P < .05). The C resulted in reduced
 protein content (P < .05). No evidence of thermal imbalance
 due to rpST was found as assessed by rectal temperature,
 respiration rate, and heat production estimated by indirect
 calorimetry and chemical analysis.
 
 
 220                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Performance measured in pigs with pneumonia and housed in
 different environments.
 Straw, B.E.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1991 Feb15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 198
 (4): p. 627-630; 1991 Feb15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Pig housing; Pneumonia; Growth rate;
 Liveweight gain; Feed conversion efficiency; Lesions;
 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae; Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae
 
 
 221                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 The performance of gilts in a new group housing system:
 endocrinological and immunological functions.
 Von Borell, E.; Morris, J.R.; Hurnik, J.F.; Mallard, B.A.;
 Buhr, M.M. Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal
 Science; 1992 Sep. Journal of animal science v. 70 (9): p.
 2714-2721; 1992 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Gilts; Pig housing; Group size; Blood plasma;
 Progesterone; Adrenal glands; Diagnostic techniques; Immune
 response; Reproductive performance; Body weight; Backfat;
 Litter weight; Hydrocortisone
 
 Abstract:  The effect of a new group housing system on
 performance (132 gilts and litters) and endocrinological (35
 gilts) and immunological functions (28 gilts) was studied.
 Animals were randomly assigned to a conventional system
 control, involving > 2 mo in individual stalls, or to the
 Hurnik-Morris (H-M) housing system, involving continuous
 housing in small groups, for breeding-gestating swine. The
 gilts were reared throughout gestation in their respective
 housing systems and moved 3 to 5 d prefarrowing to a common
 farrowing facility. Various production data were collected,
 including sow weight and backfat measurements, number of pigs
 born, number born alive, number weaned, litter birth weight,
 and litter weaning weight. An adrenal function test using
 dexamethasone pretreatment and ACTH1-24 challenge was imposed
 on gilts 5 d prebreeding and once between d 81 to 87 of
 gestation. Plasma progesterone was measured at the same time.
 Immune function was measured by serum antibody response to hen
 egg white lysozyme (HEWL) and delayed-type hypersensitivity
 (DTH) to tuberculin. Gilts reared in the H-M housing system
 exhibited a number of pigs weaned per litter and litter
 weaning weights comparable to the number and weights in the
 control system (7.3 +/-.33 vs 6.9 +/- .38, P = .421 and 56.9
 +/- 2.42 kg vs 51.3 +/- 2.76 kg, P = .132, respectively).
 Prefarrowing and weaning backfat measurements were
 significantly reduced in group-housed gilts (15.8 +/- .45 mm
 vs 17.8 +/- .55 mm, P = .005 and 14.6 +/- .4 mm vs 16.2 +/-
 .42 mm, P = .008, respectively). Adrenocortical function and
 plasma progesterone were not different between gilts in
 different housing systems. Antibody response to HEWL and
 inflammatory response was numerically but not significantly
 greater for gilts reared in the H-M housing system than for
 those in the control system. The results of this study
 provided encouragement for the development of group housing
 without compromising production or endocrinological and
 immunolo
 
 
 222                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 The peri-parturient behaviour of sows housed in pairs.
 Arey, D.S.; Petchey, A.M.; Fowler, V.R.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1992 Jul.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 34 (1/2): p. 49-59; 1992
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Group behavior; Farrowing; Reproductive
 behavior; Aggressive behavior; Social dominance; Nesting;
 Maternal behavior
 
 
 223                           NAL Call. No.: SF459.S9W35  1992
 Pet pigs advice on management, training and health care.
 Walton, J. R.,; Carr, John; Duran, Oliver
 Liverpool : Liverpool University Press,; 1992.
 viii, 30 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.  Includes bibliographical
 references (p. 27) and index.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Swine; Pets
 
 
 224                                  NAL Call. No.: QD415.A1J6
 Pheromonal transmission of an aversive experience in domestic
 pig. Vieuille-Thomas, C.; Signoret, J.P.
 New York, N.Y. : Plenum Publishing Corporation; 1992 Sep.
 Journal of chemical ecology v. 18 (9): p. 1551-1557; 1992 Sep. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Alarm pheromones; Stress; Urine; Animal
 behavior; Conditioning; Learning
 
 Abstract:  The process of spontaneous learning in an automatic
 food dispenser by a group of domestic female pigs was studied
 when one of the animals of the group had an aversive
 experience. Restraining a gilt in the dispenser without access
 to food resulted in later avoidance of the system by other
 gilts, especially when the reactions of the restrained animal
 had been especially violent and associated with urination. The
 hypothesis of a delayed transmission of an unpleasant
 experience was tested. The food dispenser was sprayed with
 urine collected from either a control gilt or from an animal
 undergoing stress. In half of the cases, the presence of urine
 of a stressed animal resulted in a long-lasting avoidance of
 the food dispenser, suggesting the existence of some kind of
 alarm pheromone produced in the urine of a sow during an
 unpleasant experience.
 
 
 225                                    NAL Call. No.: TX373.M4
 Pig slaughtering procedures: head-to-back stunning.
 Wotton, S.B.; Anil, M.H.; Whittington, P.E.; McKinstry, J.L.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1992.
 Meat science v. 32 (3): p. 245-255; 1992.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Slaughter; Stunning; Electrical treatment;
 Food quality
 
 
 226                                 NAL Call. No.: 275.29 M58B
 Porcine stress syndrome.
 Judge, M.D.; Eikelenboom, G.; Marple, D.N.
 East Lansing, Mich. : The Service; 1992 Nov.
 Extension bulletin E - Cooperative Extension Service, Michigan
 State University v.): 3 p.; 1992 Nov.  In subseries: Pork
 Industry Handbook. Pork and Pork Quality.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Porcine stress syndrome; Swine diseases; Stress;
 Genetic factors; Tests; Meat quality; Disease prevention
 
 
 227                                    NAL Call. No.: TP368.L4
 Pork quality affected by different slaughter conditions and
 post mortem treatment of the carcass.
 Garrido, M.D.; Pedauye, J.; Banon, S.; Marques, F.; Laencina,
 J. London : Academic Press; 1994.
 Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft+Technologie. Food science+technology
 v. 27 (2): p. 173-176; 1994.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigmeat; Postmortem examinations; Meat quality;
 Slaughter
 
 
 228                                      NAL Call. No.: S1.M57
 Portable housing for poultry and hogs.
 Klober, K.
 Columbia, Mo. : Missouri Farm Publishing Inc; 1993 Jun.
 Small Farm Today v. 10 (3): p. 38-42; 1993 Jun.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Poultry housing; Pig housing; Free range
 husbandry
 
 
 229                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Positioning of identification transponders in the auricle of
 pigs. Lambooij, E.
 London : The Association; 1992 Oct31.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 131 (18): p. 419-420; 1992 Oct31.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Transponders; Identification; Slaughter
 
 
 230                                     NAL Call. No.: SF5.B74
 Postnatal care in pigs.
 Hughes, P.E.
 Midlothian, Scotland : The Society; 1992.
 BSAP occasional publication : an occasional publication of the
 British Society of Animal Production (15): p. 149-161; 1992. 
 Literature review.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Piglets; Mortality; Literature reviews
 
 
 231                                   NAL Call. No.: 447.8 AM3
 Postnatal development of monosaccharide transport in pig
 intestine. Puchal, A.A.; Buddington, R.K.
 Bethesda, Md. : American Physiological Society; 1992 May.
 American journal of physiology v. 262 (5,pt.1): p. G895-G902;
 1992 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Piglets; Newborn animals; Glucose; Galactose;
 Fructose; Nutrient transport; Intestinal absorption;
 Intestinal mucosa; Puerperium; Postnatal development; Ontogeny
 
 Abstract:  In vitro brush-border transport of three
 monosaccharides by pig intestine was studied as a function of
 postnatal age from immediately after birth before suckling to
 after weaning. Rates of transport normalized to tissue weight
 or surface area for glucose (Glc), galactose (Gal), and
 fructose (Fru) were highest at birth, with a steep decline
 after the onset of suckling, probably caused by any
 combination of three or more factors: reduced transporter site
 density, shifts in relative abundances of different
 monosaccharide transporters, and/or changes in activities of
 individual transporters. Whereas highest rates of Glc and Fru
 transport shifted from proximal to midintestine after weaning,
 Gal transport remained highest in proximal intestine.
 Postnatal increases in Km values for Gal, but not Glc,
 indicate there are multiple aldohexose transporters that
 undergo separate developmental trajectories. The presence of
 Fru transport in neonatal pigs may reflect a more advanced
 state of development than neonatal rats and rabbits, or may be
 an adaptation for early weaning. Changes in Fru-to-Glc and
 Gal-to-Glc transport ratios before weaning suggest transporter
 development is partly genetically hard-wired, apparently to
 prepare pigs for weaning. Curiously, Fru-to-Glc transport
 ratios were lower than those of rat and rabbit, but closely
 paralleled those of the carnivorous cat.
 
 
 232                                  NAL Call. No.: HV4701.A35
 Potbellied pigs: Perfect pets or simply swine?.
 Prince, M.
 Englewood, Colo. : American Humane Association, Animal
 Protection Division; 1992.
 Advocate v. 10 (2): p. 10-14; 1992.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Miniature pigs; Pet care
 
 
 233                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Prediction of carcass characteristics by real-time ultrasound
 in barrows and gilts slaughtered at three weights.
 Smith, B.S.; Jones, W.R.; Hough, J.D.; Huffman, D.L.; Mikel,
 W.B.; Mulvaney, D.R.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1992
 Aug. Journal of animal science v. 70 (8): p. 2304-2308; 1992
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Slaughter weight; Fat thickness; Ultrasonic
 fat meters; Liveweight; Longissimus dorsi; Area; Carcass
 composition; Prediction
 
 Abstract:  The carcass characteristics of 27 market barrows
 and 27 market gilts were evaluated at various times (n = 8)
 with real-time ultrasound (Aloka 210 DX) from approximately 20
 kg until slaughter at three end points. The pigs were randomly
 assigned to slaughter weight groups of 91, 104.5, and 118 kg
 at weaning time. Correlations were determined over slaughter
 weight group and sex, and the accuracies of ultrasound
 measurements were also evaluated. The regressions of
 ultrasound 10th-rib fat and ultrasound longissimus muscle area
 on live weight were also developed. Correlations between
 actual and ultrasound-measured last-rib fat, 10th-rib fat, and
 longissimus muscle area were high (r = .91, .63, and.53,
 respectively; P < .01). The accuracy of ultrasound longissimus
 muscle area prediction was lower for 118-kg pigs than for the
 two lighter groups, whereas the accuracy for prediction of
 last-rib fat was lower for 91-kg pigs than for the two heavier
 groups, as indicated by higher absolute differences (P < .05).
 Last-rib fat and longissimus muscle area tended to be
 overestimated and 10th-rib fat tended to be underestimated by
 real-time ultrasound. Prediction of last-rib fat by ultrasound
 was more accurate for gilts than for barrows, as indicated by
 a lower absolute difference (P < .05).
 
 
 234                                    NAL Call. No.: TX373.M4
 Prediction of meat quality in live pigs using stress-
 susceptible and stress-resistant animals.
 Cheah, K.S.; Cheah, A.M.; Lahucky, R.; Mojto, J.; Kovac, L.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1993.
 Meat science v. 34 (2): p. 179-189; 1993.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigmeat; Meat quality; Stress
 
 
 235                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Preference by sows for a partially enclosed farrowing crate.
 Phillips, P.A.; Fraser, D.; Thompson, B.K.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1991 Oct.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 32 (1): p. 35-43; 1991
 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Farrowing pens; Age differences;
 Acceptability; Design
 
 
 236                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 The preparturient behaviour of sows in enriched pens and the
 effect of pre-formed nests.
 Arey, D.S.; Petchey, A.M.; Fowler, V.R.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1991 Jul.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 31 (1/2): p. 61-68; 1991
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Reproductive behavior; Prepartum period;
 Farrowing pens; Nests; Nesting; Sand; Straw
 
 
 237                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Productivity, time budgets and social aspects of eating in
 pigs penned in groups of five or individually.
 Gonyou, H.W.; Chapple, R.P.; Frank, G.R.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1992 Sep.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 34 (4): p. 291-301; 1992
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Group behavior; Pens; Feeding behavior;
 Aggressive behavior; Liveweight gain; Feed intake; Feed
 conversion efficiency; Sex differences; Time; Pig housing;
 Productivity
 
 
 238                                    NAL Call. No.: 58.9 IN7
 Putting pigs in the picture.
 Schofield, C.P.
 Silsoe : Institution of Agricultural Engineers; 1991.
 The Agricultural engineer v. 46 (1): p. 9-10; 1991.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pig farming; Pigs; Weight; Pig housing; Video
 recordings
 
 
 239                          NAL Call. No.: 7  C16Pu no.1898/E
 Recommended code of practice for the care and handling of farm
 animals pigs.. Pigs
 Connor, M. L.
 Canada, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
 Ottawa, Ont. : Communications Branch Agriculture Canada,;
 1993. 55 p. : ill. ; 23 cm. (Publication (Canada. Agriculture
 and Agri-Food Canada) ; 1898/E.).  This publication replaces
 Agric. Can. Publ. 1771/E Recommended code of practice for care
 and handling of pigs.  Includes bibliographical references (p.
 49).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Swine
 
 
 240                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Relationship between behaviour and adrenocortrical response
 pattern in domestic pigs.
 Borell, E. von; Ladewig, J.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1992 Aug.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 34 (3): p. 195-206; 1992
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Stress; Locomotion; Vocalization; Animal
 behavior; Adrenal cortex; Corticotropin; Age differences;
 Pens; Litters; Hydrocortisone
 
 
 241                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Relationship to growth performance of pneumonia and atrophic
 rhinitis lesions detected in pigs at slaughter among four
 seasons.
 Scheidt, A.B.; Mayrose, V.B.; Hill, M.A.; Clark, L.K.;
 Einstein, M.E.; Frantz, S.F.; Runnels, L.J.; Knox, K.E.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1992 May15.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 200
 (10): p. 1492-1496; 1992 May15.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Pneumonia; Atrophic rhinitis; Lungs; Nose;
 Lesions; Incidence; Seasonal variation; Growth rate
 
 
 242                                 NAL Call. No.: SF780.9.S63
 Relationships between pig husbandry practices and violative
 drug residues. McCaughey, W.J.; McEvoy, J.D.G.; Campbell,
 J.N.; Kennedy, D.G.; Lynas, L.; McCartan, B.M.
 Great Britain : The Society, 1983-; 1994.
 Proceedings of a meeting held at the ... on the ... /. p.
 33-41; 1994.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Northern ireland; Cabt; Pigs; Drug residues;
 Pigmeat; Meat inspection; Testing; Feeds; Chlortetracycline;
 Swine diseases
 
 
 243                                    NAL Call. No.: TX373.M4
 Relationships between subjective and objective assessments of
 stress at slaughter and meat quality in pigs.
 Warriss, P.D.; Brown, S.N.; Adams, S.J.M.; Corlett, I.K.
 Oxford : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1994.
 Meat science v. 38 (2): p. 329-340; 1994.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigmeat; Meat quality; Slaughter; Stress response
 
 
 244                                   NAL Call. No.: SF395.P62
 Remodeling ideas for farrowing facilities.
 Jacobson, L.D.; Murphy, J.P.; Pohl, S.H.
 West Lafayette, Ind. : Cooperative Extension Service, Purdue
 University, [1978?- ]; 1993 Dec.
 Pork industry handbook. -- v.): p. 1-8; 1993 Dec.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Farrowing houses; Design; Farrowing pens;
 Pig manure; Insulation; Artificial ventilation; Heating
 
 
 245                                    NAL Call. No.: QL868.D6
 Responses of the porcine pituitary-adrenal axis to chronic
 intermittent stressor.
 Klemcke, H.G.
 Stoneham, Mass. : Butterworth-Heinemann; 1994 Jan.
 Domestic animal endocrinology v. 11 (1): p. 133-149; 1994 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Males; Castration; Pituitary;
 Corticotropin; Adrenal glands; Receptors; Binding site; Stress
 conditions
 
 
 246                                 NAL Call. No.: RA771.A1J68
 Results of an educational intervention to improve the health
 knowledge, attitudes and self-reported behaviors of swine
 confinement workers. Gjerde, C.; Ferguson, K.; Mutel, C.;
 Donham, K.; Merchant, J. Kansas City, Mo. : National Rural
 Health Association; 1991. The Journal of rural health v. 7
 (3): p. 278-286; 1991.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Safety at work; Educational programs; Health;
 Knowledge; Attitudes; Behavior; Respiratory diseases; Health
 promotion; Risk
 
 Abstract:  Swine confinement workers participated in an
 educational intervention designed to improve knowledge,
 attitudes, and behaviors related to respiratory disease. The
 desired changes were (1) improvement in knowledge about
 recommended gas and dust levels in buildings and benefits of
 using properly fitted masks; (2) improvement of attitudes
 about wearing dust masks, taking safety precautions, and
 inspecting the ventilation and heating systems; and (3)
 improvement in behaviors such as regular inspection of
 buildings and wearing an appropriate dust mask or respirator.
 The health risks of failing to practice these behaviors
 include chronic bronchitis, occupational asthma, organic dust
 toxic syndrome, chronic sinusitis, and even death from acute
 toxicity related to hydrogen sulfide. An intervention group
 and a nonintervention group of swine confinement workers were
 assessed at the beginning of the project and one year later to
 determine changes brought about by an educational
 intervention. During that year, swine producers in the
 intervention group were mailed a series of six educational
 home study modules and reference materials on confinement
 topics. Analysis of covariance and categorical repeated
 measures analysis were used to determine changes over time in
 the percentage of people who answered correctly in each group.
 Significant changes in knowledge scores, attitude scores, and
 reported behavior scores all favored the intervention group.
 The 14 statistically significant changes in knowledge items
 were related to dust mask use, manure pit safety, liquid
 manure agitation, building gas and dust norms, and recommended
 gas levels. The four attitudinal items that improved
 significantly concerned the importance of regular cleaning and
 upkeep, improving health and safety, knowing ways to keep
 buildings safer, and recognizing the benefits of wearing a
 dust mask. The four items about self-reported behavior changes
 included inspecting and servicing of building heaters,
 measuring
 
 
 247                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 A review of behavioral factors involved in the development
 oand continued performance of stereotypic behaviors in pigs.
 Lawrence, A.B.; Terlouw, E.M.C.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1993
 Oct. Journal of animal science v. 71 (10): p. 2815-2825; 1993
 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Animal behavior; Animal welfare; Stress
 factors; Feeding behavior; Feedback; Hunger; Restricted
 feeding; Motivation; Literature reviews
 
 Abstract:  Environmentally induced stereotypies, commonly
 observed in farm and zoo animals, are behaviors that are
 relatively invariant, that are regularly repeated, and that
 serve no obvious function. However, there is as yet no
 accepted means of discriminating between normal and abnormal
 behavior, and the assumption that stereotypies are abnormal
 may mask the fact that they arise in part through processes
 that "normally" control behavior. There is growing evidence
 that stereotypies in sows and broiler breeders are strongly
 related to feeding motivation. For example, sows only develop
 oral stereotypies if their feed intake is restricted, and
 operant conditioning experiments have shown commercial levels
 of feed restriction to give rise to high levels of feeding
 motivation. Stereotypies in animals whose feed intake is
 restricted largely occur in the postprandial period, and
 ingestion of food has specifically been shown to elicit
 stereotypies in sows. These observations suggest that positive
 feedback from feeding produces a short-term increase in
 feeding motivation that at the end of the meal is directed
 toward available, alternative stimuli such as chains, the
 choice of stimuli reflecting the sensory feedback from the
 activity. Drinking behavior may also become an expression of
 feeding behavior after metabolic water requirements are met.
 In addition to these processes specific to feeding motivation,
 it seems likely that nonspecific processes, which operate more
 generally across motivational systems, contribute to the
 persistence of the behavior. Behavioral arousal may facilitate
 performance of active behaviors, and sensitization of the
 underlying neural elements may lead to the behavior being more
 easily elicited and maintained. A crucial factor in the
 sensitization process would seem to be the channeling of
 complex behavior by the environment into a few and very often
 repeated sequences of behavior. This approach suggests that
 stereotypies can be prevented by either reducing the level of
 motivation underlying the stereotypy, or by allowing for the
 expression of more complex behavior and thereby preventing the
 processes of channeling and sensitization from occurring.
 
 
 248                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 AM3
 Risk factors associated with transmissible gastroenteritis in
 swine. Siegel, J.P.; Hungerford, L.L.; Hall, W.F.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1991 Dec01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 199
 (11): p. 1579-1583; 1991 Dec01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Illinois; Pigs; Transmissible gastroenteritis
 virus; Risk; Animal husbandry; Databases
 
 
 249                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 Salmonellosis in swine.
 Schwartz, K.J.
 Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company; 1991 Jan.
 The Compendium on continuing education for the practicing
 veterinarian v. 13 (1): p. 139-147. ill; 1991 Jan.  Literature
 review.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Salmonellosis; Salmonella choleraesuis;
 Pigmeat; Serotypes; Septicemia; Enterocolitis; Differential
 diagnosis; Stress factors; Physiopathology; Disease control;
 Antibacterial agents
 
 
 250                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Sarcoptic mite hypersensitivity and skin lesions in
 slaughtered pigs. Davies, P.R.; Moore, M.J.; Pointon, A.M.
 London : The Association; 1991 Jun01.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 128 (22): p. 516-518; 1991 Jun01.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Sarcoptes scabiei; Mange; Hypersensitivity;
 Lesions; Monitoring
 
 
 251                           NAL Call. No.: SF391.3.S28  1991
 Sauenhaltung Informationsveranstaltung der ALB und der ARL am
 5. Marz 1991 in Lollar  [Sow husbandry].
 Arbeitsgemeinschaft Landtechnik und Bauwesen Hessen
 Kassel : Arbeitsgemeinschaft Landtechnik und Bauwesen Hessen,
 [1991?]; 1991. 97 p. : ill., maps ; 30 cm. (Bericht /
 Arbeitsgemeinschaft Landtechnik und Bauwesen Hessen, Nr. 53;
 Bericht (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Landtechnik und Bauwesen Hessen)
 ; Nr. 53.).  Cover title.  Includes bibliographical
 references.
 
 Language:  German
 
 Descriptors: Sows
 
 
 252                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Shade-seeking and lying behaviour in pigs of mixed sex and
 age, with access to outside pens.
 Blackshaw, J.K.; Blackshaw, A.W.
 Amsterdam ; New York : Elsevier, 1984-; 1994 Mar.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 39 (3/4): p. 249-257; 1994
 Mar.  In the special issue: Advances in pig behavior science /
 edited by Judith K. Blackshaw.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Boars; Sows; Animal behavior; Shade; Pens;
 Environmental temperature; Yards; Diurnal variation
 
 
 253                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Shipping stress and social status effects on pig performance,
 plasma cortisol, natural killer cell activity, and leukocyte
 numbers.
 McGlone, J.J.; Salak, J.L.; Lumpkin, E.A.; Nicholson, R.I.;
 Gibson, M.; Norman, R.L.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1993
 Apr. Journal of animal science v. 71 (4): p. 888-896; 1993
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Transport of animals; Blood plasma;
 Hydrocortisone; Natural killer cells; Stress; Blood picture;
 Body weight; Feed intake; Social dominance
 
 Abstract:  Crossbred pigs were used to evaluate the effects of
 shipping stress on natural killer (NK) cell activity,
 leukocyte numbers, plasma cortisol, and BW changes. In the
 first study, pigs were bled at a commercial farm and, after
 shipping, resident and shipped pigs were bled again. Plasma
 cortisol concentrations were not different (P > .10) because
 of large variation in cortisol concentrations. Furthermore, NK
 cytotoxicity was nondetectable among all pigs. A second study
 showed that plasma cortisol concentration rose by
 approximately 2.6 ng/mL (P = .018) for each minute after pigs
 were aroused. In the third, more controlled study, pigs were
 housed in pens of three pigs each. Video recordings were made
 during the first 24 h pigs were grouped to identify socially
 dominant, intermediate, and submissive pigs. At time zero
 (before shipping), resident pigs and those to be shipped had
 similar plasma cortisol concentrations. However, after the 4-h
 shipping experience, shipped pigs had elevated (P < .05)
 plasma cortisol compared with resident control pigs. Shipped
 pigs lost 5.1% of their BW (P < .05) compared with resident
 pigs, which gained .02% of their BW. Body weight change during
 shipping and plasma cortisol were negatively correlated (r = -
 .34, P = .04), indicating pigs that had greater adrenal
 response to shipping also lost more weight during shipping.
 Shipping reduced (P < .05) NK cytotoxicity among pigs of
 intermediate and submissive social status compared with
 shipped, dominant pigs. At the end of shipping or control
 treatments, the correlation between NK cytotoxicity and plasma
 cortisol was positive (r = .35, P = .036), indicating that
 pigs with greater cortisol response had greater NK
 cytotoxicity. In both shipping studies, numbers of blood
 neutrophils increased (P < .01), lymphocytes decreased (P <
 .01), and neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio increased (P < .01)
 after shipping. These data suggest that 1) social status and
 shipping stress interact in NK cytotoxicity respo
 
 
 254                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Simulated thermal performance of a solar-heated floor.
 Kocher, M.F.; DeShazer, J.A.; Bodman, G.R.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1993 Mar. Transactions of the ASAE v. 36 (2): p.
 559-567; 1993 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Floors; Pig housing; Solar heating; Simulation
 models
 
 Abstract:  A low cost, simple solar heating system consisting
 of an active collector with an In-Floor Heat Distribution and
 Storage (IFHDS) system was developed in response to the energy
 crisis of the 1970s. A two-dimensional finite difference model
 was developed and used to simulate the performance of IFHDS
 system cross-sections. Simulation runs were conducted with a
 steady-periodic model for the temperature of the solar-heated
 air in the IFHDS system cross-section. The steady, periodic
 simulation results indicated IFHDS system energy efficiency
 increases with decreasing air temperature in the room above
 the IFHDS system, peak temperature of the solar-heated air in
 the IFHDS system cross-section, and required temperature of
 the IFHDS system floor surface. The results also indicated
 that energy efficiency increases as thermal storage mass
 thickness decreases. The thermal storage mass thickness should
 be the minimum necessary to meet the requirements for maximum
 permissible daily floor surface temperature fluctuation, or
 time lag between time of peak, solar-heated air temperature in
 the IFHDS system cross-section and time of peak floor surface
 temperature.
 
 
 255                                 NAL Call. No.: S544.3.O5O5
 Slaughter hog pooling.
 Ward, C.E.; Peel, D.S.
 Stillwater, Okla. : The Service; 1992 Feb.
 OSU extension facts - Cooperative Extension Service, Oklahoma
 State University (526): 6 p.; 1992 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oklahoma; Pigs; Abattoirs; Transport; Pig
 farming; Cooperative marketing
 
 
 256                                   NAL Call. No.: QR115.I57
 Slaughter pigs and pork as a source of human pathogenic
 Yersinia enterocolitica.
 Boer, E. de; Nouws, J.F.M.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1991 Apr.
 International journal of food microbiology v. 12 (4): p.
 375-378; 1991 Apr. Paper presented at at IUMS-ICFMH 14th
 International Symposium on Gram-Negative Pathogens in Food,
 August 14-19, 1990, Bolkesjo, Telemark/Norway.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Pigmeat; Yersinia enterocolitica; Microbial
 contamination; Food contamination; Slaughter; Isolation;
 Isolation techniques
 
 Abstract:  Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica strains
 (serogroups 0:3;0:9 and 0:5,27) were isolated from 36 (42%) of
 86 porcine tonsils, 8 (20%) of 40 tongues, 17 (17%) of 100
 rectal swabs and from 4 (1%) of 400 pork samples. Pathogenic
 Yersinia strains were not isolated from samples of 210 pig
 carcasses and from 20 samples of porcine head meat. These
 results confirm that pigs are an important reservoir of
 pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. However, contamination of
 carcasses during the slaughtering process with Yersinia from
 either faecal material or from the tonsillary region does not
 seem to occur frequently and this may also explain the low
 contamination rate of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica found for
 pork. For the isolation of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica
 strains from foods, enrichment in irgasan-ticarcillin-chlorate
 broth (ITC) and isolation on SS-deoxycholate-calcium agar
 (SSDC) is recommended.
 
 
 257                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Social rank and feeding behaviour of group-housed sows fed
 competitively or ad libitum.
 Brouns, F.; Edwards, S.A.
 Amsterdam ; New York : Elsevier, 1984-; 1994 Mar.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 39 (3/4): p. 225-235; 1994
 Mar.  In the special issue: Advances in pig behavior science /
 edited by Judith K. Blackshaw.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Sow feeding; Social behavior; Groups;
 Feeding behavior; Unrestricted feeding; Animal competition;
 Liveweight gain
 
 
 258                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 R3224
 Some observations on cardiac failure in sows.
 Drolet, R.; D'Allaire; Chagnon, M.
 Ottawa : Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; 1992 May.
 The Canadian veterinary journal v. 33 (5): p. 325-329; 1992
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Heart diseases; Mortality; Predisposition;
 Stress; Body weight; Heat stress
 
 
 259                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 C163
 Sow preference for farrowing-crate width.
 Phillips, P.A.; Fraser, D.; Thompson, B.K.
 Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada; 1992 Dec.
 Canadian journal of animal science v. 72 (4): p. 745-750; 1992
 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Farrowing; Pens; Design; Space
 requirements; Width; Animal welfare
 
 
 260                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Space requirements for finishing pigs in confinement: behavior
 and performance while group size and space vary.
 McClone, J.J.; Newby, B.E.
 Amsterdam ; New York : Elsevier, 1984-; 1994 Mar.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 39 (3/4): p. 331-338; 1994
 Mar.  In the special issue: Advances in pig behavior science /
 edited by Judith K. Blackshaw.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Space requirements; Group size; Crowding;
 Space utilization; Liveweight gain; Feed intake; Feed
 conversion efficiency; Morbidity
 
 
 261                                    NAL Call. No.: 58.8 J82
 Spatial variability of airborne and settled dust in a piggery.
 Barber, E.M.; Dawson, J.R.; Battams, V.A.; Nicol, R.A.C.
 London : Academic Press; 1991 Oct.
 Journal of agricultural engineering research v. 50 (2): p.
 107-127; 1991 Oct. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pig housing; Dust; Concentration; Air pollution;
 Spatial variation; Measurement; Particle size; Analysis; Air
 temperature; Velocity; Air flow; Pens; Hygiene; Animals;
 Stocking density
 
 
 262                                   NAL Call. No.: SF601.C66
 The specific stress-free system.
 Tielen, M.; Scheepens, K.
 Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary Learning Systems Company, Inc; 1993
 Jan. The Compendium on continuing education for the practicing
 veterinarian v. 15 (1): p. 125-127; 1993 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Pig housing; Stress factors
 
 
 263                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Stereotyped behaviour, social interactions and suckling
 pattern of pigs housed in groups or in single crates.
 Arellano, P.E.; Pijoan, C.; Jacobson, L.D.; Algers, B.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1992 Nov.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 35 (2): p. 157-166; 1992
 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Pig housing; Stocking density; Abnormal
 behavior; Piglets; Stress; Pens; Crates
 
 
 264                                      NAL Call. No.: QP1.P4
 Stereotypic behavior, adrenocortical function, and open field
 behavior of individually confined gestating sows.
 Von Borell, E.; Hurnik, J.F.
 Elmsford, N.Y. : Pergamon Press; 1991 Apr.
 Physiology & behavior v. 49 (4): p. 709-713; 1991 Apr. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Pregnancy; Animal behavior; Animal housing;
 Stress; Physical activity; Hydrocortisone
 
 Abstract:  The adrenocortical response and open field behavior
 of a random sample of 37 individually confined gestating sows
 in different parities were tested around day 85 of pregnancy.
 The sows were classified as stereotyped [S] and nonstereotyped
 [N) based on 8-h individual behavioral observations during
 daytime. Behavioral analysis from time-lapse video recordings
 included percentage of time spent standing and sitting, as
 well as the duration spent performing elements of stereotyped
 actions. Blood samples were drawn for cortisol analysis by
 suborbital sinus puncture before and after adrenocortical
 stimulation with 200 IU ACTH. Locomotor activity in an open
 field, isolated visually and auditorily from other sows, was
 also studied. Seventeen sows exhibited stereotyped behavior
 for 54.9 +/- 4.8% of the 8-h observation period during
 daytime. The total time the sows spent standing and sitting
 was positively correlated with age and was significantly
 higher for [S] sows than for [N] sows. Sows in the [S] group
 exhibited a higher adrenocortical response to ACTH stimulation
 than [N] sows. Mean locomotor scores in the open field were
 higher for [S] than for N] sows but these did not correlate
 with the physical activity and adrenocortical function in the
 home crate, Our results provide no evidence that the
 performance of stereotypies constitutes a mechanism that helps
 sows to cope in an environment of low complexity.
 
 
 265                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Stimulus generalization: the inability of pigs to discriminate
 between humans on the basis of their previous handling
 experience.
 Hemsworth, P.H.; Coleman, G.J.; Cox, M.; Barnett, J.L.
 Amsterdam ; New York : Elsevier, 1984-; 1994 May.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 40 (2): p. 129-142; 1994
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Handling; Stockmen; Discrimination;
 Stimuli; Differentiation; Fearfulness
 
 
 266                                    NAL Call. No.: S671.A66
 Stochastic assessment of evaporative misting for growing-
 finishing swine in Kentucky.
 Bridges, T.C.; Gates, R.S.; Turner, L.W.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1992 Sep. Applied engineering in agriculture v. 8
 (5): p. 685-693; 1992 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kentucky; Pig housing; Evaporative coolers;
 Mists; Stochastic models; Simulation models; Performance;
 Animal production
 
 Abstract:  Pig growth was simulated for a naturally ventilated
 growing-finishing swine facility with and without an
 evaporative misting system. Forty-two years of weather data
 for summertime conditions in central Kentucky were used to
 determine the simulated environment. Use of evaporative
 misting was found to reduce the length of a summer growth
 cycle by an average of 14.1 days and feed consumption by an
 average of 17.7 kg (39 lb) for the 42-year period. Average
 daily gain and feed-to-gain ratio were also improved. The
 economic benefit to the producer, in terms of feed savings,
 ranged from $800 to $2,964 (coolest year to warmest year) with
 an average of $1,700/year for the period of record. The
 results also indicated a high probability that a misting
 system would return the initial investment within a single
 average year, based on feed savings alone.
 
 
 267                             NAL Call. No.: SF71.2.S76 1992
 Stockmanship improving the care of the pig and other
 livestock. English, Peter
 Ipswich, U.K. : Farming Press,; 1992.
 xii, 190 p., [12] p. of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 24 cm. 
 Includes bibliographical references (p. 175-180) and index.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal culture; Domestic animals; Swine; Human-
 animal relationships; Livestock workers
 
 
 268                              NAL Call. No.: SF105.T5 Bd.22
 Der Stolba-Familienstall fur Hausschweine ein tiergerechtes
 Haltungssystem fur Zucht- und Mastschweine  [The Stolba Family
 Pen system for pig production]. Wechsler, Beat
 Basel ; Boston : Birkhauser,; 1991.
 95 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. (Tierhaltung ; Bd. 22).  Summary in
 English.  Includes bibliographical references (p. 84-90).
 
 Language:  German
 
 
 269                                    NAL Call. No.: 500 N484
 Stress and reproduction in domestic animals.
 Liptrap, R.M.
 New York : New York Academy of Sciences, 1877-; 1993.
 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences v. 697: p. 275-284;
 1993.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Domestic animals; Cattle; Sheep; Pigs; Horses;
 Stress; Estrous cycle; Pregnancy; Hormones; Male fertility;
 Endocrine system; Literature reviews
 
 
 270                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V643
 Stress-induced changes in c-fos immunoreactivity in the
 porcine brain. Parrott, R.F.; Vellucci, S.V.
 London : Bailliere Tindall; 1994 Jul.
 The British veterinary journal v. 150 (4): p. 355-363; 1994
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Hypothalamus; Brain stem; Animal proteins;
 Cold stress; Stress; Capture of animals; Transport of animals;
 Neurons; Immunocytochemistry
 
 Abstract:  An immunocytochemical method was used to examine
 expression of c-fos protein in forebrain and brainstem regions
 of prepubertal pigs (n = 2 per treatment) subjected to various
 physical stressors (snaring, cold exposure and transport
 simulation) and of an untreated animal. Each of the stress
 procedures induced specific nuclear labelling of neurons in
 the hypothalamus (paraventricular and especially supraoptic
 nuclei) and small amounts of labelling in some brainstem
 regions. These results confirm and extend findings obtained in
 rodents and indicate the potential value of this technique for
 stress and welfare research in ungulates.
 
 
 271                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 A study of aggression when group housed sows are mixed.
 Mount, N.C.; Seabrook, M.F.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1993 May.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 36 (4): p. 377-383; 1993
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Aggressive behavior; Mixing
 
 
 272                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 Suckling behaviour of sows in farrowing crates and straw-
 bedded pens. Cronin, G.M.; Smith, J.A.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1992 May.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 33 (2/3): p. 175-189; 1992
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Piglets; Suckling; Farrowing pens; Crates;
 Straw; Litter; Sucking; Vocalization; Maternal behavior;
 Posture; Liveweight gain
 
 
 273                                 NAL Call. No.: 275.29 M58B
 Supplement heat for swine.
 Harp, S.L.; Huhnke, R.L.
 East Lansing, Mich. : The Service; 1992 Nov.
 Extension bulletin E - Cooperative Extension Service, Michigan
 State University v.): 5 p.; 1992 Nov.  In subseries: Pork
 Industry Handbook. Housing.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pig housing; Heaters; Heat exchangers; Costs
 
 
 274                                   NAL Call. No.: SF395.P62
 Supplemental heat for swine.
 Harp, S.L.; Huhnke, R.L.
 West Lafayette, Ind. : Cooperative Extension Service, Purdue
 University, [1978?-1990]; 1992.
 Pork industry handbook. 5 p.; 1992.  In the subseries:
 Housing. (PIH-57), revised June 1992.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North central states of U.S.A.; Pigs; Pig
 housing; Heating systems; Heat exchangers; Heat regulation;
 Heat lamps; Heating costs; Solar collectors
 
 
 275                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 A survey of mortality in slaughter pigs during transport and
 lairage. Warriss, P.D.; Brown, S.N.
 London : The British Veterinary Association; 1994 May14.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 134 (20): p. 513-515; 1994 May14.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: England; Cabt; Pigs; Mortality; Incidence;
 Transport of animals; Abattoirs; Seasonal variation;
 Temperature; Heat
 
 
 276                                   NAL Call. No.: SF395.S92
 Swine care practices.
 Farley, James L.
 California : California Pork Industry Group : University of
 California, Cooperative Extension, 1991?; 1991.
 18 p. ; 28 cm. (Animal care series).  Includes bibliographical
 references (p. 16).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Swine
 
 
 277                            NAL Call. No.: SF396.3.S96 1992
 Swine facilities & equipment.
 Clemson University, Cooperative Extension Service
 Clemson, S.C. : Cooperative Extension Service, Clemson
 University,; 1992; C5935Ex 3.A36-3 no.557.
 41 p. : ill. ; 22 x 28 cm. (AEnL (Clemson University.
 Cooperative Extension Service) ; 557.).  Cover title.  July
 1992.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Agricultural engineering; Swine
 
 
 278                            NAL Call. No.: SF396.3.S92 1992
 Swine farrowing handbook housing and equipment., 1st ed..
 Friday, William H.
 Midwest Plan Service
 Ames, IA : Midwest Plan Service, Agricultural and Biosystems
 Engineering Dept., Iowa State University,; 1992.
 iv, 52 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.  MWPS-40.  Includes index.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Swine farrowing facilities
 
 
 279                                   NAL Call. No.: SF395.P62
 Swine growing-finishing units.
 Meyer, V.M.; Driggers, L.B.; Ernest, K.; Ernest, D.
 West Lafayette, Ind. : Cooperative Extension Service, Purdue
 University, [1978?-1990]; 1991 Jun.
 Pork industry handbook. 7 p.; 1991 Jun.  Housing, (PIH-11),
 revised, June 1991.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Pig housing; Pig fattening
 
 
 280                                  NAL Call. No.: QL55.A1I43
 Swine in biomedical research management and models.
 Swindle, M.M.; Smith, A.C.; Laber-Laird, K.; Dungan, L.
 Washington, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National
 Research Council; 1993.
 ILAR news v. 36 (1): p. 1-5; 1993.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Animal experiments; Medical research;
 Animal husbandry; Animal models
 
 
 281                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 C81
 Swine models for cardiovascular research: a low stress
 transport and restraint system for large swine.
 Lighty, G.W. Jr; Spear, R.S.; Karatay, M.C.; Hare, C.L.;
 Carlson, R.J. Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell Veterinarian, Inc; 1992
 Apr.
 Cornell veterinarian v. 82 (2): p. 131-140; 1992 Apr. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Disease models; Cages; Restraint of
 animals; Transport of animals; Stress; Safety; Blood specimen
 collection; Echocardiography
 
 
 282                                      NAL Call. No.: S1.M57
 Swine on pasture: a viable production option for the small
 producer. Klober, K.
 Columbia, Mo. : Missouri Farm Publishing Inc; 1993 Feb.
 Small Farm Today v. 10 (1): p. 16-19; 1993 Feb.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Animal husbandry; Pastures; Grazing; Small
 farms
 
 
 283                                 NAL Call. No.: SF780.9.S63
 Swine vesicular disease in the Netherlands the use of
 epidemiology in policy making.
 Sande, W.J.H. van der; Komijn, R.E.
 Great Britain : The Society, 1983-; 1994.
 Proceedings of a meeting held at the ... on the ... /. p.
 42-53; 1994. Meeting held on April 13-15, 1994, Belfast. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Netherlands; Cabt; Italy; Cabt; Pigs; Swine
 vesicular disease virus; Outbreaks; Exports; Epidemiological
 surveys; Policy; Transport of animals; Disease control;
 Control programs; Monitoring
 
 
 284                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Three-dimensional buoyant turbulent flows in a scaled model,
 slot-ventilated, livestock confinement facility.
 Hoff, S.J.; Janni, K.A.; Jacobson, L.D.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1992 Mar. Transactions of the ASAE v. 35 (2): p.
 671-686. ill; 1992 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pig housing; Air flow; Simulation models;
 Temperature; Ventilation
 
 Abstract:  A three-dimensional turbulence model was used to
 determine the effects of animal-generated buoyant forces on
 the airflow patterns and temperature and airspeed
 distributions in a ceiling-slot, ventilated, swine grower
 facility. The model incorporated the Lam-Bremhorst turbulence
 model for low-Reynolds Number airflow typical of slot-
 ventilated, livestock facilities. The predicted results from
 the model were compared with experimental results from a
 scaled-enclosure. The predicted and measured results indicated
 a rather strong cross-stream recirculation zone in the chamber
 that resulted in substantial three-dimensional temperature
 distributions for moderate to highly buoyancy-affected flows.
 Airflow patterns were adequately predicted for Ar(c) > 40 and
 J values < 0.00053. For Ar(c) < 40 and J values > 0.00053, the
 visualized patterns indicated that the jet separated from the
 ceiling before the opposing end-wall. This discrepancy was
 attributed to variations in the experimental and numerical
 inlet flow development assumptions.
 
 
 285                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Time in lairage needed by pigs to recover from the stress of
 transport. Warriss, P.D.; Brown, S.N.; Edwards, J.E.; Anil,
 M.H.; Fordham, D.P. London : The Association; 1992 Aug29.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 131 (9): p. 194-196; 1992 Aug29.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Transport of animals; Stress; Recovery;
 Time; Blood; Lactic acid; Creatine kinase; Hydrocortisone;
 Endorphins
 
 
 286                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 Am32P
 Toward standard methods for swine ventilation equipment.
 Ford, S.E.; Jacobson, L.D.; Riskowski, G.L.; Christianson,
 L.L.; Muehling, A.J.; Walter, B.G.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers,; 1992. Paper / (924044): 10 p.; 1992.  Paper
 presented at the "1992 International Summer Meeting sponsored
 by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers," June
 21-24, 1992, Charlotte, North Carolina.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal housing; Ventilation
 
 
 287                                  NAL Call. No.: SF55.A78A7
 Traditional pig farming in the South Pacific: problems and
 opportunities for increasing productivity.
 Ochetim, S.
 Suweon, Korea : Asian-Australasian Association of Animal
 Production Societies, c1988-; 1993 Sep.
 Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v. 6 (3): p.
 347-360; 1993 Sep. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pig farming; Traditional farming; Animal
 husbandry; Pig housing; Pig feeding; Diet; Animal health;
 Genetic improvement; Crossbreeding
 
 
 288                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 Am32P
 Transient overvoltage protection of environmental controllers.
 Gates, R.S.; Overhults, D.G.; Turner, L.W.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers,; 1991. Paper / (91-4035): 34 p.; 1991.  Paper
 presented at the "1991 International Summer Meeting sponsored
 by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers," June
 23-26, 1991, Albuquerque, New Mexico.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Poultry housing; Pig housing; Greenhouses;
 Environmental control; Electric power
 
 
 289                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V641
 Treatment and care of pet pigs.
 Duran, O.; Walton, J.
 London : The Association; 1992 Dec19.
 The Veterinary record : journal of the British Veterinary
 Association v. 131 (25/26): p. 572-573; 1992 Dec19.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Miniature pigs; Pet care
 
 
 290                                      NAL Call. No.: 49 J82
 Two reduced nocturnal temperature tegimens for early-weaned
 pigs. Brumm, M.C.; Shelton, D.P.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science; 1991
 Apr. Journal of animal science v. 69 (4): p. 1379-1388; 1991
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Piglets; Night temperature; Pig housing; Pens;
 Air temperature; Environmental temperature; Feed intake;
 Liveweight gain; Feed conversion; Energy consumption; Heating
 costs; Growth
 
 Abstract:  Two experiments, each consisting of three trials
 and using 3- to 4-wk-old newly weaned pigs, were conducted to
 evaluate the effects of two reduced nocturnal temperature
 regimens on weaned pig and subsequent growing-finishing
 performance and nursery energy (propane and electricity) use.
 In Exp. 1, nursery treatments were 1) a control temperature
 (CT) regimen of 30 degrees C constant air temperature lowered
 2 degrees C/wk and 2) a regimen for pigs in pens with hovers
 (MRNT-H) in which the temperature from 1900 to 0700 beginning
 1 wk after weaning was lowered 6 degrees C from the 0700 to
 1900 temperature setting, which was 3 degrees C lower than CT.
 The nursery temperature treatments in Exp. 2 were 1) CT and 2)
 a 10 degrees C reduction in air temperature (MRNT10) from 1900
 to 0700 from CT beginning 1 wk after weaning. In addition,
 within each temperature, diet sequences of 1.2% lysine for 3
 wk followed by 1.0% lysine vs 1.15% lysine offered
 continuously were evaluated. In Exp. 1, there was no effect (P
 > .1) of temperature on feed intake but ADG decreased (P <
 .001) in two of the three trials for MRNT-H vs CT and
 feed/gain worsened (P < .05) in all trials. In Exp. 2, there
 was no difference between MRNT1O and CT for ADG and feed/gain.
 No interaction was observed between nursery diet and
 temperature regimen for weaned pig performance. There was no
 effect (P > .1) in either experiment of nursery temperature on
 subsequent growing-finishing performance. Overall energy
 savings comparing the MRNT-H and CT treatments were 68 MJ per
 weaned pig. Energy savings for Exp. 2 were 79 MJ per weaned
 pig. Application of cyclical temperatures in a controlled
 manner can result in energy savings of approximately $.50 per
 pig weaned under the conditions of these experiments.
 
 
 291                           NAL Call. No.: SF83.G3S3 Heft 70
 Untersuchungen zur integrierten Gruppenhaltung von Sauen unter
 besonderer Berucksichtigung von Verhalten, Konstitution und
 Leistung  [Studies on integrated group housing of sows with
 special regard to behavior, constitution and performance].
 Gertken, Georg
 Kiel : Institut fur Tierzucht und Tierhaltung der
 Christian-Albrechts-Universitat zu Kiel,; 1992.
 143, [1] p. : ill. ; 21 cm. (Schriftenreihe des Institutes fur
 Tierzucht und Tierhaltung der Christian-Albrechts-Universitat
 zu Kiel, Heft 70).  Summary in English.  Includes
 bibliographical references (p. 122-139).
 
 Language:  German
 
 
 292                                    NAL Call. No.: TX373.M4
 The use of a high pressure waterjet combined with
 electroimmobilization for the stunning of slaughter pigs: some
 aspects of meat quality. Lambooij, E.; Schatzmann, U.
 Oxford : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1994.
 Meat science v. 37 (3): p. 381-389; 1994.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigmeat; Pressure treatment; Water; Stunning;
 Electrical treatment; Meat quality
 
 
 293                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 C163
 Use of body surface area to set minimum space allowances for
 confined pigs and cattle.
 Hurnik, J.F.; Lewis, N.J.
 Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada; 1991 Jun.
 Canadian journal of animal science v. 71 (2): p. 577-580; 1991
 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Cattle; Space requirements; Body surface
 area; Animal welfare
 
 
 294                                   NAL Call. No.: 41.8 C163
 The use of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy
 to study porcine stress syndrome in young, halothane-
 susceptible pigs: preliminary results.
 Janzen, E.G.; Gareau, P.J.; Stewart, W.A.; Towner, R.A.
 Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada; 1994 Mar.
 Canadian journal of animal science v. 74 (1): p. 37-43; 1994
 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Porcine stress syndrome; Determination;
 Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; Halothane
 susceptibility
 
 
 295                        NAL Call. No.: HD1761.A1M5 no.91-26
 Using nature as both mentor and model animal welfare research
 and development in sustainable swine production.
 Halverson, Marlene K.
 St. Paul, Minn. : University of Minnesota, Institute of
 Agriculture, Forestry and Home Economics,; 1991.
 44 p. ; 28 cm. (Staff paper P ; 91-26).  June 1991.  Includes
 bibliographical references (p. 34-40).
 
 Language:  English
 
 
 296                                    NAL Call. No.: 58.8 J82
 Validity of the Archimedes number in ventilating commercial
 livestock buildings.
 Berckmans, D.; Randall, J.M.; Thielen, D. van; Goedseels, V.
 London ; Orlando : Academic Press, 1956-; 1993 Nov.
 Journal of agricultural engineering research v. 56 (3): p.
 239-251; 1993 Nov. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pig housing; Ventilation; Air flow
 
 Abstract:  In previous work it has been stated that the
 corrected Archimedes number, Arc, can be used to show that air
 entering a rectangular room through an inlet just beneath the
 ceiling remains horizontal if Arc is below 30 and will fall if
 it is above 75. In previous work no measurements were made in
 a commercial livestock building with living animals. In this
 work a series of 80 experiments was done in a commercial pig
 house with a floor surface of 13.5 m by 3 m, with a 30% sloped
 ceiling of mean height 3.42 m, with the air inlet at one side
 in the wall and with a single outlet fan in the opposite
 ceiling-side. The experimental conditions of inlet velocity
 ranged from 0.3 to 10 m/s, and the temperature of the incoming
 air from -2.0 to 15.O degrees C. It is shown that the
 criterion of Arc, as defined by Randall and Battams, is valid
 in a commercial livestock building with different dimensions
 and geometry compared to previous work, with a specific air
 inlet system and with living animals. It is further concluded
 that the Arc criterion does not only apply to the direction of
 the air on entry, but that it is also related to the final
 path of the air trajectory further from the inlet.
 
 
 297                               NAL Call. No.: DISS F1992051
 Vergleich der gegebenen Bedingungen der Schweinemast in
 Sudoldenburg mit den Bestimmungen der "Verordnung zum Schutz
 von Schweinen bei Stallhaltung" vom 30. Mai 1988 unter
 Berucksichtigung klinischer Symptome bei den Masttieren
 [Comparison of given conditions for fattening pigs in South
 Oldenburg and regulations of the 'order for the protection of
 pigs held in pens' from 30. May 1988 with particular regard of
 clinical symptoms in fattening animals]. Wubbelmann, Heinrich
 Hannover : [s.n.],; 1992.
 122 p. : ill. ; 21 cm.  Summary in English.  Includes
 bibliographical references (p. 107-122).
 
 Language:  German
 
 
 298                             NAL Call. No.: SF971.B54  1993
 Veterinary care of pot-bellied pet pigs..  Pot-bellied pet
 pigs, 1st ed.. Boldrick, Lorrie
 Orange, Calif. : All Pub. Co.,; 1993.
 viii, 142 p. : ill. ; 22 cm.  Includes bibliographical
 references (p. 136-137) and index.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Potbellied pig
 
 
 299                                    NAL Call. No.: SF601.I4
 Vice, mutilations and welfare of pigs.
 Oldham, J.
 London : British Veterinary Association; 1992 Nov.
 In practice v. 14 (6): p. 305-306, 308; 1992 Nov.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Uk; Pigs; Animal welfare; Tail biting; Vices; Pig
 housing; Docking; Teeth; Castration
 
 
 300                                   NAL Call. No.: HV4761.A5
 Wanted: a humane manufacturer to produce the Edinburgh
 foodball. Harrison, R.
 Washington, D.C. : The Institute; 1993.
 The Animal Welfare Institute quarterly v. 42 (1): p. 17; 1993.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Toys; Animal welfare
 
 
 301                                  NAL Call. No.: BJ52.5.J68
 We should not manipulate the genome of domestic hogs.
 Sapontzis, S.F.
 Guelph, Ontario, Canada : University of Guelph; 1991.
 Journal of agricultural & environmental ethics v. 4 (2): p.
 177-185; 1991. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pigs; Genetic engineering; Animal welfare; Ethics
 
 
 302                                  NAL Call. No.: 280.8 J822
 Welfare effects of the national pseudorabies eradication
 program. Ebel, E.D.; Hornbaker, R.H.; Nelson, C.H.
 Ames, Iowa : American Agricultural Economics Association; 1992
 Aug. American journal of agricultural economics v. 74 (3): p.
 638-645; 1992 Aug. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Aujeszky virus; Pigs; Livestock numbers;
 Disease control; Consumer surplus; Market prices; Demand;
 Production costs; Returns; Supply elasticities; Mathematical
 models; Programs; Welfare economics
 
 Abstract:  A welfare methodology is adapted to evaluate market
 and distributional effects of a completed pseudorabies
 eradication effort in the U.S. The model predicts small market
 effects from pseudorabies eradication. Welfare analysis
 suggests that, in states generating relatively large hog
 numbers, producers will experience a net gain from eradication
 in all scenarios considered, yet in smaller hog producing
 areas individual hog operations may lose producer surplus.
 Consumer surplus changes vary by scenario but are always
 positive. In general, the national pseudorabies eradication
 program is to be economically efficient.
 
 
 303                                    NAL Call. No.: QL750.A6
 The welfare of pigs in two farrowing/lactation environments:
 cortisol responses of sows.
 Cronin, G.M.; Barnett, J.L.; Hodge, F.M.; Smith, J.A.;
 McCallum, T.H. Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.;
 1991 Nov.
 Applied animal behaviour science v. 32 (2/3): p. 117-127; 1991
 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sows; Animal welfare; Farrowing; Pens; Sow
 lactation; Hydrocortisone; Blood plasma; Stress;
 Corticotropin; Piglets; Mortality; Liveweight gain
 
 
 304                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 Am32P
 Western United States experience, livestock performance, and
 environmental control.
 DeShazer, J.A.; Heber, A.J.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers,; 1992. Paper / (924041): 12 p.; 1992.  Paper
 presented at the "1992 International Summer Meeting sponsored
 by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers," June
 21-24, 1992, Charlotte, North Carolina.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal housing; Temperature; Humidity; Pigs
 
 
 305                                      NAL Call. No.: S1.N32
 Whole-hog housing: Swedish system lowers stress, disease.
 Halverson, M.
 Emmaus, Pa. : Rodale Institute; 1994 Feb.
 The New farm v. 16 (2): p. 51-54, 62; 1994 Feb.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pig farming; Farming systems; Pig housing
 
 
 306                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 Am32P
 Winter swine ventilation evaluation using air quality
 criteria. Jacobson, L.D.; Janni, K.A.; Arellano, P.E.; Pijoan,
 C.J. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers,; 1992. Paper / (924039): 5 p.; 1992.  Paper
 presented at the "1992 International Summer Meeting sponsored
 by The American Society of Agricultural Engineers," June
 21-24, 1992, Charlotte, North Carolina.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal housing; Ventilation; Air quality; Pigs
 

Go to: Author Index | Subject Index | Top of Document

Author Index

 Aalhus, J.L. 65, 138 
 Adams, S.J.M. 243 
 Adeola, O. 152 
 Agricultural Training Board 144 
 Aherne, F. 185 
 Ainscow, J. 20 
 Albina, E. 154 
 Albrecht, J.E. 180, 181 
 Algers, B. 263 
 Allee, G.L. 88 
 Allen, O.B. 18 
 Allen, T. 151 
 Almond, G.W. 113 
 Alsemgeest, P. 143 
 American Association of Swine Practitioners 25 
 Amerongen, G. van 90 
 Anil, M.H. 225, 285 
 Apple, J.K. 165 
 Arbeitsgemeinschaft Landtechnik und Bauwesen Hessen 251 
 Arellano, P.E. 119, 263, 306 
 Arey, D.S. 74, 206, 222, 236 
 Argent, M.F. 164 
 Armstrong, C.H. 55 
 Axaopoulos, P. 37 
 Babinszky, L. 79 
 Backus, G.B.C. 116 
 Bael, J. van 100 
 Baile, C.A. 80, 219 
 Bakker, G.C.M. 61 
 Ball, R.O. 152 
 Bamba, K. 98 
 Banon, S. 227 
 Barber, E.M. 9, 261 
 Barnett, J.L. 84, 86, 89, 92, 93, 265, 303 
 Barrington, S. 215 
 Barrington, S.F. 158 
 Barrio, A.S. del 104 
 Batchelor, G.R. 105 
 Battams, V.A. 9, 261 
 Becker, B.A. 80, 88, 219 
 Becker, H. Neil 25 
 Beltman, H.M. 104 
 Berckmans, D. 296 
 Bertels, S. 100 
 Bertin-Mahieux, J. 85 
 Bessette, L. 23 
 Bevis, E.A. 77 
 Biro, H. 58 
 Blackshaw, A.W. 34, 252 
 Blackshaw, J.K. 20, 34, 39, 252 
 Blair, R.M. 101 
 Blatz, C.V. 174 
 Blaylock, R.E. 192 
 Blecha, F. 182 
 Bodman, G.R. 99, 162, 254 
 Boe, K. 195 
 Boehncke, Engelhard 8 
 Boer, E. de 256 
 Boessen, C.R. 217 
 Boggess, M.V. 156 
 Boland, M.A. 212 
 Boldrick, Lorrie 298 
 Boles, J.A. 1, 65, 70 
 Bolin, C.A. 173 
 Borell, E. von 240 
 Borg, K.E. 11, 43 
 Bosschaerts, L. 100 
 Boulet, L.P. 23 
 Bowman, G. 33 
 Bradford, J.R. 26 
 Brake, J.H.A. te 129 
 Braun, W. Jr 148 
 Brazeau, P. 150 
 Bressers, H.P.M. 129, 210 
 Bridges, T.C. 213, 266 
 Britton, M.G. 106 
 Broom, D.M. 163 
 Brouns, F. 56, 257 
 Brown, S.N. 77, 243, 275, 285 
 Brown-Borg, H.M. 11, 182 
 Bruce, J.M. 206 
 Brumm, M.C. 127, 290 
 Bruning, J. 21 
 Bryenton, J. 171 
 Buddington, R.K. 170, 231 
 Buhr, M.M. 18, 221 
 Buiting, G.A.J. 209 
 Busemann, Eiso, 204 
 Butera, M. 38 
 Butler, K.L. 95 
 Campbell, J.N. 242 
 Canada, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 239 
 Cariolet, R. 154 
 Carlson, A.R. 64 
 Carlson, R.J. 281 
 Carnat, B. 171 
 Carr, John 223 
 Carruthers, J. 54 
 Casey, K.D. 44, 108 
 Cassells, J.A. 173 
 Chadd, S.A. 135 
 Chagnon, M. 258 
 Chapple, R.P. 237 
 Cheah, A.M. 234 
 Cheah, K.S. 234 
 Chi, Hsien-Chung, 13 
 Chirnside, J. 57 
 Choiniere, Y. 215 
 Choo, P.Y. 7 
 Christenbury, G.D. 180, 181 
 Christenson, R.K. 11 
 Christian, L.L. 70 
 Christianson, L.L. 198, 216, 286 
 Clark, L.K. 10, 55, 241 
 Clemson University, Cooperative Extension Service 277 
 Clutton, E. 57 
 Cole, D.J.A. 135 
 Coleman, G.J. 265 
 Collins, E.R. Jr 31, 32, 99 
 Connelly, John 199 
 Connor, J.F. 50 
 Connor, M. L. 239 
 Connor, M.L. 106 
 Cook, D.R. 214 
 Corey, M.M. 64, 112 
 Corlett, I.K. 243 
 Cormier, Y. 23 
 Corrigan, R.M. 41, 49 
 Couture, Y. 150 
 Cowart, R.P. 217 
 Cox, M. 265 
 Craig, J.V. 165 
 Cramer, C. 24 
 Cran, D.G. 98 
 Cromwell, G.L. 169 
 Cronin, G.M. 19, 67, 82, 86, 90, 92, 93, 95, 272, 303 
 Crooks, S.R.H. 96 
 Cropley, J.A. 67 
 Csermely, D. 194 
 Curtis, S.E. 218 
 D'Allaire 258 
 Danielson, M. 63 
 Davies, P.R. 250 
 Davis, D.L. 101 
 Davys, J.S. 132 
 Dawson, J.R. 9, 261 
 Deans, L.A. 57 
 Dee, S. 40 
 Dee, S.A. 64, 112 
 Dellmeier, G.R. 17 
 DeShazer, J.A. 47, 254, 304 
 Dewey, C.E. 130 
 Dey, B.P. 157 
 Dial, G.D. 22, 111 
 Dickenson, L.G. 68, 164 
 Dohoo, I.R. 117 
 Done, S.H. 107 
 Donham, K. 246 
 Donham, K.J. 12, 35 
 Dopson, D.C. \u Brompton Hospital, London 175 
 Driggers, L.B. 42, 279 
 Drolet, R. 258 
 Dubreuil, P. 150 
 Duffy, S.J. 122 
 Dufour, J.J. 140 
 Dungan, L. 280 
 Duran, O. 289 
 Duran, Oliver 223 
 Dybkjaer, L. 153 
 Easter, R.A. 176 
 Ebel, E.D. 302 
 Ebner, Jakob 137 
 Edwards, J.E. 77, 285 
 Edwards, S.A. 56, 257 
 Eikelenboom, G. 226 
 Einstein, M.E. 241 
 Elbers, A.R.W. 143 
 Elliot, J.I. 106 
 Elliott, C.T. 96 
 Enfalt, A.C. 203 
 Engel, B. 129 
 English, P.R. 56 
 English, Peter 267 
 Ernest, D. 279 
 Ernest, K. 279 
 Esbenshade, K.L. 43 
 Essen-Gustavsson, B. 203 
 Fahmy, M.H. 140 
 Farley, James L. 276 
 Farmer, C. 150 
 Feddes, J.J.R. 47 
 Fehr, R.L. 42, 102, 103 
 Ferguson, K. 246 
 Fernandez, X. 59, 78 
 Fisher, T.F. 201 
 Flipot, P.M. \u Agriculture Canada, Lennoxville, Quebec,
 Canada 140
 
 Flowers, W.L. 188, 189 
 Floyd, J.G. Jr 192 
 Ford, S.E. 286 
 Fordham, D.P. 285 
 Forslid, A. 78 
 Fossum, C. 83 
 Foster, M.P. 44, 108 
 Fowler, V.R. 74, 222, 236 
 Frank, G.R. 237 
 Frantz, S.F. 241 
 Fraser, D. 75, 235, 259 
 Fraser, D.K. 127 
 Friday, William H. 278 
 Friend, T.H. 17 
 Friendship, R.M. 18, 146 
 Friesen, K.G. 97 
 Gareau, P.J. 294 
 Garrido, M.D. 227 
 Gates, R.S. 197, 213, 266, 288 
 Gatti, Renzo 183 
 Geers, R. 45, 100, 110 
 Gerber, D.B. 4 
 Gertken, Georg 291 
 Gibbons, R. 112 
 Gibson, M. 253 
 Gillespie, J.R. 29 
 Gjerde, C. 246 
 Gleumes, Thomas 16 
 Goedseels, V. 45, 100, 110, 296 
 Gonyou, H.W. 60, 218, 237 
 Goodband, R.D. 88, 97 
 Goossens, K. 45, 100, 110 
 Goransson, L. 59 
 Gotz, M. 28 
 Gourley, G.G. 127 
 Grandin, T. 21 
 Grandin, Temple 177 
 Great Britain, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food 147 
 Greenley, W.M. 127 
 Groeneveld, E. 211 
 Gu, Y. 139 
 Guise, H.J. 81, 123 
 Guizzardi, Franco 183 
 Hacker, R.R. 38, 120 
 Haer, L.C.M. de 209 
 Hakansson, J. 203 
 Hall, R.F. 76 
 Hall, W.F. 248 
 Halverson, M. 305 
 Halverson, Marlene 124 
 Halverson, Marlene K. 295 
 Hamakawa, M. 208 
 Hampson, D.J. 2 
 Hanna, P.E. 117 
 Hansson, I. 203 
 Hare, C.L. 281 
 Hariharan, H. 171 
 Haritani, M. 155 
 Harmon, J.D. 133, 180, 181 
 Harp, S.L. 51, 273, 274 
 Harrison, R. 300 
 Hartog, L.A. den 79, 116 
 Haskell, M.J. 121 
 Hata, M. 30 
 Hattum, J.A. van 209 
 Heaney, S. 171 
 Heber, A.J. 29, 304 
 Hedrick, H.B. 219 
 Heitlager, B.P. 46 
 Hel, W. van der 104, 141 
 Hellman, J.M. 48 
 Helmink, K.J. 216 
 Helmond, F.A. 159 
 Hemsworth, P.H. 19, 84, 86, 89, 92, 265 
 Henry, S.C. 29 
 Herzog, D.N. 48 
 Hessing, M.J.C. 167 
 Hicks, T. 115 
 Hill, H.T. 214 
 Hill, M.A. 10, 241 
 Hitchcock, J.P. 76 
 Hodge, F.M. 19, 303 
 Hodgson, J. 15 
 Hoff, S.J. 202, 284 
 Hogberg, M.G. 185 
 Hogg, James 179 
 Holscher, K. 41 
 Hornbaker, R.H. 302 
 Horning, Bernhard 8 
 Horrell, I. 15 
 Hough, J.D. 233 
 Houkes, M. 110 
 Huffman, D.L. 233 
 Hughes, P.E. 230 
 Huhnke, R.L. 51, 103, 186, 273, 274 
 Humane Slaughter Association (1986-) 144 
 Hungerford, L.L. 248 
 Hunter, E.J. 81 
 Hurnik, D. 117, 172 
 Hurnik, J.F. 18, 221, 264, 293 
 Hutson, G.D. 36, 68, 121, 164, 205 
 Illius, A.W. 160 
 Jacobson, L.D. 119, 202, 244, 263, 284, 286, 306 
 Janni, K.A. 202, 284, 306 
 Janssens, C.J.J.G. 159 
 Janssens, S. 45, 100 
 Janzen, E.G. 294 
 Jennings, Patricia 199 
 Jesse, G.W. 88, 219 
 Jin, Y. 3 
 Johnson, B.H. 43 
 Johnson, D.R. 134 
 Joling, P. 79 
 Jones, B.F. 134 
 Jones, D.D. 42, 198 
 Jones, R. 190 
 Jones, S.D.M. 138 
 Jones, W.R. 233 
 Jongbloed, A.W. 61 
 Joo, H.S. 40 
 Jordan, M. 10 
 Judge, M.D. 226 
 Kains, F. 120 
 Kains, F.A. 38 
 Kaneda, Y. 30 
 Karatay, M.C. 281 
 Karlsson, A. 196, 203 
 Kasser, T.R. 94 
 Kawashima, K. 155 
 Kennedy, D.G. 242 
 Kiekhaeffer, M.S. 35 
 Klemcke, H.G. 11, 182, 245 
 Kliebenstein, J.B. 217 
 Klober, K. 228, 282 
 Klont, R.E. 72 
 Klooster, C.E. van't 46 
 Knight, C.D. 80, 219 
 Knowles, T.G. 77 
 Knox, K. 55 
 Knox, K.E. 10, 241 
 Kocher, M.F. 254 
 Komijn, R.E. 283 
 Kooper, H.G. 209 
 Korkeala, H. 71 
 Kornegay, E.T. 87, 185 
 Kovac, L. 234 
 Kovacs, F. 58 
 Kyritsis, S. 37, 114 
 Laarakker, E. 167 
 Laber-Laird, K. 280 
 Lacher, P. 211 
 Ladewig, J. 109, 240 
 Laencina, J. 227 
 Lahucky, R. 234 
 Lam, K.C. 126 
 Lambooij, E. 229, 292 
 Lambooy, E. 72 
 Lan, Y.H. 94 
 Langhout, D.J. 79 
 Lawrence, A.B. 54, 57, 160, 168, 178, 247 
 Ledoux, D.R. 80 
 Lemin, C.D. 44, 108 
 Lennoxville, Quebec 85 
 Levis, D. 161, 162 
 Lewis, N.J. 293 
 Ley, J. de 100 
 Lighty, G.W. Jr 281 
 Lindemann, M.D. 87 
 Liptrap, R.M. 269 
 Livestock Conservation Institute 177 
 Logtestijn, J.G. van 72 
 Lopez, J. 88 
 Luce, W.G. 184, 186, 193 
 Lumpkin, E.A. 253 
 Lundstrom, K. 196, 203 
 Lunstra, D.D. 11 
 Luxford, B.G. 164 
 Lynas, L. 242 
 MacDonald, J. 171 
 MacInnes, J.I. 172 
 MacLeod, H.A. 168 
 Madec, F. 154 
 Maenz, D.D. 166 
 Magard, M. 59, 78 
 Mahan, D.C. 62, 66 
 Mallard, B.A. 221 
 Marberry, S. 53 
 Marbery, S. 149 
 Marchant, J.A. 118 
 Marple, D.N. 226 
 Marques, F. 227 
 Marrero, C.E. 130 
 Marsh, R.E. 41 
 Marsh, W.E. 22 
 Martin, T.G. 139 
 Martineau, G.P. 85 
 Masse, D.I. 52 
 Matsubara, T. 30 
 Matte, J.J. 85, 207 
 Matthews, L.R. 109 
 Maxwell, C.V. 184 
 May, M.M. 29 
 Mayrose, V.B. 55, 241 
 McCallum, T.H. 86, 92, 93, 95, 303 
 McCartan, B.M. 242 
 McCaughey, W.J. 96, 242 
 McClone, J.J. 260 
 McCurdy, A.R. 1 
 McEvoy, J.D.G. 96, 242 
 McGlone, J.J. 48, 115, 253 
 McKeith, F.K. 94 
 McKinstry, J.L. 225 
 McLaren, D.G. 60, 94 
 McLean, K.A. 57 
 Merchant, J. 246 
 Merks, J.W.M. 209 
 Meyer, V.M. 131, 279 
 Mhoma, J.R.L. 2 
 Midwest Plan Service 278 
 Mikel, W.B. 233 
 Miyake, Y.I. 30 
 Mohling, K. 31, 32 
 Mohling, S. 31 
 Mojto, J. 234 
 Moller, B.M. 78 
 Moncol, D.J. 187 
 Moore, A.S. 60 
 Moore, M.J. 250 
 Morrion, R.B. 122 
 Morris, J.R. 18, 221 
 Morrison, W.D. 38, 120 
 Mount, N.C. 271 
 Muehling, A.J. 31, 32, 133, 286 
 Mulvaney, D.R. 233 
 Munroe, J.A. 52 
 Murphy, J.P. 29, 198, 244 
 Mutel, C. 246 
 Mutetikka, D.B. 66 
 Nanba, K. 155 
 Narita, M. 155 
 Neller, R.J. 126 
 Nelson, C.H. 302 
 Nelssen, J.L. 88, 97 
 Newby, B.E. 260 
 Newman, E.A. 86, 92, 93 
 Newman, F.W. 34 
 Newton, E.A. 62 
 Ng, S.L. 126 
 Nichols, D.A. 101 
 Nicholson, R.I. 48, 115, 253 
 Nicol, R.A.C. 261 
 Nienaber, J.A. 213 
 Nieuwland, M. 79 
 Nigrelli, Arrigo D. 183 
 Nishino, M. 208 
 Nolan, D. 29 
 Noonan, G.J. 20 
 Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M. 129, 210 
 Norman, R.L. 253 
 Nouws, J.F.M. 256 
 Novakofski, J. 94 
 Noyes, Elizabeth Pearsall 69 
 Ochetim, S. 287 
 Odink, J. 143 
 Oehme, F.W. 29 
 Ogilvie, J.R. 3, 38, 120, 158 
 Oldham, J. 299 
 Ong, H.K. 7 
 Ott, S.L. 33 
 Overhults, D.G. 197, 288 
 Owsley, W.F. 192 
 Panagakis, P. 37, 114 
 Papadopoulos, G. 114 
 Parduyns, G. 100, 110 
 Parham, G.L. 157 
 Parker, R.J. 106 
 Parrish, F.C. Jr 70 
 Parrott, R.F. 270 
 Paterson, A.M. 73, 142 
 Patience, J.F. 1, 65, 166 
 Pearce, G.P. 73, 142 
 Pedauye, J. 227 
 Peel, D.S. 255 
 Peltonen, M. 71 
 Penny, R.H.C. 81, 123 
 Petchey, A.M. 74, 222, 236 
 Petherick, J.C. 57 
 Petitclerc, D. 150 
 Phillips, Clive 125 
 Phillips, P.A. 52, 75, 235, 259 
 Pickrell, J. 145 
 Pickrell, J.A. 29 
 Pig Veterinary Society 27 
 Piggins, David 125 
 Pijls, F.J.M. 141 
 Pijoan, C. 40, 119, 263 
 Pijoan, C.J. 306 
 Pohl, S.H. 244 
 Pointon, A.M. 250 
 Polson, D.D. 22 
 Preckel, P.V. 212 
 Price, E.O. 68 
 Priest, J. 20 
 Prince, M. 232 
 Puchal, A.A. 170, 231 
 Rafai, P. 58 
 Rahkio, M. 71 
 Rand, J.S. 20 
 Randall, J.M. 296 
 Rantzer, Dan 14 
 Raskopf, Sabine 8 
 Ravindran, V. 87 
 Reeves, D.E. 188, 189 
 Reeves, David E. 25 
 Richards, R.G. 113 
 Riskowski, G.L. 216, 286 
 Robert, S. 85 
 Robertson, I.D. 2 
 Robertson, W.M. 138 
 Rohrbach, B.W. 76 
 Ruen, P.D. 22 
 Runnels, L.J. 241 
 Rushen J. 91 
 Sakai, T. 208 
 Salak, J.L. 253 
 Salak-Johnson, J.L. 115 
 Sande, W.J.H. van der 283 
 Saner, R. 63 
 Sapontzis, S.F. 301 
 Sather, A.P. 138 
 Schaefer, A.L. 1, 65 
 Schatzmann, U. 292 
 Scheepens, C.J.M. 167 
 Scheepens, K. 262 
 Scheidt, A.B. 10, 55, 241 
 Schenck, B.C. 169 
 Schinckel, A.P. 139, 212 
 Schirmer, B.N. 95 
 Schneider, Manuel 8 
 Schofield, C.P. 118, 238 
 Schoneweis, D. 29 
 Schouten, W. 91 
 Schouten, W.G.P. 167 
 Schrama, J.W. 104 
 Schwartz, K.J. 249 
 Seabrook, M.F. 271 
 Shand, P.J. 1 
 Shelton, D.P. 290 
 Shurson, G.C. 4, 185 
 Siegel, J.P. 248 
 Signoret, J.P. 224 
 Signorini, F. 183 
 Simantke, Christel 8 
 Singleton, W. 161, 162 
 Singleton, W.L. 188 
 Singleton, W.L. \u Purdue University 189 
 Sippola, I. 71 
 Skaggs, C.L. 70 
 Sloth-Andersen, Ulrik 136 
 Smart, N.L. 172 
 Smeets, J.F.M. 143 
 Smith, A.C. 280 
 Smith, B.S. 233 
 Smith, C.P. 6 
 Smith, J.A. 19, 82, 95, 272, 303 
 Smith, J.H. 38 
 Soo, S.P. 7 
 Spear, R.S. 281 
 Spiers, D. 88 
 Stahly, T.S. 169 
 Stetson, L.E. 99 
 Stewart, W.A. 294 
 Stookey, J.M. 60 
 Storer, Kristin 200 
 Storer, Pat 200 
 Straw, B.E. 130, 220 
 Swindle, M.M. 280 
 Tambouratzis, D. 114 
 Taylor, J.D. 214 
 Te Brake, J.H.A. 210 
 Teclaw, R.F. 10 
 Tennessen, T. 75 
 Terlouw, E.M.C. 57, 160, 168, 178, 247 
 Thawley, D.G. 122 
 Thielen, D. van 296 
 Thirapatsakun, T. 208 
 Thomas, F.J. 34 
 Thompson, B.K. 75, 235, 259 
 Thompson, L.H. 188, 189 
 Thorne, P.S. 35 
 Tielen, M. 262 
 Tielen, M.J.M. 167 
 Timm, R.M. 41 
 Tokach, M.D. 88, 97 
 Tong, A.K.W. 138 
 Tornberg, E. 59, 78 
 Torrison, J. 154 
 Towell, C.A. 49 
 Towner, R.A. 294 
 Tremblay, G. 23 
 Truyen, B. 45 
 Tubbs, R.C. 111, 191 
 Tuboly, S. 58 
 Turner, L.W. 197, 213, 266, 288 
 University of Minnesota, Dept. of Agricultural and Applied
 Economics 124 
 Unruh, J.A. 97 
 Usry, J.L. 213 
 Vaillancourt, J.P. 111 
 Van Bael, J. 110 
 VanDyke, N.J. 192 
 Vaughan, A. 57 
 Veenhuizen, J.J. 219 
 Veenhuizen, M.A. 4 
 Vega, Y.M. 170 
 Vellucci, S.V. 270 
 Vermeer, H.M. 116 
 Verstegen, M.W.A. 79, 104, 141 
 Vieuille-Thomas, C. 224 
 Ville, H. 45, 100, 110 
 Visser, I.J.R. 143 
 Von Borell, E. 221, 264 
 Waern, M.J. 83 
 Walter, B.G. 286 
 Walter, Jurgen,_1950- 8 
 Walters, J.R. 135 
 Walton, J. 289 
 Walton, J. R., 223 
 Waran, N.K. 163 
 Ward, C.E. 255 
 Warriss, P.D. 77, 243, 275, 285 
 Webster, J. 5 
 Wechsler, Beat 268 
 Weeding, C.M. 81, 123 
 Wenninghoff, J. 63 
 Wheeler, M.B. 94 
 Whiffle, Augustus 179 
 White, B.R. 94 
 Whitten, P. 35 
 Whittington, P.E. 225 
 Wiegand, R.M. 218 
 Wiegant, V.M. 159 
 Wiersma, A. 168 
 Wijngaards, G. 143 
 Williams, R.E. 49 
 Winkelman, N.L. 64 
 Wiseman, S. 63 
 Wolynetz, M.S. 166 
 Wotton, S.B. 225 
 Wouters, P. 45 
 Wubbelmann, Heinrich 297 
 Yoon, C.S. 208 
 Young, R.J. 54 
 Zemanchik, N. 215 
 Zhang, Q. 106 
 


Go to: Author Index | Subject Index | Top of Document


Subject Index

 Abattoirs 123, 255, 275 
 Abnormal behavior 56, 91, 115, 153, 165, 194, 263 
 Acceptability 235 
 Access 121 
 Accuracy 9, 117 
 Acid base equilibrium 1, 65 
 Acids 61 
 Acrosome 98 
 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae 76, 220 
 Adaptation 104 
 Adrenal cortex 11, 240 
 Adrenal glands 221, 245 
 Aerobic treatment 7 
 Aerosols 35, 38 
 Age 76 
 Age at weaning 195 
 Age differences 48, 75, 94, 140, 182, 235, 240 
 Aggressive behavior 60, 86, 92, 93, 218, 222, 237, 271 
 Agonistic behavior 75 
 Agricultural engineering 277 
 Agricultural research 39 
 Air 38 
 Air flow 3, 4, 198, 261, 284, 296 
 Air microbiology 12 
 Air pollutants 4, 12, 107, 145 
 Air pollution 9, 261 
 Air quality 12, 38, 306 
 Air temperature 261, 290 
 Alarm pheromones 224 
 Alfalfa 66 
 Algorithms 118 
 Alpha-tocopherol 79 
 Amino acids 88, 97, 169, 170 
 Ammonia 4, 29 
 Analgesics 48 
 Analysis 261 
 Anesthesia 175 
 Animal behavior 17, 19, 20, 28, 34, 39, 48, 57, 73, 74, 75,
 84, 86, 91, 110, 115, 116, 120, 123, 142, 160, 163, 167, 206,
 224, 240, 247, 252, 264 
 Animal breeding 22, 188 
 Animal competition 257 
 Animal culture 267 
 Animal experiments 280 
 Animal health 26, 124, 130, 146, 148, 287 
 Animal housing 134, 145, 158, 215, 264, 286, 304, 306 
 Animal husbandry 2, 6, 17, 26, 39, 55, 64, 105, 107, 111, 146,
 148, 151, 163, 175, 176, 190, 191, 201, 206, 211, 248, 280,
 282, 287  Animal models 6, 175, 280 
 Animal nutrition 111 
 Animal parasitic nematodes 130 
 Animal production 39, 176, 211, 266 
 Animal proteins 270 
 Animal tissues 80 
 Animal welfare 5, 6, 18, 20, 36, 39, 48, 54, 60, 74, 85, 86,
 92, 105, 109, 115, 116, 123, 124, 125, 132, 144, 151, 159,
 163, 174, 205, 206, 247, 259, 293, 299, 300, 301, 303 
 Animals 144, 261 
 Anthelmintics 187 
 Antibacterial agents 249 
 Antibiotics 50 
 Antibody formation 79, 87, 154 
 Application to land 126 
 Applications 201 
 Area 233 
 Arrhythmia 100 
 Arterivirus 40, 154 
 Arthritis 171 
 Artificial rearing 141 
 Artificial ventilation 198, 244 
 Ascarididae 130 
 Ascaris 187 
 Ash 61 
 Atrophic rhinitis 130, 217, 241 
 Attitudes 246 
 Aujeszky virus 122, 155, 302 
 Aujeszky's disease 122, 155 
 Australia 44, 108, 214 
 Automatic control 45 
 Automatic feed dispensers 101 
 B lymphocytes 79 
 Backfat 101, 135, 139, 221 
 Bacteria 38, 171 
 Bacterial count 71 
 Bacterial products 7 
 Baiting 49 
 Barriers 163 
 Behavior 246 
 Behavior change 28 
 Behavior patterns 34, 56 
 Bibliographies 6, 151 
 Binding site 245 
 Biotechnology 5, 174 
 Birth weight 11, 111 
 Blood 285 
 Blood analysis 219 
 Blood chemistry 72, 85, 140, 143, 166 
 Blood picture 166, 253 
 Blood plasma 11, 58, 83, 142, 159, 182, 221, 253, 303 
 Blood pressure 47 
 Blood serum 43, 66, 79 
 Blood specimen collection 281 
 Boar feeding 188, 193 
 Boar progeny testing 189 
 Boars 21, 43, 98, 101, 161, 188, 189, 193, 210, 252 
 Body composition 141 
 Body fat 139 
 Body heat loss 202 
 Body surface area 293 
 Body temperature 45, 47, 88, 166 
 Body temperature regulation 110 
 Body weight 45, 60, 62, 101, 116, 221, 253, 258 
 Bone weight 139 
 Brain stem 270 
 Breed differences 94, 140 
 Breeding 184, 189 
 Breeding methods 193 
 Breeding programs 162 
 Bronchi 23 
 Brushes 71 
 Building construction 31, 161 
 Buildings 37 
 Bulls 43 
 Butylated hydroxytoluene 98 
 Cabt 44, 108, 180, 181, 215, 242, 275, 283, 283 
 Cages 281 
 Campylobacter 50 
 Capture of animals 115, 270 
 Carbon dioxide 4, 46 
 Carbon monoxide 4 
 Carcass composition 80, 88, 94, 97, 138, 139, 203, 219, 233 
 Carcass condemnation 157 
 Carcass quality 7, 94, 123, 140 
 Carcass weight 94, 139, 212 
 Carcasses 71, 214 
 Cardiovascular system 6 
 Carrier state 64, 214 
 Castration 48, 245, 299 
 Catecholamines 152 
 Cattle 177, 269, 293 
 Cell cultures 11 
 Cell mediated immunity 58, 60 
 Cellulose 61 
 Change 67 
 Chemical composition 141 
 Chlortetracycline 242 
 Chromic oxide 61 
 Chromosome analysis 30 
 Chromosomes 30 
 Chutes 77 
 Classification 211 
 Climatic factors 167 
 Clipping 20 
 Cold resistance 98 
 Cold shock 98 
 Cold stress 80, 166, 167, 219, 270 
 Collection 9 
 Collectors 9 
 Color 72, 140 
 Colorado 64 
 Colostrum 66, 79 
 Comparisons 35, 51 
 Computer simulation 37 
 Computer software 211, 216 
 Computers 45, 47 
 Concentration 261 
 Conditioned reflexes 36 
 Conditioning 205, 224 
 Consumer surplus 302 
 Contamination 71 
 Control programs 146, 283 
 Controllers 197 
 Cooling 213 
 Cooling systems 42, 51 
 Cooperative marketing 255 
 Corticoids 84 
 Corticotropin 58, 159, 240, 245, 303 
 Costs 44, 216, 273 
 Crates 62, 82, 263, 272 
 Creatine kinase 285 
 Creep feeding 185 
 Creosote 52 
 Crossbred progeny 139 
 Crossbreds 135 
 Crossbreeding 287 
 Crowding 73, 87, 127, 260 
 Culling 62, 189 
 Cyclic fluctuations 155 
 Cystitis 113 
 Cytotoxicity 58 
 Dams (mothers) 15 
 Data collection 45 
 Databases 248 
 Decay 52 
 Deep litter housing 207 
 Defecation 133 
 Deformities 111 
 Demand 302 
 Deposition 9, 141 
 Dermatology 6 
 Design 3, 24, 44, 47, 86, 108, 119, 131, 162, 180, 181, 216,
 235, 244, 259 
 Detection 101, 210 
 Determination 294 
 Diagnosis 113 
 Diagnostic techniques 221 
 Diarrhea 111, 166 
 Diet 56, 59, 61, 88, 97, 141, 169, 170, 287 
 Diet studies 80 
 Dietary fat 79, 169 
 Dietary minerals 66 
 Diets 219 
 Differential diagnosis 50, 249 
 Differentiation 265 
 Digestibility 61 
 Digestive system 6 
 Discrimination 265 
 Disease control 40, 41, 55, 128, 146, 184, 186, 187, 249, 283,
 302  Disease course 55, 107, 217 
 Disease models 281 
 Disease prevalence 55, 130, 214 
 Disease prevention 146, 188, 192, 226 
 Disease resistance 155 
 Disease surveys 130 
 Disease transmission 187, 214 
 Diseases 41 
 Diurnal activity 75 
 Diurnal variation 252 
 Docking 20, 299 
 Domestic animals 125, 267, 269 
 Dosage effects 166 
 Drainage 31 
 Drainage systems 131 
 Dressing percentage 140 
 Drinkers 121 
 Drinking behavior 85 
 Drinking water 166 
 Drug residues 96, 242 
 Drug therapy 187 
 Dry lot feeding 186 
 Durability 52 
 Dust 9, 29, 38, 261 
 Early weaning 153, 163, 187 
 Eating 168 
 Echocardiography 281 
 Ecological balance 46 
 Economics 180, 181 
 Educational programs 246 
 Efficiency 9 
 Egg yolk 98 
 Electric circuits 99 
 Electric power 99, 288 
 Electrical safety 99 
 Electrical treatment 225, 292 
 Electrocardiograms 100 
 Electronics 45 
 Endocrine system 269 
 Endorphins 285 
 Endotoxins 29 
 Energy 180, 181 
 Energy conservation 102, 103 
 Energy consumption 290 
 Energy metabolism 104, 141 
 Energy retention 104 
 England 275 
 Enrichment 54, 105 
 Enteritis 50 
 Enterocolitis 249 
 Environment 105, 108 
 Environmental control 44, 180, 181, 197, 288 
 Environmental factors 107, 109, 128 
 Environmental temperature 37, 38, 58, 88, 110, 111, 120, 155,
 166, 169, 208, 252, 290 
 Enzyme activity 72, 203 
 Enzymes 203, 207 
 Epidemiological surveys 283 
 Epidemiology 113 
 Epinephrine 78 
 Equipment 209 
 Estrous cycle 269 
 Estrus 101, 210 
 Ethics 174, 301 
 Euthanasia 27 
 Evaluation 114 
 Evaporative coolers 266 
 Evaporative cooling 213 
 Excretion 120 
 Exercise 83, 203 
 Experimental infections 154 
 Exports 283 
 Exposure 96 
 Exudative meat 1, 65, 70, 152, 156 
 Eyes 6 
 Fans 102, 198 
 Farm planning 32 
 Farm surveys 2 
 Farm workers 23 
 Farming systems 305 
 Farrowing 24, 53, 74, 82, 90, 95, 111, 121, 194, 222, 259, 303 
 Farrowing houses 31, 33, 51, 202, 244 
 Farrowing pens 15, 19, 28, 34, 36, 57, 62, 67, 82, 90, 121,
 235, 236, 244, 272 
 Fat 219 
 Fat consumption 185 
 Fat percentage 70, 140, 141 
 Fat thickness 135, 233 
 Fats 61, 79 
 Fattening performance 88, 97, 135, 203 
 Fearfulness 89, 265 
 Feces 15, 120 
 Feed additives 58, 63, 184, 185 
 Feed conversion 140, 290 
 Feed conversion efficiency 76, 87, 169, 206, 218, 220, 237,
 260  Feed dispensers 54, 121, 184, 209 
 Feed intake 45, 62, 63, 85, 87, 116, 127, 135, 166, 169, 209,
 218, 219, 237, 253, 260, 290 
 Feed supplements 80, 88, 152 
 Feedback 247 
 Feeding behavior 18, 56, 129, 209, 237, 247, 257 
 Feeding frequency 85 
 Feeds 36, 242 
 Feet 133 
 Female fertility 66 
 Fetal growth 11 
 Fiber content 56 
 Field tests 114 
 Fighting 21 
 Fire prevention 31 
 Floor area 3 
 Floor pens 132 
 Floor space 87 
 Floor type 133 
 Floors 111, 133, 187, 254 
 Fluids 166 
 Food acceptability 1 
 Food contamination 256 
 Food quality 1, 225 
 Foraging 54 
 Fostering 11 
 Free range husbandry 194, 228 
 Fructose 170, 231 
 Fumigants 41 
 Galactose 170, 231 
 Gastroenteritis 214 
 Genes 138 
 Genetic differences 138 
 Genetic engineering 174, 301 
 Genetic factors 226 
 Genetic improvement 287 
 Genetics 111 
 Genotype nutrition interaction 97 
 Genotypes 70, 72, 97, 135, 139 
 Gestation period 57 
 Gilts 21, 56, 62, 66, 84, 88, 92, 115, 140, 160, 165, 184,
 191, 221
 
 Glucose 170, 231 
 Glycolysis 59 
 Grasses 66 
 Grazing 282 
 Greece 37 
 Greenhouses 288 
 Group behavior 222, 237 
 Group effect 196 
 Group size 221, 260 
 Groups 45, 60, 84, 116, 210, 257 
 Growth 10, 82, 84, 138, 140, 212, 290 
 Growth models 176 
 Growth rate 76, 88, 90, 94, 104, 142, 166, 169, 206, 207, 220,
 241  Guidelines 12 
 Guinea pigs 132 
 Haemophilus 172 
 Halothane 1, 72, 138 
 Halothane susceptibility 294 
 Hampshire 140 
 Handling 84, 100, 142, 160, 175, 265 
 Health 246 
 Health promotion 246 
 Heart diseases 258 
 Heart rate 100 
 Heat 147, 275 
 Heat exchangers 273, 274 
 Heat lamps 274 
 Heat production 104 
 Heat regulation 110, 274 
 Heat stress 37, 80, 88, 184, 188, 219, 258 
 Heaters 273 
 Heating 244 
 Heating costs 102, 274, 290 
 Heating systems 274 
 Helminth ova 187 
 Hematology 6 
 Hemodynamics 6 
 Hemorrhagic enteritis 50 
 Herds 122 
 Histology 117 
 Histopathology 50 
 Hong kong 126 
 Hormone secretion 43, 150 
 Hormones 219, 269 
 Horses 269 
 Hulls 61 
 Human-animal relationships 267 
 Humidity 198, 304 
 Humoral immunity 58 
 Hungary 58 
 Hunger 205, 247 
 Hydrocortisone 11, 43, 57, 58, 83, 86, 92, 142, 159, 182, 221,
 240, 253, 264, 285, 303 
 Hygiene 120, 261 
 Hypersensitivity 250 
 Hypothalamus 152, 270 
 Hypoxanthines 83 
 Identification 15, 45, 101, 229 
 Igg 79 
 Ileum 50 
 Illinois 248 
 Image processors 118 
 Immune competence 83 
 Immune response 58, 60, 221 
 Immunity 115 
 Immunization 150 
 Immunocytochemistry 270 
 Immunofluorescence 40 
 Immunological deficiency 92 
 Immunology 6 
 Implantation 80 
 Importation 214 
 Incidence 21, 64, 65, 122, 130, 157, 187, 241, 275 
 Indicators 153 
 Individual characteristics 160 
 Individuals 84 
 Infection 111 
 Infections 154 
 Infestation 130 
 Information needs 211 
 Information storage 45 
 Information systems 211 
 Injection 78 
 Injuries 92 
 Insect control 134 
 Insecticides 134, 186 
 Insulation 42, 103, 244 
 Intensive farming 29 
 Intensive husbandry 29 
 Intensive livestock farming 66, 187, 194 
 Interactions 142, 202 
 Interferon 83 
 Interleukin 2 83, 182 
 Intermittent spraying 123 
 Intestinal absorption 166, 231 
 Intestinal mucosa 231 
 Intestines 170 
 Iowa 127, 214 
 Isolation 173, 256 
 Isolation techniques 256 
 Italy 283 
 Joint diseases 171 
 Joints (animal) 171 
 Joints (timber) 52 
 Kentucky 64, 266 
 Kinetics 154 
 Knowledge 246 
 Laboratory animals 175 
 Laboratory diagnosis 112 
 Laboratory equipment 112 
 Laboratory methods 6, 61, 112 
 Laboratory rearing 132 
 Laboratory tests 112 
 Lactates 83 
 Lactation 79 
 Lactation number 62 
 Lactic acid 203, 285 
 Landscaping 31 
 Large white 140 
 Latent infections 76 
 Lean 139, 140 
 Leanness 149 
 Learning 224 
 Leptospira interrogans 173 
 Lesions 117, 133, 217, 220, 241, 250 
 Line differences 100 
 Liquid wastes 126 
 Literature reviews 213, 230, 247, 269 
 Litter 7, 15, 19, 57, 75, 82, 106, 111, 272 
 Litter size 33, 57, 62, 82, 111, 115 
 Litter weight 57, 221 
 Litters 34, 240 
 Livestock 124, 125, 177 
 Livestock numbers 302 
 Livestock workers 267 
 Liveweight 127, 212, 233 
 Liveweight gain 48, 55, 58, 60, 63, 87, 120, 141, 163, 169,
 195, 208, 218, 220, 237, 257, 260, 272, 290, 303 
 Loads 52 
 Locomotion 240 
 Loins 1 
 Longissimus dorsi 123, 233 
 Loose housing 91, 195 
 Losses 157 
 Lungs 23, 117, 241 
 Lymphocyte transformation 83, 182 
 Lysine 87, 88, 97, 169 
 Lysozyme 79 
 Maize 66 
 Maize starch 61 
 Malaysia 7 
 Male animals 142 
 Male fertility 269 
 Males 245 
 Man 89, 142 
 Mange 250 
 Manures 207 
 Market prices 302 
 Marketing 128, 211 
 Marking 20 
 Materials 36, 99 
 Maternal behavior 19, 67, 82, 90, 164, 194, 195, 222, 272 
 Maternal nutrition 56 
 Mathematical models 202, 213, 302 
 Mating 43, 161, 162 
 Mating ability 193 
 Mating behavior 193 
 Measurement 9, 45, 46, 47, 109, 261 
 Meat and livestock industry 149, 211 
 Meat cuts 1, 70, 94, 139 
 Meat inspection 242 
 Meat quality 59, 65, 70, 72, 94, 123, 156, 196, 203, 226, 227,
 234, 243, 292 
 Medical research 6, 280 
 Medical treatment 111 
 Medicated feeds 185 
 Metabolism 78 
 Metabolites 72, 219 
 Meteorological factors 107 
 Microbial contamination 38, 256 
 Microclimate 58 
 Microenvironments 37 
 Microprocessors 47 
 Milk composition 62 
 Mineral content 80, 166 
 Mineral supplements 66 
 Miniature pigs 25, 26, 148, 175, 201, 232, 289 
 Miniature pigs as pets 25 
 Miniature swine as pets 200 
 Minnesota 64, 127 
 Mists 213, 266 
 Mixing 21, 60, 271 
 Models 44, 46 
 Moisture 99 
 Molds 38 
 Monitoring 45, 108, 250, 283 
 Monosaccharides 170 
 Montana 64 
 Morbidity 260 
 Morphology 113 
 Mortality 33, 34, 230, 258, 275, 303 
 Motility 98 
 Motivation 36, 247 
 Mouth 6 
 Movement 47 
 Mus musculus 49 
 Musca 134 
 Muscle physiology 72 
 Muscle tissue 203 
 Mycobacterium 157 
 Mycoplasma 55 
 Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae 220 
 Naloxone 91 
 Natural killer cells 253 
 Natural ventilation 52 
 Nesting 19, 36, 57, 74, 90, 222, 236 
 Nests 236 
 Netherlands 283 
 Neurons 270 
 Newborn animals 11, 202, 231 
 Night temperature 290 
 Nitrogen balance 141 
 North America 146 
 North central states of U.S.A. 274 
 North Dakota 64 
 Northern ireland 242 
 Nose 241 
 Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy 294 
 Nutrient intake 191 
 Nutrient requirements 26, 66, 88, 185 
 Nutrient transport 170, 231 
 Nutrition 6, 184 
 Occupational disorders 23 
 Odors 15 
 Oesophagostomum 187 
 Ohio 4 
 Oklahoma 51, 255 
 Ontario 215 
 Ontogeny 231 
 Organoleptic traits 1 
 Organs 88, 97 
 Orientation 215 
 Outbreaks 283 
 Ovaries 113 
 Overcrowding 153 
 Pain 48 
 Parametric programming 216 
 Parasites 148, 186 
 Parasitism 187 
 Parous rates 164 
 Particle size 29, 38, 261 
 Partitions 120 
 Pastures 66, 186, 282 
 Pathology 113, 155 
 Pens 60, 92, 118, 163, 165, 218, 237, 240, 252, 259, 261, 263,
 290, 303 
 Performance 87, 166, 218, 266 
 Performance testing 51, 219 
 Pericentric inversion 30 
 Perinatal mortality 111 
 Persistence 154 
 Pest control 187 
 Pet care 232, 289 
 Pets 223 
 Ph 203 
 Pharmacodynamics 6 
 Physical activity 45, 60, 123, 264 
 Physiological functions 23 
 Physiopathology 249 
 Pig breeds 94, 139 
 Pig farming 2, 24, 40, 61, 122, 184, 189, 238, 255, 287, 305 
 Pig fattening 58, 85, 128, 186, 208, 279 
 Pig feeding 18, 61, 88, 92, 111, 128, 135, 148, 152, 186, 189,
 192, 287 
 Pig housing 3, 4, 7, 9, 12, 18, 19, 22, 23, 24, 29, 31, 32,
 34, 35, 41, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 52, 55, 57, 61, 73, 75,
 86, 92, 93, 96, 99, 100, 102, 103, 106, 108, 110, 111, 114,
 115, 116, 119, 120, 122, 126, 127, 128, 129, 131, 133, 142,
 151, 153, 159, 161, 165, 175, 180, 181, 185, 186, 187, 189,
 192, 193, 197, 198, 203, 206, 208, 210, 213, 215, 216, 217,
 220, 221, 228, 237, 238, 254, 261, 262, 263, 266, 273, 274,
 279, 284, 287, 288, 290, 296, 299, 305  Pig manure 29, 31,
 131, 133, 244 
 Piggery effluent 131 
 Piglet fattening 185 
 Piglet feeding 185 
 Piglet production 33, 190 
 Piglets 11, 15, 17, 19, 20, 28, 67, 68, 79, 82, 87, 90, 100,
 111, 115, 141, 148, 153, 154, 163, 164, 166, 182, 185, 195,
 202, 230, 231, 263, 272, 290, 303 
 Pigmeat 59, 65, 70, 72, 96, 123, 152, 156, 212, 214, 227, 234,
 242, 243, 249, 256, 292 
 Pigs 1, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 17, 21, 22, 30, 31, 33, 35, 37, 38,
 39, 40, 42, 47, 48, 50, 51, 53, 54, 55, 58, 59, 60, 63, 64,
 70, 71, 72, 73, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 81, 83, 85, 89, 93, 94,
 96, 97, 102, 104, 105, 107, 109, 110, 112, 117, 118, 120, 122,
 123, 127, 128, 130, 133, 135, 138, 139, 142, 143, 146, 149,
 150, 151, 152, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 161, 162, 167,
 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 178, 186, 187, 190,
 192, 196, 203, 206, 207, 208, 209, 211, 212, 214, 217, 218,
 219, 220, 224, 225, 229, 233, 237, 238, 240, 241, 242, 244,
 245, 247, 248, 249, 250, 252, 253, 255, 256, 260, 262, 265,
 269, 270, 274, 275, 279, 280, 281, 282, 283, 285, 293, 294,
 299, 300, 301, 302, 304, 306
 Pituitary 245 
 Plane of nutrition 104, 140, 191 
 Play 165 
 Pleurisy 130 
 Pneumonia 10, 55, 107, 117, 130, 217, 220, 241 
 Policy 283 
 Populations 107 
 Porcine stress syndrome 30, 70, 72, 149, 156, 226, 294 
 Postmortem changes 72 
 Postmortem examinations 113, 117, 227 
 Postnatal development 231 
 Postpartum interval 28, 67, 164 
 Posture 67, 272 
 Potbellied pig 199, 298 
 Poultry housing 197, 228, 288 
 Prediction 210, 233 
 Predisposition 258 
 Pregnancy 56, 79, 264, 269 
 Prepartum period 236 
 Pressure treatment 292 
 Prevention 71 
 Preweaning period 33, 111 
 Price policy 212 
 Production costs 302 
 Productivity 12, 191, 237 
 Proestrus 101 
 Profits 212 
 Progesterone 221 
 Programs 302 
 Prolactin 57 
 Protein content 141, 219 
 Protein efficiency ratio 88 
 Protein intake 88 
 Proximate analysis 70 
 Puerperium 6, 231 
 Purchasing 192 
 Quarantine 122, 189 
 Rabbits 132 
 Rattus norvegicus 49 
 Receptors 245 
 Record keeping 111, 211 
 Recording 209 
 Recovery 285 
 Regulations 157 
 Relative humidity 37, 38, 106, 202 
 Reproduction 6 
 Reproductive behavior 121, 222, 236 
 Reproductive disorders 113, 173 
 Reproductive performance 62, 84, 115, 116, 221 
 Respiration rate 188 
 Respiratory diseases 23, 246 
 Responses 164 
 Restraint of animals 20, 182, 281 
 Restricted feeding 56, 121, 205, 247 
 Returns 302 
 Risk 122, 246, 248 
 Rodent control 41, 49 
 Rodenticides 41, 49 
 Roles 146 
 Safety 281 
 Safety at work 4, 246 
 Salmonella choleraesuis 249 
 Salmonellosis 249 
 Sampling 9, 35 
 Sand 236 
 Sanitation 133, 134 
 Sarcoptes scabiei 250 
 Sawdust 7, 95 
 Screening 117 
 Seasonal fluctuations 111, 127 
 Seasonal variation 217, 241, 275 
 Seasons 58 
 Selenium 58, 66 
 Semen diluent additives 98 
 Semen diluents 98 
 Semen preservation 98 
 Semen production 193 
 Senses 15 
 Sensory evaluation 1, 70 
 Sentinel animals 40 
 Septicemia 249 
 Serology 40 
 Serotonin 152 
 Serotypes 249 
 Sex differences 97, 111, 135, 237 
 Sexual behavior 43 
 Shade 42, 252 
 Shape 218 
 Sheep 177, 269 
 Simulation models 3, 37, 254, 266, 284 
 Site factors 32 
 Site selection 31 
 Size 60, 218 
 Skeletal muscle 78 
 Skeletomuscular system 6 
 Skin 139 
 Slaughter 71, 76, 78, 81, 113, 130, 140, 141, 143, 156, 225,
 227, 229, 243, 256 
 Slaughter weight 11, 94, 97, 135, 139, 212, 233 
 Slaughterhouse waste 79 
 Slaughtering and slaughter-houses 27, 183 
 Slopes 77 
 Small farms 282 
 Small intestine 166 
 Social behavior 218, 257 
 Social dominance 222, 253 
 Social environment 107 
 Social interaction 159 
 Solar collectors 274 
 Solar heating 254 
 Solubility 61 
 Somatostatin 150 
 Somatotropin 43, 70, 80, 94, 219 
 Sounds 67 
 South Carolina 180, 181 
 South Dakota 64 
 Sow feeding 101, 116, 191, 257 
 Sow lactation 62, 66, 82, 195, 303 
 Sow milk 62, 79 
 Sow pregnancy 18 
 Sows 15, 18, 19, 28, 34, 36, 57, 62, 67, 68, 74, 79, 82, 86,
 90, 91, 95, 101, 113, 115, 116, 121, 129, 161, 164, 168, 184,
 191, 194, 195, 205, 210, 222, 235, 236, 251, 252, 257, 258,
 259, 263, 264, 271, 272, 303
 Soybean oilmeal 66 
 Soybeans 61 
 Space requirements 92, 163, 259, 260, 293 
 Space utilization 218, 260 
 Spacing 77 
 Spatial variation 29, 261 
 Spermatozoa 98 
 Sprays 123 
 Spread 122 
 Spring 29 
 Stalls 92 
 Standards 158 
 Standing reflex 210 
 Stimulation 67 
 Stimuli 109, 265 
 Stochastic models 266 
 Stocking density 12, 73, 87, 120, 153, 165, 218, 261, 263 
 Stockmen 265 
 Strain differences 40, 175 
 Straw 19, 36, 74, 75, 82, 206, 236, 272 
 Stray voltage 85 
 Streptococcus suis 64 
 Stress 1, 6, 20, 47, 57, 58, 70, 73, 81, 84, 86, 92, 100, 115,
 142, 150, 152, 153, 154, 155, 159, 165, 182, 224, 226, 234,
 240, 253, 258, 263, 264, 269, 270, 281, 285, 303 
 Stress conditions 245 
 Stress factors 50, 63, 153, 247, 249, 262 
 Stress response 43, 143, 243 
 Strongyloides 187 
 Structural design 120 
 Stunning 225, 292 
 Sucking 272 
 Suckling 28, 272 
 Sucklings 170 
 Sugar 59 
 Sulfadimidine 96 
 Sulfate 166 
 Summer 29, 37 
 Sunflower oil 79 
 Supplementary feeding 184 
 Supply elasticities 302 
 Surgery 6 
 Survival 19, 48, 62, 82, 90 
 Susceptibility 1, 70, 100, 155 
 Sweden 12 
 Swine 8, 8, 13, 27, 124, 147, 177, 179, 179, 183, 199, 223,
 239, 267, 276, 277 
 Swine diseases 12, 40, 130, 146, 154, 189, 226, 242 
 Swine farrowing facilities 278 
 Swine vesicular disease virus 283 
 Synergism 166 
 Systems 45 
 Tail 20 
 Tail biting 299 
 Teeth 6, 20, 299 
 Telecommunications 211 
 Temperament 160 
 Temperature 70, 80, 102, 106, 161, 202, 207, 275, 284, 304 
 Tenderness 70 
 Testing 242 
 Testosterone 43 
 Tests 226 
 Tethered housing 91, 159 
 Time 78, 164, 218, 237, 285 
 Tissue proliferation 50 
 Tissues 66, 138 
 Toasting 61 
 Touch 67 
 Toxic gases 4 
 Toxicity 113 
 Toxicology 6 
 Toys 73, 165, 300 
 Traditional farming 287 
 Transgenics 5, 174 
 Transmissible gastroenteritis virus 214, 248 
 Transponders 229 
 Transport 100, 192, 255 
 Transport of animals 77, 104, 189, 253, 270, 275, 281, 283,
 285  Trapping 41 
 Trauma 60, 111 
 Treatment 84, 160 
 Trends 53 
 Trusses 52 
 Tryptophan 152 
 Tuberculosis 157 
 Tyrosine 152 
 U.S.A. 31, 42, 102, 157, 161, 185, 302 
 Udders 15 
 Uk 299 
 Ultrasonic fat meters 233 
 Unrestricted feeding 56, 139, 257 
 Urinary tract 6 
 Urine 15, 224 
 Uterus 113 
 Vaccination 148 
 Validity 111 
 Variation 87 
 Velocity 261 
 Ventilation 3, 4, 29, 38, 42, 46, 102, 103, 114, 158, 207,
 215, 216, 284, 286, 296, 306 
 Veterinarians 146 
 Veterinary medicine 175 
 Veterinary practice 112 
 Veterinary services 146 
 Vices 168, 178, 299 
 Video recordings 238 
 Viral diseases 40 
 Visual grading 117 
 Vitamin e 58, 66 
 Vitamin supplements 66 
 Vocalization 15, 68, 82, 164, 240, 272 
 Waste disposal sites 126 
 Waste treatment 7 
 Water 123, 292 
 Water intake 123, 166 
 Weaning 111, 166, 185 
 Weaning weight 82 
 Weather data 37 
 Weighing systems, Electronic 13 
 Weight 88, 94, 97, 238 
 Weight losses 62 
 Welfare economics 302 
 Western australia 2 
 Width 259 
 Wind 215 
 Winter 29 
 Wood strength 52 
 Wounds 21 
 Yards 252 
 Yersinia enterocolitica 256 
 Young animals 75 
 Zearalenone 113 
 Zoonoses 148 
 


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http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/pubs/oldbib/qb9506.htm, April 17, 1998