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Alternative Farming Systems Information Center of the National Agricultural Library
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture


Conservation Tillage
January 1991 - December 1993

 TITLE:  Conservation Tillage
 AUTHOR:   Jane Potter Gates
           Alternative Farming Systems Information Center
           National Agricultural Library
 PUBLICATION DATE:  March 1994
 SERIES: QB 94-13
 Updates QB 92-02
 NAL Call no.:   aZ5071.N3 no.94-13
 CONTACT:  Alternative Farming Systems Information Center
           National Agricultural Library
           Room 123, 10301 Baltimore Ave.
           Beltsville, MD  20705-2351
           Telephone:  (301) 504-6559
           http://afsic.nal.usda.gov
           
 
 ==============================================================
                                              ISSN:  1052-5378
 United States Department of Agriculture
 National Agricultural Library
 10301 Baltimore Blvd.
 Beltsville, Maryland  20705-2351
 
 
Conservation Tillage
 January 1991 - December 1993
  
 Quick Bibliography Series:  QB 94-13
 Updates QB 92-02
 
 338 citations in English from AGRICOLA
 
 Jane Potter Gates
 Alternative Farming Systems Information Center
  
 
 March 1994
 
 National Agricultural Library Cataloging Record:
 
 Gates, Jane Potter
   Conservation tillage.
   (Quick bibliography series ; 94-13)
   1. Conservation tillage--Bibliography. 2. No-tillage--Bibliography. 3.
 Tillage--Bibliography. I. Title.
 aZ5071.N3 no.94-13
 
 
 About the Quick Bibliography Series
 
 Bibliographies in the Quick Bibliography Series of the National Agricultural
 Library, are intended primarily for current awareness, and as the title of the
 series implies, are not indepth exhaustive bibliographies on any given subject. 
 However, the citations are a substantial resource for recent investigations on
 a given topic.  They also serve the purpose of bringing the literature of
 agriculture to the interested user who, in many cases, could not access it by
 any other means.  The bibliographies are derived from computerized on-line
 searches of the AGRICOLA data base.  Timeliness of topic and evidence of
 extensive interest are the selection criteria.
 
 The author/searcher determines the purpose, length, and search strategy of the
 Quick Bibliography.  Information regarding these is available upon request from
 the author/searcher.
 
 Copies of this bibliography may be made or used for distribution without prior
 approval.  The inclusion or omission of a particular publication or citation
 may not be construed as endorsement or disapproval.
 

 
 
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 AGRICOLA
 
 Citations in this bibliography were entered in the AGRICOLA database between
 January 1979 and the present.
 
Search AGRICOLA (http://agricola.nal.usda.gov) to update this Quick Bibliography. 
Use the search strategy and terms located below, plus the extensive AGRICOLA Help 
site to locate recent literature on your subject of interest.
 
 
 SAMPLE CITATIONS
 
 Citations in this bibliography are from the National Agricultural Library's
 AGRICOLA database.  An explanation of sample journal article, book, and
 audiovisual citations appears below.
 
 JOURNAL ARTICLE:
 
   Citation #                                     NAL Call No.
   Article title.
   Author.  Place of publication:  Publisher.  Journal Title.
   Date.  Volume (Issue).  Pages.  (NAL Call Number).
 
 Example:
   1                             NAL Call No.:  DNAL 389.8.SCH6
   Morrison, S.B.  Denver, Colo.:  American School Food Service
   Association.  School foodservice journal.  Sept 1987. v. 41
   (8). p.48-50. ill.
 
 BOOK:
 
   Citation #                                   NAL Call Number
   Title.
   Author.  Place of publication:  Publisher, date. Information
   on pagination, indices, or bibliographies.
 
 Example:
   1                        NAL Call No.:  DNAL RM218.K36 1987
   Exploring careers in dietetics and nutrition.
   Kane, June Kozak.  New York:  Rosen Pub. Group, 1987.
   Includes index.  xii, 133 p.: ill.; 22 cm.  Bibliography:
   p. 126.
 
 AUDIOVISUAL:
 
   Citation #                                  NAL Call Number
   Title.
   Author.  Place of publication:  Publisher, date.
   Supplemental information such as funding.  Media format
   (i.e., videocassette):  Description (sound, color, size).
 
 Example:
   1                    NAL Call No.: DNAL FNCTX364.A425 F&N AV
   All aboard the nutri-train.
   Mayo, Cynthia.  Richmond, Va.:  Richmond Public Schools,
   1981.  NET funded.  Activity packet prepared by Cynthia
   Mayo.  1 videocassette (30 min.): sd., col.; 3/4 in. +
   activity packet.
 
                               Conservation Tillage
                           January 1991 - December 1993
 
 
 
                             SEARCH STRATEGY
 
       Set  Items  Description 
       ---  -----  ----------- 
       S1    2948  MINIMUM
       S2    9702  TILL?
       S3     671  MINIMUM(W)TILL?
       S4   49812  NO
       S5    9702  TILL?
       S6    1736  NO(W)TILL?
       S7    1029  ZERO
       S8    9702  TILL?
       S9      85  ZERO(W)TILL?
      S10   11508  REDUCED
      S11    9702  TILL?
      S12     251  REDUCED(W)TILL?
      S13   17950  NON
      S14    9702  TILL?
      S15      24  NON(W)TILL?
      S16    2468  MINIMUM()TILL? OR NO()TILL? OR ZERO()TILL? OR
                   REDUCED()TILL? OR NON()TILL?
      S17    4881  REDUCING
      S18     722  MULCH
      S19     146  CHISEL
      S20     313  S2 AND (REDUCING OR MULCH OR CHISEL)
      S21    2634  S16 OR S20
      S22   28398  CONSERVATION
      S23    9702  TILL?
      S24    1046  CONSERVATION(W)TILL?
      S25    3282  S21 OR CONSERVATION(W)TILL?
      S26     764  SOD
      S27     887  SEEDED
      S28      27  SOD(W)SEEDED
      S29     764  SOD
      S30    1677  SEEDING
      S31      27  SOD(W)SEEDING
      S32    3329  S25 OR (SOD()SEEDED OR SOD()SEEDING)
      S33     849  RIDGE
      S34    9702  TILL?
      S35      86  RIDGE(W)TILL?
      S36    3362  S32 OR RIDGE()TILL?
      S37    5341  GROUNDWATER
      S38   80467  WATER
      S39    1547  AQUIFER?
      S40   81640  GROUNDWATER OR WATER OR AQUIFER?
      S41    2841  S36 NOT S40
      S42    2550  S41/ENG,TI,DE
      S43  170983  PY=1991 : PY=1993
      S44     345  S42 AND PY=1991:1993
 
 
                               Conservation Tillage
 
 1                                                 NAL Call. No.: S604.N57 1991
 1991 North American conservation tillage clubs and associations a directory.
 Conservation Technology Information Center
 West Lafayette, IN (1220 Potter Drive, Room 170, Purdue Research Park) :
 CTIC,; 1991.
 12 leaves ; 28 cm.  Cover title.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Conservation tillage
 
 
 2                                                 NAL Call. No.: 275.29 N272EX
 A 1992 guide for--herbicide use in Nebraska.
 Lincoln, Neb. : The Service; 1992.
 EC - Cooperative Extension Service, University of Nebraska (92-130): 51 p.;
 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nebraska; Weed control; Herbicides; Weeds; Herbicide resistance;
 Conservation tillage
 
 
 3                                                   NAL Call. No.: S544.3.M7M5
 Agricultural management practices: reducing runoff and sediment production.
 Peeples, J.L.
 Starkville, Miss. : The Service; 1991 Jul.
 Information sheet - Mississippi State University, Cooperative Extension
 Service (1450): 2 p.; 1991 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Erosion; Conservation tillage; Runoff; Geological sedimentation
 
 
 4                                                      NAL Call. No.: S601.A34
 Agroecosystem management effects on soil carbon and nitrogen.
 Wood, C.W.; Edwards, J.H.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier; 1992 Apr.
 Agriculture, ecosystems and environment v. 39 (3/4): p. 123-138; 1992 Apr.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alabama; Tillage; Conservation tillage; Continuous cropping;
 Rotations; Triticum aestivum; Zea mays; Glycine max; Soil fertility; Nitrogen;
 Carbon; Soil organic matter; Crop residues; Mineralization; Nutrient
 availability; Soil depth; Biological activity in soil; Subtropics
 
 
 5                                                    NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Agronomic evaluation of fertilizer placement methods for no-tillage sorghum in
 vertisol clays.
 Chichester, F.W.; Morrison, J.E. Jr
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Jul.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 5 (3): p. 378-382; 1992 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Sorghum bicolor; No-tillage; Conservation tillage;
 Placement; Fertilizer distributors; Subsurface application; Surface treatment;
 Surface modification; Nitrogen; Phosphorus; Nutrient uptake; Use efficiency;
 Leaves; Nutrient content; Crop yield; Grain; Seasonal variation
 
 
 6                                                     NAL Call. No.: SB599.C35
 Agronomic practices and common root rot in spring wheat: effect of tillage on
 disease and inoculum density of Cochliobolus sativus in soil.
 Tinline, R.D.; Spurr, D.T.
 Guelph, Ont. : Canadian Phytopathological Society; 1991.
 Canadian journal of plant pathology; Revue Canadienne de phytopathologie v. 13
 (3): p. 258-266; 1991.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Saskatchewan; Triticum aestivum; Root rots; Cochliobolus sativus;
 Disease prevalence; Tillage; No-tillage; Rotations; Summer fallow; Fusarium
 culmorum; Inoculum density
 
 
 7                                                     NAL Call. No.: 79.9 N814
 Alfalfa and orchardgrass control in no-till corn.
 Hartwig, N.L.
 College Park, Md. : The Society; 1991.
 Proceedings of the annual meeting - Northeastern Weed Science Society v. 45: p.
 33-38; 1991.  Meeting held January 8-10, 1991, Baltimore, Maryland.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Zea mays; Weed control; No-tillage; Chemical control; Crop plants
 as weeds; Medicago sativa; Dactylis glomerata
 
 
 8                                                    NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Alternative crop prospects in western Nebraska.
 Plett, S.; Nelson, L.A.; Clegg, M.D.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Apr.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 4 (2): p. 162-166; 1991 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nebraska; Crop management; Grain crops; Rowcrops; Field crops;
 Summer fallow; Rotations; No-tillage; Tillage; Profits; Returns; Farm inputs;
 Variable costs; Fixed costs; Total digestible nutrients; Nutrient content
 
 
 9                                                  NAL Call. No.: 79.9 SO8 (P)
 Alternative weed control in low input reduced tillage cropping systems.
 Janke, R.R.
 Raleigh, N.C. : The Society :.; 1991.
 Proceedings - Southern Weed Science Society v. 44: p. 40-41; 1991.  Paper
 presented at the meeting on "Perception: Fact or Fiction", held January 14-16,
 1991, San Antonio, Texas.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Weed control; Tillage; Cropping systems
 
 
 10                                                 NAL Call. No.: S541.5.W2R47
 Amber waves: a sourcebook for sustainable dryland farming in the northwestern
 United States.
 Granatstein, D.
 Pullman, Wash. : The Center; 1992.
 Research bulletin XB - Washington State University, Agricultural Research
 Center (1025): 82 p.; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Washington; Oregon; Mountain states of U.S.A.; Dry farming;
 Sustainability; Triticum aestivum; Conservation tillage; Agroclimatology;
 Rotations; Grain crops; Brassica; Resource materials
 
 
 11                                          NAL Call. No.: HD1781.W67 no.91/05
 An analyses of yield and net return distributions for conventional and
 conservation tillage practices in southw estern Ontario.
 Ker, Alan
 Guelph, Ont. : Dept. of Agricultural Economics and Business, University of
 Guelph,; 1991.
 17, [10] p. : ill. ; 28 cm. (Working paper / Department of Agricultural
 Economics and Business, University of Guelph ; 91/05).  February 1991.
 Includes bibliographical references (p. 14-15).
 
 Language:  English
 
 
 12                                                      NAL Call. No.: 420 K13
 Aphid predators associated with conventional- and conservation-tillage winter
 wheat.
 Rice, M.E.; Wilde, G.E.
 Lawrence, Kan. : The Society; 1991 Jul.
 Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society v. 64 (3): p. 245-250; 1991 Jul.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Triticum aestivum; Schizaphis graminum; Hippodamia convergens;
 Coleomegilla maculata; Coccinella septempunctata; Scymnus; Chrysopa; Nabis;
 Araneae; Predators of insect pests; Population density; Conservation tillage;
 Minimum tillage; No-tillage
 
 
 13                                                    NAL Call. No.: SB193.F59
 Are herbicides necessary for alfalfa establishment?: Results from studies with
 conventional and no-till alfalfa.
 Brothers, B.A.; Hesterman, O.B.
 Columbia, Mo. : American Forage and Grassland Council; 1991.
 Proceedings of the Forage and Grassland Conference. p. 157-161; 1991.  Meeting
 held April 1-4, 1991, Columbia, Missouri.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Medicago sativa; Stand establishment; Herbicides; No-tillage;
 Tillage; Crop density
 
 
 14                                                      NAL Call. No.: S530.J6
 Area conservation tillage meetings--a successful educational program.
 Dickey, E.C.; Jasa, P.J.; Shelton, D.P.; Grisso, R.D.; Glewen, K.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991.
 Journal of agronomic education v. 20 (2): p. 115-119; 1991.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nebraska; Conservation tillage; Educational programs; Program
 development; Program effectiveness; Plan implementation and evaluation;
 Cooperative extension service
 
 
 15                                                      NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Autumn sward suppression and insect control effects on late-winter no-till
 establishment of ladino clover.
 Zarnstorff, M.E.; Chamblee, D.S.; Mueller, J.P.; Campbell, W.V.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Nov.
 Journal of the American Society of Agronomy v. 84 (6): p. 983-987; 1992 Nov.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Carolina; Festuca arundinacea; Paraquat; Site preparation;
 Winter; Sowing date; Crop establishment; Trifolium repens; No-tillage; Sowing
 methods; Insect pests; Slugs; Chemical control; Insect control; Pest control
 
 Abstract:  Ladino clover (Trifolium repens L.) has traditionally been
 established in the autumn in the southeastern USA. Grass suppression and
 insect control have proven beneficial for successful autumn no-till
 establishment. Winter planting offers an alternative, yet little is known about
 late winter grass suppression and insect or mollusk control. Herbicide applied
 at planting in late winter usually failed to suppress or kill
 cool-season grasses. Field studies were conducted to evaluate (i) the
 influence of fall suppression or kill with paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4-4'
 bipyridinium ion) of the tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) sward on
 late-winter (February or March) no-till establishment of ladino clover, (ii)
 establishment by drilling versus surface planting and (iii) the influence of
 suppression of insect and/or mollusk populations on the late-winter no-till
 establishment of ladino clover into tall fescue. Initial late winter no-till
 clover densities were 30% greater for the March as compared to February
 planting (three experiment average). Drill planting of clover resulted in 2.1
 times greater initial clover density (four experiment average) and 1.9 times
 more clover yield than surface planting (three experiment average).
 Application of paraquat to tall fescue in bands (13 cm) in mid-October
 resulted in essentially complete grass kill with the bands. Neither autumn
 grass suppression nor the use of insecticide or molluscicide altered clover
 density or stand. Late-winter, no-till establishment provides an alternative to
 fall establishment. Our results indicate that fall chemical suppression of
 grass swards is not necessary for successful late-winter establishment of
 ladino clover.
 
 
 16                                                    NAL Call. No.: SB610.W39
 Banded herbicide applications and cultivation in a modified no-till corn (Zea
 mays) system.
 Eadie, A.G.; Swanton, C.J.; Shaw, J.E.; Anderson, G.W.
 Champaign, Ill. : The Society; 1992 Jul.
 Weed technology : a journal of the Weed Science Society of America v. 6 (3): p.
 535-542; 1992 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ontario; Zea mays; Cultivars; No-tillage; Atrazine; Metolachlor;
 Herbicide mixtures; Application rates; Band placement; Broadcasting; Interrow
 cultivation; Integrated pest management; Weed control; Weeds; Biomass
 production; Crop yield
 
 
 17                                             NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM3Ps (IR)
 Beginning of motion for selected unanchored residue materials.
 Gilley, J.E.; Kottwitz, E.R.
 New York, N.Y. : American Society of Civil Engineers, c1983-; 1992 Jul.
 Journal of irrigation and drainage engineering v. 118 (4): p. 619-630; 1992
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Conservation tillage; Crop residues; Movement in soil; Overland
 flow; Erosion; Hydraulics; Regression analysis
 
 
 18                                                    NAL Call. No.: 464.8 P56
 Biological control to reduce inoculum of the tan spot pathogen Pyrenophora
 tritici-repentis in surface-borne residues of wheat fields.
 Pfender, W.F.; Zhang, W.; Nus, A.
 St. Paul, Minn. : American Phytopathological Society; 1993 Apr.
 Phytopathology v. 83 (4): p. 371-375; 1993 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kansas; Triticum; Pyrenophora tritici-repentis; Plant pathogenic
 fungi; Biological control agents; Pithomyces chartarum; Basidiomycotina;
 Aphyllophorales; Cultural control; Crop residues; Conservation tillage
 
 Abstract:  Field plots of conservation-tillage wheat straw naturally infested
 with Pyrenophora tritici-repentis were treated with bran-based inoculum of
 three potential biocontrol fungi, and reduction in the number of residue-borne
 pseudothecia (primary inoculum of the pathogen) was determined. Limonomyces
 roseipellis significantly reduced residue-borne primary inoculum of P.
 tritici-repentis in 3 of 4 yr of experiments; an unidentified agonomycete was
 effective in two of three experiments, but Laetisaria arvalis was ineffective.
 Although L. roseipellis reduced inoculum by 60-80%, greater reductions would be
 necessary for acceptable control of this disease. Retention of dry
 bran-based inoculum on straw was enhanced by the use of alginate, but further
 improvements in formulation and application methods are required for effective
 biocontrol of pathogens in surface-borne crop residues.
 
 
 19                                                    NAL Call. No.: 100 M69MI
 Blackbelt prairie soil subject of cropping study.
 Mississippi State, Miss. : The Station; 1992 Apr.
 MAFES research highlights - Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment
 Station v. 55 (4): p. 4; 1992 Apr.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mississippi; Prairies; Prairie soils; Erosion; No-tillage;
 Tillage
 
 
 20                                                 NAL Call. No.: 275.29 W27PN
 Blackgrass Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.
 Aldrich-Markham, S.
 Corvallis, Or. : The Service; 1992 Jan.
 PNW - Pacific Northwest Extension Publication, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho
 State Universities, Cooperative Extension Service (377): 4 p.; 1992 Jan.  In
 Subseries: Weeds.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Washington; Oregon; Alopecurus myosuroides; Weed control;
 No-tillage; Cultural control; Plowing; Herbicides
 
 
 21                                                     NAL Call. No.: aS622.S6
 Buffer strips, conservation tillage pay off.
 Gillespie, M.
 Washington, D.C. : The Service; 1992 Jan.
 Soil & water conservation news - U.S. Deptartment of Agriculture, Soil
 Conservation Service v. 12 (5): p. 7; 1992 Jan.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alabama; Conservation tillage; Erosion control; Gossypium
 
 
 22                                                     NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Bulk density of a sandy loam: traffic, tillage, and irrigation-method effects.
 Meek, B.D.; Rechel, E.R.; Carter, L.M.; DeTar, W.R.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1992 Mar.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 56 (2): p. 562-565; 1992 Mar.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Sandy loam soils; Soil density; Bulk density;
 Trafficability; Soil compaction; Chiselling; Resistance to penetration;
 Infiltration; Trickle irrigation; Flood irrigation; Furrows
 
 Abstract:  Modern crop production creates a cycle between soil compaction
 caused by traffic and alleviation of this condition by tillage or natural
 processes such as freezing and thawing. The objective of this study was to
 evaluate important management practices as they relate to changes in bulk
 density of a tilled sandy loam soil. Practices evaluated were irrigation
 method, time between tillage and traffic, tire pressure and wheel load of
 applied traffic, and controlled traffic. Relationships among bulk density,
 penetration resistance, and infiltration rate were determined. Experiments were
 conducted in the San Joaquin Valley of California, on a sandy loam soil
 (Entisol) with an organic-matter content of < 1%. After tillage, settling and
 trafficking of a soil resulted in rapid changes in its bulk density until a new
 equilibrium was reached. Tire pressure of 408 kPa and wheel weight of 2724 kg
 applied at moisture contents near field capacity resulted in a bulk density of
 1.92 Mg m-3, compared with a value of 1.67 for no traffic. The time
 interval between tillage and traffic did not affect final bulk density. Drip
 irrigation, which did not saturate the soil, resulted in a bulk density of
 approximately 0.1 Mg m-3 lower than flood irrigation, which saturated the soil
 surface. Wheel traffic in the furrow resulted in only small changes in the bulk
 density within the row. When tillage did not occur between cropping
 seasons, traffic caused high bulk densities in the furrow but only small
 changes in the row. An increase in bulk density from 1.7 to 1.89 Mg m-3
 decreased the infiltration rate by four times and increased resistance to
 penetration at the end of the season by three times. Knowledge of how
 management practices affect bulk density can aid growers in reducing
 recompaction following tillage.
 
 
 23                                                  NAL Call. No.: SB610.2.B74
 Changes in weed populations and seed bank through two cycles of a
 maize-soyabean rotation in Ontario, Canada.
 Benoit, D.L.; Swanton, C.J.; Chandler, K.; Derksen, D.A.
 Surrey : BCPC Registered Office; 1991.
 Brighton Crop Protection Conference-Weeds v. 1: p. 403-410; 1991.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ontario; Zea mays; Glycine max; Rotation; Weed control;
 Herbicides; Minimum tillage; Seed banks
 
 
 24                                                     NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Chemical attributes of soils subjected to no-till cropping with rye cover
 crops.
 Eckert, D.J.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1991 Mar.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 55 (2): p. 405-409; 1991 Mar.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ohio; Secale cereale; Zea mays; Glycine max; Soil chemistry;
 Calcium; Carbon; Magnesium; Nitrogen fertilizers; Phosphorus; Potassium;
 No-tillage; Rotations; Soil fertility; Soil physical properties
 
 Abstract:  Rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crops are often promoted to supply
 additional residue in no-till production situations; however, the effect of
 inclusion of rye on soil chemical properties is largely unknown. Soils were
 sampled, 20 cm deep, from four 4-yr studies in which no-till corn (Zea mays L.)
 and soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) were grown continuously or in rotation on a
 Canfield silt loam (fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Aquic Fragiudalf) or in rotation
 only on a Hoytville silty clay (fine, illitic, mesic Mollic
 Ochraqualf), with and without a winter rye cover crop. Corn had been
 fertilized each spring with 224 kg N ha(-1) as either injected anhydrous
 ammonia or surface-broadcast urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) solution. All plots
 sampled showed greater concentrations of organic C, exchangeable K, and Bray-1
 extractable P in the surface 5-cm increment of soil than deeper in the sampled
 profile. Exchangeable Ca and Mg concentrations were often less at this depth
 than deeper in the profile, particularly when N was applied as
 surface-broadcast UAN solution. Soil pH was generally lowest in the zone of N
 application. Addition of the rye cover crop had little effect on the
 distribution of chemical attributes, other than increasing concentrations of
 exchangeable K near the soil surface in several comparisons.
 
 
 25                                                   NAL Call. No.: S451.P4P45
 Cleaning up with dirty farming.
 Pruyne, R.
 University Park, Pa. : Pennsylvania State University; 1991.
 PennState agriculture. p. 8-11; 1991.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pennsylvania; Conservation tillage; Erosion control; Topsoil;
 Erosion
 
 
 26                                                    NAL Call. No.: SB610.W39
 Common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album) control with non-selective
 herbicides.
 Higgins, J.M.; Whitwell, T.; Toler, J.E.
 Champaign, Ill. : The Society; 1991 Oct.
 Weed technology : a journal of the Weed Science Society of America v. 5 (4): p.
 884-886; 1991 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South Carolina; Triticum aestivum; Weed control; Chemical
 control; Glyphosate; Paraquat; Glufosinate; Conservation tillage; Application
 rates
 
 
 27                                                  NAL Call. No.: HD1773.A2N6
 Comparative economics of alternative agricultural production systems: a
 review.
 Fox, G.; Weersink, A.; Sarwar, G.; Duff, S.; Deen, B.
 Morgantown, W.Va. : The Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics
 Association; 1991 Apr.
 Northeastern journal of agricultural and resource economics v. 20 (1): p.
 124-142; 1991 Apr.  Paper submitted in response to call for papers on the theme
 "The Effects of Agricultural Production on Environmental Quality.". Literature
 review.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North America; Crops; Vegetables; Conservation tillage; Erosion;
 Pest control; Environmental protection; Valuation; Externalities; Agricultural
 production; Profitability; Economic impact; Literature reviews; Alternative
 farming; Organic farming; Traditional farming
 
 
 28                                                      NAL Call. No.: 450 C16
 A comparison of broadcast and drill methods for no-till seeding winter wheat.
 Collins, B.A.; Fowler, D.B.
 Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada; 1992 Oct.
 Canadian journal of plant science; Revue canadienne de phytotechnie v. 72 (4):
 p. 1001-1008; 1992 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Saskatchewan; Triticum aestivum; No-tillage; Sowing date; Sowing
 methods; Sowing rates; Broadcasting; Crop establishment; Crop yield; Plant
 development; Brassica campestris; Brassica napus; Linum usitatissimum
 
 
 29                                                     NAL Call. No.: 421 J822
 Comparison of slug Mollusca: Pulmonata) trapping in no-till alfalfa.
 Barratt, B.I.P.; Byers, R.A.; Bierlein, D.L.
 Lanham, Md. : Entomological Society of America; 1993 Jun.
 Journal of economic entomology v. 86 (3): p. 917-923; 1993 Jun.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pennsylvania; Medicago sativa; No-tillage; Plant pests; Slugs;
 Trapping; Arion fasciatus; Deroceras laeve; Deroceras reticulatum
 
 Abstract:  A comparison of defined-area traps (DATs) and refuge traps (RTs), in
 no-till alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) to census the slug species Deroceras
 reticulatum (Muller), Deroceras laevae (Muller), and Arion fasciatus (Nielson)
 was made. The objective of the study was to determine whether Rts could be used
 in a range of crop densities and climatic conditions to assess slug
 density. In relation to slug density measured by DATs, Rts were less effective
 in trapping slugs in spring, when D. reticulatum was very small, but trapped
 relatively higher numbers than DATs when slugs were larger. Trapping methods
 were assessed between May and November in no-till alfalfa plots with plant
 densities ranging from 52 to 99% total plant cover in May to 78 to 91% cover in
 July. Alfalfa crop density had no effect upon RT catches except in dry
 conditions in June, when Rts collected more slugs in plots with most
 vegetation cover. Neither trap collected slugs during severe drought
 conditions in July when soil moisture content in the top 5 cm of the soil
 profile dropped to about 6%.
 
 
 30                                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.8 J822
 A comparison of wing-chisel tillage with conventional tillage on crop yield,
 resource conservation, and economics.
 Heilman, M.D.; Hickman, M.V.; Taylor, M.J.
 Ankeny, Iowa : Soil and Water Conservation Society of America; 1991 Jan.
 Journal of soil and water conservation v. 46 (1): p. 78-80; 1991 Jan.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Sorghum bicolor; Tillage; Crop yield; Economics
 
 
 31                                                    NAL Call. No.: 100 M69MI
 Compliance means reliance on research and ryegrass.
 Broadway, R.
 Mississippi State, Miss. : The Station; 1991 Dec.
 MAFES research highlights - Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment
 Station v. 54 (12): p. 4; 1991 Dec.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mississippi; Grasslands; Fodder crops; Legislation; Conservation
 tillage; Soil conservation
 
 
 32                                                     NAL Call. No.: 23 AU792
 Conservation cropping systems for the semi-arid tropics of north Queensland,
 Australia.
 Cogle, A.L.; Bateman, R.J.; Heiner, D.H.
 East Melbourne : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization;
 1991.
 Australian journal of experimental agriculture v. 31 (4): p. 515-523. maps;
 1991.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Queensland; Arachis hypogaea; Sorghum bicolor; Zea mays;
 Conservation tillage; Cropping systems; Crop yield; Semiarid zones; Tropics;
 Weed control
 
 
 33                                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.8 J822
 Conservation tillage and season effects on soil erosion risk.
 Mills, W.C.; Thomas, A.W.; Langdale, G.W.
 Ankeny, Iowa : Soil and Water Conservation Society of America; 1991 Nov.
 Journal of soil and water conservation v. 46 (6): p. 452-460; 1991 Nov.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Erosion; Conservation tillage; Watersheds; Rain; Runoff; Losses
 from soil systems; Crop management; Probability; Risk; Seasonal variation;
 Effects
 
 
 34                                                  NAL Call. No.: 275.29 M58B
 Conservation tillage drills available in Michigan.
 Pierce, F.J.; Landeck, J.K.; King, R.L.; Harrigan, T.M.
 East Lansing, Mich. : The Service; 1992 Jun.
 Extension bulletin E - Cooperative Extension Service, Michigan State
 University (2337): 4 p.; 1992 Jun.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Michigan; Direct sowing; Drills
 
 
 35                                                      NAL Call. No.: S530.J6
 A conservation tillage educational program.
 Dickey, E.C.; Jasa, P.J.; Shelton, D.P.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991.
 Journal of agronomic education v. 20 (2): p. 102-107; 1991.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nebraska; Conservation tillage; Educational programs; Erosion;
 Erosion control; Fuel consumption; Energy conservation; Cooperative extension
 service; Program evaluation; Surveys
 
 
 36                                                 NAL Call. No.: S544.3.N6N62
 Conservation tillage for burley tobacco: nitrogen recommendations.
 Hoyt, G.D.
 Raleigh, N.C. : The Service; 1992 Dec.
 AG - North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service, North Carolina State
 University v.): p. 36-38; 1992 Dec.  In th series analytic: 1993 Burley
 Tobacco.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Carolina; Nicotiana tabacum; Conservation tillage;
 Nitrogen; Application rates; Transplanters; Farm machinery; Cover crops
 
 
 37                                       NAL Call. No.: aG3701.J2 1991 .U5 Map
 Conservation tillage in the US 1991., Rev. Oct. 1991..
 United States. Soil Conservation Service; National Cartographic Center (U.S.)
 Ft. Worth, TX : USDA-SCS-National Cartographic Center ; West Lafayette, IN. :
 Conservation Technology Information Center, [distributor],; 1991.
 1 map : col. ; 19 x 25 cm.  Data provided by CTIC 1991.  Map prepared using
 automated map construction. National Cartographic Center, Fort Worth, Texas
 1991.  Computer screen image map.  Includes graph of "Acres planted by region"
 and inset map.  1006643.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Conservation tillage
 
 
 38                                       NAL Call. No.: aG3701.J2 1992 .U5 Map
 Conservation tillage in the US 1992., Rev. Oct. 1992..
 United States. Soil Conservation Service; National Cartography and Geographic
 Information Systems Center (U.S.)
 Ft. Worth, TX : USDA-SCS-National Cartography and GIS Center ; West Lafayette,
 IN. : Conservation Technology Information Center, [distributor],; 1992.
 1 map : col. ; 19 x 25 cm.  Source: Data provided by CTIC 1991. Data for
 Alaska and Hawaii falls below minimum category.  Map prepared using automated
 map construction. National Cartography and Geographic Information System
 Center, Fort Worth, Texas, 1992.  Computer generated map.  Includes graph of
 "Acres planted by region" and inset map.  1006643.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Conservation tillage
 
 
 39                                                    NAL Call. No.: aZ5071.N3
 Conservation tillage, including minimum and no-tillage: January 1979-August
 1991.
 MacLean, J.T.
 Beltsville, Md. : The Library; 1991 Oct.
 Quick bibliography series - U.S. Department of Agriculture, National
 Agricultural Library (U.S.). (92-02): 72 p.; 1991 Oct.  Updates QB 90-15.
 Bibliography.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Conservation tillage; No-tillage; Minimum tillage; Bibliographies
 
 
 40                                                     NAL Call. No.: SB249.N6
 Conservation tillage overview and terminology.
 Hutchinson, R.L.
 Memphis, Tenn. : National Cotton Council of America; 1993.
 Proceedings - Beltwide Cotton Conferences. p. 108-110; 1993.  Meeting held
 January 10-14, 1993, New Orleans, Louisiana.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Conservation tillage; Terminology
 
 
 41                                                     NAL Call. No.: 100 Al1H
 A conservation tillage practice that resists compaction.
 Raper, R.L.; Reeves, D.W.; Torbert, H.A.
 Auburn, Ala. : Agricultural Experiment Station of Auburn University, 1954-;
 1993.
 Highlights of agricultural research v. 40 (2): p. 3; 1993.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alabama; Cabt; Conservation tillage; Soil compaction; Subsoilers
 
 
 42                                                  NAL Call. No.: 100 L93 (3)
 Conservation tillage studies.
 Bollich, P.K.; Leonards, W.J. Jr; Romero, G.R.; Walker, D.M.
 Crowley, La. : The Station; 1991.
 Annual research report - Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station (83rd): p.
 152-160; 1991.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Louisiana; Oryza sativa; Cultivars; Conservation tillage
 
 
 43                                                     NAL Call. No.: SB249.N6
 Conservation tillage systems and cotton insect pest management in Louisiana.
 Leonard, B.R.; Hutchinson, R.L.; Graves, J.B.
 Memphis, Tenn. : National Cotton Council of America; 1992.
 Proceedings - Beltwide Cotton Production Research Conferences v. 2: p.
 807-810; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Louisiana; Gossypium; Conservation tillage; Insect pests; Pest
 control
 
 
 44                                               NAL Call. No.: S604.C675 1992
 Conservation tillage systems and management crop residue management with
 no-till, ridge-till, mulch-till., 1st ed..
 Midwest Plan Service
 Ames, IA : MidWest Plan Service, Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering
 Dept., Iowa State University,; 1992.
 iv, 140 p. : ill. (some col.), maps ; 28 cm.  MWPS-45.  Includes
 bibliographical references (p. 132-135) and index.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Conservation tillage
 
 
 45                                        NAL Call. No.: Videocassette no.1616
 Conservation tillage using SCEPTER herbicide [and] SQUADRON herbicide American
 Cyanamide Company..  Using SCEPTER herbicide and SQUADRON herbicide in
 conservation tillage
 American Cyanamid Company
 Wayne, NJ : The Company,; 1992.
 1 videocassette (13 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. + 1 booklet (14 p. ; 28 cm.).
 Title on cassette label: Using SCEPTER herbicide and SQUADRON herbicide in
 conservation tillage.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Herbicides; Conservation tillage
 
 Abstract:  Shows how to apply SCEPTER and SQAUDRON herbicides in various
 methods of conservation tillage.
 
 
 46                                                    NAL Call. No.: 1.98 AG84
 Conserving cropland for the future.
 Corliss, J.
 Washington, D.C. : The Service; 1991 Jun.
 Agricultural research - U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research
 Service v. 39 (6): p. 12-15; 1991 Jun.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Conservation tillage; Soil conservation; Erosion; Weed control
 
 
 47                                                    NAL Call. No.: SB327.M52
 Considerations for no tillage in dry beans.
 Horny, P.
 Saginaw, Mich. : Michigan Bean Shippers Association; 1992.
 Michigan dry bean digest v. 16 (3): p. 17; 1992.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dry beans; No-tillage
 
 
 48                                                    NAL Call. No.: SB599.C35
 Contribution of Avena spp., used in crop rotation systems under conservation
 tillage, to the inoculum levels of some cereal pathogens.
 Fernandez, M.R.; Swift Current, Saskatchewan; Santos, H.P. dos
 Guelph, Ont. : Canadian Phytopathological Society; 1992.
 Canadian journal of plant pathology; Revue Canadienne de phytopathologie v. 14
 (4): p. 271-277; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rio grande do sul; Parana; Triticum aestivum; Hordeum vulgare;
 Avena sativa; Avena nuda; Cochliobolus sativus; Gibberella zeae; Crop
 residues; Pyrenophora avenae; Plant pathogenic fungi; Fungal diseases;
 Incidence; Rotations; Conservation tillage; Inoculum density; Field tests;
 Greenhouse culture
 
 
 49                                                    NAL Call. No.: 79.9 W52R
 Control of annual bromes and Italian ryegrass using triallate in winter wheat
 with varying levels of crop residue.
 Aldrich-Markham, S.
 S.l. : The Society; 1992.
 Research progress report - Western Society of Weed Science. p.
 III/155-III/156; 1992.  Meeting held on March 9-12, 1992, Salt Lake City, Utah.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oregon; Triticum; Bromus; Herbicides; Lolium multiflorum; Minimum
 tillage; Weed control; Crop residues
 
 
 50                                         NAL Call. No.: NBULD3656 1992 L5643
 Controlled wheel traffic effects on soil properties in ridge till..
 University of Nebraska--Lincoln thesis : Agronomy
 Liebig, Mark A.
 1992; 1992.
 ix, 97 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.  Includes bibliographical references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 
 51                                                     NAL Call. No.: 100 T25F
 Corn hybrids compared in no-till and conventional cropping systems.
 Graves, C.R.; West, D.R.; Kincer, D.R.; Harrison, M.P.; Bradley, J.F.
 Knoxville, Tenn. : The Station; 1993.
 Tennessee farm and home science : progress report - Tennessee Agricultural
 Experiment Station (165): p. 11-16; 1993.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Tennessee; Zea mays; No-tillage; Cultivars; Crop yield; Tillage
 
 
 52                                                      NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Corn response to rye cover crop, tillage methods, and planter options.
 Raimbault, B.A.; Vyn, T.J.; Tollenaar, M.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Mar.
 Agronomy journal v. 83 (2): p. 287-290; 1991 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ontario; Zea mays; Cover crops; Secale cereale; No-tillage;
 Plowing; Tillage; Planters; Coulters; Crop residues; Preplanting treatment;
 Application date; Timing; Paraquat; Crop yield; Dry matter accumulation
 
 Abstract:  Studies in Ontario have shown that corn (Zea mays L.) yields are
 reduced when corn is seeded immediately after rye (Secale cereale L.) harvest
 or chemical kill of winter rye. A study was conducted in 1983 and 1984 on a
 Maryhill (Typic Hapludalf) loam soil to determine the effect of spring tillage
 systems and timing of rye chemical kill on the subsequent corn crop. The rye
 was seeded in early October after corn silage harvest. The tillage treatments
 consisted of (i) moldboard plow plus secondary tillage, (ii) strip tillage,
 (iii) no-tillage with ripple coulters (iv) no-tillage with disc furrowers plus
 plow coulters, and (v) no-tillage with ripple coulters plus plow coulters. The
 rye kill treatments were early (2 wk before planting) or late (just prior to
 corn planting). Corn whole-plant yields averaged 13.6 and 12.4 Mg ha-1 for
 early and late rye kill, respectively. Corn yield in the moldboard plow
 treatment was higher thin in strip tillage and the average of no-till
 treatments; however, using disc furrowers produced yields equal to those with
 the moldboard plow treatment. Moving the residue out of the row with disc
 furrowers resulted in corn yields that were significantly higher than those in
 no-till treatments with ripple coulters. The improvement in plant growth due to
 an early rye kill (as opposed to a late rye kill) was often greater with the
 conservation tillage systems relative to the moldboard plow treatment. A crop
 production system is proposed involving chemical control of a winter rye cover
 crop 2 wk before corn planting and planting the corn with a modified no-till
 system that removes rye residue from the row area.
 
 
 53                                                     NAL Call. No.: S590.C63
 Corn root dry matter and nitrogen distribution as determined by sampling
 multiple soil cores around individual plants.
 Crozier, C.R.; King, L.D.
 New York, N.Y. : Marcel Dekker; 1993.
 Communications in soil science and plant analysis v. 24 (11/12): p. 1127-1138;
 1993.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Carolina; Zea mays; Roots; Shoots; Dry matter; Dry matter
 distribution; Nitrogen; Nutrient uptake; Nitrogen content; Plant composition;
 Spatial distribution; Tillage; No-tillage
 
 
 54                                                      NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Corn-weed interactions with long-term conservation tillage management.
 Coffman, C.B.; Frank, J.R.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Jan.
 Agronomy journal v. 84 (1): p. 17-21; 1992 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Maryland; Zea mays; Crop weed competition; Conservation tillage;
 Continuous cropping; Monoculture; Herbicide mixtures; Alachlor; Glyphosate;
 Paraquat; Atrazine; Simazine; Cyanazine; Butylate; Eptc; Application rates;
 Timing; Application date; Weed control; Chemical control; Crop yield; Grain;
 Amaranthus hybridus; Panicum dichotomiflorum
 
 Abstract:  The use of monoculture production systems such as continuous corn
 (Zea mays L.) in conservation-tillage systems has created a requirement for
 information concerning crop and weed responses to annual herbicide inputs. The
 objective of this 5-yr investigation (1981-1995) was to evaluate weed problems
 and delineate weed and crop interactions in continuous conservation-tillage
 corn as affected by annual herbicide applications. Preemergence treatments
 contained selected combinations of triazines or a triazine plus alachlor
 [2-chloro-N-(2,6-diethylphenyl)-N-(methoxymethyl)acetamide]. Preemergence or
 preplant incorporated herbicide mixtures were applied at common usage rates and
 compared for their effects on weed cover, weed species stability, and grain
 production. All plots were essentially weed-free the first year. Weed cover in
 most treatments increased significantly by the second year with fall panicum
 (Panicum dichotomiflorum Michx.) dominating the flora in Years 2 and 3, and
 smooth pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus L.) dominating in Years 4 and 5. Smooth
 pigweed reached densities of 85% in several treatments. Fall panicum was the
 dominant weed in pre-plant incorporated treatments that contained atrazine [6-
 chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine] plus a
 carbamothioate herbicide. Grain yields were negatively correlated with fall
 panicum densities in the second year in all herbicide treatments. Smooth
 pigweed densities were negatively correlated with grain yields in the fifth
 year in all preemergence treatments. Smooth pigweed densities were lower in
 triazine plus alachlor treatments than in double triazine treatments for the
 last 2 yr of the study.
 
 
 55                                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.8 J822
 Costs of conventional and conservation tillage systems.
 Weersink, A.; Walker, M.; Swanton, C.; Shaw, J.E.
 Ankeny, Iowa : Soil and Water Conservation Society of America; 1992 Jul.
 Journal of soil and water conservation v. 47 (4): p. 328-334; 1992 Jul.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ontario; Zea mays; Glycine max; Clay soils; Clay loam soils; Sandy
 soils; Farm size; Cost analysis; Chiselling; Ridging; No-tillage;
 Plowing; Conservation tillage; Comparisons; Total costs; Farm inputs; Farm
 machinery; Labor costs; Labor requirements; Variable costs; Herbicides;
 Seasonal variation
 
 
 56                                                     NAL Call. No.: SB249.N6
 Cotton ridge-till and minimum tillage systems in Southeast Missouri.
 Ayers, V.H.; Albers, D.W.
 Memphis, Tenn. : National Cotton Council of America; 1993.
 Proceedings - Beltwide Cotton Conferences. p. 503-504; 1993.  Meeting held
 January 10-14, 1993, New Orleans, Louisiana.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Missouri; Gossypium hirsutum; Ridging; Tillage
 
 
 57                                                     NAL Call. No.: SB249.N6
 Cotton root growth in conventional vs reduced tillage systems.
 Lawlor, D.J.; Landivar, J.A.; Vasek, J.; Crenshaw, C.
 Memphis, Tenn. : National Cotton Council of America; 1991.
 Proceedings - Beltwide Cotton Conferences v. 2: p. 817-819; 1991.  Paper
 presented at the "Cotton Physiology Conference," 1991, San Antonio, Texas.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Gossypium hirsutum; Roots; Growth; Tillage; Minimum
 tillage; Crop yield
 
 
 58                                                    NAL Call. No.: 100 M69MI
 Crimson clover benefits soil, crops, and producers.
 Broadway, R.
 Mississippi State, Miss. : The Station; 1991 Dec.
 MAFES research highlights - Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment
 Station v. 54 (12): p. 7; 1991 Dec.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Trifolium incarnatum; Nitrogen; Nitrogen fixation; Cover crops;
 Zea mays; Production costs; No-tillage
 
 
 59                                                  NAL Call. No.: S592.7.A1S6
 Crop mulch effects on Rhizoctonia soil infestation and disease severity in
 conservation-tilled cotton.
 Rickerl, D.H.; Curl, E.A.; Touchton, J.T.; Gordon, W.B.
 Exeter : Pergamon Press; 1992 Jun.
 Soil biology and biochemistry v. 24 (6): p. 553-557; 1992 Jun.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alabama; Gossypium; Vicia villosa; Trifolium incarnatum; Mulches;
 Rotations; Fallow; Rhizoctonia solani; Fungal diseases; Conservation tillage;
 Crop damage; Emergence; Survival; Soil fungi; Infestation; Population density;
 Virulence; Inoculum density; Crop residues; Seasonal variation; Soil
 temperature; Paleudults; Coastal plain soils; Sandy loam soils
 
 Abstract:  Vetch (Vicia villosa Roth), clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.), and
 fallow (no winter cover crop) were used as mulch crops preceding cotton
 planted in a conservation tillage system. In field tests, cotton emergence and
 survival were reduced in legume mulches with significant differences at the
 second planting in 1985. Assessments of Rhizoctonia soil infestation estimated
 using a modified stem trap baiting procedure, indicated higher amounts of
 Rhizoctonia in cotton following legume crops than in cotton following fallow.
 In greenhouse studies, comparisons of warm (29 +/- 2 degrees C day and 21 +/-2
 degrees C night) and cool (29 +/- 2 degrees C day and 10 +/- 2 degrees C night)
 temperature regimes imposed on the clover, vetch and fallow treatments,
 demonstrated that the cool temperature regime significantly reduced emergence
 and survival of cotton seedlings. However, there was no interaction of
 cropping treatments (legume cropped or fallowed treatments with temperature
 regimes). Cotton seedling disease severity in the greenhouse assay of
 field-collected soil samples showed a significant interaction among year, soil
 treatment and temperature.
 
 
 60                                               NAL Call. No.: aS604.C76 1992
 Crop residue management Minnesota job sheet-crop residue use and conservation
 tillage..  Minnesota job sheet-crop residue use and conservation tillage
 United States, Soil Conservation Service
 St. Paul, Minn. : USDA Soil Conservation Service,; 1992; A 57.2:M 66/5.
 [4] p. : col. ill. ; 28 cm.  Caption title.  Shipping list no.: 92-0464-P. June
 1992.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Crop residue management; Crop residues; Soil conservation
 
 
 61                                             NAL Call. No.: aS624.I8C76 1992
 Crop residue systems for conservation and profit.
 United States, Soil Conservation Service
 Des Moines, Iowa : The Service,; 1992.
 15 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 28 cm.  Cover title.  October, 1992.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Crop residue management; Conservation tillage
 
 
 62                                                      NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Crop rotation and tillage effects on corn growth and soil structural
 stability.
 Raimbault, B.A.; Vyn, T.J.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Nov.
 Agronomy journal v. 83 (6): p. 979-985; 1991 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ontario; Zea mays; Rotations; Medicago sativa; Hordeum vulgare;
 Triticum aestivum; Trifolium pratense; Continuous cropping; Sequential
 cropping; Intercropping; Tillage; Minimum tillage; Crop yield; Grain; Growth
 rate; Soil structure; Aggregates; Stability; Long term experiments
 
 Abstract:  Increasing concerns about soil degradation with continuous corn (Zea
 mays L.) production and a scarcity of scientific information regarding corn
 grown in rotation with the diversity of crops produced in Ontario,
 prompted a long term study on the effect of various crop rotations and their
 interaction with two tillage systems on corn growth and soil structure. Eight
 rotations were established in 1980 which included continuous corn, six
 rotations comprised of 2 yr of corn following 2 yr of another crop or crop
 sequence, and continuous alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Each rotation was
 divided into either conventional tillage (fall moldboard plow) or minimum
 tillage (fall chisel plow). First-year corn grown in rotation yielded 3.9% more
 than continuous corn for conventional tillage and 7.9% more than
 continuous corn for minimum tillage. These corn responses to rotation were
 smaller than most of those reported in the literature. When barley (Hordeum
 vulgare L.) or wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were the preceding crops,
 interseeding red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) increased first year corn
 yields only on conventionally tilled plots. Corn plant development was
 consistently slower with minimum tillage compared to conventional tillage.
 Yields were significantly lower with minimum tillage for continuous corn and
 where corn followed wheat interseeded with red clover. Little or no response to
 rotation was observed in second-year corn. The seedbed with continuous corn had
 a lower proportion of fine aggregates compared to corn grown in rotation. In
 most years soil aggregate stability was highest under continuous alfalfa and
 including a legume (whether alfalfa or interseeded red clover) in the rotation
 improved aggregate stability compared to continuous corn.
 
 
 63                                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.8 J822
 Crop sequences and conservation tillage to control irrigation furrow erosion
 and increase farmer income.
 Carter, D.L.; Berg, R.D.
 Ankeny, Iowa : Soil and Water Conservation Society of America; 1991 Mar.
 Journal of soil and water conservation v. 46 (2): p. 139-142; 1991 Mar.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Conservation tillage; Furrows; Erosion; Furrow irrigation;
 Sequential cropping; Research
 
 
 64                                                   NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Crop yields and economic returns accompanying the transition to alternative
 farming systems.
 Smolik, J.D.; Dobbs, T.L.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Apr.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 4 (2): p. 153-161; 1991 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South Dakota; Northern plains states of U.S.A.; Farming systems;
 Organic farming; Crop yield; Tillage; Ridging; Minimum tillage; Rowcrops; Field
 crops; Grain crops; Rotations; Herbicides; Fertilizers; Precipitation; Economic
 evaluation; Returns; Profits; Farm income; Production costs;
 Comparisons
 
 
 65                                                     NAL Call. No.: S590.S65
 Cropping systems effects of a newly-cleared ultisol in Southern Nigeria.
 Lal, R.; Ghuman, B.S.; Shearer, W.
 Cremlingen-Destedt, W. Ger. : CATENA Verlag; 1992 Mar.
 Soil technology v. 5 (1): p. 27-38; 1992 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nigeria; Ultisols; Humid tropics; Acid soils; Manihot esculenta;
 Elaeis guineensis; Musa; Root crops; Grain crops; Cropping systems; Alley
 cropping; Traditional farming; Tropical rain forests; Land clearance; Erosion;
 Earthworms; Biological activity in soil; Crop production; Crop yield; Dry
 season; Wet season; Rain; Temporal variation; Runoff; Infiltration;
 No-tillage; Soil structure; Land productivity; Soil fertility; Sustainability
 
 
 66                                                  NAL Call. No.: 100 OK4 (3)
 Cultural control of greenbugs.
 Burton, R.L.; Burd, J.D.
 Stillwater, Okla. : The Station; 1991 May.
 Miscellaneous publication - Agricultural Experiment Station, Oklahoma State
 University (132): p. 262; 1991 May.  In the series analytic: Aphid-Plant
 Interaction: Populations to Molecules / edited by D.C. Peters, J.A. Webster,
 and C.S. Chlouber. Paper presented at a symposium held August 12-17, 1990,
 Stillwater, Oklahoma.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Nebraska; Schizaphis graminum; Insect control; Cultural
 control; No-tillage
 
 
 67                                                    NAL Call. No.: SB610.W39
 Decreasing rates of nonselective herbicides in double-crop no-till soybeans
 (Glycine max).
 Moseley, C.M.; Hagood, E.S. Jr
 Champaign, Ill. : The Society; 1991 Jan.
 Weed technology : a journal of the Weed Science Society of America v. 5 (1): p.
 198-201; 1991 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Virginia; Glycine max; Double cropping; No-tillage; Weed control;
 Chemical control; Chlorimuron; Linuron; Glyphosate; Paraquat; Herbicide
 mixtures; Digitaria sanguinalis; Application rates
 
 
 68                                                 NAL Call. No.: 275.29 IO9PA
 Demonstration of how fertilizer placement interacts with root growth.
 Kaspar, T.C.; Cruse, R.M.; Timmons, D.R.
 Ames, Iowa : The Service; 1991 Jan.
 PM - Iowa State University, Cooperative Extension Service (1417): p. 63-68;
 1991 Jan.  In the series analytic: Integrated Farm Management Demonstration
 Program. 1990 Progress Report.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Iowa; Nitrogen fertilizers; Conservation tillage; Liquid
 fertilizer distributors; Crop yield
 
 
 69                                                     NAL Call. No.: S671.A66
 Design and performance of a bed-forming machine for controlled-traffic
 no-tillage system.
 Morrison, J.E. Jr
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers; 1992 Mar.
 Applied engineering in agriculture v. 8 (2): p. 179-182; 1992 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Farm machinery; Structural design; Performance; Land
 forming; Raised beds; No-tillage; Clay soils; Conservation tillage
 
 Abstract:  An experimental bed-forming machine was designed and developed for
 the operational conditions of controlled-traffic, tillage, cropping systems on
 the Texas Blackland Prairie. The machine was front mounted on a
 two-wheel-drive tractor to cut two spaced furrows and form raised wide beds
 when initiating such a tillage and cropping system. Subsequent rebedding was
 conducted after one or more cropping years, when the soil was covered with crop
 residues. The experimental machine was satisfactory in difficult clay soils.
 Alternative furrow plows could be used for other soil conditions.
 
 
 70                                                     NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Differential phosphorus retention in soil profiles under no-till crop
 production.
 Guertal, E.A.; Eckert, D.J.; Traina, S.J.; Logan, T.J.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1991 Mar.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 55 (2): p. 410-413; 1991 Mar.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ohio; Zea mays; Phosphorus; Soil chemistry; Soil fertility;
 No-tillage; Extraction; Field tests; Sorption
 
 Abstract:  Field trials in Ohio have shown that the Bray-1 P soil-test level
 for optimum corn (Zea mays L.) production is greater for no-till than for
 conventionally (moldboard plow) tilled corn. Studies using Hoytville silty clay
 loam (fine, illitic, mesic Mollic Ochraqualf) and Canfield silt loam (fine-
 loamy, mixed, mesic Aquic Fragiudalf) taken from long-term no-tillage plots
 indicated decreased retention of P against the Bray-1 extractant in surface
 soils, compared with samples from deeper within the soil profile. In an effort
 to further examine the P-retention characteristics of no-till soil profiles,
 experiments were prepared using P-sorption isotherms, before and after a series
 of sequential anion resin extractions. Prior to sequential extractions, the
 isotherms showed decreased sorption of P at the soil surface (0-2 cm), compared
 with deeper soil layers. Resin extraction removed more P from surface layers
 than deeper depths, and the quantity of P removed with each extraction declined
 much more quickly in the surface layers than in lower depths. After resin
 extraction there was a trend for greater retention of P against the Bray-1
 extractant in the upper soil layers. Sorption isotherms created after resin
 extraction show increased P sorption at all depths and closer agreement between
 the shape of the isotherm curves. It appears that accumulated P on the soil
 surface saturates P fixation sites, resulting in differential retention of P
 with depth.
 
 
 71                                                    NAL Call. No.: SB610.W39
 Directed sprayer for targeting pesticides.
 Morrison, J.E. Jr; Chandler, J.M.
 Champaign, Ill. : The Society; 1992 Apr.
 Weed technology : a journal of the Weed Science Society of America v. 6 (2): p.
 441-444; 1992 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rowcrops; No-tillage; Conservation tillage; Pesticides;
 Application methods; Sprayers
 
 
 72                                                     NAL Call. No.: QL461.G4
 Diurnal abundance and spatial distribution of armyworm, (Lepidoptera:
 Noctuidae) in no-till corn.
 Laub, C.A.; Luna, J.M.
 Tifton, Ga. : Georgia Entomological Society; 1991 Apr.
 Journal of entomological science v. 26 (2): p. 261-266; 1991 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Virginia; Zea mays; Mythimna unipuncta; Diurnal activity; Spatial
 distribution; Feeding behavior; Sampling; No-tillage
 
 
 73                                                       NAL Call. No.: S79.E8
 Doublecropping systems for soybean and beef production.
 Hovermale, C.H.; Davis, J.D.; St. Louis, D.G.
 Mississippi State, Miss. : The Station; 1992 Apr.
 Technical bulletin - Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station
 (181): 8 p.; 1992 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mississippi; Glycine max; Beef cattle; Double cropping; Grazing;
 No-tillage; Aerial sowing; Crop yield; Stocking rate
 
 
 74                                                    NAL Call. No.: SB610.W39
 Early preplant atrazine and metolachlor in conservation tillage corn (Zea
 mays).
 Buhler, D.D.
 Champaign, Ill. : The Society; 1991 Jan.
 Weed technology : a journal of the Weed Science Society of America v. 5 (1): p.
 66-71; 1991 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Wisconsin; Zea mays; Weed control; Chemical control; Atrazine;
 Metolachlor; Preplanting treatment; Application methods; Timing; No-tillage;
 Chiselling; Conservation tillage; Abutilon theophrasti; Setaria faberi
 
 
 75                                                    NAL Call. No.: SB610.W39
 Early season herbicide applications for weed control in stale seedbed soybean
 (Glycine max).
 Bruff, S.A.; Shaw, D.R.
 Champaign, Ill. : The Society; 1992 Jan.
 Weed technology : a journal of the Weed Science Society of America v. 6 (1): p.
 36-44; 1992 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mississippi; Glycine max; Weed control; Chemical control; Cassia
 obtusifolia; Ipomoea lacunosa; Sesbania exaltata; Chlorimuron; Glyphosate;
 Imazaquin; Metribuzin; Paraquat; Conservation tillage; Application date; Crop
 yield
 
 
 76                                                  NAL Call. No.: SB610.2.B74
 Ecofallow and winter wheat weed control with UCC C4243.
 Bell, A.R.; Walz, A.W.; Joy, D.N.
 Surrey : BCPC Registered Office; 1991.
 Brighton Crop Protection Conference-Weeds v. 2: p. 807-812; 1991.  Conference
 held November 18-21, 1991, Brighton, England.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Triticum aestivum; Amaranthus retroflexus; Kochia scoparia; Weed
 control; Herbicides; No-tillage
 
 
 77                                                      NAL Call. No.: 450 C16
 Economic analysis of alternative cropping systems for a bean/wheat rotation on
 light-textured soils.
 Yiridoe, E.K.; Weersink, A.; Roy, R.C.; Swanton, C.J.
 Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada; 1993 Apr.
 Canadian journal of plant science; Revue canadienne de phytotechnie v. 73 (2):
 p. 405-415; 1993 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ontario; Triticum aestivum; Glycine max; Phaseolus vulgaris; No-
 tillage; Tillage; Rotations; Sandy loam soils; Crop yield; Returns;
 Production costs; Cover crops; Secale cereale; Zea mays
 
 
 78                                                     NAL Call. No.: 100 L939
 An economic analysis of reduced tillage cotton production.
 Paxton, K.W.; Lavergne, D.R.
 Baton Rouge, La. : The Station; 1991.
 Louisiana agriculture - Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station v. 34 (4): p.
 8-9; 1991.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Louisiana; Gossypium; Minimum tillage; Economic analysis; Crop
 production
 
 
 79                                                     NAL Call. No.: SB249.N6
 Economic analysis of ridge-till and minimum till systems in Missouri.
 Reinbott, D.
 Memphis, Tenn. : National Cotton Council of America; 1993.
 Proceedings - Beltwide Cotton Conferences. p. 505-507; 1993.  Meeting held
 January 10-14, 1993, New Orleans, Louisiana.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Missouri; Ridging; Minimum tillage; Economic analysis
 
 
 80                                                    NAL Call. No.: 281.8 C16
 Economic comparison of alternative tillage systems under risk.
 Weersink, A.; Walker, M.; Swanton, C.; Shaw, J.
 Ottawa : Canadian Agricultural Economics and Farm Management Society; 1992 Jul.
 Canadian journal of agricultural economics; Revue Canadienne d'economie rurale
 v. 40 (2): p. 199-217; 1992 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ontario; Maize; Soybeans; Cash crops; Tillage; No-tillage;
 Chiselling; Production costs; Farm comparisons; Risk; Ranking; Farm income;
 Farm size; Soil types; Stochastic processes; Conservation tillage; Alternative
 farming; Ridging; Crop yield; Zea mays; Glycine max
 
 
 81                                                   NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 An economic comparison of the wheat-fallow and wheat-sorghum-fallow cropping
 systems.
 Norwood, C.A.; Dhuyvetter, K.C.
 Madison, WI : American Society of Agronomy, c1987-; 1993 Apr.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 6 (2): p. 261-266; 1993 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kansas; Cabt; Triticum aestivum; Sorghum bicolor; Crop yield;
 Fallow; Rotations; Minimum tillage; No-tillage; Economic analysis; Acreage;
 Production costs; Deficiency payments; Federal programs; Returns
 
 
 82                                                     NAL Call. No.: 79.8 W41
 The economics of alternative tillage systems, crop rotations, and herbicide use
 on three representative East-Central Corn Belt farms.
 Martin, M.A.; Schreiber, M.M.; Riepe, J.R.; Bahr, J.R.
 Champaign, Ill. : Weed Science Society of America; 1991 Apr.
 Weed science v. 39 (2): p. 299-307; 1991 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Indiana; Triticum aestivum; Zea mays; Glycine max; Cost benefit
 analysis; Conservation tillage; Sustainability; Integrated pest management;
 Alternative farming; Farm income; Farm inputs; Herbicides; Weed control;
 Rotations; Farm size; No-tillage; Farm results; Crop yield; Continuous
 cropping; Chiselling; Mathematical models; Linear programming
 
 Abstract:  A linear programming model was used to determine which crop
 rotations and weed management systems result in the highest net farm income for
 each of three farm sizes (120, 240, and 480 hectares) under alternative tillage
 systems. Test plot data for the years 1981 through 1988 from the
 Purdue University Agronomy Farm, which has highly productive, well-drained
 soils, were analyzed. Net incomes for no-till tillage systems on all farms in
 the model were consistently and significantly lower than incomes for moldboard
 and chisel plow tillage systems due to slightly lower yields and substantially
 higher herbicide costs. Generally, net farm incomes were slightly higher with a
 moldboard plow versus chisel plow tillage system. Also, as farm size
 increased, per hectare net incomes increased. About 80% of the time under
 moldboard or chisel plow tillage systems, the model chose as optimal the
 lowest of three herbicide application rates. A corn/soybean rotation was
 chosen as optimal on 56% of the farm area analyzed, versus 25% for continuous
 corn and 13% for a corn/soybean/wheat rotation.
 
 
 83                                                     NAL Call. No.: SB249.N6
 Economics of reduced tillage cotton production systems in Louisiana.
 Paxton, K.W.; Lavergne, D.R.
 Memphis, Tenn. : National Cotton Council of America; 1991.
 Proceedings - Beltwide Cotton Conferences v. 1: p. 400-401; 1991.  Paper
 presented at the "Cotton Economics and Marketing Conference," 1991, San
 Antonio, Texas.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Louisiana; Gossypium hirsutum; Crop production; Minimum tillage;
 Cost benefit analysis
 
 
 84                                                    NAL Call. No.: SB610.W39
 Effect of 2,4-D and dicamba residues on following crops in conservation
 tillage systems.
 Moyer, J.R.; Bergen, P.; Schaalje, G.B.
 Champaign, Ill. : The Society; 1992 Jan.
 Weed technology : a journal of the Weed Science Society of America v. 6 (1): p.
 149-155; 1992 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Hordeum vulgare; Triticum aestivum; Lens culinaris; Pisum
 sativum; Brassica napus; Rotations; Medicago sativa; Conservation tillage; Weed
 control; Chemical control; Herbicide residues; 2,4-d; Dicamba;
 Glyphosate; Residual effects; Application date; Phytotoxicity; Crop damage;
 Spring; Sowing date; Crop yield
 
 
 85                                                   NAL Call. No.: QH84.8.B46
 Effect of different soil cultivation systems, including no-tillage, on
 electro-ultrafiltration extractable organic nitrogen.
 Hutsch, B.; Mengel, K.
 Berlin ; a Secaucus, N.J. : Springer International, 1985-; 1993.
 Biology and fertility of soils v. 16 (3): p. 233-237; 1993.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cultivation; No-tillage; Mineralization; Nitrogen; Soil
 fertility; Soil organic matter; Ultrafiltration
 
 
 86                                                 NAL Call. No.: 275.29 IO9PA
 Effect of different tillage systems on energy conservation.
 Cruse, R.M.; Colvin, T.S.; Musselman, A.
 Ames, Iowa : The Service; 1992 Jan.
 PM - Iowa State University, Cooperative Extension Service (1467): p. 11-16;
 1992 Jan.  In the series analytic: Integrated farm management demonstration
 program--1991 progress report.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Iowa; Conservation tillage; Energy conservation; Erosion; Crop
 yield; Crop residues
 
 
 87                                                 NAL Call. No.: 275.29 IO9PA
 Effect of different tillage systems on energy conservation.
 Cruse, R.M.; Colvin, T.S.
 Ames, Iowa : The Service; 1991 Jan.
 PM - Iowa State University, Cooperative Extension Service (1417): p. 19-22;
 1991 Jan.  In the series analytic: Integrated Farm Management Demonstration
 Program. 1990 Progress Report.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Iowa; Conservation tillage; Energy conservation; Demonstration
 farms; Tillage; Yields
 
 
 88                                                     NAL Call. No.: QL461.G4
 Effect of disk harrowing on subsequent emergence of Hessian fly (Diptera:
 Cecidomyiidae) adults from wheat stubble.
 Zeiss, M.R.; Brandenburg, R.L.; Van Duyn, J.W.
 Griffin, Ga. : Georgia Entomological Society; 1993 Jan.
 Journal of entomological science v. 28 (1): p. 8-15; 1993 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Carolina; Triticum aestivum; Glycine max; Mayetiola
 destructor; Insect control; Stubble; Disc harrows; Tillage; No-tillage
 
 
 89                                                     NAL Call. No.: S590.C63
 Effect of nitrogen and nitrogen placement on no-till small grains: plant
 nitrogen relationships.
 Jackson, G.D.; Kushnak, G.D.; Berg, R.K.; Carlson, G.R.
 New York, N.Y. : Marcel Dekker; 1992.
 Communications in soil science and plant analysis v. 23 (17/20): p. 2425-2435;
 1992.  In the Special Issue: International symposium on soil testing and plant
 analysis in the global community. Paper presented at the second international
 symposium, August 22-27, 1991, Orlando, Florida.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Montana; Triticum aestivum; Hordeum vulgare; No-tillage; Nitrogen
 fertilizers; Application rates; Placement; Nitrogen; Soil testing; Nutrient
 uptake; Protein content; Grain; Nutrient content
 
 
 90                                                     NAL Call. No.: S590.C63
 Effect of nitrogen and nitrogen placement on no-till small grains: plant yield
 relationships.
 Kushnak, G.D.; Jackson, G.D.; Berg, R.K.; Carlson, G.R.
 New York, N.Y. : Marcel Dekker; 1992.
 Communications in soil science and plant analysis v. 23 (17/20): p. 2437-2449;
 1992.  In the Special Issue: International symposium on soil testing and plant
 analysis in the global community. Paper presented at the second international
 symposium, August 22-27, 1991, Orlando, Florida.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Montana; Triticum aestivum; Hordeum vulgare; No-tillage;
 Continuous cropping; Soil testing; Nitrogen; Nutrient content; Nitrogen
 fertilizers; Use efficiency; Placement; Application rates; Crop yield
 
 
 91                                                    NAL Call. No.: QK867.J67
 Effect of several production factors on two varieties of rapeseed in the
 central United States.
 Yusuf, R.I.; Bullock, D.G.
 New York, N.Y. : Marcel Dekker; 1993.
 Journal of plant nutrition v. 16 (7): p. 1279-1288; 1993.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Illinois; Brassica napus; Ammonium nitrate; Application rates;
 Application date; Planting date; Tillage; Crop yield; Rapeseed oil; Nitrogen
 content; Lodging; Overwintering; Survival; Cultivars; Split dressings
 
 Abstract:  Two varieties of winter rapeseed (Brassica napus) (Cobra and
 Liborius) were planted at Brownstown, IL to evaluate the effect of planting
 date, nitrogen (N) rate, N application timing, and tillage on grain yield and
 oil content of the grain, grain moisture, plant lodging, winter survival, and
 plant N content. Results indicated that planting rapeseed approximately one to
 two weeks prior to winter wheat in this region is preferable to planting
 earlier. Grain yield showed a significant linear increase with delayed
 planting date from 25 August to 24 September. Grain yield also increased
 quadratically with increasing N rate (with an optimum of about 250 kg N/ha) and
 increased (0.15 Mg/ha) due to splitting the N fertilizer into two even
 applications. An increase in grain yield was accompanied by an increase in
 grain moisture with Liborius (late maturing) having significantly greater grain
 moisture than Cobra. Winter survival increased linearly with delayed planting
 date but, was accompanied by a significant quadratic increase in plant lodging.
 Chisel, as compared to disk tillage, increased plant lodging slightly, but
 decreased winter survival slightly. Neither delayed planting, N rate, nor
 splitting of spring N affected oil content. Liborius produced
 significantly more oil than did Cobra.
 
 
 92                                                  NAL Call. No.: S592.7.A1S6
 Effect of soil compaction on activity and biomass of endogeic lumbricids in
 arable soils.
 Sochtig, W.; Larink, O.
 Exeter : Pergamon Press; 1992 Dec.
 Soil biology and biochemistry v. 24 (12): p. 1595-1599; 1992 Dec.  In the
 special issue ISEE 4. Proceedings of the "4th International Symposium on
 Earthworm Ecology," June 11-15, 1990, Avignon, France / edited by A.
 Kretzschmar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Germany; Aporrectodea caliginosa; Aporrectodea; Earthworms;
 Lumbricidae; Species; Soil compaction; Population density; Biomass; Biological
 activity in soil; Soil density; Farm machinery; Traffic; Triticum aestivum;
 Conservation tillage
 
 Abstract:  Between June 1988 and October 1989 the effect of soil compaction on
 abundance and biomass of active lumbricids was investigated in a longterm field
 experiment under spring-wheat and winter-barley. Seven plots were
 subjected to loads by agricultural machinery under conditions simulating three
 common kinds of agricultural practice and compared to an unloaded control plot
 (Table 1). The dominant species of the investigation area, Aporrectodea
 caliginosa and A. rosea (99.3% of total individual number) had their highest
 activity and biomass in the uncompact control plot. Lowest individual numbers
 were found in the extremely loaded wheel-track and the conservation tillage
 area. The extensive cultivation of this area began just at the start of the
 field experiment, so that a greater earthworm population had not had time to
 establish itself In pot experiments the activity of the endogeic species A.
 caliginosa was investigated in tripartioned soil columns (40 cm long X 19 cm
 wide), each differently compact to pore volumes (pv) of 37.5, 42.5, 47.5 and
 56%. A significantly higher activity, measured as the length and the number of
 the burrows visible from outside, was found in the lighter substrates. The
 volume number extent of earthworm burrows was as much as 2 times higher in the
 47.5 and 56% pv columns than in the more compact 42.5 and 37.5% pv columns.
 
 
 93                                                     NAL Call. No.: 79.8 W41
 Effect of straw, ash, and tillage on dissipation of imazaquin and imazethapyr.
 Monks, C.D.; Bank, P.A.
 Champaign, Ill. : Weed Science Society of America; 1993 Jan.
 Weed science v. 41 (1): p. 133-137; 1993 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Georgia; Cabt; Gossypium hirsutum; Imazaquin; Imazethapyr;
 Application rates; Persistence; Sandy loam soils; Silt loam soils; Straw
 burning; Ash; Tillage; No-tillage; Crop damage; Glycine max; Rotations
 
 Abstract:  Experiments were conducted on a Cedarbluff silt loam and a Cecil
 sandy loam to determine dissipation of imazaquin and imazethapyr as influenced
 by burning small-grain straw and tillage prior to soybean planting. Corn
 bioassay detection limits for imazaquin and imazethapyr in the Cedarbluff silt
 loam were 2.5 to 30 and 5 to 40 ppbw, respectively. Bioassay detection limits
 for imazaquin and imazethapyr in the Cecil sandy loam were 2.5 to 20 and 10 to
 40 ppbw, respectively. Imazaquin and imazethapyr activity was not detectable in
 soil by 110 to 152 d after treatment. Imazethapyr dissipation was not
 affected by burning or tillage in the Cedarbluff silt loam and dissipated more
 slowly in 1989 than imazaquin. Imazaquin dissipation in the Cedarbluff silt
 loam in 1988 was slower in burned plots than in nonburned plots but was not
 affected by burning in 1989. No differences were observed between imazaquin and
 imazethapyr dissipation in the Cecil sandy loam and neither burning or tillage
 influenced their rate of dissipation in either year. No-till-planted cotton was
 injured at both locations by imazaquin and imazethapyr that had been applied
 the previous year.
 
 
 94                                                     NAL Call. No.: 1.9 P69P
 Effect of three tillage practices on development of northern corn leaf blight
 (Exserohilum turcicum) under continuous corn.
 Pedersen, W.L.; Oldham, M.G.
 St. Paul, Minn. : American Phytopathological Society; 1992 Nov.
 Plant disease v. 76 (1): p. 1161-1164; 1992 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Illinois; Zea mays; Hybrids; Setosphaeria turcica; Blight;
 Continuous cropping; Conservation tillage; No-tillage; Virulence; Crop yield;
 Correlation; Lodging; Varietal reactions
 
 
 95                                                   NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Effect of tillage on cotton plant populations and seedling diseases.
 Colyer, P.D.; Vernon, P.R.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1993 Jan.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 6 (1): p. 108-111; 1993 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Louisiana; Gossypium hirsutum; Seedlings; Conservation tillage;
 Tillage; Plant disease control; Chemical control; Aldicarb; Quintozene;
 Etridiazole; Crop establishment; Crop density; Vigor; Plant diseases;
 Incidence; Disease resistance; Crop yield; Seeds; Indexes; Seasonal variation
 
 
 96                                                     NAL Call. No.: 421 J822
 Effect of tillage practices and weed management on survival of stalk borer
 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs and larvae.
 Levine, E.
 Lanham, Md. : Entomological Society of America; 1993 Jun.
 Journal of economic entomology v. 86 (3): p. 924-928; 1993 Jun.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Illinois; Zea mays; Seedlings; Papaipema nebris; Survival;
 Cultural control; Insect control; Tillage; Weed control; Weeds
 
 Abstract:  Increased use of conservation tillage by midwestern corn growers in
 the 1970s and 1980s has led to a greater incidence of problems with the stalk
 borer, Papaipema nebris (Guenee). In particular, serious infestations have
 occurred throughout entire fields where no-till is practiced. A 3-yr factorial
 experiment (1983-1986) assessed the effect of three tillage practices (fall
 moldboard plow and spring disk, fall chisel plow and spring disk, and no-till)
 at two levels of weed management (weed growth present or absent in spring) on
 the survival of stalk borer eggs and development of larvae from surviving eggs.
 Injury to corn was used as a relative measure of stalk borer survival. Egg
 masses were infested on or immediately adjacent to grassy weeds after harvest
 but before tillage operations took place. Winter wheat was sowed in the fall to
 supplement natural weed growth in the plots with no weed control. In plots with
 the high level of weed control, plant growth was controlled, as needed, with
 paraquat in spring before planting. In all three studies, the tillage X weed
 management interaction was not significant and the
 moldboard-plow treatment significantly decreased stalk borer damage when
 compared with the no-till treatment. The chisel-plow treatment was generally
 intermediate between the no-till treatment and the moldboard-plow treatment in
 reducing stalk borer damage. The absence of weed growth in spring tended to
 decrease infestations of larvae, although the difference in damage between the
 two levels of weed management was significant in only one of the study
 periods. In that period, the interval between predicted 50% stalk borer egg
 hatch and the one-leaf-stage of corn development was greater than that
 interval for the other two studies. Even with the burial of eggs by soil with
 the moldboard-plow treatment, some larvae successfully eclosed and survived to
 damage corn seedlings in two of the three studies, with or without the
 presence of weeds. Although the resul
 
 
 97                                                     NAL Call. No.: 79.8 W41
 Effect of tillage systems on the emergence depth of giant (Setaria faberi) and
 green foxtail (Setaria viridis).
 Buhler, D.D.; Mester, T.C.
 Champaign, Ill. : Weed Science Society of America; 1991 Apr.
 Weed science v. 39 (2): p. 200-203; 1991 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Setaria faberi; Setaria viridis; Weed biology; Cultural weed
 control; Conservation tillage; Plowing; Chiselling; Seedling emergence;
 Population density; Buried seeds; Depth
 
 Abstract:  The effect of tillage systems on depth of emergence and densities of
 giant and green foxtail under different environmental and cropping
 conditions were evaluated from 1985 to 1987 at Arlington, Hancock, and
 Janesville, WI. Mean emergence depths in no-till were the shallowest, followed
 by chisel plow and conventional tillage at each location. At least 40% of the
 giant and green foxtail plants emerged from the upper 1 cm of soil in no-till
 compared to about 25% in chisel plow and less than 15% in conventional
 tillage. As many as 25% of the plants emerged from greater than 4 cm in
 conventional tillage compared to about 10% in chisel plow and less than 5% in
 no-till. Seedlings emerged from greater depths in a loamy sand than in a silt
 loam soil regardless of tillage system. At Arlington, green foxtail was the
 dominant species in conventional tillage, while giant foxtail dominated in
 chisel plow and no-till. Foxtail densities were greater in chisel plow and no-
 till than in conventional tillage at all three locations.
 
 
 98                                                      NAL Call. No.: 450 C16
 Effect of vegetation suppression on the establishment of sod-seeded alfalfa in
 the Aspen Parkland.
 Bowes, G.G.; Zentner, R.P.
 Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada; 1992 Oct.
 Canadian journal of plant science; Revue canadienne de phytotechnie v. 72 (4):
 p. 1349-1358; 1992 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Saskatchewan; Medicago sativa; Bromus inermis; Crop
 establishment; Crop yield; Glyphosate; Rotary cultivation; Economic analysis
 
 
 99                                                      NAL Call. No.: 450 C16
 Effectiveness and economics of repeated sequences of herbicides for Canada
 thistle (Cirsium arvense) control in reduced-till spring wheat (Triticum
 aestivum).
 Donald, W.W.; Prato, T.
 Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada; 1992 Apr.
 Canadian journal of plant science; Revue canadienne de phytotechnie v. 72 (2):
 p. 599-618; 1992 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Canada; Triticum aestivum; Cirsium arvense; Bromoxynil;
 Chlorsulfuron; 2,4-d; Dicamba; Glyphosate; Mcpa; Application date; Herbicidal
 properties; Weed control
 
 
 100                                                   NAL Call. No.: SB193.F59
 Effects of coated seed on alfalfa stand density and yield in reduced tillage
 systems.
 Cosgrove, D.R.; Daley, P.E.; Koenig, L.G.; Ritten, T.J.
 Columbia, Mo. : American Forage and Grassland Council; 1991.
 Proceedings of the Forage and Grassland Conference. p. 166-170; 1991.  Meeting
 held April 1-4, 1991, Columbia, Missouri.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Medicago sativa; Stand establishment; Seed treatment; No-tillage;
 Plowing; Crop density; Crop yield
 
 
 101                                                    NAL Call. No.: 1.9 P69P
 Effects of crop rotation and residue management practices on severity of tan
 spot of winter wheat.
 Bockus, W.W.; Claassen, M.M.
 St. Paul, Minn. : American Phytopathological Society; 1992 Jun.
 Plant disease v. 76 (6): p. 633-636; 1992 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kansas; Triticum aestivum; Winter wheat; Pyrenophora
 tritici-repentis; Fungal diseases; Plant disease control; Continuous cropping;
 Rotations; Sorghum bicolor; Plowing; Blade plowing; No-tillage; Chiselling;
 Discing; Crop residues; Virulence; Leaves; Symptoms; Epidemiology
 
 
 102                                                 NAL Call. No.: SB610.2.B74
 Effects of cultivation and seed shedding on the population dynamics of Galium
 aparine in winter wheat crops.
 Wilson, B.J.; Wright, K.J.
 Surrey : BCPC Registered Office; 1991.
 Brighton Crop Protection Conference-Weeds v. 2: p. 813-820; 1991.  Conference
 held November 18-21, 1991, Brighton, England.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Uk; Triticum aestivum; Galium aparine; Plant density; No-tillage;
 Cultivation; Herbicides; Weed control
 
 
 103                                                    NAL Call. No.: 1.9 P69P
 Effects of fallow and of summer and winter crops on survival of wheat
 pathogens in crop residues.
 Fernandez, M.R.; Fernandes, J.M.; Sutton, J.C.
 St. Paul, Minn. : American Phytopathological Society; 1993 Jul.
 Plant disease v. 77 (7): p. 698-703; 1993 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rio grande do sul; Triticum; Gibberella zeae; Cochliobolus
 sativus; Leptosphaeria nodorum; Survival; Crop residues; Fallow; Sequential
 cropping; Conservation tillage; Incidence; Populations
 
 
 104                                       NAL Call. No.: HD1775.S8E262 no.91-1
 Effects of including alfalfa in whole-farm plans comparison of conventional,
 ridge till, and alternative farming systems.
 Mends, Clarence; Dobbs, Thomas L.
 South Dakota State University, Economics Dept
 Brookings, S.D. : Economics Dept., South Dakota State University,; 1991.
 ii, 21 p. : ill. ; 28 cm. (Eco nomics staff paper series ; no. 91-1.).  April
 1991.  Includes bibliographical references (p. 21).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Agricultural systems; Alternative agriculture; Alfalfa; Tillage
 
 
 105                                                     NAL Call. No.: 450 C16
 The effects of nitrogen, row spacing and seeding rate on the yield of flax
 under a zero-till production system.
 Lafond, G.P.
 Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada; 1993 Apr.
 Canadian journal of plant science; Revue canadienne de phytotechnie v. 73 (2):
 p. 375-382; 1993 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Saskatchewan; Linum usitatissimum; No-tillage; Row spacing;
 Sowing rates; Crop density; Crop establishment; Crop yield; Ammonium nitrate;
 Ammonium phosphates; Application rates; Plant height
 
 
 106                                                  NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Effects of planting dates and tillage systems on the economics of hard red
 winter wheat production.
 Epplin, F.M.; Beck, D.E.; Krenzer, E.G. Jr; Heer, W.F.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1993 Jan.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 6 (1): p. 57-62; 1993 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oklahoma; Triticum aestivum; Sowing date; Tillage; No-tillage;
 Comparisons; Crop yield; Economic analysis; Risk
 
 
 107                                                  NAL Call. No.: QL461.E532
 Effects of strip intercropping and no-tillage on some pest and beneficial
 invertebrates of corn in Ohio.
 Tonhasca, A. Jr; Stinner, B.R.
 Lanham, Md. : Entomological Society of America; 1991 Oct.
 Environmental entomology v. 20 (5): p. 1251-1258; 1991 Oct.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ohio; Zea mays; Agrotis ipsilon; Mythimna unipuncta; Slugs;
 Diabrotica virgifera; Ostrinia nubilalis; Intercropping; No-tillage; Predators
 of insect pests; Biological control agents
 
 Abstract:  We tested two agronomic practices that are likely to increase plant
 and structural diversity, no-tillage and strip intercropping, for effects on
 corn invertebrate fauna. Some of the most common herbivores and natural
 enemies were sampled by direct counts and damage estimation from 1988 through
 1990 on monoculture corn and strips of corn alternated with soybean, under no-
 tillage and conventional tillage. Among soil pests, cut-worms (mostly the black
 cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel)); armyworm, Pseudaletia unipuncta
 (Haworth); and slugs (Gastropoda) were more abundant in no-tillage plots,
 although only slugs caused severe damage. The western corn rootworm,
 Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and the European corn borer, Ostrinia
 nubitalis (Hubner), were generally more abundant in conventional tillage
 plots. Despite crop rotation, the strip-intercropping system (four rows of each
 crop) was less effective in reducing western corn rootworm infestation,
 especially in conventional tillage plots. In 1990 only, ladybugs (mostly
 Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer)) were more abundant in conventional tillage
 plots, whereas tarnished plant bugs, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois),
 were more abundant in no-tillage plots. Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica
 Newman; stink bugs, Acrosternum hilare (Say) and Euschistus serous (Say); and
 spiders (Aranea) were not significantly affected by treatments.
 
 
 108                                                    NAL Call. No.: 79.8 W41
 Effects of tillage and application method on clomazone, imazaquin, and
 imazethapyr persistence.
 Curran, W.S.; Liebl, R.A.; Simmons, F.W.
 Champaign, Ill. : Weed Science Society of America; 1992 Jul.
 Weed science v. 40 (3): p. 482-489; 1992 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Illinois; Glycine max; Rotations; Zea mays; Weed control;
 Chemical control; Clomazone; Imazaquin; Imazethapyr; Persistence; Residual
 effects; Crop damage; Phytotoxicity; No-tillage; Minimum tillage; Plowing;
 Application methods
 
 Abstract:  Effects of tillage and herbicide application method on the
 persistence and residual activity of clomazone, imazaquin, and imazethapyr were
 investigated in a 2-yr field study. Herbicides were applied preemergence and
 preplant incorporated to conventional- and reduced-tillage soybeans in 1987 and
 1988. Herbicide dissipation was monitored using chromatographic and bioassay
 techniques. In 1987, dissipation rates for clomazone, imazaquin, and
 imazethapyr were similar, regardless of tillage system or application method.
 In 1988, all three herbicides applied preplant incorporated dissipated more
 slowly than in preemergence treatments. Corn planted in rotation in 1989
 displayed greater levels of injury in the incorporated treatments for all three
 herbicides. Although herbicide concentrations were similar 322 d
 following application in both tillage treatments in 1989, corn injury was
 greater with imazaquin and imazethapyr and less with clomazone in the
 reduced-tillage plots than in the conventional-tillage treatments.
 
 
 109                                                   NAL Call. No.: 79.8 W412
 Effects of tillage, application time and rate on metribuzin dissipation.
 Sorenson, B.A.; Shea, P.J.; Roeth, F.W.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1991 Dec.
 Weed research v. 31 (6): p. 335-345; 1991 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nebraska; Glycine max; Zea mays; Triticum aestivum; Rotations;
 Weed control; Metribuzin; Application date; Application methods; Application
 rates; Tillage; No-tillage; Crop yield; Herbicide residues; Silt loam soils
 
 
 110                                                    NAL Call. No.: 79.8 W41
 Effects of tillage on vertical distribution and viability of weed seed in soil.
 Yenish, J.P.; Doll, J.D.; Buhler, D.D.
 Champaign, Ill. : Weed Science Society of America; 1992 Jul.
 Weed science v. 40 (3): p. 429-433; 1992 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Wisconsin; Chenopodium album; Annuals; Weeds; Seeds; Seed banks;
 Weed biology; Seed germination; Population dynamics; Spatial distribution;
 Tillage; No-tillage; Conservation tillage; Plowing
 
 Abstract:  The effect of different levels of tillage and weed management on
 population, distribution, and germination of weed seed was evaluated in three
 tillage systems at Arlington and Hancock, WI, in 1989 and 1990. Over 60% of all
 weed seed in the top 19 cm of soil were found in the top 1 cm in
 no-tillage at both sites. As depth increased, concentration of weed seed
 declined logarithmically in no-tillage. In chisel plowing, over 30% of seed
 were in the top 1 cm and seed concentration decreased linearly with depth.
 Moldboard plowing had uniform distribution of weed seed in the top 19 cm of
 soil. Preemergence metolachlor plus atrazine decreased weed seed population by
 50% compared with no treatment over all tillage systems. One year of the
 herbicide treatment plus handweeding to assure weed-free conditions did not
 reduce seed numbers in chisel plowing or moldboard plowing compared to
 herbicide alone. Seed numbers with no-tillage and weed-free conditions
 decreased by 40% relative to herbicide alone. Common lambsquarters germination
 was 40% greater in moldboard plowing and chisel plowing compared with
 no-tillage. Germination was highest in seed taken from 9 to 19 cm deep in
 moldboard plowing and from 0 to 9 cm deep in chisel plowing.
 
 
 111                                                     NAL Call. No.: 450 C16
 The effects of tillage systems on the economic performance of spring wheat,
 winter wheat, flax and field pea production in east-central Saskatchewan.
 Lafond, G.P.; Zentner, R.P.; Geremia, R.; Derksen, D.A.
 Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada; 1993 Jan.
 Canadian journal of plant science; Revue canadienne de phytotechnie v. 73 (1):
 p. 47-54; 1993 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Saskatchewan; Pisum sativum; Linum usitatissimum; Triticum
 aestivum; Fallow systems; Minimum tillage; No-tillage; Rotations; Stubble
 cultivation; Sustainability; Cost benefit analysis
 
 
 112                                                  NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Effects of weed and invertebrate control on alfalfa establishment in oat
 stubble.
 Stout, W.L.; Byers, R.A.; Leath, K.T.; Bahler, C.C.; Hoffman, L.D.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Jul.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 5 (3): p. 349-352; 1992 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pennsylvania; Medicago sativa; Crop establishment; Avena sativa;
 Stubble; Conservation; No-tillage; Pest control; Weeds; Slugs; Insect pests;
 Seeds; Seedlings; Growth analysis
 
 
 113                                                    NAL Call. No.: 79.8 W41
 Efficiency and economics of herbicides for Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense)
 control in no-till spring wheat (Triticum aestivum).
 Donald, W.W.; Prato, T.
 Champaign, Ill. : Weed Science Society of America; 1992 Apr.
 Weed science v. 40 (2): p. 233-240; 1992 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Triticum aestivum; No-tillage; Weed control; Chemical control;
 Cirsium arvense; Chlorsulfuron; Clopyralid; 2,4-d; Mcpa; Bromoxynil; Herbicide
 mixtures; Application rates; Perennial weeds; Adventitious roots; Buds; Cost
 benefit analysis; Returns
 
 Abstract:  The objective of this field research was to compare relative
 effectiveness and profitability of alternative herbicides applied to the same
 plots for four consecutive years for controlling and reducing dense Canada
 thistle infestations in no-till spring wheat. Chlorsulfuron at 30 g ai ha-1
 plus nonionic surfactant or clopyralid plus 2,4-D at 70 plus 280 g ae ha-1,
 respectively, applied annually for 4 yr controlled Canada thistle and was more
 effective for gradually reducing Canada thistle stands than 2,4-D at 560 g ae
 ha-1, MCPA plus bromoxynil at 280 plus 280 g ae ha-1, or tribenuron at 20 g ai
 ha-1. Chlorsulfuron and clopyralid plus 2,4-D also controlled Canada thistle
 greater than or equal to 90% earlier (by 2 yr) than other treatments.
 Stochastic dominance analysis, a form of economic analysis, predicted that
 either chlorsulfuron or clopyralid plus 2,4-D would be preferred by farmers to
 the untreated check, MCPA plus bromoxynil, or 2,4-D treatments. Chlorsulfuron
 also would be preferred to clopyralid plus 2,4-D by risk-neutral farmers,
 whereas clopyralid plus 2,4-D would be preferred to chlorsulfuron by highly
 risk-averse farmers, those who are most likely to pick only consistently
 effective herbicides.
 
 
 114                                                    NAL Call. No.: SB249.N6
 Energy utilization as affected by traffic in conservation and conventional
 tillage systems.
 Burt, E.C.; Reeves, D.W.; Raper, R.L.
 Memphis, Tenn. : National Cotton Council of America; 1992.
 Proceedings - Beltwide Cotton Production Research Conferences v. 1: p.
 502-504; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Gossypium; Energy consumption; Conservation tillage; Tillage
 
 
 115                                                    NAL Call. No.: S671.A66
 Enhancing soil conservation practice adoption with targeted educational
 programs.
 Dickey, E.C.; Shelton, D.P.; Jasa, P.J.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers; 1991 Jan.
 Applied engineering in agriculture v. 7 (1): p. 91-96; 1991 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nebraska; Soil conservation; Erosion; Conservation tillage;
 Educational programs
 
 Abstract:  Two independent, but closely related, grant funded educational
 programs were developed and implemented to reduce soil erosion in selected
 areas of eastern Nebraska. Traditional extension programming methods as well as
 other more non-traditional approaches were used extensively to enhance soil
 conservation practice adoption. In one program, encompassing 220 000 ha
 (540,000 acre) of cropland, annual soil erosion was reduced by 2.3 million t
 (2.5 million ton) and annual fuel savings of 1.5 million L (390,000 gal) were
 achieved through a reduction in the number of tillage operations. In the
 second project, more than 93 000 m (305,000 ft) of terraces were constructed,
 which resulted in an annual soil erosion reduction of 151 000 t (166,000 ton).
 These projects demonstrated that targeted conservation programs can be very
 effective.
 
 
 116                                                    NAL Call. No.: S590.S65
 Erosion risk assessment for soil conservation planning.
 Thomas, A.W.; Snyder, W.M.; Mills, W.C.; Dillard, A.L.
 Cremlingen-Destedt, W. Ger. : CATENA Verlag; 1991 Dec.
 Soil technology v. 4 (4): p. 373-389; 1991 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Georgia; Erosion; Risk; Assessment; Uncertainty; Soil
 conservation; Planning; Universal soil loss equation; Soil; Losses from soil
 systems; Seasonal variation; Probability; Climatic factors; Seasonal
 fluctuations; Probability analysis; Simulation; Glycine max; Monoculture;
 Fallow; Tillage; No-tillage; Conservation tillage; Coverage; Crop residues;
 Planting date
 
 
 117                                               NAL Call. No.: S561.6.A82E96
 Estimating 1993 production costs in Arkansas: soybeans--no-till, following
 wheat, loamy soils, flood irrigation.
 Windham, T.E.; Stuart, C.A.
 Fayetteville, Ark.?: The Service; 1992 Nov.
 Extension technical bulletin - UA Cooperative Extension Service (185): 8 p.;
 1992 Nov.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arkansas; Glycine max; Production costs; Estimation; Farm
 budgeting; Loam soils; Flood irrigation; Triticum aestivum; No-tillage;
 Rotations
 
 
 118                                                     NAL Call. No.: S67.P82
 An evaluation of conservation tillage systems for cotton on the Macon Ridge.
 Baton Rouge, La.? : The Service; 1991 Dec.
 Publication - Louisiana Cooperative Extension Service (2460): 23 p.; 1991 Dec. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Louisiana; Gossypium hirsutum; Conservation tillage; Field tests;
 Crop yield; Cost benefit analysis; Herbicides; Insect control
 
 
 119                                                    NAL Call. No.: SB249.N6
 Evaluation of cotton growth in ridge till systems Southeast Missouri.
 Mobley, J.B.; Albers, D.W.
 Memphis, Tenn. : National Cotton Council of America; 1993.
 Proceedings - Beltwide Cotton Conferences. p. 508-509; 1993.  Meeting held
 January 10-14, 1993, New Orleans, Louisiana.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Missouri; Gossypium hirsutum; Ridging
 
 
 120                                         NAL Call. No.: NBULD3656 1992 B347
 Evaluation of opener and presswheel combinations on a no-till grain drill when
 seeding wheat..  University of Nebraska--Lincoln thesis : Agricultural
 Engineering
 Bahri, Abdeljabar
 1992; 1992.
 viii, 111 leaves : ill. (some col.) ; 28 cm.  Includes bibliographical
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 
 121                                                   NAL Call. No.: SB610.W39
 Fall-applied herbicides for Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) root and root bud
 control in reduced-till spring wheat.
 Donald, W.W.
 Champaign, Ill. : The Society; 1992 Apr.
 Weed technology : a journal of the Weed Science Society of America v. 6 (2): p.
 252-261; 1992 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Triticum aestivum; Perennial weeds; Weed control; Chemical
 control; Cirsium arvense; Adventitious roots; Buds; Root systems; Dicamba;
 Bromoxynil; Chlorsulfuron; 2,4-d; Mcpa
 
 
 122                                                  NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Fallow method affects downy brome population in winter wheat.
 Tanaka, D.L.; Anderson, R.L.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Jan.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 5 (1): p. 117-119; 1992 Jan.  Paper
 presented at a symposium on "Ecology and Management of Grazing Systems"
 presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for the
 Advancement of Science, January 14-19, 1991, San Francisco, California.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Montana; Triticum aestivum; Winter wheat; Bromus tectorum;
 Population change; Stubble mulching; Minimum tillage; No-tillage; Fallow
 
 
 123                                                    NAL Call. No.: 23 AU792
 Farming duplex soils: a farmer's perspective.
 Edwards, I.
 East Melbourne : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization;
 1992.
 Australian journal of experimental agriculture v. 32 (7): p. 811-814; 1992.
 Special issue: Crop production on duplex soils.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Western australia; Trifolium subterraneum; Triticum; Crop
 management; Duplex soils; Minimum tillage; Rotations; Sustainability; Weed
 control; Fungus control; Gaeumannomyces graminis; Crop yield
 
 
 124                                                NAL Call. No.: 100 SO82 (3)
 Farming system studies.
 Woodard, H.; Claypool, D.; Smolik, J.; Rickerl, D.
 Brookings, S.D. : The Station; 1991.
 TB - Agricultural Experiment Station, South Dakota State University (97): 3 p.
 (soil PR 90-13); 1991.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South Dakota; Rotations; Minimum tillage; Nutrient content
 
 
 125                                                NAL Call. No.: 100 SO82 (3)
 Farming systems, 1991: 1991 crop yields.
 Smolik, J.
 Brookings, S.D. : The Station; 1992 Oct.
 TB - Agricultural Experiment Station, South Dakota State University (99): 8 p.;
 1992 Oct.  In the series analytic: Soil science research in the Plant Science
 Department : 1991 Annual Report. Soil PR 91-4.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South Dakota; Farming systems research; Crop yield; Plant
 diseases; Rotations; Rain; Conservation tillage; Herbicides; Weed control
 
 
 126                                                NAL Call. No.: 100 SO82 (3)
 Farming systems studies, 1990: overview and cultural practices.
 Smolik, J.; Gerwing, J.; Hall, B.; Rickerl, D.; Schumacher, T.; Woodard, H.;
 Wrage, L.
 Brookings, S.D. : The Station; 1991.
 TB - Agricultural Experiment Station, South Dakota State University (97): 9 p.
 (soil PR 90-30); 1991.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South Dakota; Rotations; Minimum tillage; Field crops; Crop
 yield; Soil properties
 
 
 127                                                NAL Call. No.: 100 SO82 (3)
 Farming systems studies, 1991.
 Brookings, S.D. : The Station; 1992 Oct.
 TB - Agricultural Experiment Station, South Dakota State University (99): 6 p.;
 1992 Oct.  In the series analytic: Soil science research in the Plant Science
 Department : 1991 Annual Report. Soil PR 91-3.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South Dakota; Farming systems research; Rotations; Conservation
 tillage; Alternative farming; Minimum tillage; Row tillage; Crop yield; Cost
 benefit analysis
 
 
 128                                              NAL Call. No.: aS604.F37 1993
 Farming with crop residues.
 United States, Soil Conservation Service
 Champaign, Ill. : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service,; 1993;
 A 57.2:F 22/8.
 33 p. : ill. ; 16 cm.  Cover title.  Shipping list no.: 93-0227-P.  "January
 1993"--P. [4] of cover.  "CRM-190-11-12"--P. [4] of cover.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Crop residue management; Conservation tillage
 
 
 129                                                  NAL Call. No.: QL461.E532
 Fate of eggs of first-generation Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in
 three conservation tillage systems.
 Andow, D.A.
 Lanham, Md. : Entomological Society of America; 1992 Apr.
 Environmental entomology v. 21 (2): p. 388-393; 1992 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Minnesota; Zea mays; Ostrinia nubilalis; Ova; Chrysopa;
 Trichogramma; Predation; Parasites of insect pests; Conservation tillage
 
 Abstract:  Percentage hatch, chewing predation, Chrysopa sp. predation, other
 sucking predation, and parasitism by Trichogramma sp. of egg masses of
 first-generation Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) were estimated in spring chisel
 plow, ridge tillage, and no-tillage maize, Zea mays L., in southeastern
 Minnesota during 1986 and 1987. Tillage plots were split with and without
 terbufos application and with and without Bacillus thuringiensis-permethrin
 application in all combinations. Egg masses from laboratory reared O.
 nubilalis were exposed to natural enemies in the field eight times during the
 oviposition period of first-generation O. nubilalis, and population densities
 of Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer were estimated. Parasitism was 0.6% and
 predation was low during 1986. During 1987, chewing predation was highest in
 the chisel-plow system and lowest in the no-tillage system; Chrysopa sp.
 predation was lowest in the chisel-plow system and highest in the no-tillage
 system. C. maculata population densities were highest in the chisel-plow
 system and lowest in the no-tillage system, and chewing predation was
 positively related to C. maculata density. Predation by other unknown chewing
 predators was also higher in the chisel-plow system and lowest in the
 no-tillage system. The inverse relation between chewing and Chrysopa sp.
 predation was probably related to species-specific responses to the tillage
 environments.
 
 
 130                                                  NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Feasibility of no-tillage and ridge tillage systems in the Northeastern USA.
 Cox, W.J.; Otis, D.J.; Van Es, H.M.; Gaffney, F.B.; Snyder, D.P.; Reynolds,
 K.R.; Van der Grinten, M.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Jan.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 5 (1): p. 111-117; 1992 Jan.  Paper
 presented at a symposium on "Ecology and Management of Grazing Systems"
 presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for the
 Advancement of Science, January 14-19, 1991, San Francisco, California.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New York; Zea mays; No-tillage; Conservation tillage; Tillage;
 Plowing; Crop density; Crop yield; Feasibility studies
 
 
 131                                                    NAL Call. No.: SB249.N6
 Fertilization practices in conservation tillage.
 Denton, P.
 Memphis, Tenn. : National Cotton Council of America; 1993.
 Proceedings - Beltwide Cotton Conferences. p. 113-116; 1993.  Meeting held
 January 10-14, 1993, New Orleans, Louisiana.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Conservation tillage; Fertilizer technology
 
 
 132                                                     NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Fertilizer management effect on recovery of labeled nitrogen by continuous no-
 till.
 Timmons, D.R.; Baker, J.L.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 May23.
 Agronomy journal v. 84 (3): p. 490-496; 1992 May23.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Iowa; Zea mays; Continuous cropping; No-tillage; Nitrogen
 fertilizers; Use efficiency; Application rates; Radioactive tracers;
 Application methods; Crop yield
 
 Abstract:  Improved fertilizer N management with respect to placement and
 timing is especially important in high-residue systems designed to improve N-
 use efficiency and to speed adoption of erosion controlling tillage
 practices. By means of point-injection technology, fertilizer solutions now can
 be applied and soil-incorporated with minimal disturbance of surface
 residue or existing plants. This study was conducted in large non-weighing
 lysimeters (with reconstituted soil horizons) to determine the recovery of 15N-
 labeled urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) solution by continuous no-till corn (Zea
 mays L.) during the initial year of application and two subsequent years for
 four N management systems. The UAN solution was point-injected in split
 applications at rates of 125 or 200 kg N ha-1, or knifed-in or surface-banded
 right after plant emergence at 200 kg N ba-1. For the initial year of 15N
 application, the percent recovery of labeled N (NR) in grain was 48, 39, 33,
 and 30% for point-injected (low rate/split), point-injected (high rate/split),
 knifed-in, and surface-banded, respectively. The percentage of total grain N
 derived from labeled N (Nf) ranged from 57 to 67% and was in the order of
 point-injected (high rate/split) > knifed-in > point-injected (low rate/split)
 > surface-banded. Residual labeled N recovery in grain ranged from 2.3 to 4.6%
 for the second season and from 0.9 to 1.0% for the third season with no
 significant differences among application treatments for either season. After
 rive seasons the NR values for labeled N determined in the soil N pool still
 ranged from 20 to 26%. UAN solution applied in split applications with the
 point injector was used more efficiently by corn than when knifed-in or
 surface-banded in a single application, indicating the point-injection/split
 application system is an option for improved N management in no-till corn.
 
 
 133                                                     NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Fertilizer placement and tillage effects of nitrogen assimilation by wheat.
 Rao, S.C.; Dao, T.H.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Nov.
 Journal of the American Society of Agronomy v. 84 (6): p. 1028-1032; 1992 Nov. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oklahoma; Triticum aestivum; Seasonal fluctuations; Nutrient
 uptake; Nitrogen; Assimilation; Nitrogen fertilizers; Placement; Application
 rates; Phosphorus fertilizers; No-tillage; Tillage; Nitrate nitrogen; Use
 efficiency; Crude protein; Plant composition; Crop yield; Grain; Wheat straw;
 Nitrogen metabolism
 
 Abstract:  Little information is available concerning tillage effects on
 seasonal N accumulation and their effect on wheat yield. Field studies were
 conducted to determine the effects of fertilizer N placement and tillage
 practices on the reduction and assimilation of N in winter wheat (Triticum
 aestivum L.) during 1984 through 1987 on Renfrow silt loam (fine, mixed,
 thermic, Uderic, Paleustolls) near El Reno, OK. Fertilizer N (50 kg ha-1) and P
 (60 kg ha-1) including 4 kg N ha(-1) and 11 kg P ha(-1), with the seed was
 applied in the fall. In the spring, an additional 50 to 100 kg N ha(-1) as
 ammonium nitrate was either broadcast or placed in narrow bands on the soil
 surface. Nitrate reductase (NR) activity, NO3-N, and crude protein (CP)
 content of wheat plants were determined periodically during spring growth until
 anthesis, and final grain and straw yield and their CP contents were
 determined. The NR activity in early spring was slightly greater during early
 spring in plants grown under no-till when compared to conventional till in 1985
 and 1986, whereas the reverse was observed in 1987. lncreased NR activity was
 paralleled by an increase in vegetative CP. Placement of N in a narrow band on
 the soil surface in the spring improved NR activity levels, but the effect of N
 placement had little effect on CP concentration. Grain yield
 followed NR activity levels and was 36% higher in no-till in 1985, similar in
 1986, but 51% lower in 1987 than conventionally tilled plots. Placement of N in
 narrow bands increased N-use efficiency by increasing N reduction and
 assimilation; but had little effect on the yield of grain and straw in both
 tillage methods.
 
 
 134                                                NAL Call. No.: 275.29 IL62C
 Field and forage crops.
 Henn, T.; Weinzierl, R.; Gray, M.; Steffey, K.
 Urbana, Ill. : The Service; 1991 Feb.
 Circular - University of Illinois, Cooperative Extension Service (1307): 26 p.;
 1991 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Illinois; Field crops; Fodder crops; Pest management;
 Insecticides; Insect pests; Rotations; Pest resistance; Trap crops;
 Conservation tillage
 
 
 135                                                   NAL Call. No.: 275.8 AG8
 A field based model for adult education in agriculture.
 Bruening, T.H.; Martin, R.A.
 Henry, Ill. : The Magazine; 1991 Apr.
 The Agricultural education magazine v. 63 (10): p. 8-9; 1991 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Agricultural education; Adult education; Program development;
 Program evaluation; Conservation tillage
 
 
 136                                                     NAL Call. No.: 450 C16
 Foliar disease development in no-till winter wheat: influence of agronomic
 practices on powdery mildew development.
 Tompkins, D.K.; Wright, A.T.; Fowler, D.B.
 Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada; 1992 Jul.
 Canadian journal of plant science; Revue canadienne de phytotechnie v. 72 (3):
 p. 965-972; 1992 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Saskatchewan; Triticum aestivum; Fungus control; Cultivars;
 Interactions; Nitrogen fertilizers; No-tillage; Row spacing; Sowing rates
 
 
 137                                              NAL Call. No.: S592.17.A73A74
 Fractionation of micronutrient cations in a selected Saudi Arabian soil
 subjected to different tillage practices.
 Falatah, A.M.
 Washington, DC : Taylor & Francis; 1993 Jan.
 Arid soil research and rehabilitation v. 7 (1): p. 63-70; 1993 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Saudi arabia; Calcareous soils; Conservation tillage; Tillage; No-
 tillage; Harrowing; Chiselling; Plowing; Discing; Comparisons; Zinc;
 Copper; Manganese; Iron; Cations; Chemical speciation; Distribution; Nutrient
 availability; Soil organic matter; Soil ph; Cation exchange capacity
 
 
 138                                                     NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Genotype-by-tillage interactions in hard red winter wheat quality evaluation.
 Cox, D.J.; Shelton, D.R.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Jul.
 Agronomy Journal v. 84 (4): p. 627-630; 1992 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Dakota; Triticum aestivum; Winter wheat; Genotypes;
 Genotype environment interaction; No-tillage; Tillage; Conservation tillage;
 Variety trials; Varietal reactions; Crop yield; Crop quality; Wheat flour;
 Baking quality; Breadmaking; Protein content
 
 Abstract:  Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is grown under both
 conventional-till and conservation-till systems in the Northern Great Plains. A
 benefit of sowing winter wheat into standing stubble is the protection the crop
 receives from trapped snow and the resultant reduction in winter kill. A 5-yr
 study was conducted at four locations in North Dakota to measure
 cultivar-by-tillage interactions for quality parameters of wheat and to
 determine whether testing under both conventional-till and no-till systems was
 advantageous. Fourteen hard red winter wheat cultivars were planted during
 1984-1985 through 1988-1989 in a Max loam (fine-loamy, mixed, Typic
 Haploborolls) at both Williston and Minot, in a Svea loam (fine-loamy, mixed,
 Pachic Udic Haploborolls) at Langdon, and in a Bearden silty clay (fine-silty,
 frigid, Aeric Caldaquolls) or Gardena silty loam (coarse-silty, mixed, Pachic
 Udic Haploborolts) at Fargo. Significant cultivar-by-tillage interactions (P <
 0.05 or P < 0.01) were obtained for volume weight, protein content, and flour
 when the analysis was restricted to environments in which wheat winter killed.
 A change in rank order of cultivars was detected only for volume weight. For
 the other quality parameters measured, evaluation of winter wheats grown in
 conventional-till and no-till plots resulted in similar relative performance of
 cultivars.
 
 
 139                                                   NAL Call. No.: 100 SO82S
 'Good' and 'bad' years in one.
 Beck, D.
 Brookings, S.D. : The Station; 1992.
 South Dakota farm & home research - South Dakota, Agricultural Experiment
 Station v. 43 (1): p. 15-17; 1992.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South Dakota; Irrigation; Rotations; Conservation tillage
 
 
 140                                                   NAL Call. No.: SB610.W39
 Grain rye residues and weed control strategies in reduced tillage potatoes.
 Lanfranconi, L.E.; Bellinder, R.R.; Wallace, R.W.
 Champaign, Ill. : The Weed Science Society of America; 1993 Jan.
 Weed technology : a journal of the Weed Science Society of America v. 7 (1): p.
 23-28; 1993 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New York; Cabt; Solanum tuberosum; Minimum tillage; Tillage; Crop
 residues; Secale cereale; Weed control; Galinsoga ciliata; Chemical control;
 Linuron; Metolachlor; Metribuzin; Application rates; Crop yield; Tubers
 
 
 141                                                   NAL Call. No.: SB610.W39
 Grain rye residues and weed control strategies in reduced tillage potatoes.
 Lanfranconi, L.E.; Bellinder, R.R.; Wallace, R.W.
 Champaign, Ill. : The Weed Science Society of America; 1992 Oct.
 Weed technology : a journal of the Weed Science Society of America v. 6 (4): p.
 1021-1026; 1992 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New York; Cabt; Solanum tuberosum; Tillage; Minimum tillage;
 Secale cereale; Linuron; Metolachlor; Hilling; Metribuzin; Efficacy; Crop
 yield; Weed control; Amaranthus retroflexus; Chenopodium album; Galinsoga
 ciliata; Chemical control; Cultural control
 
 
 142                                               NAL Call. No.: S604.G78 1991
 A Guide to ridge-till in the Central Plains.
 Hodson, Eric
 Servi-Tech, Inc
 Topeka, KS : Lone Tree Pub. Co.,; 1991.
 73 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ridge-till
 
 
 143                                                    NAL Call. No.: 421 J822
 Habitat and food preferences of Allonemobius allardi (Orthoptera: Gryllidae)
 and potential damage to alfalfa in conservation-tillage systems.
 Jacobs, S.B.; Byers, R.A.; Anderson, S.G.
 Lanham, Md. : Entomological Society of America; 1992 Oct.
 Journal of economic entomology v. 85 (5): p. 1933-1939; 1992 Oct.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pennsylvania; Medicago sativa; Crop damage; Dactylis glomerata;
 Weeds; Gryllidae; Food preferences; Habitats; Conservation tillage
 
 Abstract:  Population estimates of the cricket Allonemobius allardi (Alexander
 & Thomas) in orchardgrass, Dactylis glomerata L.; alfalfa, Medicago sativa L.;
 and weedy fields revealed significantly lower cricket densities for alfalfa
 compared with orchardgrass and weed fields. However, densities were not
 significantly different between orchardgrass and weed fields despite a
 considerable dissimilarity in vegetative composition. Laboratory feeding
 studies suggest that crickets preferred to forage on the substrate and had
 difficulty recognizing preferred food plants that were elevated above the
 substrate. Crickets preferred alfalfa to bluegrass, thatch, or oats, but
 preferred bluegrass to thatch. No significant difference in feeding was
 observed between whole alfalfa leaves and alfalfa leaf disks when both were
 placed horizontally on the testing arena substrate. The contents of crops from
 field-collected crickets showed Alternaria, rust spores, and fungi occur
 relatively frequently but do not account for a substantial percentage of
 cricket crop contents. Legumes and dandelion also occur with a moderately high
 frequency and are a major component of crop contents. Cage tests in glasshouse
 and field showed one to two cricket adults per 0.09 m2 reduced alfalfa
 seedling numbers by 1-20% in the 2 wk from seedling emergence to formation of
 the first trifoliate in conservation-tillage systems when alfalfa was planted
 in oat stubble.
 
 
 144                                                    NAL Call. No.: SB925.B5
 Habitat use patterns by the seven-spotted lady beetle (Coleoptera:
 Coccinellidae) in a diverse agricultural landscape.
 Maredia, K.M.; Gage, S.H.; Landis, D.A.; Scriber, J.M.
 Orlando, Fla. : Academic Press; 1992 Jun.
 Biological control v. 2 (2): p. 159-165; 1992 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Michigan; Coccinella septempunctata; Biological control agents;
 Habitats; Zea mays; Triticum aestivum; Populus; Medicago sativa; Insect
 control; Tillage; No-tillage; Habitat selection; Prey; Aphidoidea;
 Availability; Ecology
 
 
 145                                                    NAL Call. No.: 57.8 SO4
 Helping producers with conservation compliance.
 O'Brien-Wray, K.
 St. Louis, Mo. : Solutions Magazine; 1992 Mar.
 Solutions v. 36 (3): p. 18-22; 1992 Mar.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Iowa; U.S.A.; Conservation tillage; Soil conservation;
 Legislation; Surveys; Crop residues
 
 
 146                                                   NAL Call. No.: SB610.W39
 Hemp dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum) and wild blackberry (Rubus allegheniensis)
 control in no-tillage corn (Zea mays).
 Glenn, S.; Anderson, N.G.
 Champaign, Ill. : The Weed Science Society of America; 1993 Jan.
 Weed technology : a journal of the Weed Science Society of America v. 7 (1): p.
 47-51; 1993 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Maryland; Cabt; Zea mays; No-tillage; Weed control; Apocynum
 cannabinum; Rubus allegheniensis; Chemical control; Herbicide mixtures; 2,4-d;
 Dicamba; Triclopyr; Oils; Sulfonylurea herbicides; Crop yield; Grain;
 Phytotoxicity; Crop damage; Application rates
 
 
 147                                                    NAL Call. No.: 79.8 W41
 Herbicide comparisons on quackgrass (Elytrigia repens) within different crop
 competition and tillage conditions.
 Harker, K.N.; O'Sullivan, P.A.
 Champaign, Ill. : Weed Science Society of America; 1993 Jan.
 Weed science v. 41 (1): p. 94-99; 1993 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Canada; Cabt; Elymus repens; Crop weed competition; Tillage; No-
 tillage; Cloproxydim; Fluazifop; Haloxyfop; Quizalofop; Sethoxydim;
 Application rates; Weed control; Efficiency
 
 Abstract:  Five herbicides (cloproxydim, fluazifop, haloxyfop, quizalofop, and
 sethoxydim) were compared from 1984 to 1988 at 250 and 400 g ha-1 for
 controlling quackgrass within different crop competition and tillage
 conditions at the Lacombe Research Station. Crop competition usually augmented
 quackgrass control with the herbicides in conventional-tillage plots although
 direct statistical comparisons were not made. Without crop competition,
 haloxyfop and quizalofop at 250 g ha-1 were more effective than the other
 herbicides in conventional tillage 1 mo after treatment (MAT). In a
 conventional-tillage situation on a unit active ingredient basis, the
 herbicides ranked in order of decreasing activity as follows: quizalofop
 greater than or equal to haloxyfop > fluazifop > cloproxydim > sethoxydim. In a
 zero-tillage situation, none of the herbicides reduced quackgrass shoot weights
 by 50% 3 MAT. However, haloxyfop and quizalofop were more effective in
 suppressing quackgrass shoot weight than the other herbicides in the
 zero-tillage experiments 3 MAT.
 
 
 148                                                    NAL Call. No.: 79.8 W41
 Herbicide programs in no-tillage and conventional-tillage soybeans (Glycine
 max) double cropped after wheat (Triticum aestivum).
 Sims, B.D.; Guethle, D.R.
 Champaign, Ill. : Weed Science Society of America; 1992 Apr.
 Weed science v. 40 (2): p. 255-263; 1992 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mississippi; Triticum aestivum; Glycine max; Double cropping; No-
 tillage; Tillage; Weed control; Chemical control; Alachlor; Linuron;
 Metribuzin; Sethoxydim; Xanthium strumarium; Pharbitis hederacea; Digitaria
 sanguinalis; Amaranthus hybridus; Application date; Timing; Herbicide
 mixtures; Plant density; Weeds
 
 Abstract:  Postemergence and commonly used preemergence plus postemergence
 herbicide programs were evaluated for weed control in conventional and
 no-tillage soybeans double cropped after winter wheat in the northern
 Mississippi River Delta. Broadleaf weed species present varied with tillage,
 location, and year. Large crabgrass was present in both tillage systems for all
 locations and years. Conventional tillage usually resulted in higher
 densities of large crabgrass, common cocklebur, and smooth pigweed.
 Soil-applied preemergence herbicides alone did not provide season-long ivyleaf
 and entireleaf morningglory or common cocklebur control in either tillage
 system. For weed control and soybean yields comparable to weed-free controls,
 postemergence broadleaf herbicides were required in both tillage systems
 following the soil-applied herbicide programs, alachlor plus linuron and
 alachlor plus metribuzin. Postemergence herbicide programs provided excellent
 season-long annual grass and broadleaf weed control when sethoxydim was
 applied separately from the broadleaf herbicides. Antagonism of large
 crabgrass control resulted when sethoxydim was tank mixed with postemergence
 broadleaf herbicides, compared to separate applications of the postemergence
 grass and broadleaf herbicides. In three out of four studies, soybean yields in
 handweeded controls were similar between tillage systems.
 
 
 149                                                   NAL Call. No.: SB610.W39
 Imazethapyr for weed control in no-till soybean (Glycine max).
 Lueschen, W.E.; Hoverstad, T.R.
 Champaign, Ill. : The Society; 1991 Oct.
 Weed technology : a journal of the Weed Science Society of America v. 5 (4): p.
 845-851; 1991 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Minnesota; Glycine max; No-tillage; Weed control; Chemical
 control; Imazethapyr; Metribuzin; Abutilon theophrasti; Amaranthus
 retroflexus; Chenopodium album; Setaria faberi; Herbicide mixtures;
 Application date; Timing; Split dressings
 
 
 150                                                NAL Call. No.: 79.9 SO8 (P)
 Impact of continuous no-tillage on weed management.
 Witt, W.W.
 Raleigh, N.C. : The Society :.; 1991.
 Proceedings - Southern Weed Science Society v. 44: p. 70-72; 1991.  Paper
 presented at the meeting on "Perception: Fact or Fiction", held January 14-16,
 1991, San Antonio, Texas.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: No-tillage; Weed control; Pest management
 
 
 151                                                NAL Call. No.: HD1775.O5C87
 Impacts of alternative winter wheat planting dates on grain yield and
 economics for no-till and coventional tillage systems.
 Epplin, F.M.; Beck, D.E.; Krenzer, E.G. Jr
 Stillwater, Okla. : The Station; 1991 Sep.
 Current farm economics - Agricultural Experiment Station, Division of
 Agriculture, Oklahoma State University v. 64 (3): p. 3-12; 1991 Sep.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oklahoma; Triticum aestivum; No-tillage; Planting date; Crop
 yield; Production costs; Economic evaluation
 
 
 152                                                    NAL Call. No.: S590.C63
 In situ labeling of legume residues with a foliar application of a
 15N-enriched urea solution.
 Zebarth, B.J.; Alder, V.; Sheard, R.W.
 New York, N.Y. : Marcel Dekker; 1991.
 Communications in soil science and plant analysis v. 22 (5/6): p. 437-447;
 1991.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: British Columbia; Medicago sativa; Trifolium pratense; Legumes;
 Plant residues; Urea fertilizers; Foliar application; Isotope labeling;
 Nitrogen; No-tillage; Nutrient content; Plant nutrition; Silt loam soils; Crop
 yield
 
 
 153                                                   NAL Call. No.: 464.8 P56
 Incidence of Bipolaris and Fusarium on subcrown internodes of spring barley and
 wheat grown in continuous conservation tillage.
 Windels, C.E.; Wiersma, J.V.
 St. Paul, Minn. : American Phytopathological Society; 1992 Jun.
 Phytopathology v. 82 (6): p. 699-705; 1992 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Hordeum vulgare; Triticum aestivum; Cochliobolus sativus;
 Fusarium; Gibberella acuminata; Gibberella avenacea; Fusarium culmorum;
 Gibberella zeae; Cultivars; Pathogenicity; Minimum tillage; Chiselling;
 Tillage; Quantitative analysis; Internodes; Genetic variation
 
 
 154                                                   NAL Call. No.: 56.8 J822
 Infiltration in a Piedmont soil under three tillage systems.
 Freese, R.C.; Cassel, D.K.; Denton, H.P.
 Ankeny, Iowa : Soil and Water Conservation Society of America; 1993 May.
 Journal of soil and water conservation v. 48 (3): p. 214-218; 1993 May.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Carolina; Zea mays; Infiltration; No-tillage; Chiselling;
 Plowing; Discing; Conservation tillage; Temporal variation; Soil compaction;
 Crop yield
 
 
 155                                                     NAL Call. No.: 450 C16
 Influence of agronomic practices on canopy microclimate and septoria
 development in no-till winter wheat produced in the Parkland region of
 Saskatchewan.
 Tompkins, D.K.; Fowler, D.B.; Wright, A.T.
 Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada; 1993 Jan.
 Canadian journal of plant science; Revue canadienne de phytotechnie v. 73 (1):
 p. 331-344; 1993 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Saskatchewan; Triticum aestivum; Agronomy; Canopy; Microclimate;
 Nitrogen; No-tillage; Row spacing; Septoria; Soil fertility; Sowing rates
 
 
 156                                                    NAL Call. No.: 79.8 W41
 Influence of application time on bioactivity of imazethapyr in no-tillage
 soybean (Glycine max).
 Buhler, D.D.; Proost, R.T.
 Champaign, Ill. : Weed Science Society of America; 1992 Jan.
 Weed science v. 40 (1): p. 122-126; 1992 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Wisconsin; Glycine max; No-tillage; Weed control; Chemical
 control; Imazethapyr; Application date; Seedling emergence; Timing;
 Application rates; Preplanting treatment; Metolachlor; Herbicide mixtures;
 Residual effects; Chenopodium album; Setaria faberi; Abutilon theophrasti;
 Conservation tillage; Crop yield
 
 Abstract:  Field research was conducted at Arlington, WI, in 1988 and 1989 to
 determine the influence of application time on weed control and residue
 carryover with imazethapyr in no-tillage soybean production. Imazethapyr at
 greater than or equal to 55 g ai ha-1 applied early preplant controlled > 90%
 of the common lambsquarters, velvetleaf, and giant foxtail before no-tillage
 planting of soybean. Early preplant and sequential treatments with an early
 preplant component controlled greater than or equal to 88% of all weeds for the
 entire growing season. Delaying the initial imazethapyr application until
 immediately after soybean planting reduced weed control compared to the early
 preplant treatments. Low level of weed control with planting time treatments
 appeared to be due to a lack of control of common lambsquarters emerged at the
 time of imazethapyr application and dry weather following imazethapyr
 application. No soybean injury from imazethapyr was observed and differences in
 soybean yield appeared to be due to differences in weed control. No
 significant carryover of imazethapyr was detected through a corn bioassay in
 the field.
 
 
 157                                                    NAL Call. No.: S590.C63
 Influence of cultivation on soil nitrogen pools.
 Antisari, L.V.; Marzadori, C.; Ciavatta, C.; Sequi, P.
 New York, N.Y. : Marcel Dekker; 1992.
 Communications in soil science and plant analysis v. 23 (5/6): p. 585-599;
 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Italy; Soil chemistry; Fixed ammonium; Nitrogen; Determination;
 Soil depth; Tillage; Minimum tillage; Soil analysis; Beta vulgaris; Zea mays;
 Triticum
 
 
 158                                                    NAL Call. No.: 1.9 P69P
 Influence of glyphosate on Rhizoctonia root rot, growth, and yield of barley.
 Smiley, R.W.; Ogg, A.G. Jr; Cook, R.J.
 St. Paul, Minn. : American Phytopathological Society; 1992 Sep.
 Plant disease v. 76 (9): p. 937-942; 1992 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oregon; Washington; Hordeum vulgare; Rhizoctonia; Root rots;
 Population dynamics; Volunteer plants; Weed control; Glyphosate; Timing;
 Application date; Seasonal variation; Disease prevalence; Incidence; Crop
 yield; Crop damage; Direct sowing; Planting date; Mollisols; Growth analysis;
 No-tillage; Tillage
 
 
 159                                                   NAL Call. No.: 100 AR42F
 Influence of hairy vetch on weed control and soybean yield.
 Oliver, L.R.; Klingaman, T.E.; Eldridge, I.L.
 Fayetteville, Ark. : The Station; 1992 Sep.
 Arkansas farm research - Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station v. 41 (5): p.
 8-9; 1992 Sep.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arkansas; Glycine max; Vicia villosa; Weed control; No-tillage;
 Experimental design; Crop yield; Herbicides
 
 
 160                                                   NAL Call. No.: S631.F422
 The influence of tillage and cropping-intensity on cereal response to
 nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus.
 Rasmussen, P.E.; Douglas, C.L. Jr
 Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1992 Jan.
 Fertilizer research : an international journal on fertilizer use and
 technology v. 31 (1): p. 15-19; 1992 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oregon; Triticum aestivum; Fallow; Hordeum vulgare; Rotations;
 Tillage; No-tillage; Use efficiency; Nitrogen; Sulfur; Phosphorus; Nutrient
 deficiencies; Ammonium thiosulfate; Ammonium nitrate; Ammonium sulfate;
 Monoammonium phosphate; Urea ammonium nitrate; Ammonium polyphosphates;
 Application rates; Responses; Crop yield; Grain
 
 Abstract:  Efficient fertilizer use is a prerequisite for achieving optimum
 crop yield while avoiding environmental contamination. Cereal response to
 nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), and phosphorus (P) were determined for 6 years under
 differing tillage [conventional-till (CT) vs. no-till (NT)] and intensity of
 cropping (cereal/fallow vs. cereal/cereal). Semidwarf white winter wheat
 (Triticum aestivum L.) alternated yearly with either fallow or spring cereal
 [barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) or spring wheat] on a Typic Haploxeroll soil in a
 415 mm rainfall zone. Fertilizer treatments were no fertilizer (None), N only
 (N), N plus S (NS), and N plus S plus P (NSP). Average application rate, when
 applied, was 109 kg N, 18 kg S, and 11 kg P ha-1. Average cereal yield without
 fertilizer was 1.82 t ha-1. Nitrogen increased grain yield in 6 of 6, S in 4 of
 6, and P in 3 of 6 years, with P and S response significant the remaining years
 at the 10% probability level. Average yield increases were 1.11 t ha-1 for N,
 0.93 t ha-1 for S, and 0.47 t ha-1 for P. The NT/CT yield ratio was 0.60. 0.75.
 0.93, and 0.95 with None, N, NS, and NSP addition, respectively, indicating
 that N and S deficiency were more severe in no-till. Limited
 increase in the NT/CT ratio with P addition indicated that P deficiency was
 less affected by tillage. Winter wheat always yielded less under NT than CT
 regardless of fertility, whereas spring cereals reached equality when
 fertilized with NSP. Annually-cropped wheat yielded 52, 67, 89, and 90% of
 wheat after fallow with None, N, NS, and NSP, respectively. Thus N and S, but
 not P, deficiency was more intense with increased frequency of cropping.
 Adequate fertility was a prime prerequisite for efficient yield in all
 systems.
 
 
 161                                                    NAL Call. No.: 79.8 W41
 Influence of tillage, crop rotation, and weed management on giant foxtail
 (Setaria faberi) population dynamics and corn yield.
 Schreiber, M.M.
 Champaign, Ill. : Weed Science Society of America; 1992.
 Weed science v. 40 (4): p. 645-653; 1992.  Paper presented at the "Symposium on
 crop/weed management and the dynamics of weed seedbanks," February 11, 1992,
 Orlando, Florida.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Indiana; Zea mays; Setaria faberi; Weed biology; Seed banks;
 Population density; Population dynamics; Plowing; No-tillage; Rotations;
 Allelopathy; Cropping systems; Crop yield; Weed control; Chemical control;
 Herbicides
 
 Abstract:  A long-term integrated pest management study initiated in 1980 and
 continued through 1991 was conducted to determine interactions of tillage, crop
 rotation, and herbicide use levels on weed seed populations, weed
 populations, and crop yield. This paper presents giant foxtail seed population
 and stand along with corn yield in continuous corn, corn rotated with soybean,
 or corn following wheat in a soybean-wheat-corn rotation. Increasing herbicide
 use levels above the minimum reduced giant foxtail seed in the 0- to 2.5-cm
 depth of soil. Reducing tillage from conventional moldboard plowing to
 chiseling to no-tilling increased giant foxtail seed in only the top 0 to 2.5
 cm of soil. No-tilling increased giant foxtail seed over conventional tillage
 in each year data were collected. Growing corn in a soybean-corn or
 soybean-wheat-corn rotation reduced giant foxtail seed from corn grown
 continuously in all three soil depths sampled: 0 to 2.5 cm, 2.5 to 10 cm, and
 10 to 20 cm. Although stands of giant foxtail tended to follow soil weed seed
 counts, crop rotation significantly reduced giant foxtail stand with maximum
 reduction in the soybean-wheat-corn rotation in all tillage systems. Giant
 foxtail stands were reduced following wheat in no-tilling, probably because of
 the allelopathic influence of wheat straw. Corn yields showed weed management
 levels above minimum control are not justified regardless of tillage and crop
 rotation.
 
 
 162                                                    NAL Call. No.: 79.8 W41
 Influence of tillage on soybean (Glycine max) herbicide carryover to grass and
 legume forage crops in Missouri.
 Walsh, J.D.; DeFelice, M.S.; Sims, B.D.
 Champaign, Ill. : Weed Science Society of America; 1993 Jan.
 Weed science v. 41 (1): p. 144-149; 1993 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Missouri; Cabt; Fodder crops; Tillage; No-tillage; Herbicides;
 Application rates; Persistence; Biomass production; Herbicide residues;
 Glycine max; Rotations
 
 Abstract:  Studies were established in 1988, 1989, and 1990 at two locations in
 Missouri to study the influence of fall tillage and herbicides on carryover of
 several residual soybean herbicides to grass and legume forage crops.
 Chlorimuron, clomazone, imazaquin, imazethapyr, and metribuzin plus
 chlorimuron were applied at their registered and 2X-registered rates in
 soybeans. Forage crops were planted the following fall and spring after
 herbicide application and evaluated for carryover effects. Fall tillage did not
 influence the carryover potential of these herbicides. However, herbicides
 injured several of the rotational crops. This injury was crop species and
 herbicide specific.
 
 
 163                                                    NAL Call. No.: SB249.N6
 Influence of tillages and insect management systems in a cropping system study
 on the lower gulf coast of Texas.
 De Spain, R.R.; Benedict, J.H.; Landivar, J.A.; Eddleman, B.R.; Goynes, S.W.;
 Ring, D.R.; Parker, R.D.; Treacy, M.F.
 Memphis, Tenn. : National Cotton Council of America; 1992.
 Proceedings - Beltwide Cotton Production Research Conferences v. 2: p.
 811-814; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Conservation tillage; Insect pests; Pest management;
 Cropping systems
 
 
 164                                                    NAL Call. No.: SB599.C8
 Influence of weed-control practices in the first crop on the tillage
 requirements for the succeeding crops in an upland rice-maize-cowpea cropping
 sequence.
 Elliot, P.C.; Moody, K.
 Guildford : Butterworths; 1991 Feb.
 Crop protection v. 10 (1): p. 28-33; 1991 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Philippines; Oryza sativa; Upland rice; Sequential cropping; Zea
 mays; Vigna unguiculata; Weeding; Hoeing; Manual weed control; Chemical
 control; Pendimethalin; No-tillage; Plowing; Harrowing; Crop yield; Grain; Cost
 benefit analysis
 
 
 165                                                  NAL Call. No.: QL461.E532
 Influence of winter cover crop suppression practices on seasonal abundance of
 armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), cover crop regrowth, and yield in no-till
 corn.
 Laub, C.A.; Luna, J.M.
 Lanham, Md. : Entomological Society of America; 1991 Apr.
 Environmental entomology v. 20 (2): p. 749-754; 1991 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Zea mays; Mythimna unipuncta; Secale cereale; Cover crops;
 No-tillage; Population dynamics; Insect control
 
 Abstract:  Rye (Secale cereale L.), used as a winter cover crop, was killed by
 paraquat or by mowing with a bushog. In the early stages of subsequent no-till
 corn, abundance of armyworm, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haworth), was lower in the
 mowed treatment compared with the sprayed treatment in three of five fields and
 did not differ in another field. Over the duration of the first armyworm
 generation, cumulative armyworm-days in the sprayed treatment were greater than
 in the mowed treatment in three of five fields and did not differ in another
 field. Mowing the cover crop was 40% less expensive than spraying. Competition
 from rye regrowth in the mowed treatment did not diminish yields. Corn silage
 yields were increased by mowing (P = 0.07), and the average
 increase in net benefit from mowing the cover crop compared with spraying was
 $91-113/ba. Cover crop mowing may be an economical and effective means of
 managing armyworm populations in no-till corn.
 
 
 166                                                      NAL Call. No.: 10 OU8
 Integrated farming: an ecological farming approach in European agriculture. El
 Titi, A.
 Oxon : C.A.B. International; 1992 Mar.
 Outlook on agriculture v. 21 (1): p. 33-39; 1992 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Europe; German federal republic; Farming systems research; Farm
 management; Integrated systems; Minimum tillage; Organic farming; Regulations
 
 
 167                                                  NAL Call. No.: S605.5.A43
 Integrated resource management for sustained crop production in arid regions of
 India.
 Gupta, J.P.; Aggarwal, R.K.
 Greenbelt, Md. : Institute for Alternative Agriculture; 1992.
 American journal of alternative agriculture v. 7 (4): p. 157-160; 1992.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: India; Crop production; Sustainability; Agroforestry;
 Silvopastoral systems; Fuelwood; Cultivars; Plant disease control;
 Conservation tillage
 
 Abstract:  In arid areas of western Rajasthan, major constraints responsible
 for low plant production include low and erratic rainfall, high evaporation,
 and low soil fertility, particularly with respect to organic carbon and
 nitrogen. These problems lead to acute shortages of grain, fodder and
 fuelwood. Sustainable crop and biomass production can be achieved through
 adoption of agroforestry, silvipastoral, and agrihorticultural systems.
 Integrated nutrient and moisture management practices can help in controlling
 pathogens and in improving the soil environment for higher sustained
 production.
 
 
 168                                       NAL Call. No.: NBULD3656 1992 S76888
 Integrated weed management for corn and soybeans grown in ridge-till and
 no-till systems.
 Stratman, Gail G.
 1992; 1992.
 138 leaves ; 28 cm.  Includes bibliographical references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 
 169                                                   NAL Call. No.: SB610.W39
 Integration of cereal cover crops in ridge-tillage corn (Zea mays) production.
 Eadie, A.G.; Swanton, C.J.; Shaw, J.E.; Anderson, G.W.
 Champaign, Ill. : The Society; 1992 Jul.
 Weed technology : a journal of the Weed Science Society of America v. 6 (3): p.
 553-560; 1992 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ontario; Zea mays; Cultivars; Minimum tillage; Ridging; Cereals;
 Cover crops; Crop residues; Intercropping; Biomass production; Weed control;
 Crop establishment; Plant density; Crop yield
 
 
 170                                                 NAL Call. No.: SB351.P3P39
 Interaction of tillage and cultivars in peanut production systems.
 Grichar, W.J.; Smith, O.D.
 Raleigh, N.C. : American Peanut Research and Education Society; 1992 Jul.
 Peanut science v. 19 (2): p. 95-98; 1992 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Arachis hypogaea; Cultivars; Genotypes; Tillage;
 No-tillage; Crop yield; Kernels; Corticium rolfsii; Blight; Disease
 prevalence; Dry farming
 
 
 171                                                  NAL Call. No.: QH84.8.B46
 Invertebrates and nutrients in a Mediterranean vineyard mulched with
 subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.).
 Favretto, M.R.; Paoletti, M.G.; Caporali, F.; Nannipieri, P.; Onnis, A.;
 Tomei, P.E.
 Berlin : Springer International; 1992.
 Biology and fertility of soils v. 14 (3): p. 151-158; 1992.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Tuscany; Trifolium subterraneum; Vineyards; Vitis; Fertilizers;
 Application rates; Mulches; Nutrient availability; Soil arthropods; Soil
 fertility; Soil invertebrates; Calcium; Potassium; Nitrogen; Phosphorus; Crop
 yield; No-tillage; Tillage; Comparisons; Soil management
 
 
 172                                                   NAL Call. No.: HT401.J68
 Kinship and personal communication network influences on the adoption of
 agriculture conservation technology.
 Warriner, G.K.; Moul, T.M.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press Ltd; 1992 Jul.
 Journal of rural studies v. 8 (3): p. 279-291; 1992 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ontario; Conservation tillage; Innovation adoption; Kinship;
 Decision making; Communication; Diffusion of information; Farm surveys; Farm
 management
 
 Abstract:  An analysis of personal communication network properties and
 kinship ownership arrangements of the farm provides further evidence of
 factors influencing the decision to adopt conservation tillage practices. Data
 from a mail survey of south-western Ontario, Canada, farmers demonstrate a
 positive connection between adoption of conservation forms of tillage and
 farming with a family member (other than spouse). Hypotheses relating to the
 structural properties of personal communications networks--connectedness,
 integration and diversity--are offered as potential explanations for the
 relation between kinship ownership and conservation adoption. Logistic
 regression reveals the positive influence of network connectedness on adoption
 and the negative influence of network integration, partially confirming that
 social network variables influence innovation adoption, but failing to account
 wholly for the influence of kin ownership arrangements in this decision. Kin
 members in the personal network lead to larger networks, as well as members who
 are more specialized and informed on innovative farming technologies.
 Alternatively, networks mainly comprised of kin are smaller and more
 integrated, both factors associated to lesser receptivity for innovative
 conservation forms of farming. The results are discussed in the context of the
 inconclusive findings to date of the influence of kin in the diffusion of
 innovations model for rural sociology.
 
 
 173                                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Land clearing and use in the humid Nigerian tropics. I. Soil physical
 properties.
 Ghuman, B.S.; Lal, R.; Shearer, W.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1991 Jan.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 55 (1): p. 178-183; 1991 Jan.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nigeria; Ultisols--particle size distribution--soil density--bulk
 density--soil compaction--horizontal infiltration--land
 clearance--bulldozers--cropping systems--alley
 cropping--pastures--no-tillage--agroforestry
 
 Abstract:  Soil physical properties are affected by land clearing use.
 Long-range planning in the humid tropics requires monitoring of these effects
 for an extended period of time. The effects of two land-clearing methods and
 six land-use systems on soil physical properties of an Ultisol were studied for
 4 yr in the humid coastal belt of Nigeria. The land-clearing methods were
 bulldozer clearing with a shear blade and manual clearing. The six land-use
 systems were comprised of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)-based cropping,
 oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)-based cropping, alley cropping, plantain
 (Musa spp.), pasture, and improved forestry, all under no-tillage. Soil
 physical properties were measured 90 d after clearing prior to planting, and at
 2 and 4 yr after cropping. The soil texture of the 0-10 cm layer was not
 affected by clearing methods. Soil compaction increased to 30 cm with shear
 blade and 20 cm with manual clearing. With respect to the forested control,
 shear blade and manual clearing increased the bulk density in the 0- to 10-cm
 layer by 22 and 14%, respectively. nificantly more for the pasture than the
 other systems. Three months after clearing, the steady infiltration rates were
 89, 20 and 32 cm h-1 in the forested control and shear-blade and manually
 cleared plots, respectively. Infiltration rate increased to 47 and 51 cm h-1 in
 the shear-blade cleared and increased to 290 and then decreased to 156 cm h-1
 in the manually cleared plots after 2 and 4 yr cropping, respectively.
 
 
 174                                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Land clearing and use in the humid Nigerian tropics. II. Soil chemical
 properties.
 Ghuman, B.S.; Lal, R.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1991 Jan.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 55 (1): p. 184-188; 1991 Jan.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nigeria; Ultisols; Exchangeable cations; Magnesium; Potassium;
 Soil ph; Calcium ions; Phosphorus; Nitrogen content; Soil organic matter; Land
 clearance; Bulldozers; Cropping systems; Alley cropping; Pastures; No-tillage;
 Windrows; Agroforestry
 
 Abstract:  A 4-yr study was conducted to investigate the effects of land
 clearing and subsequent land use on chemical properties of an Ultisol at
 Okomu, southern Nigeria. After 1 yr of cropping, soil pH, available P, and
 exchangeable Ca, Mg and K in the topsoil (0-10 cm) were significantly higher in
 the windrow zones of the shear-blade-cleared plots than in the nonwindrow
 zones, manually cleared plots, or forested control. In manual clearing, the
 organic-C and total-N contents declined below that of the forested control with
 3 yr of cropping. Soil pH after 4 yrs and exchangeable K after 2 and 4 yr of
 cropping were significantly higher in the pasture system than in the other
 systems. In a given system, pH, organic C, and available P decreased with
 cropping time. Total N decreased with cropping time in all systems but pasture
 where there was a little increase. The levels of exchangeable Ca+2 and Mg+2
 also decreased with cropping duration in all systems except the alley cropping
 in which their concentrations increased. The K+ content decreased with time in
 all systems but the pasture in which its level remained unchanged owing to
 returning of the hay to the field after cutting.
 
 
 175                                                    NAL Call. No.: S601.A34
 Leaching and runoff losses of herbicides in a tilled and untilled field.
 Hall, J.K.; Mumma, R.O.; Watts, D.W.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier; 1991 Nov.
 Agriculture, ecosystems and environment v. 37 (4): p. 303-314; 1991 Nov.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pennsylvania; Zea mays; Simazine; Atrazine; Cyanazine;
 Metolachlor; Leaching; Runoff; Tillage; No-tillage; Losses; Silty soils; Clay
 loam soils; Application rates
 
 
 176                                                     NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Limpograss sod management and aeschynomene seed reserve effects on legume
 reestablishment.
 Chaparro, C.J.; Sollenberger, L.E.; Jones, C.S. Jr
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Mar.
 Agronomy journal v. 84 (2): p. 195-200; 1992 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Aeschynomene Americana; Seed banks; Oversowing;
 Hemarthria altissima; Stand establishment; No-tillage; Discing; Spring;
 Summer; Grazing effects; Timing; Botanical composition; Forage; Grassland
 improvement; Sward renovation; Environmental factors
 
 Abstract:  Aeschynomene (Aeschynomene americana L.) is a warm-season, annual
 legume that is well adapted to wet habitats. Stands must regenerate from seed
 each year, so size of seed reserve and management of the associated grass in
 winter and spring are important. In 1988 and 1989, effects of aeschynomene
 soil-seed reserve (simulated by broadcasting known quantities of seed in the
 pod) and winter-spring management of a limpograss [Hemarthria altissima
 (Poir.) Stapf and Hubb.] sod on legume reestablishment were evaluated on
 Smyrna (sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Aeric Haplaquods) and Pomona (sandy,
 siliceous, hyperthermic Ultic Haplaquods) sands. All combinations of three
 tillage procedures (no disking, disking in spring, or disking in early summer)
 and two grazing treatments (grass grazed to a 10-cm stubble or not grazed) were
 allocated as main plots in a split-plot arrangement. Subplots were four
 quantities of seed applied the previous December (20, 60, 180, and 540 kg
 ha-1). Dry weather in late spring and early summer 1988 reduced grass
 competition to legume seedlings that had established in April, and grazing had
 no effect on percentage legume (PCL) in harvested forage. Within each disking
 treatment, PCL increased linearly with size of seed reserve, but summer
 disking reduced legume contribution relative to spring and no disking. With
 near optimal rainfall in 1989, PCL for the grazed swards was three to six times
 greater than for ungrazed swards. For all disk treatments, PCL increased
 linearly with size of seed reserve, but spring disking was superior to no
 disking and summer disking. Results suggest that aeschynomene reestablishment
 in limpograss is favored by spring disking and grazing limpograss until legume
 seedlings are 5 to 8 cm tall. Using this management in 1988 and 1989, seed
 reserves of 25 to 135 kg ha-1 were needed for successful aeschynomene
 reestablishment.
 
 
 177                                                   NAL Call. No.: 100 SO82S
 Link between lab and field.
 Sorensen, D.
 Brookings, S.D. : The Station; 1992.
 South Dakota farm & home research - South Dakota, Agricultural Experiment
 Station v. 43 (1): p. 4-5; 1992.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South Dakota; Conservation tillage; Row spacing; Herbicides; Zea
 mays; Glycine max; Planting date; Livestock feeding
 
 
 178                                                  NAL Call. No.: BJ52.5.J68
 Locus of control and farmer orientation: effects on conservation adoption.
 McNairn, H.E.; Mitchell, B.
 Guelph, Ontario, Canada : University of Guelph; 1992.
 Journal of agricultural & environmental ethics v. 5 (1): p. 87-101; 1992.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ontario; Soil conservation; Watersheds; Farmers; Attitudes;
 Surveys; Environmental protection; Rotations; Conservation tillage; Ethics;
 Erosion control
 
 
 179                                                    NAL Call. No.: 100 AL1H
 Long-term crop management affects soil fertility.
 Wood, C.W.; Edwards, J.H.; Ruf, M.E.; Eason, J.T.
 Auburn University, Ala. : The Station; 1991.
 Highlights of agricultural research - Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station
 v. 38 (3): p. 7; 1991.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alabama; Soil fertility; Conservation tillage
 
 
 180                                                    NAL Call. No.: 79.8 W41
 Long-term tillage effects of seed banks in three Ohio soils.
 Cardina, J.; Regnier, E.; Harrison, K.
 Champaign, Ill. : Weed Science Society of America; 1991 Apr.
 Weed science v. 39 (2): p. 186-194; 1991 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ohio; Zea mays; Weeds; Seed banks; Buried seeds; No-tillage;
 Minimum tillage; Plowing; Silt loam soils; Clay loam soils; Population
 density; Depth; Diversity; Chenopodium album; Panicum dichotomiflorum;
 Amaranthus; Weed biology
 
 Abstract:  Soils from long-term tillage plots at three locations in Ohio were
 sampled to determine composition and size of weed seed banks following 25 yr of
 continuous no-tillage, minimum-tillage, or conventional-tillage corn
 production. The same herbicide was applied across tillage treatments within
 each year and an untreated permanent grass sod was sampled for comparison. Seed
 numbers to a 15-cm depth were highest in the no-tillage treatment in the Crosby
 silt loam (77 800 m-2) and Wooster silt loam (8400 m-2) soils and in the grass
 sod (7400 m-2) in a Hoytville silty clay loam soil. Lowest seed numbers were
 found in conventional-tillage plots in the Wooster soil (400 m-2) and in
 minimum-tillage plots in the Crosby (2200 m-2) and Hoytville (400 m-2) soils.
 Concentration of seeds decreased with depth but the effect of tillage on seed
 depth was not consistent among soil types. Number of weed species was highest
 in permanent grass sod (10 to 18) and decreased as soil disturbance increased;
 weed populations were lowest in conventional tillage in the
 Hoytville soil. Common lambsquarters, pigweeds, and fall panicum were the most
 commonly found seeds in all soils. Diversity indices indicated that increased
 soil disturbance resulted in a decrease in species diversity. Weed populations
 the summer following soil sampling included common lambsquarters, pigweeds,
 fall panicum, and several species not detected in the seed bank.
 
 
 181                                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.8 AU7
 Long-term trends in total nitrogen of a vertisol subjected to zero-tillage,
 nitrogen application and stubble retention.
 Dalal, R.C.
 East Melbourne : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization;
 1992.
 Australian journal of soil research v. 30 (2): p. 223-231; 1992.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Queensland; Vertisols; Nitrogen; Nutrient content; No-tillage;
 Stubble; Retention; Prescribed burning; Tillage; Conservation tillage; Urea;
 Application rates; Long term experiments
 
 
 182                                                    NAL Call. No.: S590.C63
 Maize yield response as affected by phosphorus, sulfur and nitrogen as banded
 applications on a volcanic ash derived tropical soil.
 Raun, W.R.
 New York, N.Y. : Marcel Dekker; 1991.
 Communications in soil science and plant analysis v. 22 (15/16): p. 1661-1676;
 1991.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Guatemala; Zea mays; Volcanic ash soils; Tropical soils; Coastal
 plain soils; Nutrient availability; Nutrient deficiencies; Phosphorus; Sulfur;
 Nitrogen; Band placement; Urea; Triple superphosphate; Calcium sulfate; Crop
 yield; Grain; Calcium; Dicalcium phosphate; Sulfate; Allophane; Ammonium
 phosphates; Fixation; Chemical precipitation; Dissolving; Adsorption;
 Solubility; Minimum tillage; Temporal variation; Rainy season; Dry season
 
 
 183                                                     NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Management and dynamics of potassium in a humid tropical ultisol under a
 rice-cowpea rotation.
 Cox, F.R.; Uribe, E.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Jul.
 Agronomy Journal v. 84 (4): p. 655-660; 1992 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Vigna unguiculata; Oryza sativa; Rotations; Ultisols; Potassium
 fertilizers; Application rates; Humid tropics; Stover; No-tillage; Tillage;
 Crop yield; Grain; Nutrient availability; Potassium; Residual effects;
 Exchangeable cations
 
 Abstract:  Little is known about the role of K fertilization, stover
 management, and tillage methods on soil K availability as they affect rice
 (Oryza sativa L.) and cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] productivity on
 Ultisols of the humid tropics. The effects of five K rates (0-120 kg K ha-1),
 returning or removing stover, and three tillage methods (no-till, strip, and
 conventional) were evaluated during 12 crops of rice and cowpea grown for a 4-
 yr period. Fertilizer K was applied to the first seven crops. The site was a
 recently cleared, 18-yr-old secondary forest in the Peruvian Amazon Basin. The
 soil was a fine-loamy, siliceous, isohyperthermic Typic Paleudult. Soils
 samples were collected at each crop harvest to 90 cm in 15-cm increments.
 Potassium fertilizer always increased grain yields when stover was removed.
 Conversely, responses to K additions were seldom obtained when the stover was
 returned. The extractable K (Modified Olsen) critical level for both upland
 rice and cowpeas was calculated to be 0.10 cmol L-1. Returning stover with no K
 fertilization maintained soil K concentrations above critical levels for both
 species up to the last crop of the rotation. Residual effects of
 fertilizer K were prolonged by returning the stover. When stover was returned,
 subsoil exchangeable K increased with increasing rate of K fertilization.
 Removal of stover resulted in greater increases in subsoil exchangeable K at
 the 40 kg K ha-1 rate than at 120 kg K ha-1, apparently because the higher rate
 resulted in K fixation. Tillage methods did not affect crop yields.
 
 
 184                                                  NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Management and urease inhibitor effects on nitrogen use efficiency in no-till
 corn.
 Fox, R.H.; Piekielek, W.P.
 Madison, WI : American Society of Agronomy, c1987-; 1993 Apr.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 6 (2): p. 195-200; 1993 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pennsylvania; Cabt; Zea mays; No-tillage; Crop yield; Use
 efficiency; Urea ammonium nitrate; Urea; Urease inhibitors; Application rates;
 Application methods; Application date; Nitrogen; Nutrient uptake; Nitrogen
 content; Plant composition; Leaves; Rain; Ammonia; Volatilization
 
 
 185                                                    NAL Call. No.: QH540.J6
 Measurement and characterization of macropores by using AUTOCAD and automatic
 image analysis.
 Singh, P.; Kanwar, R.S.; Thompson, M.L.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Jan.
 Journal of environmental quality v. 20 (1): p. 289-294; 1991 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Iowa; Macropores; Characterization; Flow; Imagery; Measurement;
 Methodology; Pore size; Soil physical properties; Transport processes;
 Tillage; No-tillage
 
 Abstract:  Macropores (with equivalent diameters greater than 1600 micrometer)
 were quantified under no-till and conventional tillage practices by using
 AUTOCAD and automatic image analysis. To quantify macropores undisturbed soil
 blocks (50 by 50 cm) were impregnated with plaster of paris slurry. After the
 plaster of paris set, soil layers were taken out in 5-cm increments to a total
 depth of 60 cm. At each soil plane pictures were taken by a 35-mm camera and
 macropores were traced on transparent acetate sheets. The pictures and
 transparent sheets were analyzed by using an automated image analyzer and
 AUTOCAD, respectively, for total number, perimeter, area, and size frequency
 distribution of macropores. The AUTOCAD method proved to be simpler and better
 than the image analysis technique. Larger and continuous cracks accounted for
 greater macropore area in conventional tillage sites than in no-till sites. On
 the other hand, more worm holes and root holes accounted for a greater number
 and larger perimeters of macropores in no-till sites in comparison to
 conventional tillage sites.
 
 
 186                                                    NAL Call. No.: QL461.G4
 A method for observing below-ground pest-predator interactions in corn
 agroecosystems.
 Brust, G.E.
 Tifton, Ga. : Georgia Entomological Society; 1991 Jan.
 Journal of entomological science v. 26 (1): p. 1-8. ill; 1991 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Carolina; Zea mays; Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi;
 Mesostigmata; Tyrophagus putrescentiae; Lasius; Staphylinidae; Carabidae;
 Coleoptera; Predators of insect pests; Soil; No-tillage; Biological control
 agents
 
 
 187                                                   NAL Call. No.: SB951.P47
 Metribuzin degradation in soil. II. Effects of tillage.
 Locke, M.A.; Harper, S.S.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1991.
 Pesticide science v. 31 (2): p. 239-247; 1991.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Metribuzin; Microbial degradation; No-tillage; Tillage; Crop
 residues; Decomposition; Glycine max; Herbicide residues; Carbon; Carbon
 dioxide; Deamination; Isotope labeling
 
 Abstract:  A 140-day laboratory incubation, using surface soil from a
 long-term soybean tillage study, evaluated tillage influence on
 [14C]metribuzin degradation. Higher plant residue conditions in no-tillage (NT)
 soil inhibited metribuzin mineralization to [14C]carbon dioxide as
 compared to metribuzin degradation patterns observed in conventional tillage
 (CT) soil. At 140 days, relative abundance of extractable 14C components in NT
 included polar metabolites > metribuzin = deaminated metribuzin (DA) =
 deaminated diketometribuzin (DADK), while in CT, component included metribuzin
 > polar metabolites > DADK >> DA. Conditions in NT apparently inhibited polar
 14C degradation, and resulted in its accumulation, while in CT polar 14C
 degradation proceeded relatively rapidly. For both NT and CT, more 14C was
 measured in an unextractable fraction than in any other fraction. A greater
 portion of the unextractable fraction in NT was associated with decomposed
 plant residue than in CT. Surface accumulation of crop residue, such as occurs
 under NT, provided a soil environment which altered metribuzin degradation
 patterns.
 
 
 188                                                   NAL Call. No.: QH540.E23
 A model of the effects of tillage on emergence of weed seedlings.
 Mohler, C.L.
 Tempe, Ariz. : Ecological Society of America; 1993 Feb.
 Ecological applications v. 3 (1): p. 53-73; 1993 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Weeds; Seedling emergence; Plowing; No-tillage; Rotary
 cultivation; Seeds; Survival; Soil depth; Mathematical models; Seed banks;
 Manual weed control; Cultural weed control
 
 
 189                                                   NAL Call. No.: 100 N813B
 Modified ridge tillage vs. conventional tillage for soybean production.
 Helms, T.C.
 Fargo, N.D. : The Station; 1991 Sep.
 North Dakota farm research - North Dakota, Agricultural Experiment Station v.
 49 (2): p. 5-7; 1991 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Dakota; Glycine max; Tillage; Conservation tillage; Farm
 tests; Yields; Herbicides
 
 
 190                                     NAL Call. No.: aG3701.J2 1991 .U51 Map
 Mulch-till in the United States 1991.
 United States. Soil Conservation Service; National Cartographic Center (U.S.)
 Ft. Worth, TX : USDA-SCS-National Cartographic Center ; West Lafayette, IN. :
 Conservation Technology Information Center, [distributor],; 1992.
 1 map : col. ; 19 x 25 cm.  October 1991.  Data provided by CTIC 1991.  Map
 prepared using automated map construction. National Cartographic Center, Fort
 Worth, Texas, 1991.  Computer screen image map.  Includes graph of "Acres
 planted by region" and inset map.  1006825.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Stubble mulching; Tillage
 
 
 191                                     NAL Call. No.: aG3701.J2 1992 .U51 Map
 Mulch-till in the United States 1992., Rev. Nov. 1992..
 United States. Soil Conservation Service; National Cartography and Geographic
 Information Systems Center (U.S.)
 Fort Worth, Tex. : USDA-SCS-National Cartography & Geographic Information
 Systems Center ; West Lafayette, IN : Conservation Technology Information
 Center, [distributor],; 1993.
 1 map : col. ; 19 x 25 cm.  Source: Data provided by CTIC 1991. Data for
 Alaska and Hawaii falls below minimum category.  Map prepared using automated
 map construction. National Cartography and Geographic Information System
 Center, Fort Worth, Texas, 1992.  Computer generated map.  Includes graph of
 "Acres planted by region" and inset map.  1006825.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Stubble mulching; Tillage
 
 
 192                                                 NAL Call. No.: QH545.A1E29
 Natural establishment and selenium accumulation of herbaceous plant species in
 soils with elevated concentrations of selenium and salinity under irrigation
 and tillage practices.
 Wu, L.; Enberg, A.; Tanji, K.K.
 Orlando, Fla. : Academic Press; 1993 Apr.
 Ecotoxicology and environmental safety v. 25 (2): p. 127-140; 1993 Apr.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Atriplex patula; Bassia hyssopifolia; Melilotus
 indica; Salsola kali; Selenium; Irrigation; Tillage; No-tillage; Species
 diversity; Biomass production; Salinity; Wild plants; Mediterranean climate
 
 
 193                                                   NAL Call. No.: 64.8 C883
 Natural selection effects in wheat populations grown under contrasting tillage
 systems.
 Hwu, K.K.; Allan, R.E.
 Madison, Wis. : Crop Science Society of America; 1992 May.
 Crop science v. 32 (3): p. 605-611; 1992 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Washington; Triticum aestivum; Natural selection; Adaptation;
 Populations; No-tillage; Tillage; Conservation tillage; Agronomic
 characteristics; Plant morphology; Selection pressure; Diversity; Genetic
 variation
 
 Abstract:  Use of no-till, a conservation-tillage management system, is
 increasing in the northwestern USA, to abate the serious soil erosion problem.
 This study examined the feasibility of improving the adaptation of winter wheat
 (Triticum aestivum L.) for no-till by natural selection. Five
 populations with genetic diversity for several traits, some of which
 presumably affected fitness of wheat under no-till, were studied. Two
 subpopulations were developed for each population by growing them during 1981
 to 1985 in plots that had been rotary tilled (till) or directly sown (no-till)
 into standing barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) stubble at Pullman, WA. Trait means
 of the till treatment were always higher than their no-till counterparts, with
 the exception of one trait in a single population. Results did not indicate
 strong or consistent pressure for differential natural selection between the
 till and no-till treatments for several agronomic traits in most populations.
 The population that was putatively the most genetically diverse (Semidwarf
 Common Wheat USDA Blend) showed significant response to differential natural
 selection after pooling data across generations; both subpopulations had
 increased (P less than or equal to 0.05) biomass and grain yield means in the
 environments from which they had been derived. Plant height diverged in
 another population, with tall and short genotypes favored in the till and no-
 till environments, respectively. Most populations probably lacked
 sufficient genetic diversity to respond to differential natural selection for
 most of the traits; a high proportion of their parentage was derived from
 locally adapted genotypes that had been selected under conventional tillage.
 Using no-till selection pressure on genetically conservative populations that
 typify most wheat breeding programs probably is unwarranted. However, with
 populations that have been intentionally developed to achieve a broad genetic
 base, this approach may be justified.
 
 
 194                                                  NAL Call. No.: SB998.N4N4
 Nematode management in minimum-till soybean with resistant cultivars, rye
 rotation, and aldicarb.
 Minton, N.A.
 Auburn, Ala. : Organization of Tropical American Nematologists; 1992 Jun.
 Nematropica v. 22 (1): p. 21-28; 1992 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Georgia; Glycine max; Cultivars; Pest resistance; Meloidogyne
 incognita; Paratrichodorus minor; Pratylenchus brachyurus; Rotations; Secale
 cereale; Nematode control; Minimum tillage
 
 
 195                                                    NAL Call. No.: SB249.N6
 New and modified equipment for conservation tillage: strip till, interseeded
 residue and strip cropping.
 Banks, J.C.
 Memphis, Tenn. : National Cotton Council of America; 1993.
 Proceedings - Beltwide Cotton Conferences. p. 117; 1993.  Meeting held January
 10-14, 1993, New Orleans, Louisiana.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Conservation tillage; Equipment
 
 
 196                                                    NAL Call. No.: QH540.J6
 Nitrogen and phosphorus in eroded sediment from corn and soybean tillage
 systems.
 McIsaac, G.F.; Hirschi, M.C.; Mitchell, J.K.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Jul.
 Journal of environmental quality v. 20 (3): p. 663-670; 1991 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Illinois; Zea mays; Glycine max; Discing; Ridging; Tillage;
 No-tillage; Erosion; Sediment; Nitrogen; Phosphorus; Runoff; Rain; Simulation
 
 Abstract:  Runoff, soil loss and sediment bound total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN)
 and Bray P-1 phosphorus (P) losses were measured from corn (Zea mays L.) and
 soybean [Glycine max (L.)] tillage systems subjected to simulated rainfall.
 Runoff and soil loss were influenced by contouring and tillage treatment. After
 60 min of simulated rainfall, there was little or no runoff or soil erosion
 from plots which had recently been ridge cultivated along the contour. Soil and
 nutrient losses from up-and-down slope ridge-till plots were never
 significantly different than from the conventional tillage treatment. Bray P-1
 P concentration in the top 5 cm of soil and eroded sediment was significantly
 reduced by moldboard plowing. Concentrations of Bray P-1 in the eroded
 sediment tended to decrease as soil loss increased. Bray P-1 enrichment ratios
 ranged from 1.69 to 4.5, and were correlated to a greater extent with sediment
 concentration than with soil loss. The TKN losses were linearly related with
 soil loss and the average TKN enrichment ratio ranged from 1.02 to 1.28. The
 TKN enrichment ratio was not significantly correlated with Bray P-1 enrichment
 ratio.
 
 
 197                                                   NAL Call. No.: 100 M69MI
 Nitrogen and vetch improve cotton yield.
 Broadway, R.
 Mississippi State, Miss. : The Station; 1992 Apr.
 MAFES research highlights - Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment
 Station v. 55 (4): p. 4; 1992 Apr.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mississippi; Gossypium; Crop yield; Vicia; Nitrogen fertilizers;
 Cover crops; No-tillage
 
 
 198                                                    NAL Call. No.: S590.C63
 Nitrogen availability from alfalfa suppressed or killed for no-till
 production.
 Varco, J.J.; Grove, J.H.; Frye, W.W.; Smith, M.S.
 New York, N.Y. : Marcel Dekker; 1991.
 Communications in soil science and plant analysis v. 22 (15/16): p. 1527-1535;
 1991.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kentucky; Medicago sativa; Zea mays; Plant competition;
 Intercropping; No-tillage; Nitrogen; Nutrient availability; Nutrient uptake;
 Ammonium; Nitrate; Nitrate nitrogen; Ammonium nitrogen; Grass sward;
 Suppression; Cutting; Postharvest treatment; Chemical treatment; Paraquat;
 Glyphosate; Regrowth; Crop residues; Soil organic matter; Mineralization;
 Climatic factors
 
 
 199                                                     NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Nitrogen balance and biomass production of newly established no-till dryland
 agroecosystems.
 Wood, C.W.; Peterson, G.A.; Westfall, D.G.; Cole, C.V.; Willis, W.O.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 May.
 Agronomy journal v. 83 (3): p. 519-526; 1991 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Colorado; Zea mays; Triticum aestivum; Sorghum bicolor; Panicum
 miliaceum; Agropyron cristatum; Elymus smithii; Bouteloua gracilis; Bouteloua
 curtipendula; Buchloe dactyloides; Schizachyrium scoparium; Fallow;
 No-tillage; Dry farming; Biomass production; Intensive cropping; Soil
 fertility; Nitrogen balance; Crop residues; Grasslands; Crop establishment
 
 Abstract:  Soil-crop management affects the soil-N balance and, thus, has a
 direct bearing on soil productivity. This study determined the effects of
 cropping intensity (crops/time) under no-till and grassland establishment on
 aboveground biomass production and the system-N balance after 4 yr
 (1985-1989). The effects were examined across toposequences in the West
 Central Great Plains that had been tilled and frequently fallowed for > 50 yr.
 Production systems included wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)--fallow (WF),
 wheat-corn (Zea mays L.) or sorghum (Sorghum vulgare L.)--millet (Panicum
 miliaceum L.)--fallow (WCMFW), and perennial grass (CG). Intense agronomic
 systems (WCMF) had greater aboveground production, greater N uptake, and
 greater percent plant residue retention than WF. Continuous grass systems had
 less aboveground production and N uptake but greater percent plant residue
 retention than agronomic systems. Soil-profile NO3-N was lower under WCMF
 systems than WF systems, but organic N showed the opposite trend implying that
 more intense systems are at less risk for NO3-N leaching, and have greater
 potential for replenishment of soil-organic N via enhanced immobilization.
 Aboveground biomass production and plant residue production increased
 downslope, but slope position had little effect on plant-N uptake, plant
 residue retention, or soil-N dynamics. Imposing no-till and perennial
 grassland systems created a N-balance disequilibrium, but more time will be
 required to ascertain the trajectory of N loss or pin due to establishment of
 no-till or grassland management on these soils.
 
 
 200                                                     NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Nitrogen effects on yield and malting quality of barley genotypes under
 no-till.
 Clancy, J.A.; Tillman, B.A.; Pan, W.L.; Ullrich, S.E.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Mar.
 Agronomy journal v. 83 (2): p. 341-346; 1991 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Washington; Barley; Hordeum vulgare; Nitrogen fertilizers;
 Application rates; No-tillage; Genotypes; Cultivars; Crop yield; Grain; Seed
 characteristics; Crop quality; Malting quality; Alpha-amylase; Malt; Plant
 proteins; Varietal reactions
 
 Abstract:  Conservation practices, such as reduced tillage and improved
 fertilizer use, are desirable from an environmental perspective and may yield
 economic benefits if production and quality are not impaired. This study was
 conducted to determine the effects of two N fertilization levels, 45 and 90 kg
 ha-1 (50 and 100% of normal grower rates), on yield and malting quality of
 spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under no-till management. The study was
 conducted in 1986 and 1987 on a Palouse silt loam (fine-silty, mixed mesic
 Pachic Ultic Haploxeroll). Seven Nordic (Europe) genotypes were compared with
 four U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW) cultivars. The higher N level increased grain
 yield across genotypes in both years (17% in 1986, 5% in 1987), reduced the
 percentage of plump kernels (4%) in 1987, and did not affect test weight, 1000-
 kernel weight, or percentage of thin kernels. All Nordic genotypes
 yielded less than the PNW cultivars except the Danish cultivar Nordal. Higher N
 increased total malt protein (7%) in both years and soluble malt protein (7%)
 in 1986. Higher N also significantly increased alpha-amylase (25%) and
 diastatic power (15%) in the malt, while malt extract was unaffected.
 Significant genotypic differences existed for all agronomic and malting
 parameters examined. Under no-till, HJA 78003 was the only Nordic genotype that
 produced good quality malt, equaling the three PNW malting cultivars under no-
 till. The higher N rate produced slightly better yield and quality than the
 reduced rate. Therefore, reducing the N rate to half the normal
 grower rate (90-45 kg ha-1) would probably not be recommended under these test
 conditions. Overall, the PNW cultivars tested outperformed the Nordic
 genotypes both in yield and malting quality. However, Nordal and HJA 78003
 could prove useful in PNW barley breeding programs.
 
 
 201                                                NAL Call. No.: 275.29 IO9PA
 Nitrogen fertilization in ridge-till corn to reduce nitrate leaching and
 increase nitrogen use efficiency.
 Cruse, R.M.; Kohler, K.A.
 Ames, Iowa : The Service; 1992 Jan.
 PM - Iowa State University, Cooperative Extension Service (1467): p. 17-19;
 1992 Jan.  In the series analytic: Integrated farm management demonstration
 program--1991 progress report.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Iowa; Zea mays; Conservation tillage; Nitrogen; Fertilizers
 
 
 202                                                NAL Call. No.: 275.29 IO9PA
 Nitrogen fertilization in ridge-till corn to reduce nitrate leaching and
 increase nitrogen use efficiency.
 Cruse, R.M.; Kohler, K.A.
 Ames, Iowa : The Service; 1991 Jan.
 PM - Iowa State University, Cooperative Extension Service (1417): p. 23-24;
 1991 Jan.  In the series analytic: Integrated Farm Management Demonstration
 Program. 1990 Progress Report.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Iowa; Zea mays; Nitrogen fertilizers; Conservation tillage;
 Yields
 
 
 203                                                     NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Nitrogen fertilization of wheat double-cropped following grain sorghum in a no-
 tillage system.
 Howard, D.D.
 Agronomy journal. p. 208-211.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Tennessee
 
 Abstract:  Utilization of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell.) as a cash crop
 or cover crop in a double-cropping system is desirable to prevent
 excessive soil erosion on loess-derived soils in the southern USA. Fall and
 spring N application to winter wheat double-cropped following grain sorghum
 (Sorghum bicolor L.) was evaluated on a Grenada silt loam (fine-silty, mixed,
 thermic Glossic Fragiudalf). The experimental design was a randomized complete
 block with a split-plot arrangement of treatments. Rates of N applied at
 planting (0, 34, and 67 kg ha-1) were the main plots, with N rates applied in
 the spring (0, 34, 67, 101 and 134 kg ha-1) the sub-plots. Fall N (Nf)
 increased both yield and plant height. Spring N (Ns) had a greater effect on
 yield and plant height than Nf. Yields increased from 0.83 to 2.61 Mg ha-1 by
 increasing N
 
 
 204                                                  NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Nitrogen management in furrow irrigated, ridge-tilled corn.
 Gordon, W.B.; Whitney, D.A.; Raney, R.J.
 Madison, WI : American Society of Agronomy, c1987-; 1993 Apr.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 6 (2): p. 213-217; 1993 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kansas; Cabt; Zea mays; Crop yield; Grain; Ridging; Nitrogen
 fertilizers; Application date; Application rates; Application methods;
 Nitrogen content; Plant composition; Use efficiency; Soil chemistry;
 Conservation tillage; Crop residues; Furrow irrigation
 
 
 205                                                  NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Nitrogen rate and placement for grain sorghum production in no-tillage
 systems.
 Lamond, R.E.; Whitney, D.A.; Hickman, J.S.; Bonczkowski, L.C.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Oct.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 4 (4): p. 531-535; 1991 Oct.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kansas; Sorghum bicolor; Fertilizer requirement determination;
 Nitrogen; Crop management; No-tillage; Crop residues; Urea ammonium nitrate;
 Ammonium thiosulfate; Application rates; Broadcasting; Band placement; Soil
 injection; Crop yield; Grain; Leaves; Plant analysis; Nutrient content; Use
 efficiency; Soil conservation; Conservation tillage
 
 
 206                                                     NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Nitrogen release from crimson clover in relation to plant growth stage and
 composition.
 Ranells, N.N.; Wagger, M.G.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 May23.
 Agronomy journal v. 84 (3): p. 424-430; 1992 May23.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Carolina; Trifolium incarnatum; Growth stages; Dry matter
 accumulation; Nitrogen content; Plant analysis; Plant residues; Nitrogen;
 Release; No-tillage; Organic amendments
 
 Abstract:  Increased N-use efficiency and economic savings may result from a
 better understanding of N release patterns from legume residues. A 2-yr field
 experiment was conducted on a Cecil fine sandy loam (clayey, kaotintic,
 thermic Typic Kanhapludult) to examine the effects of crimsom clover
 (Trifolium incarnatum L.) growth stage on dry matter accumulation, N
 concentration, and chemical composition in relation to N release under
 no-tillage management. Crimson clover was harvested in the spring at four
 growth stages (late vegetative, early bloom, late bloom, and early seed set).
 Air-dried plant material in 1-mm mesh nylon bags was placed on the soil
 surface; retrieved at l-, 2-, 4-, 8-, and 16-wk intervals; and analyzed for
 total N, C, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin concentrations. Averaged over
 2 yr, dry matter production increased from 2.3 to 5.6 Mg ha-1, and N
 concentration declined from 30.2 to 21.2 g kg-1 as crimson clover matured from
 late vegetative to early seed set growth stages. Cellulose concentration
 increased by 66%, hemicellulose by 37%, and lignin by 87% from late vegetative
 to early seed set. Estimated clover N release at the 8-wk retrieval was 28, 40,
 40, and 54 kg ha-1 in 1989 and 51, 67, 73, and 55 kg ha-1 in 1990 for the late
 vegetative, early bloom, late bloom, and early seed set growth stages,
 respectively. Results indicated that allowing crimson clover to attain the late
 bloom stage prior to desiccation and planting of the summer crop can maximize
 clover top-growth N content and subsequent N release.
 
 
 207                                                  NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 No-till corn response to nitrogen rate and timing in the middle Atlantic
 Coastal Plain.
 Evanylo, G.K.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Apr.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 4 (2): p. 180-185; 1991 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Virginia; Middle atlantic states of U.S.A.; Zea mays; No-tillage;
 Fertilizer requirement determination; Urea ammonium nitrate; Split dressings;
 Sidedressing; Application rates; Use efficiency; Crop growth stage; Crop
 yield; Yield factors; Leaves; Nitrogen; Nutrient content; Leaching; Secale
 cereale; Cover crops; Sandy soils; Coastal plains
 
 
 208                                                NAL Call. No.: S544.3.N6N62
 No-till cotton production.
 York, A.C.; Edmisten, K.L.; Naderman, G.C.; Bacheler, J.S.
 Raleigh, N.C. : The Service; 1993 Jan.
 AG - North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service, North Carolina State
 University v.): p. 122-126; 1993 Jan.  In the series analytic: 1993 cotton
 information.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Carolina; Gossypium hirsutum; No-tillage; Cover crops;
 Weeds; Pest management; Agronomic characteristics
 
 
 209                                                NAL Call. No.: 100 SO82 (1)
 No-till guidelines for the arid and semi-arid prairies.
 Beck, D.L.; Doerr, R.
 Brookings, S.D. : The Station; 1992 Mar.
 Bulletin - Agricultural Experiment Station, South Dakota State University
 (712): p. 1-26; 1992 Mar.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South Dakota; No-tillage; Farming systems; Prairies; Arid
 regions; Semiarid zones; Field crops
 
 
 210                                     NAL Call. No.: aG3701.J2 1991 .U52 Map
 No-till in the United States 1991., Rev. Oct. 1991..
 United States. Soil Conservation Service; National Cartographic Center (U.S.)
 Ft. Worth, TX : USDA-SCS-National Cartographic Center ; West Lafayette, IN. :
 Conservation Technology Information Center, [distributor],; 1992.
 1 map : col. ; 19 x 25 cm.  Source: Data provided by CTIC 1991.  Map prepared
 using automated map construction. National Cartographic Center, Fort Worth,
 Texas, 1991.  Computer screen image map.  Includes graph of "Acres planted by
 region" and inset map.  1006641.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: No-tillage
 
 
 211                                     NAL Call. No.: aG3701.J2 1992 .U52 Map
 No-till in the United States 1992., Rev. Nov. 1992..
 United States. Soil Conservation Service; National Cartography and Geographic
 Information Systems Center (U.S.)
 Ft. Worth, TX : USDA-SCS-National Cartography and GIS Center ; West Lafayette,
 IN. : Conservation Technology Information Center, [distributor],; 1992.
 1 map : col. ; 19 x 25 cm.  Source: Data provided by CTIC 1991. Data for
 Alaska and Hawaii falls below minimum category.  Map prepared using automated
 map construction. National Cartography and Geographic Information System
 Center, Fort Worth, Texas, 1992.  Computer generated map.  Includes graph of
 "Acres planted by region" and inset map.  1006641.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: No-tillage
 
 
 212                                                  NAL Call. No.: SB327.A1B5
 No-till navy beans.
 Sandoval, D.M.; Michaels, T.E.; Swanton, C.J.
 Fort Collins, Colo : Howard F. Schwartz, Colorado State University; 1992.
 Annual report of the Bean Improvement Cooperative v. 35: p. 74-75; 1992.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ontario; Phaseolus vulgaris; Crop production; Crop yield; Minimum
 tillage
 
 
 213                                                     NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 No-till plot planter with row space and fertilizer placement capabilities.
 Kushnak, G.D.; Thaut, R.E.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Mar.
 Agronomy journal v. 84 (2): p. 264-267; 1992 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: No-tillage; Agricultural research; Experimental equipment;
 Planters; Experimental plots; Fertilizer distributors; Deep placement; Row
 spacing
 
 Abstract:  No-till research involving row space and subsurface fertilizer
 placement variables requires a planter that allows quick adjustment to provide
 a wide range of row space and fertilizer placement positions. A no-till
 planter with adjustable row spacing was constructed to allow fertilizer
 placement below seed, with seed, and any distance between seed rows. Row space
 was quickly changed to any width, including paired-row configurations, from
 0.15 to 1.27 m. With two people it required 10 min to change row space,
 fertilizer placement, and rate. The planter was used to establish small
 grains, large- and small-seeded legumes, and wheatgrass. Planting was
 successful through 2200 and 3018 kg ha-1 of prostrate and standing small-grain
 residue, respectively. Higher residue levels were not tested. The planter was
 mounted on a 50-hp tractor with a three-point hitch.
 
 
 214                                                NAL Call. No.: 100 SO82 (1)
 No-till rotation systems for wheat production.
 Beck, D.
 Brookings, S.D. : The Station; 1992 Mar.
 Bulletin - Agricultural Experiment Station, South Dakota State University
 (712): p. 27-30; 1992 Mar.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South Dakota; No-tillage; Rotations; Triticum; Crop production
 
 
 215                                                  NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 No-till systems for corn following hay or pasture.
 Smith, M.A.; Carter, P.R.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1993 Jan.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 6 (1): p. 46-52; 1993 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Wisconsin; Zea mays; Pasture plants; Perennials; Rotations;
 No-tillage; Tillage; Comparisons; Herbicides; Application date; Seasonal
 variation; Agricultural research; Economic analysis
 
 
 216                                                     NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 No-till warm-season grass establishment as affected by atrazine and
 carbofuran.
 McKenna, J.R.; Wolf, D.D.; Lenter, M.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Mar.
 Agronomy journal v. 83 (2): p. 311-316; 1991 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Virginia; Panicum virgatum; Bothriochloa caucasica; No-tillage;
 Fodder crops; Stand establishment; Atrazine; Carbofuran; Application rates;
 Application date; Sowing date; Phytotoxicity; Seedlings; Growth rate; Crop
 yield; Herbage
 
 Abstract:  Tall growing, perennial, warm-season grasses that produce 65 to 75%
 of their yield in mid-summer may provide needed summer grazing; however,
 establishment is often slow and inconsistent when compared to cool-season
 grasses. Improved establishment would make these warm-season grasses less
 vulnerable to annual weed competition. No-till plantings of switchgrass
 (Panicum virgatum L.) and caucasian bluestem [Bothriochloa caucasica (Trin.) C.
 E. Hubbard] were made at Blacksburg, VA (37 degrees 11' N degrees 80
 degrees 25' W, 610-m elevation) on a Groseclose loam soil (clayey, mixed, mesic
 Typic Hapludult). Eight experiments included carbofuran
 (2,3-Dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranol methylcarbamate) at 0 and 1.1 kg a.i.
 ha-1 and atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) at 0,
 1.1, and 2.2 kg a.i. ha-1 in all possible combinations. Seedling growth, leaf
 appearance rates, seedling weights, density, leaf elongation rates, and
 heights were measured. Yields of weed-free perennial warm-season grasses were
 determined in the year of planting and the year after planting. Carbofuran at
 1.1 kg a.i. ha-1 placed in the row with the seed at planting enabled seedlings
 to develop faster, elongate more rapidly, and provided more and heavier
 seedlings than without carbofuran. In the year after seeding, yields of warm
 season grass were higher where carbofuran was applied at seeding in seven of
 eight experiments. Atrazine reduced herbage yields as well as population,
 weight, development, and leaf elongation rate of seedlings in the seeding year.
 Atrazine at 1.1 kg a.i. ha-1 was not detrimental to either grass in the second
 year of the study. Atrazine at 2.2 kg a.i. ha-1 appeared to injure switchgrass
 more than caucasian bluestem. Yields in the year after planting further
 confirmed these observations. Atrazine at 1.1 kg a.i. ha-1 increased yields
 over untreated controls. However, in one of four switchgrass
 experiments, yields of grass treated with atrazine at 2.2 kg a.i.
 
 
 217                                                     NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 No-till winter wheat dry matter and tissue nitrogen response to nitrogen
 fertilizer form and placement.
 Johnston, A.M.; Fowler, D.B.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Nov.
 Agronomy journal v. 83 (6): p. 1035-1043; 1991 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Saskatchewan; Triticum aestivum; No-tillage; Winter wheat;
 Ammonium nitrate; Urea ammonium nitrate; Urea; Application date; Application
 rates; Timing; Band placement; Broadcasting; Nutrient solutions; Liquid
 fertilizers; Nutrient uptake; Nitrogen content; Grain; Crop yield; Dry matter
 accumulation; Crop growth stage
 
 Abstract:  Expansion of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production into the
 high winterkill risk regions of the Canadian prairies has been achieved by no-
 till seeding into standing stubble immediately after harvest of the
 previous crop. Seven field trials were conducted in Saskatchewan to evaluate
 the seasonal pattern of dry matter and N accumulation of no-till winter wheat.
 The fertilizer treatments included the currently recommended early (20 April)
 spring broadcast ammonium nitrate (AN) and early spring broadcast and surface
 band applied urea and urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) solution. In four of the
 seven trials, late (12 May) AN and urea were also applied. Nitrogen fertilizer
 was applied at 0, 34, 67, 101, and 202 kg N ha-1. Mean maximum dry matter and N
 yields were established by Zadoks Growth Stage 65 (ZGS65) and ZGS45,
 respectively. Subsequent losses of both dry matter and N were observed under
 conditions of high evaporative demand and low precipitation. When rainfall was
 more favorable and N supply abundant, N and dry matter yields increased
 through the growing season to harvest. Increased N rates increased N uptake and
 amplified plant-N and dry matter losses. Growing season environmental
 conditions and plant-available-N levels also played an important role in
 determining the efficiency of N translocation to the seed. Early broadcast AN
 produced larger dry matter and N-yield responses than all other fertilizer
 treatments. While surface band applied urea showed no advantage over early
 broadcast urea, surface band applied UAN increased dry matter yield and N
 uptake over broadcast sprayed UAN. Average dry matter (N) yield-N response for
 early broadcast urea, surface band applied urea and surface band applied UAN
 treatments were 93 (89%) of those recorded for early broadcast AN. The
 broadcast sprayed UAN treatment dry matter and N yield-N responses were 81% of
 early broadcast AN. Compared with early broadcast AN and urea, late broadcast
 AN and urea produced lower dry
 
 
 218                                                     NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 No-till winter wheat production: response to spring applied nitrogen
 fertilizer form and placement.
 Johnston, A.M.; Fowler, D.B.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Jul.
 Agronomy journal v. 83 (4): p. 722-728; 1991 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Saskatchewan; Triticum aestivum; Winter wheat; No-tillage;
 Nitrogen fertilizers; Placement; Yield response functions; Grain; Protein
 content
 
 Abstract:  No-till seeding into standing stubble immediately after harvest of
 the previous crop has permitted the successful production of winter wheat
 (Triticum aestivum L.) on the Canadian prairies. In the present study, 14 field
 trials were conducted in Saskatchewan between 1986 and 1988 to evaluate the
 influence of the spring broadcast and the surface banded N fertilizer forms
 ammonium nitrate (AN), urea, and urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) solution on grain
 yield (GY), grain-protein yield (GPY), and grain-protein concentration (GP) of
 no-till winter wheat. In trials with positive N response, early
 broadcast urea, surface dribble-banded UAN, and broadcast spray UAN produced
 GY(GPY) responses that were 90(91), 89(87), and 82(80)%, respectively, of those
 observed for early broadcast AN. Accumulated surface residues and
 delayed early spring (May) rainfall reduced the performance of UAN when
 applied as a broadcast spray. In one trial, the early stimulation of N uptake
 and growth with early AN proved detrimental under high temperature stress
 during stem elongation resulting in negative GY and GPY responses with
 increasing N rate. Delaying broadcast N application by 3 wk prevented early N
 uptake, reducing both GY and GPY and increasing GP. The results of this study
 suggest that the reduction in N recovery from commercial rates of urea-based
 fertilizers, as measured by GPY, can be minimized at uniform levels by
 ensuring early spring application on no-till winter wheat in western Canada.
 
 
 219                                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 No-till winter wheat response to phosphorus placement and rate.
 Halvorson, A.D.; Havlin, J.L.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1992 Sep.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 56 (5): p. 1635-1639; 1992 Sep.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Colorado; Triticum aestivum; Winter wheat; No-tillage;
 Phosphorus; Band placement; Broadcasting; Incorporation; Comparisons;
 Application rates; Crop yield; Grain; Straw; Nutrient uptake
 
 Abstract:  Phosphorus deficiency of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is
 common in the central Great Plains. Acceptance of reduced and no-till systems
 for wheat production has made soil incorporation of broadcast P fertilizer more
 difficult. This field study evaluated the effectiveness of P placement methods
 (surface broadcast with and without incorporation and banded below the seed
 zone) for no-till winter wheat production at rates of 0, 34, 67, 101, and 134
 kg P ha-1 in 1986 and 1987. Subplots of 0 and 56 kg N ha-1 were included with
 each P rate. A Rosebud-Escabosa loam soil (fine-loamy, mixed, mesic
 Aridic Argiustoll-Calciustoll) with a NaHCO3-extractable P level of 10 mg P
 kg-1 soil (medium soil test level) and a pH of 7.8 was used. Phosphorus
 placement had no significant effect on grain yield. Grain yields increased
 curvilinearly with increasing P rate up to 101 kg P ha-1 for both broadcast and
 banded treatments. Straw yields also increased curvilinearly with
 increasing P rate. Nitrogen fertilization enhanced grain protein by 6% and also
 grain P uptake. Total P uptake by grain increased with increasing rate of P
 application. Broadcast applications of P without incorporation under no-till
 conditions effectively increased winter wheat yields on a soil testing medium
 in available P. When sufficient P was applied to correct P deficiency in
 winter wheat, method of placement had little effect.
 
 
 220                                         NAL Call. No.: S604.64.A8T4 no.127
 No-tillage seeders and their adoption in North America with relevance to
 Western Australia a study tour report to The Winston Churchill Memorial Trust
 of Australia and Wesfarmers limited.
 Bligh, Kevin J.
 Perth? : Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Division of Resource
 Management,; 1992.
 43, [7] p. : ill. ; 30 cm. (Technical report (Western Australia. Division of
 Resource Management) ; 127.).  "April 1992.  Includes bibliographical
 references (p. 38-40).
 
 Language:  English
 
 
 221                                                      NAL Call. No.: SB1.H6
 A no-tillage tomato production system using hairy vetch and subterranean
 clover mulches.
 Abdul-Baki, A.A.; Teasdale, J.R.
 Alexandria, Va. : The American Society for Horticultural Science; 1993 Feb.
 HortScience : a publication of the American Society for Horticultural Science
 v. 28 (2): p. 106-108; 1993 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Maryland; Cabt; Lycopersicon esculentum; Vicia villosa; Trifolium
 subterraneum; Cover crops; Mulches; No-tillage; Fruits; Maturity; Crop yield;
 Planting date; Earliness; Low input agriculture
 
 Abstract:  A novel approach is described for using two winter annual legumes -
 hairy vetch (Vicia villosa L. Roth.) and 'Mt. Barker' subterranean clover
 (Trifolium subterraneum L.) - as cover crops and plant mulches in tomato
 (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) production. The approach calls for sowing the
 cover crops in the fall in prepared beds, mowing the cover crops with a
 high-speed flail mower immediately before transplanting the tomato seedlings
 into the field in early May, and then transplanting the seedlings into the beds
 with minimal interruption of the soil or mulch cover. Plants in the vetch
 treatment with no tillage produced a higher yield than those grown under black
 polyethylene, paper, or no mulch in conventional systems. Both plant mulches
 delayed fruit maturity by approximately 10 days relative to black polyethylene
 mulch. The proposed approach eliminates tillage, reduces the need for applying
 synthetic fertilizers and herbicides, and is adapted to large- and small-scale
 tomato production in a low-input, no-tillage system. It also may be used to
 produce other vegetables.
 
 
 222                                                    NAL Call. No.: 57.8 SO4
 Nutrient placement in conservation tillage.
 St. Louis, Mo. : Solutions Magazine; 1992 May.
 Solutions v. 36 (4): p. 38-40; 1992 May.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Conservation tillage; Soil conservation; Soil fertility; Soil
 testing; Ph; Nitrogen; Nutrients; Phosphorus; Potassium
 
 
 223                                                NAL Call. No.: 100 SO82 (3)
 Nutrients removed from systems, 1985-1991.
 Smolik, J.
 Brookings, S.D. : The Station; 1992 Oct.
 TB - Agricultural Experiment Station, South Dakota State University (99): 2 p.;
 1992 Oct.  In the series analytic: Soil science research in the Plant Science
 Department : 1991 Annual Report. Soil PR 91-6.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South Dakota; Farming systems research; Nutrients; Nitrogen;
 Potassium; Phosphorus; Alternative farming; Minimum tillage; Green manures
 
 
 224                                                    NAL Call. No.: SB249.N6
 On the econmics of cotton conservation tillage with low energy precision
 application irrigation.
 Triplett, C.M.; Pegarra, E.; Lyle, W.M.
 Memphis, Tenn. : National Cotton Council of America; 1992.
 Proceedings - Beltwide Cotton Production Research Conferences v. 1: p.
 431-435; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Gossypium; Conservation tillage; Irrigation
 
 
 225                                                NAL Call. No.: 275.29 IO9PA
 On-farm demonstration of alternate tillage systems for energy conservation.
 Colvin, T.S.
 Ames, Iowa : The Service; 1992 Jan.
 PM - Iowa State University, Cooperative Extension Service (1467): p. 8-11; 1992
 Jan.  In the series analytic: Integrated farm management demonstration program-
 -1991 progress report.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Iowa; Conservation tillage; Energy conservation; Demonstration
 farms; Crop yield
 
 
 226                                                NAL Call. No.: 275.29 IO9PA
 On-farm demonstration of alternate tillage systems for energy conservation.
 Colvin, T.S.
 Ames, Iowa : The Service; 1991 Jan.
 PM - Iowa State University, Cooperative Extension Service (1417): p. 15-18;
 1991 Jan.  In the series analytic: Integrated Farm Management Demonstration
 Program. 1990 Progress Report.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Iowa; No-tillage; Demonstration farms; Energy conservation;
 Herbicides; Conservation tillage; Soil types
 
 
 227                                                NAL Call. No.: 275.29 IO9PA
 Optimum time(s) of nitrogen application to improve nitrogen use efficiency and
 reduce leaching.
 Amos, F.B. Jr; Baker, J.L.; Timmons, D.R.; Kanwar, R.S.
 Ames, Iowa : The Service; 1991 Jan.
 PM - Iowa State University, Cooperative Extension Service (1417): p. 35-39;
 1991 Jan.  In the series analytic: Integrated Farm Management Demonstration
 Program. 1990 Progress Report.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Iowa; Zea mays; Nitrogen fertilizers; Conservation tillage;
 Yields; Energy conservation; Runoff
 
 
 228                                                 NAL Call. No.: S592.7.A1S6
 Organic matter and microbial biomass in a vertisol after 20 yr of
 zero-tillage.
 Dalal, R.C.; Henderson, P.A.; Glasby, J.M.
 Exeter : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Soil biology and biochemistry v. 23 (5): p. 435-441; 1991.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Queensland; Triticum aestivum; Hordeum vulgare; Vertisols;
 No-tillage; Tillage; Urea; Crop residues; Decomposition; Soil organic matter;
 Biomass; Soil ph; Soil properties
 
 Abstract:  The effects of 20 yr of tillage practice, crop residue management
 and fertiliser (urea) N application on organic C, total N, microbial biomass,
 anaerobic mineralisable N and pH at 0-25, 25-50 and 50-100 mm depths of a fine-
 textured (65% clay) vertisol were studied. The treatments, in a factorial
 combination, comprised of tillage (conventional tillage, CT vs zero-tillage,
 ZT), residue (retained, RR or burned, RB) and urea (0, 23 and 69 kg N ha-1
 yr-1) applied at 40-50 mm depth. Wheat and barley were grown for 15 and 3 yr,
 respectively. All soil properties showed a strong stratification with depth
 under ZT, RR treatments. Organic C, total N and microbial biomass N were
 highest and pH lowest in the 0-25 mm layer under ZT, RR and 69 kg N ha-1 yr-1.
 In the 0-100 mm layer, similar trends were observed where residue was retained
 or fertiliser was applied but tillage had no effect on organic C and total N
 although higher microbial biomass was measured in soil under CT than ZT.
 Therefore, zero tillage, residue retention and fertiliser application results
 in stratification of soil properties, even in a vertisol.
 
 
 229                                                    NAL Call. No.: SB249.N6
 Overview of conservation tillage across the Belt.
 Bradley, J.F.
 Memphis, Tenn. : National Cotton Council of America; 1992.
 Proceedings - Beltwide Cotton Production Research Conferences v. 1: p.
 141-142; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Gossypium; Conservation tillage
 
 
 230                                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Overwinter soil temperature patterns under six tillage-residues combinations.
 Benoit, G.R.; Van Sickle, K.A.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers; 1991 Jan.
 Transactions of the ASAE v. 34 (1): p. 86-90; 1991 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Minnesota; Soil temperature; Tillage; Winter; Plant residues; Snow
 cover; Soil depth
 
 Abstract:  The effect on soil temperature of three tillage systems (fall plow,
 fall chisel, and no-till), each with and without corn residue were studied over
 three winters (1984-85, 1985-86 and 1986-87). Temperature measurements were
 taken on an hourly basis at soil depths of 0.05, 0.10, and 0.30 m during
 1984-85 and 1985-86 and at 0.05, 0.15, and 0.30 m during 1986-87. During
 winter months, soil temperatures were found to be a function of residue level
 and snow cover with highest temperatures being found in the no-till residue
 treatment. Little difference was found between temperature in fall plow and
 fall chisel plots, both of which had lower temperatures than found in the no
 till plots. Little difference in temperature was noted among treatments during
 a winter of little snowfall, indicating that treatment effects on snow
 accumulation influence soil temperature more than either tillage or residue
 level alone. The no-till residue treatment became frost-free in the spring 10
 to 30 days before other treatments and tended to have slightly higher
 temperatures until just before spring corn planting the first week in May.
 
 
 231                                                   NAL Call. No.: SB610.W39
 Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) control in a conservation tillage system
 for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).
 Keeling, J.W.; Sider, K.T.; Abernathy, J.R.
 Champaign, Ill. : The Society; 1991 Jan.
 Weed technology : a journal of the Weed Science Society of America v. 5 (1): p.
 137-141; 1991 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Gossypium hirsutum; Weed control; Chemical control;
 Amaranthus palmeri; Pendimethalin; Trifluralin; Prometryn; Conservation
 tillage; Diuron; Methazole; Herbicide mixtures
 
 
 232                                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Particulate soil organic-matter changes across a grassland cultivation
 sequence.
 Cambardella, C.A.; Elliott, E.T.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1992 May.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 56 (3): p. 777-783; 1992 May.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Grassland soils; Soil organic matter; Dispersion; Fractionation;
 Carbon cycle; Stubble mulching; No-tillage; Fallow
 
 Abstract:  Many models have been constructed in an attempt to describe the
 dynamics of soil organic-matter (SOM) turnover, most of which include 2 to 3
 kinetically defined organic-matter pools. Physical and chemical definition of
 these conceptualized SOM pools has been difficult. We describe a simple method
 for dispersion of soil to isolate a particulate organic-matter (POM) fraction
 that may represent an important SOM pool in grassland soils. The POM fraction
 was isolated by dispersing the soil in 5 g L-1 hexametaphosphate and passing
 the dispersed soil samples through a 53-micrometer sieve. We compared POM and
 mineral-associated C among three tillage treatments (20 yr under cultivation)
 and an undisturbed grassland at Sidney, NE. The POM C in the native sod
 represented 39% of the total soil organic C. Twenty years of bare-fallow,
 stubble-mulch, and no-till management reduced the C content in this fraction to
 18, 19, and 25%, respectively, of the total organic C. The
 mineral-associated organic-matter fraction showed no reduction in C content in
 the bare-fallow treatment compared with the grassland soil but increased in the
 no-till and stubble-mulch treatments. Nitrogen dynamics generally mirrored
 those observed for C. Analysis of the POM fraction for lignin and cellulose
 content indicated that this fraction was 47% lignin and had a lignocellulose
 index of 0.7. The stable C-isotope composition of the POM fraction suggests
 that wheat-derived POM turns over faster than grass-derived POM. We suggest the
 POM fraction closely matches the characteristics of a SOM pool variously
 described as slow, decomposable, or stabilized organic matter.
 
 
 233                                                   NAL Call. No.: 56.8 J822
 PEP$--a dollar-and-cent approach to conservation tillage.
 Hill, P.R.; Lake, J.E.
 Ankeny, Iowa : Soil and Water Conservation Society of America; 1992 Mar.
 Journal of soil and water conservation v. 47 (2): p. 131-133; 1992 Mar.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Conservation tillage; Innovation adoption; Educational programs;
 Diffusion of information; Erosion control; Farm inputs; Harvesting; Rain
 
 
 234                                                   NAL Call. No.: 100 N813B
 Performance of hard red winter wheat cultivars under conventional-till and no-
 till systems.
 Cox, D.J.
 Fargo, N.D. : The Station; 1991 Mar.
 North Dakota farm research - North Dakota, Agricultural Experiment Station v.
 48 (5): p. 17-20; 1991 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Dakota; Triticum durum; Varieties; Performance testing; No-
 tillage
 
 
 235                                                    NAL Call. No.: SB249.N6
 Performance of no-tillage cotton in 30-inch rows--comparison of productions
 system in the 1992 crop.
 Hart, W.E.; Bradley, J.F.; Tompkins, F.D.; Freeland, R.S.
 Memphis, Tenn. : National Cotton Council of America; 1993.
 Proceedings - Beltwide Cotton Conferences. p. 510-513; 1993.  Meeting held
 January 10-14, 1993, New Orleans, Louisiana.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Gossypium hirsutum; No-tillage; Row spacing; Crop production;
 Comparisons
 
 
 236                                                    NAL Call. No.: QH540.J6
 Pesticide mobility and persistence in microlysimeter soil columns from a
 tilled and no-tilled plot.
 Fermanich, K.J.; Daniel, T.C.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Jan.
 Journal of environmental quality v. 20 (1): p. 195-202; 1991 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Wisconsin; Pesticides; Leaching; Losses from soil systems;
 Lysimetry; Movement in soil; Persistence; Soil types (cultural); Tillage; No-
 tillage
 
 Abstract:  Pesticide leaching losses under varying tillage systems, especially
 in sandy soils, is not clearly understood. This study compared the leaching and
 dissipation of two corn (Zea mays L.), 14C-labeled,
 insecticides--carbofuran
 (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzo-furanyl-methylcarbamate) and chlorpyrifos
 [O,O-diethly O-(trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothioate]--in sandy soil columns
 from conventional-moldboard plow (CN) and no-till (NT) tillage plots.
 Microlysimeters, utilizing intact soil columns from established tillage plots,
 were used to investigate pesticide mobility and dissipation under simulated
 field precipitation, drainage, and temperature patterns. Leachate from CN
 tillage columns receiving 14C-carbofuran contained over two times more of the
 applied 14C (17.9%) compared to NT columns (7.9%). The major portion (63%) of
 14C-carbofuran residues leached from CN columns was associated with a
 metabolite (unknown I) compared to 40% for NT columns. Slightly more (4.9%
 compared to 4.6%) as parent carbofuran leached from CN columns relative to NT.
 After 106 d of simulated field conditions, 4.0 and 7.8% of the applied parent
 14C-carbofuran was recovered from the soil of CN and NT columns, respectively.
 Average time to peak 14C-carbofuran residue concentrations were retarded by 12
 and 39 d for CN and NT columns, respectively, compared to time to peak
 concentrations of bromide. Less than 0.2% of the applied 14C-chlorpyrifos
 leached from the soil columns. Differences in the physical, chemical, and/or
 biological characteristics between CN and NT tillage columns influenced the
 dissipation and mobility of carbofuran.
 
 
 237                                                   NAL Call. No.: 100 N813B
 Phosphorus placement for soybean production in reduced tillage systems.
 Cihacek, L.J.; Lizotte, D.A.; Carcoana, R.
 Fargo, N.D. : The Station; 1991 Jul.
 North Dakota farm research - North Dakota, Agricultural Experiment Station v.
 49 (1): p. 22-25; 1991 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Dakota; Glycine max; Phosphorus; Soil chemistry; Fertilizer
 requirement determination; Minimum tillage
 
 
 238                                                   NAL Call. No.: 100 N813B
 Phosphorus placement for soybean production in reduced tillage systems.
 Cihacek, L.J.; Lizotte, D.A.; Carcoana, R.
 Fargo, N.D. : The Station; 1991 Jul.
 North Dakota farm research - North Dakota, Agricultural Experiment Station v.
 49 (1): p. 22-25; 1991 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Dakota; Glycine max; Phosphorus fertilizers; Minimum
 tillage
 
 
 239                                                    NAL Call. No.: S590.C63
 Phosphorus relationships in no-till small grains.
 Jackson, G.D.; Berg, R.K.; Kushnak, G.D.; Carlson, G.R.; Lund, R.E.
 New York, N.Y. : Marcel Dekker; 1993.
 Communications in soil science and plant analysis v. 24 (11/12): p. 1319-1331;
 1993.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Montana; Triticum aestivum; Hordeum vulgare; No-tillage;
 Monoammonium phosphate; Placement; Application rates; Responses; Soil test
 values; Fertilizer requirement determination; Crop yield
 
 
 240                                                  NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Placement and timing of nitrogen fertilizers for conventional and conservation
 tillage corn production.
 Bundy, L.G.; Andraski, T.W.; Daniel, T.C.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Apr.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 5 (2): p. 214-221; 1992 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Wisconsin; Zea mays; Urea ammonium nitrate; Plowing; Anhydrous
 ammonia; Nitrapyrin; Application rates; Soil injection; Sidedressing; Band
 placement; Moldboards; Chiselling; No-tillage; Ridging; Comparisons; Crop
 yield; Nitrogen content; Maize ears; Leaves; Grain
 
 
 241                                                    NAL Call. No.: 79.8 W41
 Population dynamics and control of annual weeds in corn (Zea mays) as
 influenced by tillage systems.
 Buhler, D.D.
 Champaign, Ill. : Weed Science Society of America; 1992 Apr.
 Weed science v. 40 (2): p. 241-248; 1992 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Wisconsin; Zea mays; Crop weed competition; Weeds; Annual habit;
 Chenopodium album; Setaria viridis; Conyza canadensis; Amaranthus retroflexus;
 Weed control; Chemical control; Atrazine; Alachlor; Cyanazine; Metolachlor; No-
 tillage; Conservation tillage; Chiselling; Ridging; Weed biology;
 Population dynamics; Plant density; Herbicide mixtures; Crop yield
 
 Abstract:  Field research was conducted at Hancock, WI, from 1985 through 1987
 to evaluate effects of conventional tillage, chisel plow, ridge tillage, and
 no-tillage systems on population dynamics and control of annual weed species in
 corn grown continuously on a loamy sand soil without irrigation. In all years
 of the study, green foxtail densities were greater in chisel plow and no-
 tillage than in the conventional tillage system, while ridge tillage had
 densities lower than all other tillage systems. Common lambsquarters density in
 the chisel plow system reached nearly 500 plants m-2 compared to less than 75
 plants m-2 in the other tillage systems when averaged over years. Average
 redroot pigweed densities in the no-tillage and chisel plow systems were 307
 and 245 plants m-2 compared to less than 25 plants m-2 in the conventional and
 ridge tillage systems. Horseweed was observed only in no-tillage and ridge
 tillage plots. Green foxtail and redroot pigweed were more difficult to
 control in chisel plow and no-tillage than in the conventional and ridge
 tillage systems with several herbicide treatments. Corn yields were not
 affected by tillage systems under weed-free conditions. Corn yield differences
 among tillage systems when the same herbicide treatment was applied appeared to
 be due to differences in weed control.
 
 
 242                                           NAL Call. No.: MeUUniv. 1991 T62
 Potato available nitrogen from barley/legume underseedings and reduced
 tillage/ridge tillage potatoes..  PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCES - 1991
 Tindall, Timothy Todd,
 Orono, Me.,; 1991.
 ix, 155 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.  Includes vita.  Bibliography: leaves 148-154.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Potatoes; Soils; Companion planting; Crop rotation
 
 
 243                                                    NAL Call. No.: SB249.N6
 Preplant weed control in conservation tillage systems for cotton.
 Crawford, S.H.
 Memphis, Tenn. : National Cotton Council of America; 1992.
 Proceedings - Beltwide Cotton Production Research Conferences v. 1: p.
 139-140; 1992.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Gossypium; Weed control; Conservation tillage
 
 
 244                                                    NAL Call. No.: 100 L939
 Preplant weed control programs for fallow bed cotton production.
 Crawford, S.H.
 Baton Rouge, La. : The Station; 1991.
 Louisiana agriculture - Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station v. 34 (4): p.
 10-12; 1991.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Louisiana; Gossypium; Weed control; Preplanting treatment;
 Fallow; Herbicides; Minimum tillage
 
 
 245                                           NAL Call. No.: 100 Ar42Sp no.148
 Proceedings of the 1991 Southern Conservation Tillage Conference North Little
 Rock, June 18-20, 1991..  1991 Southern Conservation Tillage Conference
 Implementing conservation and env ironmental technology
 Keisling, Terry C.
 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Agricultural Experiment Station
 Southern Conservation Tillage Conference 1991 : North Little Rock, Ark.
 Fayetteville, Ark. : Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station,; 1991.
 vii, 111 p. : ill. ; 28 cm. (Special report (University of Arkansas,
 Fayetteville. Agricultural Experiment Station) ; 148.).  Cover title:
 Implementing conservation and environmental technology.  June 1991.  Includes
 bibliographical references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Conservation tillage
 
 
 246                                                  NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Producing no-till cereal or corn following alfalfa on furrow-irrigated land.
 Carter, D.L.; Berg, R.D.; Sanders, B.J.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Apr.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 4 (2): p. 174-179; 1991 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Idaho; Medicago sativa; Triticum aestivum; Zea mays; Hordeum
 vulgare; Winter wheat; Cropping systems; Rotations; No-tillage; Tillage;
 Furrow irrigation; Decomposition; Mineralization; Nitrogen; Nutrient
 availability; Nitrate nitrogen; Leaching; Production costs; Crop yield;
 Returns
 
 
 247                                                    NAL Call. No.: 23 AU783
 Production of summer crops in northern New South Wales. I. Effects of tillage
 and double cropping on growth, grain and N yields of six crops.
 Herridge, D.F.; Holland, J.F.
 Melbourne : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization; 1992.
 Australian journal of agricultural research v. 43 (1): p. 105-122; 1992.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New South Wales; Cajanus cajan; Glycine max; Helianthus annuus;
 Sorghum; Vigna radiata; Vigna unguiculata; Double cropping; No-tillage;
 Nitrogen fixation; Nodulation; Sap; Ureides; Xylem
 
 
 248                                                    NAL Call. No.: 23 AU783
 Production of summer crops in northern New South Wales. II. Effects of tillage
 and crop rotation on yields of sorghum.
 Holland, J.F.; Herridge, D.F.
 Melbourne : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization; 1992.
 Australian journal of agricultural research v. 43 (1): p. 123-134; 1992.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New South Wales; Sorghum; No-tillage; Rotations; Nitrogen
 fixation; Summer; Crop yield
 
 
 249                                                NAL Call. No.: 100 SO82 (3)
 Productivity of systems, 1985-1991.
 Smolik, J.
 Brookings, S.D. : The Station; 1992 Oct.
 TB - Agricultural Experiment Station, South Dakota State University (99): 8 p.;
 1992 Oct.  In the series analytic: Soil science research in the Plant Science
 Department : 1991 Annual Report. Soil PR 91-5.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South Dakota; Farming systems research; Crop yield; Livestock
 farming; Rotations; Biomass production; Cost benefit analysis; Alternative
 farming; Minimum tillage; Row tillage; Fertilizers; Herbicides; Rain
 
 
 250                                                    NAL Call. No.: 57.8 SO4
 Profitable corn production on light soils.
 Braun, D.; Mulford, R.
 St. Louis, Mo. : Solutions Magazine; 1992 Mar.
 Solutions v. 36 (3): p. 55-56; 1992 Mar.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Maryland; Virginia; Zea mays; Crop yield; Soil; No-tillage;
 Hybridization
 
 
 251                                                    NAL Call. No.: 79.8 W41
 Profitable, effective herbicides for planting-time weed control in no-till
 spring wheat (Triticum aestivum).
 Donald, W.W.; Prato, T.
 Champaign, Ill. : Weed Science Society of America; 1991 Jan.
 Weed science v. 39 (1): p. 83-90; 1991 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Dakota; Triticum aestivum; No-tillage; Weed control;
 Chemical control; Application date; Planting date; Chlorsulfuron; Glyphosate;
 Metsulfuron; Sinapis arvensis; Kochia scoparia; Profitability; Returns; Cost
 benefit analysis
 
 Abstract:  High herbicide costs and uncertainty about annual weed control at
 planting have limited adoption of no-till spring wheat production systems in
 the northern Great Plains. Chlorsulfuron, metsulfuron, and CGA-131036 10 to 20
 g ai ha-1 plus nonionic surfactant generally controlled both emerged kochia and
 wild mustard equally well (>80%) whether or not combined with glyphosate at 250
 g ha-1 plus nonionic surfactant. In two of three trials persistent phytotoxic
 residues of these sulfonylurea herbicides in soil controlled both weeds better
 in midseason and early summer 1 yr after treatment than did
 glyphosate, which has only foliar activity. While the absolute net returns of
 different treatments varied among herbicides, relative net returns were
 insensitive to changes in either herbicide or wheat price. Herbicide use
 tended to boost net returns for no-till spring wheat in years with good
 weather but depressed net returns in a drought year. Chlorsulfuron at 10 and 20
 g ha-1 increased net returns in all three trials. Metsulfuron and
 combinations of either metsulfuron or chlorsulfuron with glyphosate had
 variable effects on net returns.
 
 
 252                                               NAL Call. No.: S561.6.I8I572
 Proving the power of personal conviction.
 Mosley-Roberts, L.
 Ames, Iowa : Integrated Farm Management/Model Farms, Iowa State Universtiy
 Extension Service; 1991 Mar.
 Inside edge v. 1 (3): p. 3; 1991 Mar.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Iowa; Farm management; Soil conservation; No-tillage
 
 
 253                                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Radiation balance of ridge-tillage with modeling strategies for slope and
 aspect in the subarctic.
 Sharratt, B.S.; Schwarzer, M.J.; Campbell, G.S.; Papendick, R.I.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1992 Sep.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 56 (5): p. 1379-1384; 1992 Sep.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alaska; Subarctic soils; Radiation balance; Surface layers;
 Ridging; Slope; Aspect; Soil temperature; Mathematical models
 
 Abstract:  Radiative exchange at the soil surface can be altered by the
 surface configuration. Tillage methods that modify the soil surface for
 increased radiation absorption are needed in the subarctic, where soil
 temperature is a limiting factor in crop adaptation and production. The
 radiation climate of ridge-tillage was investigated to determine the optimum
 ridge aspect and slope for maximizing radiation absorption on soils in the
 subarctic. Comparisons of net radiation (Rn), albedo, and soil surface
 temperatures were made on ridge plots (6.1 by 6.1 m); with ridges oriented
 northeast-southwest, northwest-southeast, east-west, and north-south; and a
 horizontal surface during the 1988 through 1990 growing seasons at Fairbanks,
 AK. A radiation-balance model of ridged surfaces was developed to ascertain
 localized irradiance and isothermal net radiation (Rn) effects owing to slope
 and aspect of ridges. Measured Rn differences were found at midday on clear
 days when Rn was about 30 W m-2 higher on ridged than horizontal surfaces. The
 higher Rn resulted from a lower albedo and lower soil surface temperatures of
 the ridged surfaces. Modeled irradiance on ridges used in this study agreed
 well with measured values. Modeled Rni results using four seasons of
 micrometeorological data suggested that southerly aspects inclined 20 to 40
 degrees offered the greatest advantage in radiation absorption at Fairbanks.
 
 
 254                                                     NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Recovery of point-injected labeled nitrogen by corn as affected by timing,
 rate, and tillage.
 Timmons, D.R.; Baker, J.L.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Sep.
 Agronomy journal v. 83 (5): p. 850-857; 1991 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Iowa; Zea mays; Ammonium nitrate; Soil injection; Application
 rates; Application date; Tillage; Effects; Nitrogen; Nutrient uptake;
 Recovery; Growth; Responses; Use efficiency
 
 Abstract:  Point-injection technology is being developed to improve fertilizer
 management, particularly N management. This study was conducted to evaluate the
 effects of the rate (number) and timing of point-injections of an ammonium
 nitrate (NH4NO3) solution on N uptake and corn growth and to measure any
 differences due to tillage. Nitrogen-15 depleted NH4NO3 (AN) was hand-injected
 beside individual plants at the V1, V5, and/or V9 growth stages at rates of 50,
 100, and/or 200 kg N ha-1 with fall moldboard plow (MP), fall chisel plow (CP),
 and ridge-till (RT) systems. While MP had the highest grain and total dry
 matter production (but with the lowest N concentrations in those
 materials), tillage was not a significant factor in either the percentage of
 the total plant N derived from labeled AN (N(F)) or its recovery (N(R)) for any
 stage sampled. Generally the year (i.e. different environmental
 conditions) and application timing or a timing-by-year interaction had the
 greatest influence on N(F) and N(R). Although plants sampled at the V9 stage on
 the average recovered more N from the V1 application (39%) vs the V5
 application (27%), at maturity N(R) values for grain (35%) and total dry
 matter (47%) were the same for both V1 or V5 applications (when only two
 applications were made). However when three applications were made (at the V1,
 V5, and V9 stages), N(R) values decreased with time of application for both
 grain (38, 31, and 26%, respectively) and total dry matter (53, 43, and 33%,
 respectively). Across application timing, grain N(R) values were 34 and 31%,
 respectively, for MP and RT. Compared with preplant knifed-in labeled N for MP
 and RT systems in an adjacent simultaneous study, grain N(R) values for
 point-injected N in this study were 16 and 6% greater, respectively,
 indicating that multiple injections of fertilizer N improved N-use efficiency.
 
 
 255                                               NAL Call. No.: S561.6.I8I572
 Reduced tillage research: question, answers.
 Vaughan, M.
 Ames, Iowa : Integrated Farm Management/Model Farms, Iowa State Universtiy
 Extension Service; 1991 Sep.
 Inside edge v. 1 (6): p. 1-2; 1991 Sep.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Iowa; Minimum tillage; No-tillage; Soil conservation; Crop
 residues
 
 
 256                                                    NAL Call. No.: 100 AL1H
 Reducing production inputs may be profitable for cotton producers.
 Patterson, M.G.; Goodman, W.R.; Norris, B.E.; Freeman, B.L.
 Auburn University, Ala. : The Station; 1993.
 Highlights of agricultural research - Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station
 v. 40 (1): p. 11; 1993.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alabama; Gossypium hirsutum; Conservation tillage; Cost benefit
 analysis; Production costs; Herbicides; Insecticides; Fungicides
 
 
 257                                               NAL Call. No.: S591.55.K4S64
 The relationship between soil properties and no-tillage agriculture.
 Blevins, R.L.
 Lexington, Ky. : The Department; 1991.
 Soil science news & views - Cooperative Extension Service and University of
 Kentucky, College of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy v. 12 (2): 3 p.; 1991.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kentucky; No-tillage; Soil properties
 
 
 258                                                    NAL Call. No.: QL461.G4
 Relationship between weed communities in corn and infestation and damage by the
 stalk borer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).
 Pavuk, D.M.; Stinner, B.R.
 Tifton, Ga. : Georgia Entomological Society; 1991 Apr.
 Journal of entomological science v. 26 (2): p. 253-260; 1991 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Zea mays; Papaipema nebris; Weeds; No-tillage; Population
 dynamics
 
 
 259                                                     NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Reseeding potential of crimson clover as a cover crop for no-tillage corn.
 Myers, J.L.; Wagger, M.G.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Nov.
 Agronomy journal v. 83 (6): p. 985-991; 1991 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Carolina; Zea mays; Cover crops; No-tillage; Trifolium
 incarnatum; Reproductive performance; Seeds; Volunteer plants; Crop
 establishment; Resowing; Seed germination; Nitrogen fertilizers; Application
 rates; Crop yield; Grain; Maize silage; Nitrogen content; Nutrient uptake; Dry
 matter accumulation
 
 Abstract:  Leguminous cover crops can provide biologically fixed N to a
 subsequent corn (Zea mays L.) crop as well as erosion control and moisture
 conserving mulch, but establishment is costly and often unsuccessful. A field
 experiment was conducted for 3 yr to determine the self-reseeding potential of
 crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.) and its N contribution in a
 no-tillage corn production system. Four cover crop management treatments
 (fallow, annual-seeded, volunteer-reseeded, and volunteer strip-reseeded) were
 combined factorially with four fertilizer-N rates (0, 50, 100, or 150 kg ha-1)
 applied to the subsequent corn crop. The annual-seeded, volunteer-reseeded, and
 volunteer strip-reseeded clover treatments were desiccated at corn
 planting. Averaged over 3 yr, crimson clover dry matter was 2.6, 4.2, and 3.5
 Mg ha-1 for the annual-seeded, volunteer-reseeded, and strip-reseeded
 treatments, respectively. In 1988 and 1989, cover crop treatments produced mean
 corn grain yields of 6.0 and 6.1 Mg ha-1 compared to fallow treatment yields of
 3.4 and 4.0 Mg ha-1, respectively. This same pattern was reflected in the
 silage yields and total corn N uptake. Corn grain yields were
 unaffected by fertilizer-N rate in two out of 3 yr due to limited rainfall.
 Both self-reseeding treatments successfully reestablished each year and
 increased corn yields primarily by a mulching effect. Allowing crimson clover
 to mature before chemical desiccation or leaving strips between corn rows to
 produce seed appear to be effective methods of reseeding clover in a
 no-tillage corn silage production system.
 
 
 260                                                     NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Residual nitrogen-15 recovery by corn as influenced by tillage and
 fertilization method.
 Timmons, D.R.; Cruse, R.M.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Mar.
 Agronomy journal v. 83 (2): p. 357-363; 1991 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Zea mays; Urea ammonium nitrate; Residual effects; Nitrogen;
 Recovery; Grain; Nutrient uptake; Ridging; Plowing; Conservation tillage; Band
 placement; Subsurface application; Broadcasting; Soil; Nitrogen content;
 Radioactive tracers
 
 Abstract:  Tillage systems that create different surface residue conditions may
 also affect the recovery of residual fertilizer N during subsequent
 growing seasons. This study evaluated the recovery of residual labeled N
 fertilizer in the soil by corn (Zea mays L.) for two tillage systems and two
 fertilization methods. Five atom % 15N-enriched 28% urea-ammonium nitrate
 solution (UAN) at 224 kg N ha-1 was either surface-applied in the fall before
 any primary tillage or banded (knifed in) just before planting in the spring.
 Continuous corn was grown with either fall moldboard-plow (MP) or ridge-till
 (RT) systems. After the initial growing season, the recovery of residual
 labeled N in the soil by corn was determined for three consecutive growing
 seasons, and the soil profile was sampled periodically to measure residual 15N
 in the organic and inorganic pools. One year after labeled UAN application,
 from 16 to 27% of the initial 15N applied was found in the organic N pool and
 only 1% as inorganic N[NH4 + (NO2 + NO3)-N]. After four seasons, residual 15N
 in the organic N pool ranged from 13 to 24%. Less than 0.5% remained as
 inorganic N. Regession analyses indicated that about 5 kg 15N ha-1 yr-1 became
 available for both MP and RT systems with banded N, so the amounts were small.
 Total residual 15N recovery by corn grain plus stover for three seasons ranged
 from 1.7 to 3.5%, and was greatest for spring-banded fertilizer (p = 0.01).
 Because the amounts of residual 15N utilized were too small to affect corn
 growth, this N source appears to be negligible when considering corn-N needs.
 
 
 261                                                  NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Response of no-till corn to nitrogen source, rate, and time of application.
 Wells, K.L.; Thom, W.O.; Rice, H.B.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Oct.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 5 (4): p. 607-610; 1992 Oct.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Zea mays; No-tillage; Urea; Nitrogen; Nutrient sources;
 Application rates; Application date; Crop yield; Dry matter accumulation;
 Nitrogen content
 
 
 262                                                   NAL Call. No.: 56.8 C162
 Response of no-till winter wheat to seed-placed ammonium nitrate fertilizer.
 Fowler, D.B.; Brydon, J.
 Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada; 1991 Feb.
 Canadian journal of soil science v. 71 (1): p. 55-66; 1991 Feb.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Saskatchewan; Triticum aestivum; Winter wheat; No-tillage;
 Ammonium nitrate; Band placement; Application date; Sowing date; Broadcasting;
 Crop yield; Grain; Crop quality; Protein content; Application rates; Winter
 hardiness; Winter kill
 
 
 263                                                    NAL Call. No.: 79.8 W41
 Response of weed to tillage and cover crop residue.
 Teasdale, J.R.; Beste, C.E.; Potts, W.E.
 Champaign, Ill. : Weed Science Society of America; 1991 Apr.
 Weed science v. 39 (2): p. 195-199; 1991 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Maryland; Zea mays; Secale cereale; Vicia villosa; Cover crops;
 Plant residues; No-tillage; Plowing; Weeds; Population density; Mollugo
 verticillata; Chenopodium album; Eleusine indica; Digitaria sanguinalis;
 Eragrostis cilianensis; Cultural weed control
 
 Abstract:  Total weed density increased after 1 yr of no-tillage and after 2 yr
 of conventional tillage in a 4-yr experiment with repeated assignment of the
 same treatment to the same plots. Large crabgrass, goosegrass, and
 carpetweed densities were higher in the no-tillage compared with the
 conventional-tillage treatment in at least 1 yr whereas common lambsquarters
 density was greater in the conventional-tillage treatment the last year of the
 experiment. Within the no-tillage treatment, rye or hairy vetch residue
 reduced total weed density an average of 78% compared to the treatment without
 cover crop when cover crop biomass exceeded 300 g m-2 and when residue covered
 more than 90% of the soil. Goosegrass, stinkgrass, and carpetweed densities
 were reduced by cover crop residue in at least 1 yr whereas large crabgrass was
 unaffected. Common lambsquarters density increased where rye was grown as a
 cover crop prior to conventional tillage. Despite differences in weed
 density among treatments, weed biomass was equivalent in all.
 
 
 264                                                    NAL Call. No.: S590.S65
 Restoration of eroded soil with conservation tillage.
 Langdale, G.W.; West, L.T.; Bruce, R.R.; Miller, W.P.; Thomas, A.W.
 Cremlingen-Destedt, W. Ger. : CATENA Verlag; 1992 Mar.
 Soil technology v. 5 (1): p. 81-90; 1992 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Georgia; Trifolium incarnatum; Sorghum bicolor; Ultisols; Eroded
 soils; Soil variability; Rill erosion; Interrill erosion; Runoff; Losses from
 soil systems; Crop residues; Conservation tillage; No-tillage; Tillage;
 Continuous cropping; Double cropping; Irrigation; Dry farming; Fallow;
 Fertilizer requirement determination; Crop yield; Grain; Soil organic matter;
 Soil fertility; Soil conservation
 
 
 265                                                   NAL Call. No.: 56.8 J822
 Restoring the land.
 Richards, W.
 Ankeny, Iowa : Soil and Water Conservation Society of America; 1991 Nov.
 Journal of soil and water conservation v. 46 (6): p. 409-410; 1991 Nov.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Conservation tillage; Technology; Soil conservation;
 Reclamation
 
 
 266                                         NAL Call. No.: NBULD3656 1993 M877
 Ridge-till corn and urea hydrolysis response to N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric
 triamide (NBPT).
 Murphy, Timothy L.
 1993; 1993.
 xi, 104 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.  Includes bibliographical references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 
 267                                     NAL Call. No.: aG3701.J2 1991 .U53 Map
 Ridge-till in the United States 1991., Rev. Oct. 1991..
 United States. Soil Conservation Service; National Cartographic Center (U.S.)
 Ft. Worth, TX : USDA-SCS-National Cartographic Center ; West Lafayette, IN. :
 Conservation Technology Information Center, [distributor],; 1992.
 1 map : col. ; 19 x 25 cm.  Source: Data provided by CTIC 1991.  Map prepared
 using automated map construction. National Cartographic Center, Fort Worth ,
 Texas, 1991.  Computer screen image map.  Includes graph of "Acres planted by
 region" and inset map.  1006642.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ridge-till
 
 
 268                                     NAL Call. No.: aG3701.J2 1992 .U53 Map
 Ridge-till in the United States 1992., Rev. Nov. 1992..
 United States. Soil Conservation Service; National Cartography and Geographic
 Information Systems Center (U.S.)
 Fort Worth, Tex. : USDA-SCS-National Cartography & Geographic Information
 Systems Center ; [West Lafayette, IN.] : Conservation Technology Information
 Center, [distributor],; 1993.
 1 map : col. ; 19 x 25 cm.  Source: Data provided by CTIC 1991. Data for
 Alaska and Hawaii falls below minimum category.  Map prepared using automated
 map construction. National Cartography and Geographic Information System
 Center, Fort Worth, Texas, 1992.  Computer generated map.  Includes graph of
 "Acres planted by region" and inset map.  1006642.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Ridge-till
 
 
 269                                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Ridge-tillage corn response to point-injected nitrogen fertilizer.
 Blaylock, A.D.; Cruse, R.M.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1992 Mar.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 56 (2): p. 591-595; 1992 Mar.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Iowa; Zea mays; Nitrogen; Use efficiency; Conservation tillage;
 Ridging; Urea ammonium nitrate; Broadcasting; Soil injection; Placement;
 Application rates; Crop yield; Nutrient uptake
 
 Abstract:  Management practices to improve N-use efficiency have been studied
 repeatedly for conventional tillage and no-till systems. Little work has been
 done, though, to identify efficient N-placement methods for ridge-tillage
 systems. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that point
 injection of N in the ridge can optimize N-use efficiency and corn (Zea mays
 L.) production in ridge tillage, compared with broadcast N or injection
 between rows. Corn-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation studies were
 conducted between 1986 and 1998 on Webster and Marna silty clay loams
 (fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Typic Haplaquoll and fine, montmorillonitic, mesic
 Typic Haplaquoll, respectively). Treatments consisted of a control (no N) and
 factorial combinations of three N-placement methods (broadcast, point
 injection between row, or point injection in rows) and five rates (22, 45, 67,
 112, and 157 kg N ha-1) applied as urea-NH4NO3 solution (UAN). Fertilizer-N
 recovery by plants was determined at four growth stages in labeled-N
 microplots. Corn yields, percentage of N derived from fertilizer, and
 percentage of fertilizer N recovered were significantly greater with injected N
 than with broadcast N. Injection position generally did not affect plant
 response. Point injection of N fertilizer can improve N-uptake efficiency over
 broadcast methods in ridge-tillage corn, but the importance of injection
 position was not substantiated.
 
 
 270                                                  NAL Call. No.: 292.8 W295
 A robust resistant approach to interpret spatial behavior of saturated
 hydraulic conductivity of a glacial till soil unver no-tillage system.
 Mohanty, B.P.; Kanwar, R.S.; Horton, R.
 Washington, D.C. : American Geophysical Union; 1991 Nov.
 Water resources research v. 27 (11): p. 2979-2992; 1991 Nov.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Iowa; Glacial till soils; No-tillage; Saturated hydraulic
 conductivity; Soil depth; Surface layers; Spatial variation
 
 Abstract:  A central Iowa glacial till soil under no-tillage condition was
 studied for its spatial behavior of saturated hydraulic conductivity (K) at the
 surface soil layers. Hydraulic conductivity measurements both in situ and in
 the laboratory were made at two depths of 15 and 30 cm at regular intervals of
 4.6 m on two perpendicular transects crossing each other at the center of the
 field. Simplified split-window median polishing in conjunction with a robust
 semivariogram estimator were used to examine the spatial structure of the
 glacial till material. Results of this study indicated a nested structure of K
 at 30 cm depth. Soil clustering at the experimental site at intervals of 20 m,
 in addition to the soil microheterogeneity, contributed to variation in K, with
 an overall range of spatial dependence of K up to 60 m. Medians of split
 windows of 23 m width were found to be the "solo representatives" or "summary
 points" of the soil clusters contributing to spatial structure. In situ and
 laboratory measurements for K showed consistency in their trends even though
 some parametric variations were observed. K values observed near the soil
 surface at a depth of 15 cm were dominated by white noise and directional
 trends.
 
 
 271                                                   NAL Call. No.: HT401.A36
 The role of indigenous tillage systems in sustainable food production.
 Rajaram, G.; Erbach, D.C.; Warren, D.M.
 Gainesville, Fla. : Humanities and Agriculture, University of Florida; 1991.
 Agriculture and human values v. 8 (1/2): p. 149-155; 1991.  In the series
 analytic: Indigenous agricultural knowledge systems and development / edited by
 D.M. Warren.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; India; Conservation tillage; Indigenous knowledge;
 Technology; Comparisons; Food production; Sustainability
 
 
 272                                                      NAL Call. No.: SB1.H6
 Screening cover crops for use in conservation tillage systems for vegetables
 following spring plowing.
 Nelson, W.A.; Kahn, B.A.; Roberts, B.W.
 Alexandria, Va. : American Society for Horticultural Science; 1991 Jul.
 HortScience v. 26 (7): p. 860-862; 1991 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oklahoma; Cover crops; Screening; Conservation tillage;
 Vegetables; Cultivation; Herbicides; Treatment
 
 Abstract:  Several prospective cover crops were sown into 1-m2 monoculture
 plots on 9 Mar. 1987 and 10 Mar. 1988 at Bixby, Okla., and on 14 Mar. 1988 at
 Lane, Okla., after sites were plowed and fitted. Densities and dry weights of
 cover crops and weeds were determined in late April or early May of both
 years. Plots also were evaluated for degree of kill by glyphosate in 1988.
 Fourteen cover crops were screened at Bixby in 1987. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa
 pratensis L.) and three fescues Festuca rubra L., Festuca rubra L. var.
 commutata Gaud.-Beaup., and Festuca elatior L.) were eliminated from further
 consideration due to inadequate cover density and inability to suppress weeds.
 Screenings of the 10 remaining covers were conducted at both locations in 1988.
 Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) and three small grains [rye (Secale
 cereale L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)]
 were the most promising cover crops with respect to cover density,
 competitiveness against weeds, and degree of kill by glyphosate. Crimson
 clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) were the
 most promising legumes, but they generally were less satisfactory than the
 grassy covers in all tested aspects. A single application of glyphosate was
 ineffective in killing hairy vetch at both locations. Chemical name used: N-
 (phosphonomethyl)glycine (glyphosate).
 
 
 273                                                  NAL Call. No.: QH84.8.B46
 Seasonal fluctuations in soil microbial biomass carbon, phosphorus nand
 activity in no-till and reduced-chemical-input maize agroecosystems.
 Buchanan, M.; King, L.D.
 Berlin : Springer International; 1992 Aug.
 Biology and fertility of soils v. 13 (4): p. 211-217; 1992 Aug.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Carolina; Zea mays; Soil biology; Biomass; Carbon; Legumes;
 Microbial activities; No-tillage; Phosphorus; Rotations
 
 
 274                                                     NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Seed rate and row spacing of no-till winter wheat.
 Tompkins, D.K.; Hultgreen, G.E.; Wright, A.T.; Fowler, D.B.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Jul.
 Agronomy journal v. 83 (4): p. 684-689; 1991 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Saskatchewan; Triticum aestivum; Winter wheat; No-tillage; Sowing
 rates; Row spacing; Yield response functions; Yield components
 
 Abstract:  A snow management system, which utilizes no-till seeding into
 standing stubble immediately after harvest of the previous crop, has permitted
 the expansion of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in western
 Canada. The effect of seed rate and row spacing on grain yield and yield
 components of no-till winter wheat were evaluated in 21 trials conducted in
 Saskatchewan from 1986 to 1988. Two winter wheat cultivars were evaluated in
 eight of the trails. The relationship between grain yield (Y) and seed rate was
 best described by a modified inverse polynomial: Y = uSR(1-SR/566)/(SR + u/104)
 where u represents the upper limit of yield when seed rate is not
 limiting. This curve accounted for 98% of the observed variation in grain
 yield. Optimum seed rate varied from 58 kg ha-1 at a very dry trial to 148 kg
 ha-1 in a trial with more favorable growing conditions. Grain yield increased
 as row spacing decreased and the effect of row spacing on grain yield was
 increased under more favorable growing conditions. Increased seed rate and
 decreased row spacing interacted positively to increase grain yield so optimum
 seed rate increased as row spacing decreased. Increased spikes per square meter
 was responsible for the increase in grain yield associated with high seed rate
 and narrow row spacing. In contrast, kernel weights were slightly higher with
 low seed rate and kernels per spike were higher with low seed rate and wide row
 spacing. Optimum seed rate was higher for the cultivar 'Norstar' than for
 'Norwin' due to higher yield potential of Norstar under the
 conditions experienced in this study.
 
 
 275                                                    NAL Call. No.: 79.8 W41
 Seventeen years of cropping systems and tillage affect velvetleaf (Abutilon
 theophrasti) seed longevity.
 Lueschen, W.E.; Andersen, R.N.; Hoverstad, T.R.; Kanne, B.K.
 Champaign, Ill. : Weed Science Society of America; 1993 Jan.
 Weed science v. 41 (1): p. 82-86; 1993 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Abutilon theophrasti; Weed control; Continuous cropping; Fallow;
 Rotations; Tillage; No-tillage; Atrazine; Glyphosate; Seed longevity; Seed
 germination; Soil depth; Medicago sativa; Zea mays; Avena sativa
 
 Abstract:  Velvetleaf is difficult to control in corn and soybean and the seed
 can persist in soil for many years. Seven cultural and tillage practices were
 established in 1974 on a site heavily infested with velvetleaf to determine the
 time required to eradicate velvetleaf seed from the soil. A rapid decline in
 velvetleaf seed population in the top 23 cm of soil occurred during the first 5
 yr of this study. In the fifth year, the chemical fallow and
 continuous alfalfa treatments had 37 and 56% of the original velvetleaf seed
 population remaining, respectively. In the 17th year, soils in these
 treatments that had received no tillage since study initiation still contained
 15 and 25% of the original velvetleaf seed population, respectively. Systems
 involving moldboard plowing with continuous-tillage fallow, continuous
 cropping of corn or oat, or an annual corn and soybean rotation had a more
 rapid decline in the velvetleaf seed population in soil compared to the
 chemical fallow and continuous alfalfa treatment. After 17 yr, soil in any
 system that had received at least one moldboard plowing per year still
 contained 1 to 3 million velvetleaf seed ha-1, which is only 0.8 to 2.5% of the
 initial viable seed population. Nearly 100% of the seed remaining in the soil
 in the 17th year for all treatments was still viable.
 
 
 276                                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Soil and corn response to tillage with paraplow.
 Erbach, D.C.; Benjamin, J.G.; Cruse, R.M.; Elamin, M.A.; Mukhtar, S.; Choi,
 C.H.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers; 1992 Sep.
 Transactions of the ASAE v. 35 (5): p. 1347-1354; 1992 Sep.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Iowa; Zea mays; Tillage; Plows; Crop yield; Soil physical
 properties
 
 Abstract:  Corn (Zea mays L.) grown following corn, on poorly drained,
 fine-textured soils, with no-till tends to yield less than with other tillage
 systems. Surface residues conserved with no-till reduce erosion, thus,
 techniques must be found to avoid yield reductions. Field experiments were
 conducted to evaluate use of the Paraplow (Howard Rotovator Co., Inc.), a
 tillage tool that loosens soil without inversion, for continuous corn
 production. No-till, chisel plow, moldboard plow, and Paraplow systems were
 evaluated on three poorly drained, medium- and fine-textured soils in Iowa. All
 tillage tools reduced bulk density and penetration resistance to the depth of
 tillage. However, after planting only the soil tilled with the Paraplow
 remained less dense. Plant residue cover had more effect on corn growth than
 did soil loosening. Emergence and yield of corn were inversely related to
 amount of residue on soil surface after planting.
 
 
 277                                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Soil carbon and nitrogen changes on initiation of no-till cropping systems.
 Wood, C.W.; Westfall, D.G.; Peterson, G.A.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1991 Mar.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 55 (2): p. 470-476; 1991 Mar.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Colorado; No-tillage; Grasslands; Intensive cropping; Nitrate
 nitrogen; Soil chemistry; Soil depth; Soil fertility; Toposequences; Carbon;
 Nitrogen
 
 Abstract:  Previous research indicates that increased cropping intensity
 (crops/time) under no-till may increase soil organic C and N contents and
 reduce risk for NO3-N leaching, compared with tilled and frequent-fallow
 systems. This study was conducted to determine the effect of cropping
 intensity on changes in soil organic C and N and NO3-N after 4 yr (1985-1989)
 of no-till and perennial grassland management. The effects were examined over
 three toposequences in the west-central Great Plains that had been previously
 under tilled and frequent-fallow systems for >50 yr. Production systems
 included wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow (WF), wheat-corn (Zea mays L.) or
 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench)-millet (Panicum miliaceum L.)-fallow
 (WCMF), and perennial grass (CG). Organic C and N accumulated, was maintained,
 and declined in 0- to 2.5-,2.5- to 5-, and 5- to 10-cm soil layers,
 respectively, for all systems in the relatively short study period (4 yr). More
 intense systems (WCMF and CG) had greater contents of soil organic C and N in
 the aggregate 0- to 10-cm layer than WF after 4 yr. Smaller profile
 (0-180 cm) NO3-N contents occurred under WCMF (60 kg ha-1) and CG (10 kg ha-1)
 than WF (120 kg ha-1) systems, and showed promise for reducing NO3-N leaching
 risk with increased cropping intensity. This study indicates that rapid
 changes in C and N occur with initiation of no-till in soils previously
 managed under tilled and frequent-fallow systems and that increased cropping
 intensity will promote higher equilibrium levels of organic C and N, but lower
 levels of NO3-N.
 
 
 278                                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Soil loss form conservation tillage for sorghum.
 McGregor, K.C.; Mutchler, C.K.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers; 1992 Nov.
 Transactions of the ASAE v. 35 (6): p. 1841-1845; 1992 Nov.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mississippi; Sorghum; Losses from soil; Ridging; Conservation
 tillage
 
 Abstract:  Soil loss was measured from ridge-till, reduced-till (no-till plant
 and cultivate), no-till, and conventional-till grain sorghum on 22.1-m long,
 up-and-down-hill erosion plots. Soil loss ratios were computed from
 measurements for each crop stage of the tillage systems for use in the
 Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) to estimate soil loss. Annual soil loss
 from the ridge-till sorghum averaged 5.7 t/ha compared to 7.8 t/ha from
 conventional-till and 3.3 t/ha from reduced-till. Greater losses from the
 ridge-till than from reduced-till were attributed to erosiveness of the higher
 ridges in ridge-till. No-till was far superior to the other systems in
 controlling erosion. Soil loss was 2 t/ha following conventional-till cotton.
 Significantly, no-till soil loss after no-till cotton was reduced to 0.3 t/ha.
 
 
 279                                                    NAL Call. No.: 23 AU783
 Soil management for irrigated vegetable production. I. The growth of
 processing tomatoes following soil preparation by cultivation, zero-tillage and
 an in situ-grown mulch.
 Stirzaker, R.J.; Sutton, B.G.; Collis-George, N.
 Melbourne : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization; 1993.
 Australian journal of agricultural research v. 44 (4): p. 817-829; 1993.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New South Wales; Lycopersicon esculentum; Growth; Irrigated
 conditions; Mulches; No-tillage; Soil fertility; Trifolium subterraneum;
 Cultivation
 
 
 280                                                    NAL Call. No.: QH540.J6
 Soil nitrate concentrations under corn as affected by tillage, manure, and
 fertilizer applications.
 Angle, J.S.; Gross, C.M.; Hill, R.L.; McIntosh, M.S.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Jan.
 Journal of environmental quality v. 22 (1): p. 141-147; 1992 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Maryland; Nitrate nitrogen; Leaching; Zea mays; Tillage;
 No-tillage; Manures; Ammonium nitrate; Crop yield; Soil depth; Application
 rates
 
 Abstract:  A 3-yr study was conducted to examine combination effects of
 tillage (no-till, conventional-till), manure, and inorganic fertilizer
 (ammonium nitrate) on leaching of nitrates from the root zone of corn (Zea mays
 L.). Soil cores were collected every spring to a depth of 210 cm and analyzed
 for NO3-N. Leaching of NO3-N significantly increased as fertilizer N rates
 increased, especially when rates exceeded the crop's potential to
 assimilate N. The concentration of soil nitrate (averaged over depth and
 tillage) in Year 3 of the study under the unfertilized control plots was 2.5 mg
 NO3-N kg-1, whereas the concentration under plots fertilized with 260 kg N ha-1
 was 8.7 mg NO3-N kg-1. Soil nitrate concentrations were consistently lower
 under no-tillage when compared with conventional-tillage. Tillage
 differences were greatest when high rates of N were added to soil. These
 results indicate that the use of no-tillage cultivation may reduce the
 leaching of nitrates beyond the crop root zone.
 
 
 281                                                     NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Soil nitrogen status as affected by tillage, crops, and crop sequences.
 Eck, H.V.; Jones, O.R.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Jul.
 Agronomy Journal v. 84 (4): p. 660-668; 1992 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Triticum aestivum; Sorghum bicolor; Continuous cropping;
 Sequential cropping; No-tillage; Stubble mulching; Conservation tillage;
 Fallow; Soil fertility; Nitrogen; Nutrient availability; Nitrate nitrogen; Crop
 yield; Grain; Leaching; Losses from soil systems
 
 Abstract:  Conservation tillage practices, including no-till (NT), reduce soil
 erosion and increase precipitation storage efficiency, but may decrease
 available soil N. We conducted studies at two sites to determine the
 comparative effects of NT and stubble mulch (SM) on the N supplying capacity of
 Pullman clay loam (fine, mixed, thermic Torrertic Paleustolls) cropped to
 continuous wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (CW), continuous grain sorghum
 [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] (CS), wheat-sorghum-fallow (WSF), and
 wheat-fallow (WF) sequences. AT one site, accumulation of NO3-N in the surface
 1.2 m (in kg ha-1) was CW NT-20, CW SM-37, CS NT-28; CS SM-24, WSF NT-34, WSF
 SM-52, WF NT-57, and WF SM-60. Tillage significantly affected N accumulation
 only on the WSF sequence. Nitrate -N moved deeper into the profile under NT
 than under SM, indicating that differences in the root zone may have resulted
 from differential leaching rather than from differential nitrification. Yields
 under no-till and stubble mulch were similar except on continuous grain
 sorghum where nitrogen deficiency was encountered and stubble mulch outyielded
 no-till.
 
 
 282                                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Soil physical properties as affected by grain cart traffic.
 Wood, R.K.; Reeder, R.C.; Morgan, M.T.; Holmes, R.G.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers; 1993 Jan.
 Transactions of the ASAE v. 36 (1): p. 11-15; 1993 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ohio; Soil compaction; Soil physical properties; Tillage;
 Trafficability
 
 Abstract:  Changes in soil physical properties resulting from multiple passes
 of an 18 m3 single-axle grain cart with a 15.2 t axle load were measured one
 year after the traffic occurred. Air permeability, air-filled porosity, and dry
 density data were analyzed to determine how the soil responded to grain cart
 traffic and pre- and post-traffic tillage. Four repeated passes of the cart
 decreased air-filled porosity and permeability by as much as 50% in the 200- to
 400-mm depth range when compared to the effect of a single wheel pass. With
 pre-traffic chisel plowing to a depth of 200 mm, most of the compaction in the
 100- to 200-mm depth occurred on the first pass. However, four repeated passes
 had a greater effect on soil properties in the plots that received no tillage
 compared to the plots that were chiseled before trafficking.
 
 
 283                                                     NAL Call. No.: S662.F4
 Soil sampling patterns for assessing no-tillage fertilization tehcniques.
 Tyler, D.D.; Howard, D.D.
 Manchester, Mo. : Fluid Fertilizer Foundation; 1991.
 Journal of fertilizer issues v. 8 (3): p. 52-56; 1991.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Zea mays; Silt loam soils; Fertilizer requirement determination;
 Soil testing; Sampling; Random sampling; Soil test values; Spatial variation;
 No-tillage; Phosphorus; Potassium; Nitrogen; Potassium fertilizers; Urea
 ammonium nitrate; Phosphorus pentoxide; Broadcasting; Band placement; Soil
 depth; Furrows
 
 
 284                                                    NAL Call. No.: QH540.J6
 Sorption-desorption kinetics of alachlor in surface soil from two soybean
 tillage systems.
 Locke, M.A.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Oct.
 Journal of environmental quality v. 21 (4): p. 558-566; 1992 Oct.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alachlor; Sorption; Tillage; No-tillage; Surface layers; Silt loam
 soils; Desorption; Agitation; Soil organic matter
 
 Abstract:  Alachlor
 [2-chloro-N-(2,6-diethylphenyl)-N-(methoxymethyl)-acetamide] sorption patterns
 were evaluated in surface (0-5 cm) Dundee silt loam (fine-silty, mixed,
 thermic Aeric Ochraqualf) soil collected from long-term conventional tillage
 (CT) and no-tillage (NT) soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] plots. Three
 concentrations of [14C] alachlor (0.58, 2.44, and 18.1 micromoles L-1) in 0.01
 M CaCl2 were added to soil (3 g/18 mL) and samples were shaken for time
 periods ranging from 1 min to 96 h. The difference between initial and final
 alachlor concentration was attributed to sorption. Desorption (0.01 M CaCl2)
 was measured for samples initially sorbed for 1, 24, or 96 h. Desorbed soils
 were extracted with methanol and then combusted. Freundlich parameters (K(f),
 [1/n]) were calculated for alachlor sorption and desorption using nonlinear
 regression. Sorption K(f) values for soil from both tillage systems increased
 as sorption shaking time increased. Desorption was hysteretic, and length of
 sorption shaking increased nonsingularity. Sorption K(f) values measured for NT
 were greater than CT for each of the 1, 24, and 96 h sorption shaking
 times. Similarly, desorption K(f) values for NT were greater than for CT.
 Kinetics were evaluated using a three-site model. Sorption patterns indicated
 rapid initial sorption up to approximately 3 h followed by slower sorption. No
 change in solution alachlor was observed after 48 h for either tillage
 treatment. Labile and restricted fractions increased with time, especially for
 NT. The increased rate and overall quantity of alachlor sorption in NT was
 attributed to higher soil organic residues.
 
 
 285                                                  NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Soybean planting date, row width, and seeding rate response in three tillage
 systems.
 Oplinger, E.S.; Philbrook, B.D.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Jan.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 5 (1): p. 94-99; 1992 Jan.  Paper
 presented at a symposium on "Ecology and Management of Grazing Systems"
 presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for the
 Advancement of Science, January 14-19, 1991, San Francisco, California.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Wisconsin; Glycine max; Planting date; Row spacing; Width; Sowing
 rates; No-tillage; Conservation tillage; Tillage; Crop yield
 
 
 286                                                  NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Soybean production as affected by tillage in a corn and soybean management
 system. II. Seed treatment response.
 Lueschen, W.E.; Evans, S.D.; Ford, J.H.; Hoverstad, T.R.; Kanne, B.K.; Orf,
 J.H.; Staricka, J.A.; Steinstra, W.C.; Warnes, D.D.; Hicks, D.R.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Oct.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 4 (4): p. 580-585; 1991 Oct.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Minnesota; Glycine max; Cultivars; Zea mays; Rotations;
 Phytophthora; Root rots; Plant disease control; Captan; Metalaxyl; No-tillage;
 Ridging; Moldboards; Plowing; Chiselling; Seed treatment; Responses; Crop
 production; Performance; Crop yield; Crop density; Seed germination; Seedling
 emergence; Plant height; Maturation; Seeds; Weight; Seedlings; Vigor; Seed
 quality; Varietal susceptibility; Interactions; Temporal variation; Spatial
 variation
 
 
 287                                                    NAL Call. No.: 100 T25F
 Soybean varieties evaluated for response to narrow rows and cross-checked
 planting systems under no-till.
 Graves, C.R.; Harrison, M.P.; Bradley, J.F.
 Knoxville : Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Tennessee,; 1993.
 Tennessee farm and home science : progress report (166): p. 32-34; 1993.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Tennessee; Cabt; Glycine max; Row spacing; No-tillage; Crop
 yield; Cultivars
 
 
 288                                               NAL Call. No.: S561.6.A82E96
 Soybeans--no-till, following wheat, loamy soils, flood irrigation.
 Windham, T.E.; Stuart, C.A.; Herrington, B.E. Jr
 Fayetteville, Ark.?: The Service; 1991 Nov.
 Extension technical bulletin - UA Cooperative Extension Service (155): 6 p.;
 1991 Nov.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arkansas; Glycine max; Crop production; Cost analysis; Farm
 budgeting; Production costs; Loam soils; No-tillage; Flood irrigation
 
 
 289                                                    NAL Call. No.: QL461.G4
 Spring- and fall-tillage system effects on Hessian fly (Diptera:
 Cecidomyiidae) emergence from a coastal plain soil.
 Chapin, J.W.; Thomas, J.S.; Sullivan, M.J.
 Griffin, Ga. : Georgia Entomological Society; 1992 Oct.
 Journal of entomological science v. 27 (4): p. 293-300; 1992 Oct.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South Carolina; Triticum aestivum; Mayetiola destructor;
 No-tillage; Discing; Straw burning; Plowing; Spring; Autumn; Insect control
 
 
 290                                                    NAL Call. No.: SB599.C8
 Stand and yield of cucumber seeded with gel and fungicides in various tillage
 systems.
 Ghate, S.R.; Sumner, D.R.; Phatak, S.C.
 Guildford : Butterworths; 1991 Feb.
 Crop protection v. 10 (1): p. 23-27; 1991 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Georgia; Cucumis sativus; Seeds; Drilling; Gels; Seed dressings;
 Metalaxyl; Flutolanil; Chemical control; Rhizoctonia solani; Pythium; Seed
 germination; Stand establishment; Seedling emergence; Conservation tillage;
 Deep tillage; Harrowing; Mowing; Crop yield; Crop density; Disease prevalence;
 Incidence
 
 
 291                                                NAL Call. No.: 100 SO82 (3)
 Starter P fertilizer placement as a 'pop-up' application for ridge-till corn
 and soybeans.
 Woodard, H.J.; Sorensen, D.R.; Claypool, D.A.; Winther, D.
 Brookings, S.D. : The Station; 1992 Oct.
 TB - Agricultural Experiment Station, South Dakota State University (99): 6 p.;
 1992 Oct.  In the series analytic: Soil science research in the Plant Science
 Department : 1991 Annual Report. Soil PR 91-25.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South Dakota; Glycine max; Zea mays; Phosphorus; Row tillage;
 Application methods; Crop yield; Dry matter
 
 
 292                                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Still video analysis of crop residue soil covers.
 Morrison, J.E. Jr; Chichester, F.W.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers; 1991 Nov.
 Transactions of the ASAE v. 34 (6): p. 2469-2474. ill; 1991 Nov.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Crop residues; Conservation tillage; Mulches; Imagery
 
 Abstract:  A still video system was used to take RGB color images for system
 calibration, procedural developments, and initial analyses of percentage of
 soil covered by crop residues. A state-of-the-art PC image processor was used
 with customized software. A simplistic discrimination technique was used to
 classify individual image pixels as either residue cover or soil background. It
 was determined that analysis of only 12% of the image pixels would provide
 stable results. Shadows were not a significant problem. Color of the
 background affected the results, even with residues simulated with wooden
 dowels of known dimensions. Relative size of the residue pieces affected the
 performance, with better performance achieved with thick residues, such as
 corn, as contrasted with wheat residues. Analyses of actual residue images were
 generally too variable to be acceptable without further development on the
 discrimination of colors and soil backgrounds.
 
 
 293                                                    NAL Call. No.: S590.C63
 Stratification of soil acidity derived from nitrogen fertilization in winter
 wheat tillage systems.
 Jacobsen, J.S.; Westerman, R.L.
 New York, N.Y. : Marcel Dekker; 1991.
 Communications in soil science and plant analysis v. 22 (13/14): p. 1335-1346;
 1991.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oklahoma; Triticum aestivum; Winter wheat; Silt loam soils; Clay
 loam soils; Soil acidity; Acidification; Stratigraphy; Profiles; Conservation
 tillage; No-tillage; Urea; Soil acidulants; Soil depth; Broadcasting; Surface
 layers; Soil ph; Application rates; Application date; Continuous cropping;
 Statistical analysis
 
 
 294                                                    NAL Call. No.: S601.A34
 Subterranean clover living mulch: an alternative method of weed control.
 Ilnicki, R.D.; Enache, A.J.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier; 1992 May.
 Agriculture, ecosystems and environment v. 40 (1/4): p. 249-264; 1992 May.  In
 the Special Issue: Biotic Diversity in Agroecosystems / edited by M.G.
 Paoletti and D. Pimentel. Proceedings from a symposium on Agroecology and
 Conservation Issues in Tropical and a Temperate Regions, September 26-29, 1990,
 Padova, Italy.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New Jersey; Weed control; Live mulches; Trifolium subterraneum;
 Mulches; Secale cereale; Cover crops; Zea mays; Glycine max; Cucurbita pepo;
 Brassica oleracea; Phaseolus vulgaris; Lycopersicon esculentum; Tillage;
 Minimum tillage; No-tillage; Herbicides; Weeds; Biomass production; Crop
 yield; Alternative farming
 
 
 295                                                      NAL Call. No.: SB1.H6
 Survival and growth of peach trees planted in killed bahiagrass at an old
 orchard site.
 Evert, D.R.; Bertrand, P.F.
 Alexandria, Va. : American Society for Horticultural Science; 1993 Jan.
 HortScience v. 28 (1): p. 26-28; 1993 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Georgia; Prunus persica; Growth; Survival; Paspalum notatum;
 Planting; Tillage; No-tillage; Fenamiphos; Root treatment; Nematode control;
 Mineral nutrition; Plant parasitic nematodes
 
 Abstract:  More peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] trees survived when
 planted in killed bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge 'Paraguayan-22') sod
 growing between previous orchard tree rows (98%) than when planted in previous
 tree sites (81%) or in previous tree rows, but halfway between previous tree
 sites (79%). The previous orchard was removed Nov. 1986, and new trees were
 planted Feb. 1987. Surviving trees in the killed sod grew better than trees at
 the other two sites. Tilling the sites before planting did not affect nematode
 populations or tree survival and growth. Soaking the tree roots in a
 fenamiphos solution (1 g.liter-1) for 20 minutes before planting resulted in
 79% tree survival vs. 93% survival for the nonsoaked trees. Fenamiphos sprayed
 under the trees at a rate of 11.2 kg.ha-1 during the spring and fall of the
 planting year did not change nematode populations, tree survival, or tree
 growth. The fenamiphos sprays reduced the increase in trunk cross-sectional
 area by 3 cm2 for trees in the sod. Other than leaf Zn concentration, which was
 low, concentrations of the elements were within the sufficiency range for
 Georgia for all treatments. Trees planted in the killed sod had an increased
 leaf K concentration and decreased leaf Mg concentration when compared with
 trees planted in the rows.
 
 
 296                                                    NAL Call. No.: 1.9 P69P
 Survival of Cercospora zeae-maydis in corn residue in Ohio.
 Nazareno, N.R.X. de; Lipps, P.E.; Madden, L.V.
 St. Paul, Minn. : American Phytopathological Society; 1992 Jun.
 Plant disease v. 76 (6): p. 560-563; 1992 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ohio; Zea mays; Cercospora zeae-maydis; Survival; Overwintering;
 Crop residues; Infections; Leaves; Leaf sheaths; Lesions; Incorporation;
 Tillage; No-tillage; Conidia; Sporulation; Spore germination; Climatic
 factors; Seasonal fluctuations; Winter; Spring; Biodegradation
 
 
 297                                       NAL Call. No.: Videocassette no.1244
 Sustainable agriculture practices for field crop production in the Northeast
 written and directed by Joan Falkenberg ; project coordinator, Jane Mt.
 Pleasant.
 Falkenberg, Joan
 Cornell University, Cooperative Extension, Cornell University, Audio-Visual
 Resource Center
 Ithaca, NY : [Cornell Cooperative Extension?] : Audio-Visual Resource Center
 [Distributor],; 1991.
 1 videocassette (12 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in.  Produced for Cornell
 Cooperative Extension at the Eductional Television Center, Media Services,
 Cornell University.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sustainable agriculture; Pests; Conservation tillage; Cropping
 systems
 
 Abstract:  Covers the following sustainable agricultural topics in economic and
 environmental terms: crop rotation, soil testing for nutrient management,
 conservation tillage, integrated pest management, planting cover crops, and
 record keeping.
 
 
 298                                                    NAL Call. No.: S601.A34
 Sustainable dryland cropping in southern Australia: a review.
 Hoare, J.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier; 1992 Feb.
 Agriculture, ecosystems and environment v. 38 (3): p. 193-204; 1992 Feb.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South australia; Dry farming; Sustainability; Alternative
 farming; Stubble cultivation; Minimum tillage; Cultivation; Rotations; Soil
 structure; Soil ph; Soil salinity; Acidification; Clay loam soils; Herbicides;
 Land use; Mediterranean climate; Direct sowing; Soil conservation
 
 
 299                                                  NAL Call. No.: SB197.A1T7
 Sustaining multiple production systems. 2. Soil fertility decline and
 restoration of cropping lands in sub-tropical Queensland.
 Dalal, R.C.; Strong, W.M.; Weston, E.J.; Gaffney, J.
 St Lucia : Tropical Grassland Society of Australia; 1991 Jun.
 Tropical grasslands v. 25 (2): p. 173-180; 1991 Jun.  Paper presented at the
 "Fourth Australian Conference on Tropical Pastures," November, 1990,
 Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Queensland; Multiple land use; Sustainability; Tropical
 grasslands; Pastures; Nitrogen content; Soil fertility; Nitrogen fixation;
 Leguminosae; No-tillage; Ley farming; Rotations; Soil degradation;
 Productivity; Agropastoral systems; Subtropics
 
 
 300                                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 System for collecting undisturbed cores from surface soils for
 micromorphological analysis.
 Rhoton, F.E.; McChesney, D.S.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1991 Nov.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 55 (6): p. 1796-1797; 1991 Nov.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Silt loam soils; Undisturbed sampling; Core sampling; Surface
 layers; Soil micromorphology; Conservation tillage; Core samplers; Hydraulic
 equipment; Structural design; Production costs
 
 Abstract:  Intact soil cores are difficult to extract from reduced-tillage
 plots using available equipment due to the tendency of cores to separate at
 planes of weakness. A split-tube sampler was developed to minimize disruptions
 of the natural soil fabric that frequently occur as the core is removed from
 the sampling equipment. Construction details are provided that permit this
 equipment to be attached to standard hydraulically driven soil-coring
 equipment. Use of this equipment, in conjunction with sample containers that
 are resistant to laboratory pretreatment procedures and impregnating resins,
 greatly reduced sample handling and the potential for creating structural
 anomalies.
 
 
 301                                                   NAL Call. No.: SB610.W39
 Tank-mix combinations for weed control in stale seedbed soybean (Glycine max).
 Bruff, S.A.; Shaw, D.R.
 Champaign, Ill. : The Society; 1992 Jan.
 Weed technology : a journal of the Weed Science Society of America v. 6 (1): p.
 45-51; 1992 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mississippi; Glycine max; Weed control; Chemical control; Cassia
 obtusifolia; Ipomoea lacunosa; Sesbania exaltata; Herbicide mixtures;
 Chlorimuron; Imazaquin; Metribuzin; Paraquat; Glyphosate; Conservation tillage
 
 
 302                                              NAL Call. No.: TD424.35.T2W37
 Tennessee is a leader in no-till agriculture.
 Denton, H.P.
 Knoxville, Tenn. : The Service; 1992 May.
 Water protection conservation management v. 5 (2): p. 2; 1992 May.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Tennessee; No-tillage; Erosion; Erosion control
 
 
 303                                                  NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Tillage and crop rotation affect corn, soybean, and winter wheat yields.
 Lund, M.G.; Carter, P.R.; Oplinger, E.S.
 Madison, WI : American Society of Agronomy, c1987-; 1993 Apr.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 6 (2): p. 207-213; 1993 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Wisconsin; Cabt; Zea mays; Glycine max; Triticum aestivum;
 Rotations; Crop yield; Plowing; Moldboards; No-tillage; Continuous cropping;
 Sequential cropping; Crop residues; Soil temperature; Plant height; Seed
 moisture; Crop density; Cultivars
 
 
 304                                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Tillage and crop rotation effects on fertility status of a hapludult soil.
 Edwards, J.H.; Wood, C.W.; Thurlow, D.L.; Ruf, M.E.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1992 Sep.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 56 (5): p. 1577-1582; 1992 Sep.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alabama; Zea mays; Triticum aestivum; Glycine max; Hapludults; No-
 tillage; Conservation tillage; Tillage; Continuous cropping; Rotations; Cover
 crops; Soil ph; Soil organic matter; Bulk density; Nutrient
 availability; Soil fertility
 
 Abstract:  Tillage and crop rotations influence soil characteristics and may
 alter nutrient availability. A study was conducted at the Sand Mountain
 Substation, Crossville, AL, to determine the effects of 10 yr of conservation
 tillage and crop rotation on soil fertility. Tillage systems included no-till
 (NT) and conventional tillage (CT); crop rotations were continuous corn (Zea
 mays L.)--wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cover (CW) continuous soybean [Glycine
 max (L.) Merr.]-wheat for cover (SW), and corn-wheat cover-soybean-wheat cover
 (CWSW). Soil pH, organic matter, bulk density, and Mehlich-1 (double-acid)
 extractable P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, and Cu were determined on samples collected
 after 10 growing seasons. Tillage system did not affect soil pH; however, CW
 and CWSW crop rotations lowered soil pH due to applications of N fertilizers.
 Organic matter was increased from 10 g kg-1 in the surface 15 cm to 15.5 g kg-1
 in the surface 10 cm after 10 yr of NT. This represents an increase in organic
 matter of 56%, while organic matter was constant under CT. Organic matter was
 affected by crop rotation and decreased in order or CW > CWSW > SW. Bulk
 density decreased under NT compared with CT. Crop rotations decreased bulk
 density in the order of CWS > SW > CW. Double-acid-extractable nutrients were
 affected by tillage, crop rotation, and soil depth. Potassium
 availability was greater in the rotations CW and CWSW under CT than in the same
 crop sequence under NT. Rotations with a higher frequency of corn
 appeared to negatively affect P, Ca, and Mg availability due to lower soil pH
 values. Our results demonstrate that long-term soil management practices
 affect soil pH, organic matter, bulk density, and nutrient availability. They
 further show that different tillage and crop rotations may require distinctly
 different soil fertility management.
 
 
 305                                                NAL Call. No.: S494.5.S86S8
 Tillage and crop rotation effects on soil organic matter in a Typic Hapludult
 of northern Alabama.
 Wood, C.W.; Edwards, J.H.; Cummins, C.G.
 Binghamton, N.Y. : Food Products Press; 1991.
 Journal of sustainable agriculture v. 2 (2): p. 31-41; 1991.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alabama; Glycine max; Zea mays; Triticum aestivum; Hapludults;
 Tillage; No-tillage; Rotations; Soil organic matter; Nitrogen; Carbon; Long
 term experiments
 
 
 306                                                  NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Tillage and cropping system effects on cotton yield and profitability on the
 Texas Southern High Plains.
 Segarra, E.; Keeling, J.W.; Abernathy, J.R.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Oct.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 4 (4): p. 566-571; 1991 Oct.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Gossypium hirsutum; Triticum aestivum; Sorghum bicolor;
 Rotations; Continuous cropping; Furrow irrigation; Dry farming; Conservation
 tillage; No-tillage; Tillage; Profitability; Ranking; Valuation; Returns; Fixed
 costs; Variable costs; Farm inputs; Temporal variation; Crop weed
 competition; Herbicides; Loam soils; Precipitation; Crop yield; Lint;
 Stochastic processes
 
 
 307                                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Tillage and simulated rainfall intensity effect on bromide movement in an
 Argiudoll.
 Bicki, T.J.; Guo, L.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1991 May.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 55 (3): p. 794-799; 1991 May.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Illinois; Glycine max; Zea mays; Bromide; Chemicals;
 Infiltration; Movement in soil; No-tillage; Rainfall simulators; Silt loam
 soils; Soil physical properties; Tillage
 
 Abstract:  Movement of Br- in a Flanagan silt loam (fine, montmorillonitic,
 mesic Aquic Argiudoll) managed under five different tillage systems and
 subjected to three simulated rainfall intensities was documented. Under low (10
 mm/h) and medium (25 mm/h) simulated rainfall intensities, movement of Br-in
 the soil profile was not significantly different between moldboard plow, chisel
 plow, disk plow, para-till, and no-till systems. When subjected to a high
 simulated rainfall intensity, significantly greater Br- movement occurred in
 the soil profile managed under continuous, long-term no-till. Greater
 movement of Br- in the no-till soil was attributed to preferential flow.
 
 
 308                                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Tillage- and traffic-induced changes in macroporosity and macropore
 continuity: air permeability assessment.
 Roseberg, R.J.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1992 Jul.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 56 (4): p. 1261-1267; 1992 Jul.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Macropores; Geometry; Porosity; Quantitative analysis; Soil air;
 Permeability; Soil analysis; Tillage; No-tillage; Wheels; Zea mays; Medicago
 sativa; Bulk density
 
 Abstract:  Quantitative analysis of macropore geometry in undisturbed soils has
 been hindered by difficulties in creating conditions where macropore
 measurements can be separated from matrix pore measurements. Such analysis is
 important, however, for evaluating tillage management effects on both root
 growth and solute movement. Inferences regarding management effects on
 macroporosity were made possible by combining the use of improved
 air-permeability techniques with two recently developed methods to analyze air-
 permeability (Ka) data, using undisturbed soil samples from a tillage study.
 Log10 Ka values exhibited a near-normal distribution. In wheel-traffic
 interrows (Wh), macropore air permeability was significantly less under
 conventional-tillage corn (CT) than no-tillage corn (NT) and no-tillage
 alfalfa (ALF). Tillage differences were usually not significant in
 non-wheel-traffic interrows (NWh). Wheel traffic significantly decreased air
 permeability for CT, but not for NT or ALF. The two methods or analyzing
 air-permeability data yielded similar inferences regarding macropore geometry.
 Conventional tillage decreased bulk density (increasing total porosity) for NWh
 only, but seemed to decrease the stability, number, and continuity of
 macropores relative to NT and ALF. Macroporosity and macropore geometric
 factors were affected little by traffic for NT and ALF, but traffic
 significantly affected CT macropores in this study where samples were taken
 approximately 1 mo after corn planting.
 
 
 309                                                    NAL Call. No.: S590.C63
 Tillage effects on selected physical properties of grantsburg silt loam.
 Kitur, B.K.; Olson, K.R.; Siemens, J.C.; Phillips, S.R.
 New York, N.Y. : Marcel Dekker; 1993.
 Communications in soil science and plant analysis v. 24 (13/14): p. 1509-1527;
 1993.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Illinois; Zea mays; Glycine max; Silt loam soils; No-tillage;
 Chiselling; Plowing; Resistance to penetration; Bulk density; Aggregates;
 Stability; Pore size; Soil pore system
 
 
 310                                                     NAL Call. No.: 81 SO12
 Tillage reduces yield and crown, fern, and bud growth in a mature asparagus
 planting.
 Wilcox-Lee, D.; Drost, D.T.
 Alexandria, Va. : The Society; 1991 Nov.
 Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science v. 116 (6): p.
 937-941; 1991 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New York; Asparagus officinalis; No-tillage; Tillage; Crop yield;
 Growth; Weed control; Carbohydrates; Metribuzin; Napropamide; Roots; Seasonal
 variation
 
 Abstract:  Asparagus officinalis L. cv. Centennial established with
 transplants in 1983 was maintained with tillage or a no-till (NT) system to
 evaluate effects of tillage on yield and plant growth in a mature asparagus
 planting. Metribuzin or metribuzin + napropamide at 1.12 and 1.68 kg a.i./ha,
 respectively, were used for weed control in both tillage regimes. Marketable
 yields were assessed for 5 years. In 1989, in addition to yield data,
 destructive harvests of entire plants were made every 3 weeks from March to
 November to evaluate the effect of tillage on fern, crown, and bud growth, and
 carbohydrate status. Yields were reduced by tillage from 12% to 50% from 1985
 to 1989. There were no herbicide effects nor was there an effect on yield due
 to an interaction between herbicides and tillage. All indices of growth
 measured for NT exceeded those in tilled plots, although seasonal patterns of
 growth were similar in both. Crown and fern weight, bud cluster, and bud and
 fern counts were higher by 178%, 175%, 152%, 161%, and 195%, respectively, in
 NT than in tilled plots. The metribuzin + napropamide combination did not
 reduce fern fresh weight or yield, but significantly reduced the number of bud
 clusters, buds, and ferns when compared to metribuzin alone.
 
 
 311                                                  NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Tillage, row spacing, and planting date effects on soybean following corn or
 wheat.
 Lueschen, W.E.; Ford, J.H.; Evans, S.D.; Kanne, B.K.; Hoverstad, T.R.;
 Randall, G.W.; Orf, J.H.; Hicks, D.R.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Apr.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 5 (2): p. 254-260; 1992 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Minnesota; Glycine max; Zea mays; Triticum aestivum; Crop yield;
 Tillage; Plowing; Moldboards; Chiselling; Discing; Ridging; No-tillage;
 Rotations; Row spacing; Planting date; Crop density; Crop residues
 
 
 312                                                 NAL Call. No.: S592.7.A1S6
 Tillage treatments and earthworm distribution in a swiss experimental corn
 field.
 Wyss, E.; Glasstetter, M.
 Exeter : Pergamon Press; 1992 Dec.
 Soil biology and biochemistry v. 24 (12): p. 1635-1639; 1992 Dec.  In the
 special issue ISEE 4. Proceedings of the "4th International Symposium on
 Earthworm Ecology," June 11-15, 1990, Avignon, France / edited by A.
 Kretzschmar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Switzerland; Oligochaeta; Species; Earthworms; Populations; Zea
 mays; Tillage; Conservation tillage; Catch cropping; Undersowing; Biological
 activity in soil; Species diversity; Population density; Biomass; Population
 distribution
 
 Abstract:  A pedobiological investigation was performed on a soil erosion
 research area of the Geographical Institute of the University of Basel from
 April to November 1989. The site belongs to, and is cultivated by, the
 Agricultural School Centre "Kantonale Landwirtschaftliche Schule"
 Stickhof/Eschikon in Lindau near Zurich (northern Switzerland). In a cropping
 experiment with corn (Zea mays), the influence of four tillage systems on
 earthworm populations was studied. Aspects of soil physics and soil chemistry
 were integrated into the investigation. The earthworms were extracted by means
 of the hand sorting method at six dates in 1989 chosen to represent typical
 periods of corn cropping. The four tested tillage systems had an influence on
 earthworm species composition, abundance, and biomass: (1) The consequence of
 tillage itself was a reduction of about 50% of abundance (number of
 individuals m-2 and 30% of biomass (g live w m-2), but these losses were
 equalized during the following months. (2) The minimum tillage (strip zone
 tillage with a rotary cultivator and simultaneous seeding) caused a higher soil
 compaction, a negative selection of horizontally burrowing ("endoge") species,
 and a subsequent diminution of their abundance. (3) Ploughing had a
 disadvantageous effect on vertically burrowing ("anecique") species. (4) The
 winter catch crop cover enhanced the food supply and hence the earthworm
 biomass. An undersown cover had an additional favourable effct on earthworms.
 
 
 313                                                     NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Timing nitrogen applications for corn in a winter legume conservation-tillage
 system.
 Reeves, D.W.; Wood, C.W.; Touchton, J.T.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1993 Jan.
 Agronomy journal v. 85 (1): p. 98-106; 1993 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alabama; Zea mays; Conservation tillage; Trifolium incarnatum;
 Cover crops; Coastal plain soils; Nitrogen fertilizers; Application rates;
 Fertilizer requirement determination; Application date; Timing; Nutrient
 uptake; Nitrogen; Use efficiency; Crop yield; Grain; Dry matter accumulation;
 Split dressings
 
 Abstract:  Fertilizer N efficiency of corn (Zea mays L.) in
 conservation-tillage systems with winter legumes such as crimson clover
 (Trifolium incarnatum L.) can possible be improved by better synchronization of
 legume-N release, fertilizer-N application time, and crop demand for N. The
 objective of this 3-yr (1986-1988) field experiment was to determine the
 effect of N application time on dry matter accumulation, N uptake, and grain
 yield of corn grown in a winter legume conservation-tillage system. Corn was
 planted with unit planters into crimson clover residue following in-row
 subsoiling. The clover was killed at midbloom every year. Treatments were a
 factorial arrangement of fertilizer N rates and application time. Nitrogen as
 NH4NO3 was broadcast at rates of 34, 67, and 134 kg ha(-1). Zero-N checks were
 also included in both clover and rye (Secale cereal L.) plots. Application
 times were at planting, or 3, 6, or 9 wk later. In addition, split
 applications (1/3 at planting and the remainder 6 wk later) of the 67 and 134
 kg N ha(-1) rates were included. In 2 of 3 yr, dry matter accumulation was not
 affected by N application time. In 1987, however, dry matter production was
 greater when N was applied at planting compared to split applications or
 applications later than 3 wk after planting. Application time affected N
 uptake patterns during the growing season, but generally did not affect total N
 uptake at the end of the season. With the exception of the first year, split N
 applications resulted in equivalent or reduced N uptake compared to
 application of all N at planting. Based on linear regression models, maximum
 yield was obtained with 134, 116, and 93 kg N ha(-1) in 1987, 1988, and 1989,
 respectively. After the first year, applying N later than 6 wk after planting
 reduced grain yield and split applications of N were not effective in
 increasing grain yield. These results suggest that the fertilizer N
 requirement of corn grown in winter legume conservation -tillage syste
 
 
 314                                                    NAL Call. No.: 79.8 W41
 Timing of chlorimuron and imazaquin application for weed control in no-till
 soybeans (Glycine max).
 Carey, J.B.; Defelice, M.S.
 Champaign, Ill. : Weed Science Society of America; 1991 Apr.
 Weed science v. 39 (2): p. 232-237; 1991 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Missouri; Glycine max; No-tillage; Weed control; Chemical
 control; Chlorimuron; Imazaquin; Herbicide mixtures; Metribuzin; Glyphosate;
 Metolachlor; Preplanting treatment; Timing; Application date; Row spacing; Crop
 yield; Seeds; Chenopodium album; Xanthium strumarium; Setaria faberi; Annuals
 
 Abstract:  Field studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of herbicide
 application timing on weed control in no-till soybean production. Row spacing
 generally had no effect on weed control. Herbicide treatments containing
 chlorimuron plus metribuzin applied as many as 45 days prior to planting in
 1988 and 1989 controlled broadleaf weeds throughout the growing season.
 Imazaquin applied 45 and 30 days prior to planting provided poor control of
 common cocklebur in 1989. Giant foxtail control was inconsistent with all
 herbicide treatments. Soybean yields subsequent to early preplant herbicide
 applications were greater than or equal to those in which applications were
 made at planting when late-season weed control was adequate. Herbicides
 applied preemergence did not control high densities of common lambsquarters in
 1989.
 
 
 315                                                    NAL Call. No.: 100 AL1H
 Tropical corn offers new options for conservation-tillage.
 Kingery, R.C.; Reeves, D.W.; Mask, P.L.
 Auburn University, Ala. : The Station; 1993.
 Highlights of agricultural research - Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station
 v. 40 (1): p. 12; 1993.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alabama; Zea mays; Conservation tillage; Rotations; Cultivars;
 Trifolium pratense; Nitrogen; Crop yield; Cost benefit analysis
 
 
 316                                                    NAL Call. No.: S590.C63
 Twelve-year tillage and corp rotation effects on yields and soil chemical
 properties in northeast-Iowa.
 Karlen, D.L.; Berry, E.C.; Colvin, T.S.
 New York, N.Y. : Marcel Dekker; 1991.
 Communications in soil science and plant analysis v. 2 (19/20): p. 1985-2003;
 1991.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Iowa; Zea mays; Glycine max; Loam soils; Rotations; Continuous
 cropping; Plowing; Chiselling; Ridging; No-tillage; Sustainability; Crop
 yield; Grain; Soil ph; Soil organic matter; Phosphorus; Potassium; Calcium;
 Magnesium; Carbon; Nitrogen; Nitrate nitrogen; Carbon-nitrogen ratio; Nutrient
 availability; Soil depth; Use efficiency; Fertilizers; Application rates; Plant
 analysis; Nutrient content; Fertilizer requirement determination;
 Seasonal variation
 
 
 317                                                   NAL Call. No.: 1.98 AG84
 Up with the midnight sun.
 Corliss, J.
 Washington, D.C. : The Service; 1992 Apr.
 Agricultural research - U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research
 Service v. 40 (4): p. 11; 1992 Apr.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alaska; Conservation tillage; Agricultural research; Teachers;
 Work experience programs
 
 
 318                                                 NAL Call. No.: QH545.A1E58
 Uptake and accumulation of selenium by terrestrial plants growing on a coal fly
 ash landfill. I. Corn.
 Arthur, M.A.; Rubin, G.; Schneider, R.E.; Weinstein, L.H.
 Elmsford, N.Y. : Pergamon Press; 1992.
 Environmental toxicology and chemistry v. 11 (4): p. 541-547; 1992.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Zea mays; Selenium; Fly ash; Coal; Uptake; Mineral content;
 Leaves; Kernels; Stems; Roots; Cultivars; Landfills; No-tillage
 
 
 319                                                NAL Call. No.: 275.29 OK41C
 Use of herbicides in establishment and production of Old World bluestems.
 Stritzke, J.F.
 Stillwater, Okla. : The Service; 1991 Mar.
 Circular E - Oklahoma State University, Cooperative Extension Service (901): p.
 45-48; 1991 Mar.  Paper presented at the "Old World Bluestem Conference," March
 29, 1988, Cheyenne, Oklahoma.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Bothriochloa; Weed control; Herbicides; No-tillage
 
 
 320                                                   NAL Call. No.: 60.18 J82
 Vegetation changes following brush control in creosotebush communities.
 Morton, H.L.; Melgoza, A.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1991 Mar.
 Journal of range management v. 44 (2): p. 133-139; 1991 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Mexico; Larrea tridentata; Brush control; Deserts;
 Tebuthiuron; Manual weed control; Tillage; Grasses; Plant density; Botanical
 composition; Shrubs; Canopy; Desert plants; Discing
 
 Abstract:  Changes in herbaceous plant density and canopy cover of
 creosotebush (Larrea tridentata Sesse & Moc. ex DC) and associated shrubs
 following brush control treatments were measured in Sonoran and Chihuahuan
 Desert communities. Treatments were applied in 2 successive years st the Santa
 Rita Experimental range, Arizona, and 3 locations in Chihuahua, Mexico. Across
 all locations and years 1.5 kg/ha tebuthiuron
 (N-[5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl]-N,N'-dimethylurea) > 1.0 kg/ha
 tebuthiuron= disking = disking with furrowing >2-way railing >0.5 kg/ha
 tebuthiuron > land imprinting in reducing canopy cover of creosotebush and
 associated shrubs. At the Santa Rita Experimental Range annual precipitation
 was above long-term mean in 1982, 1983, 1984, and 1985; and grass density
 increased on all treated and untreated plots. Annual precipitation was below
 long-term mean during 1986 and 1987 and grass density decreased on both
 treated and untreated plots but did not decrease to pre-treatment densities.
 Forb densities were less than 3 plants/m2 throughout the study, except in 1987
 when Russian thistle (Salsola iberica Sennen & Pau) increased on all plots. At
 the Chihuahuan locations, grass densities usually increased during the first
 year of the study, but very low precipitation throughout the study caused
 subsequent reductions in grass and forb densities. In dry years brush control
 treatments did not increase herbaceous plant density.
 
 
 321                                                   NAL Call. No.: SB610.W39
 Weed control for soybean (Glycine max) planted in a stale or undisturbed
 seedbed on clay soil.
 Heatherly, L.G.; Elmore, C.D.; Wesley, R.A.
 Champaign, Ill. : The Society; 1992 Jan.
 Weed technology : a journal of the Weed Science Society of America v. 6 (1): p.
 119-124; 1992 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mississippi; Glycine max; Weed control; Clay soils; Xanthium
 strumarium; Chemical control; Metribuzin; Glyphosate; No-tillage; Tillage; Crop
 yield; Seeds; Irrigated conditions; Dry conditions; Linuron; Chlorimuron; 2,4-
 db
 
 
 322                                                   NAL Call. No.: 79.9 C122
 Weed control in conservation tillage cereals.
 Smith, M.J.
 Fremont, Calif. : California Weed Conference; 1991.
 Proceedings - California Weed Conference (43rd): p. 109-112; 1991.  Meeting
 held January 21-23, 1991, Santa Barbara, California.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cereals; Weed control; Conservation tillage
 
 
 323                                 NAL Call. No.: ViBlbVLD5655.V855 1992.V364
 Weed control in no-till corn as affected by cultivation, herbicide banding, and
 cover crop suppression.
 VanLieshout, Lawrence Anthony,
 1992; 1992.
 xii, 142 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.  Vita.  Abstract.  Bibliography: leaves
 133-141.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Corn; No-tillage
 
 
 324                                                   NAL Call. No.: SB610.W39
 Weed control in oat (Avena sativa)-alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and effect on next
 year corn (Zea mays) yield.
 Moomaw, R.S.
 Champaign, Ill. : The Weed Science Society of America; 1992 Oct.
 Weed technology : a journal of the Weed Science Society of America v. 6 (4): p.
 871-877; 1992 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nebraska; Cabt; Avena sativa; Medicago sativa; Zea mays;
 Herbicide resistance; Rotations; No-tillage; Weed control; Herbicides; Crop
 density; Crop yield; Drought
 
 
 325                                                NAL Call. No.: 275.29 IO9PA
 Weed management in conservation tillage.
 Hartzler, R.G.; Owen, M.D.K.
 Ames, Iowa : The Service; 1993 Feb.
 PM - Iowa State University, Cooperative Extension Service v.): 4 p.; 1993 Feb.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Conservation tillage; No-tillage; Herbicides; Cultural weed
 control
 
 
 326                                                NAL Call. No.: S544.3.N6N62
 Weed management in conventional and no-till burley tobacco.
 Worsham, A.D.; Sasscer, C.; Lemons, R.; Whitley, S.
 Raleigh, N.C. : The Service; 1992 Dec.
 AG - North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service, North Carolina State
 University v.): p. 39-53; 1992 Dec.  In th series analytic: 1993 Burley
 Tobacco.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Carolina; Nicotiana tabacum; Weed control; No-tillage;
 Costs; Herbicides; Weeds; Rotations; Cultivation; Field tests; Crop yield
 
 
 327                                                  NAL Call. No.: SB950.A1P3
 Weed problems in wheat and their control in the Indian subcontinent.
 Mustafee, T.P.
 London : Taylor & Francis; 1991 Jul.
 Tropical pest management v. 37 (3): p. 245-251; 1991 Jul.  Literature review.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: India; Triticum aestivum; Weeds; Weed competition; Crop weed
 competition; Manual weed control; Weeding; Cultural weed control; Minimum
 tillage; Herbicides; Herbicide mixtures; Chemical control; Literature reviews
 
 
 328                                                    NAL Call. No.: 79.8 W41
 Weed seedbank response to tillage, herbicides, and crop rotation sequence.
 Ball, D.A.
 Champaign, Ill. : Weed Science Society of America; 1992.
 Weed science v. 40 (4): p. 654-659; 1992.  Paper presented at the "Symposium on
 crop/weed management and the dynamics of weed seedbanks," February 11, 1992,
 Orlando, Florida.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Zea mays; Phaseolus vulgaris; Beta vulgaris; Weed biology; Weed
 control; Chemical control; Herbicides; Seed banks; Plowing; No-tillage;
 Conservation tillage; Population dynamics; Cropping systems; Models
 
 Abstract:  Changes in the weed seedbank due to crop production practices are an
 important determinant of subsequent weed problems. Research was conducted to
 evaluate effects of primary tillage (moldboard plowing and chisel plowing),
 secondary tillage (row cultivation), and herbicides on weed species changes in
 the soil seedbank in three irrigated row crop rotational sequences over a 3-yr
 period. The cropping sequences consisted of continuous corn for 3 yr,
 continuous pinto beans for 3 yr, or sugarbeets for 2 yr followed by corn in the
 third year. Cropping sequence was the most dominant factor influencing species
 composition in the seedbank. This was partly due to herbicide use in each
 cropping sequence producing a shift in the weed seedbank in favor of species
 less susceptible to applied herbicides. A comparison between moldboard and
 chisel plowing indicated that weed seed of predominant species were more
 prevalent near the soil surface after chisel plowing. The number of
 predominant annual weed seed over the 3-yr period increased more rapidly in the
 seedbank after chisel plowing compared to moldboard plowing unless
 effective weed control could be maintained to produce a decline in seedbank
 number. In this case, seedbank decline was generally more rapid after
 moldboard plowing. Row cultivation generally reduced seedbanks of most species
 compared to uncultivated plots in the pinto bean and sugarbeet sequences. A
 simple model was developed to validate the observation that rate of change in
 the weed seedbank is influenced by type of tillage and weed control
 effectiveness.
 
 
 329                                                   NAL Call. No.: SB610.W39
 Weed-crop response to weed management systems in conservation tillage corn (Zea
 mays).
 Coffman, C.B.; Frank, J.R.
 Champaign, Ill. : The Society; 1991 Jan.
 Weed technology : a journal of the Weed Science Society of America v. 5 (1): p.
 76-81; 1991 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Maryland; Zea mays; Weed control; Chemical control; Atrazine;
 Setaria faberi; Amaranthus hybridus; Solanum carolinense; Cirsium arvense; Crop
 weed competition; Perennial weeds; Competitive ability; Crop yield;
 Grain; Conservation tillage; No-tillage
 
 
 330                                                   NAL Call. No.: 64.8 C883
 Western corn rootworm damage: effect of tillage on plant response and grain
 yield.
 Riedell, W.E.; Gustin, R.D.; Beck, D.L.; Hanson, D.G.
 Madison, Wis. : Crop Science Society of America; 1991 Sep.
 Crop science v. 31 (5): p. 1293-1297; 1991 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South Dakota; Zea mays; Diabrotica virgifera; Population density;
 Crop damage; Roots; Discing; Conservation tillage; Crop yield; Grain; Yield
 increases; Larvae; Survival; Infestation
 
 Abstract:  Corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp.) are the most economically
 destructive insect pests of corn (Zea mays L.) in the U.S. Midwest. The
 objective of this 2-yr field study was to measure plant response and yield
 under ridge tillage or spring disk tillage in fields artificially infested with
 western corn rootworm (D. virgifera virgifera LeConte). Corn rootworm
 infestations were applied at 0, 1650, 3300, or 6600 viable eggs m-1. We
 measured insect survival to adult, root damage ratings, nodal root volume
 (Nodes 4 and above) at maximum insect damage, and grain yield. In 1988, which
 was characterized by above-normal temperature and below-normal precipitation,
 root damage increased (6.7 rating at 1650 eggs m-1 to 7.9 at 6600 eggs m-1) and
 insect survival to adult decreased (4.9% at 1650 eggs m-1 to 1.2% at 6600 eggs
 m-1) with increasing infestation level under both tillage systems. During the
 1988 season, plants grown under ridge tillage had larger nodal root
 systems (17.9 mL) than under spring disk tillage (9.9 mL). Ridge-tilled plants
 also had greater yield (5.5 vs. 4.1 Mg ha-1 with no rootworm eggs; 4.3 vs. 3.1
 with 1650 eggs m-1; and 4.1 vs. 2.2 Mg ha-1 with 3300 eggs m-1). In 1989, which
 had near normal temperature but below-normal precipitation during the growing
 season, root damage increased (from a 1.1 to 5.9 rating as the
 infestation level increased from 0 to 6600 eggs m-1) and insect survival to
 adult decreased (from 1.3 to 0.7% as the infestation level increased from 1650
 to 6600 eggs m-1) under both tillage systems. Tillage practice had no effect on
 plant response to rootworm feeding or yield. However, the number of nodal root
 axes per plant (22.4) and grain yield (8.8 Mg ha-1) were increased
 significantly under both tillage systems infested with 6600 eggs m-1 of row
 (29.0 axes per plant and 10.2 Mg ha-1). These results suggest that during a
 hot, dry growing season, ridge tillage increased yield for uninfested and
 rootworm-infested plants when compared with yield
 
 
 331                                                   NAL Call. No.: 79.9 C122
 What is the influence of weed control on minimum vineyard temperature?.
 Donaldson, D.R.; Snyder, R.; Gallagher, S.
 Fremont, Calif. : California Weed Conference; 1991.
 Proceedings - California Weed Conference (43rd): p. 147-151; 1991.  Meeting
 held January 21-23, 1991, Santa Barbara, California.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Vineyards; Weed control; No-tillage; Air temperature
 
 
 332                                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Wheat stubble management affects growth, survival, and yield of winter grain
 legumes.
 Huggins, D.R.; Pan, W.L.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1991 May.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 55 (3): p. 823-829; 1991 May.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Idaho; Triticum aestivum; Pisum sativum; Lens culinaris;
 No-tillage; Phosphorus fertilizers; Potassium fertilizers; Stubble
 cultivation; Growth; Survival; Winter hardiness; Crop yield
 
 Abstract:  The adoption of no-tillage systems in the Pacific Northwest will
 benefit from the development of crop rotations that complement winter wheat
 (Triticum aestivum L.). Experiments were conducted during 1986-1987 and
 1988-1989 to determine the effects of wheat residue and fertility management on
 the growth, winter survival, and yield of 'Glacier' Austrian winter pea (Pisum
 sativum subsp. arvense L.) and winter lentil (Lens colinaris Medik.). No-
 tillage (NT) and no-tillage with reduced stubble (NT-SR) enhanced soil moisture
 conservation and increased the early growth of Austrian winter pea (AWP),
 compared with conventional tillage (CT). Decreased shoot mass of winter lentil
 (WL) in NT, and elongated stems and reduced branching of AWP and WL in NT, were
 attributed to shading by stubble that reduced photosynthetically active
 radiation and red/far-red ratios. Winter survival of AWP during
 1986-1987 was reduced in NT (78%), compared with NT-SR (91%) and CT (96%), but
 no differences occurred in 1988-1989. Less aboveground tissue necrosis of
 surviving AWP occurred in NT than in NT-SR and CT for both years. Greater
 average yields in NT (3568 kg ha-1) and NT-SR (3530 kg ha-1) than in CT (2700
 kg ha-1) were correlated with greater fall growth and less winter injury.
 Residue management did not influence the yield of WL. Applied P and K did not
 have consistent effects on winter survival or yield. These results indicate
 that winter grain legumes can be used to complement wheat production in the
 design of no-tillage rotations.
 
 
 333                                                 NAL Call. No.: S592.7.A1S6
 Wheat yield depression associated with conservation tillage caused by root
 pathogens in the soil not phytotoxins from the straw.
 Cook, R.J.; Haglund, W.A.
 Exeter : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Soil biology and biochemistry v. 23 (12): p. 1125-1132; 1991.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Washington; Triticum; Lens; Gaeumannomyces graminis; Rhizoctonia
 solani; Pythium; Plant pathogenic fungi; Biological activity in soil; Soil
 flora; Conservation tillage; No-tillage; Wheat straw; Straw mulches; Straw
 burning; Cropping systems; Chloropicrin; Deep placement; Band placement; Soil
 fumigation; Roots; Fungal diseases; Disease prevalence; Infections; Crop
 yield; Fertilizer requirement determination; Yield targets; Decomposition;
 Phytotoxins; Etiology
 
 Abstract:  Wheat planted directly into soil mulched with straw of a previous
 wheat crop (mulch or conservation tillage) typically grows and yields poorly
 relative to that planted into a prepared seedbed with straw residue burned or
 buried (clean tillage). This injurious effect associated with straw mulches has
 been greatest in the higher-rainfall wheat-growing areas, or in wet years in
 normally dry areas. Researchers have focused for the past 30 yr on putative
 phytotoxins thought to be liberated during microbial colonization or breakdown
 of the straw on or near the soil surface when wet. The results of experiments
 reported herein indicate that the causal microorganisms are in the soil and not
 the straw as would be required if phytotoxic straw decomposition products were
 important. The injury in these experiments resulted from at least three root
 diseases, all favored by the lack of crop rotation. The three root
 diseases were take-all caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici,
 Rhizoctonia root rot caused mainly by Rhizoctonia solani AG8, and Pythium root
 rot caused by several Pythium spp. The effect of straw on, or mulched into, the
 soil surface possibly amounts to no more than helping to keep the top 10-15 cm
 of soil, the zone occupied by the root pathogens, more ideally moist for their
 activity. The results suggest that conservation tillage is feasible for wheat
 in the higher rainfall areas when used in combination with a break from wheat.
 
 
 334                                                NAL Call. No.: 100 SO82 (3)
 Wheel-traffic compaction in conservation tillage systems and soils of varying
 depth.
 Schumacher, T.; Lindstrom, M.
 Brookings, S.D. : The Station; 1992 Oct.
 TB - Agricultural Experiment Station, South Dakota State University (99): 6 p.;
 1992 Oct.  In the series analytic: Soil science research in the Plant Science
 Department : 1991 Annual Report. Soil PR 91-18.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South Dakota; Soil compaction; Conservation tillage; Wheel
 tracks; Crop yield; Row tillage
 
 
 335                                                   NAL Call. No.: 79.9 W52R
 Winter annual brome control in winter wheat.
 Thompson, C.R.; Dial, M.J.; Thill, D.C.
 S.l. : The Society; 1992.
 Research progress report - Western Society of Weed Science. p.
 III/171-III/172; 1992.  Meeting held on March 9-12, 1992, Salt Lake City, Utah.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Idaho; Triticum; Bromus; Herbicides; No-tillage; Weed control
 
 
 336                                                  NAL Call. No.: QL461.E532
 Winter cover crop suppression practices and natural enemies of armyworm
 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in no-till corn.
 Laub, C.A.; Luna, J.M.
 Lanham, Md. : Entomological Society of America; 1992 Feb.
 Environmental entomology v. 21 (1): p. 41-49; 1992 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Virginia; Zea mays; Mythimna unipuncta; Biological control;
 Glyptapanteles militaris; Natural enemies; Parasites of insect pests;
 Tachinidae; Cover crops; Secale cereale; Mowing; Paraquat; Insect control
 
 Abstract:  Rye, Secale cereale L., used as a winter cover crop was killed by
 the herbicide paraquat or by mowing with a rotary mower. In subsequent no-till
 corn, Glyptapanteles militaris (Walsh) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and
 Periscepsia laevigata (Wulp) (Diptera: Tachinidae) were the most abundant of
 twelve species of parasitoids that emerged from field-collected larvae of the
 armyworm, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haworth). No effects of cover crop
 suppression practices were detected for parasitism rates for any individual
 species or for total armyworm parasitism. Seasonal parasitism rates ranged from
 32 to 45%. Higher numbers of Pterostichus spp. and Scarites spp.
 (Coleoptera: Carabidae), and wolf spiders (Araneae: Lycosidae) occurred early
 in the corn season in the mowed cover crop treatment compared with the
 herbicide killed cover crop treatment. Subsequent reduction of larval
 densities of armyworm in mowed plots following higher predator densities
 suggests the role of these generalist predators in biological control of
 armyworm.
 
 
 337                                                    NAL Call. No.: 79.8 W41
 Yield loss assessment for spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) infested with
 Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense).
 Donald, W.W.; Khan, M.
 Champaign, Ill. : Weed Science Society of America; 1992.
 Weed science v. 40 (4): p. 590-598; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Dakota; Triticum aestivum; Crop weed competition; Cirsium
 arvense; Crop yield; Yield losses; Assessment; Equations; No-tillage; Plowing;
 Crop density; Economic analysis
 
 Abstract:  In eight of nine trials spanning 5 yr, relative yield of semidwarf
 hard red spring wheat (yield expressed as a percent of estimated weed-free
 yield) decreased linearly as Canada thistle shoot density increased when
 measured in late July to early August in the northern Great Plains.
 Differences between yield loss assessment (YLA) equations could not be
 distinguished statistically between no-tillage and chisel-plowed production
 systems. Multiple linear regression equations of relative wheat yield versus
 wheat density plus Canada thistle shoot density accounted for more variability
 in YLA equations than simple linear regression equations of wheat yield versus
 Canada thistle shoot density alone. Estimated weed-free wheat yield and
 negative slope (b) for yield loss assessment equations increased as cumulative
 growing-season (April to August) rainfall increased. Thus, relative wheat yield
 was decreased more by increasing Canada thistle density (slope b became more
 negative) in years of greater growing-season rainfall.
 
 
 338                                                  NAL Call. No.: 464.9 C16S
 Yield of soybean cultivars differing in susceptibility to Phytophthora
 megasperma f. sp. glycinea on minimum tillage ridges.
 Anderson, T.R.
 Ottawa : Research Branch, Agriculture Canada; 1991.
 Canadian plant disease survey v. 71 (2): p. 163-164; 1991.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ontario; Glycine max; Cultivars; Phytophthora megasperma; Plant
 pathogenic fungi; Varietal susceptibility; Minimum tillage; Ridges; Seedling
 emergence; Crop losses; Crop yield
 
 
 
 
                                   Author Index
 
 Abdul-Baki, A.A. 221
 Abernathy, J.R. 231, 306
 Aggarwal, R.K. 167
 Albers, D.W. 56, 119
 Alder, V. 152
 Aldrich-Markham, S. 20, 49
 Allan, R.E. 193
 American Cyanamid Company 45
 Amos, F.B. Jr 227
 Andersen, R.N. 275
 Anderson, G.W. 16, 169
 Anderson, N.G. 146
 Anderson, R.L. 122
 Anderson, S.G. 143
 Anderson, T.R. 338
 Andow, D.A. 129
 Andraski, T.W. 240
 Angle, J.S. 280
 Antisari, L.V. 157
 Arthur, M.A. 318
 Ayers, V.H. 56
 Bacheler, J.S. 208
 Bahler, C.C. 112
 Bahr, J.R. 82
 Bahri, Abdeljabar 120
 Baker, J.L. 132, 227, 254
 Ball, D.A. 328
 Bank, P.A. 93
 Banks, J.C. 195
 Barratt, B.I.P. 29
 Bateman, R.J. 32
 Beck, D. 139, 214
 Beck, D.E. 106, 151
 Beck, D.L. 209, 330
 Bell, A.R. 76
 Bellinder, R.R. 140, 141
 Benedict, J.H. 163
 Benjamin, J.G. 276
 Benoit, D.L. 23
 Benoit, G.R. 230
 Berg, R.D. 63, 246
 Berg, R.K. 89, 90, 239
 Bergen, P. 84
 Berry, E.C. 316
 Bertrand, P.F. 295
 Beste, C.E. 263
 Bicki, T.J. 307
 Bierlein, D.L. 29
 Blaylock, A.D. 269
 Blevins, R.L. 257
 Bligh, Kevin J. 220
 Bockus, W.W. 101
 Bollich, P.K. 42
 Bonczkowski, L.C. 205
 Bowes, G.G. 98
 Bradley, J.F. 51, 229, 235, 287
 Brandenburg, R.L. 88
 Braun, D. 250
 Broadway, R. 31, 58, 197
 Brothers, B.A. 13
 Bruce, R.R. 264
 Bruening, T.H. 135
 Bruff, S.A. 75, 301
 Brust, G.E. 186
 Brydon, J. 262
 Buchanan, M. 273
 Buhler, D.D. 74, 97, 110, 156, 241
 Bullock, D.G. 91
 Bundy, L.G. 240
 Burd, J.D. 66
 Burt, E.C. 114
 Burton, R.L. 66
 Byers, R.A. 29, 112, 143
 Cambardella, C.A. 232
 Campbell, G.S. 253
 Campbell, W.V. 15
 Caporali, F. 171
 Carcoana, R. 237, 238
 Cardina, J. 180
 Carey, J.B. 314
 Carlson, G.R. 89, 90, 239
 Carter, D.L. 63, 246
 Carter, L.M. 22
 Carter, P.R. 215, 303
 Cassel, D.K. 154
 Chamblee, D.S. 15
 Chandler, J.M. 71
 Chandler, K. 23
 Chaparro, C.J. 176
 Chapin, J.W. 289
 Chichester, F.W. 5, 292
 Choi, C.H. 276
 Ciavatta, C. 157
 Cihacek, L.J. 237, 238
 Claassen, M.M. 101
 Clancy, J.A. 200
 Claypool, D. 124
 Claypool, D.A. 291
 Clegg, M.D. 8
 Coffman, C.B. 54, 329
 Cogle, A.L. 32
 Cole, C.V. 199
 Collins, B.A. 28
 Collis-George, N. 279
 Colvin, T.S. 86, 87, 225, 226, 316
 Colyer, P.D. 95
 Conservation Technology Information Center 1
 Cook, R.J. 158, 333
 Corliss, J. 46, 317
 Cornell University, Cooperative Extension, Cornell University, Audio-Visual
 Resource Center 297
 Cosgrove, D.R. 100
 Cox, D.J. 138, 234
 Cox, F.R. 183
 Cox, W.J. 130
 Crawford, S.H. 243, 244
 Crenshaw, C. 57
 Crozier, C.R. 53
 Cruse, R.M. 68, 86, 87, 201, 202, 260, 269, 276
 Cummins, C.G. 305
 Curl, E.A. 59
 Curran, W.S. 108
 Dalal, R.C. 181, 228, 299
 Daley, P.E. 100
 Daniel, T.C. 236, 240
 Dao, T.H. 133
 Davis, J.D. 73
 De Spain, R.R. 163
 Deen, B. 27
 DeFelice, M.S. 162
 Defelice, M.S. 314
 Denton, H.P. 154, 302
 Denton, P. 131
 Derksen, D.A. 23, 111
 DeTar, W.R. 22
 Dhuyvetter, K.C. 81
 Dial, M.J. 335
 Dickey, E.C. 14, 35, 115
 Dillard, A.L. 116
 Dobbs, T.L. 64
 Dobbs, Thomas L. 104
 Doerr, R. 209
 Doll, J.D. 110
 Donald, W.W. 99, 113, 121, 251, 337
 Donaldson, D.R. 331
 Douglas, C.L. Jr 160
 Drost, D.T. 310
 Duff, S. 27
 Eadie, A.G. 16, 169
 Eason, J.T. 179
 Eck, H.V. 281
 Eckert, D.J. 24, 70
 Eddleman, B.R. 163
 Edmisten, K.L. 208
 Edwards, I. 123
 Edwards, J.H. 4, 179, 304, 305
 El Titi, A. 166
 Elamin, M.A. 276
 Eldridge, I.L. 159
 Elliot, P.C. 164
 Elliott, E.T. 232
 Elmore, C.D. 321
 Enache, A.J. 294
 Enberg, A. 192
 Epplin, F.M. 106, 151
 Erbach, D.C. 271, 276
 Evans, S.D. 286, 311
 Evanylo, G.K. 207
 Evert, D.R. 295
 Falatah, A.M. 137
 Falkenberg, Joan 297
 Favretto, M.R. 171
 Fermanich, K.J. 236
 Fernandes, J.M. 103
 Fernandez, M.R. 48, 103
 Ford, J.H. 286, 311
 Fowler, D.B. 28, 136, 155, 217, 218, 262, 274
 Fox, G. 27
 Fox, R.H. 184
 Frank, J.R. 54, 329
 Freeland, R.S. 235
 Freeman, B.L. 256
 Freese, R.C. 154
 Frye, W.W. 198
 Gaffney, F.B. 130
 Gaffney, J. 299
 Gage, S.H. 144
 Gallagher, S. 331
 Geremia, R. 111
 Gerwing, J. 126
 Ghate, S.R. 290
 Ghuman, B.S. 65, 173, 174
 Gillespie, M. 21
 Gilley, J.E. 17
 Glasby, J.M. 228
 Glasstetter, M. 312
 Glenn, S. 146
 Glewen, K. 14
 Goodman, W.R. 256
 Gordon, W.B. 59, 204
 Goynes, S.W. 163
 Granatstein, D. 10
 Graves, C.R. 51, 287
 Graves, J.B. 43
 Gray, M. 134
 Grichar, W.J. 170
 Grisso, R.D. 14
 Gross, C.M. 280
 Grove, J.H. 198
 Guertal, E.A. 70
 Guethle, D.R. 148
 Guo, L. 307
 Gupta, J.P. 167
 Gustin, R.D. 330
 Haglund, W.A. 333
 Hagood, E.S. Jr 67
 Hall, B. 126
 Hall, J.K. 175
 Halvorson, A.D. 219
 Hanson, D.G. 330
 Harker, K.N. 147
 Harper, S.S. 187
 Harrigan, T.M. 34
 Harrison, K. 180
 Harrison, M.P. 51, 287
 Hart, W.E. 235
 Hartwig, N.L. 7
 Hartzler, R.G. 325
 Havlin, J.L. 219
 Heatherly, L.G. 321
 Heer, W.F. 106
 Heilman, M.D. 30
 Heiner, D.H. 32
 Helms, T.C. 189
 Henderson, P.A. 228
 Henn, T. 134
 Herridge, D.F. 247, 248
 Herrington, B.E. Jr 288
 Hesterman, O.B. 13
 Hickman, J.S. 205
 Hickman, M.V. 30
 Hicks, D.R. 286, 311
 Higgins, J.M. 26
 Hill, P.R. 233
 Hill, R.L. 280
 Hirschi, M.C. 196
 Hoare, J. 298
 Hodson, Eric 142
 Hoffman, L.D. 112
 Holland, J.F. 247, 248
 Holmes, R.G. 282
 Horny, P. 47
 Horton, R. 270
 Hovermale, C.H. 73
 Hoverstad, T.R. 149, 275, 286, 311
 Howard, D.D. 203, 283
 Hoyt, G.D. 36
 Huggins, D.R. 332
 Hultgreen, G.E. 274
 Hutchinson, R.L. 40, 43
 Hutsch, B. 85
 Hwu, K.K. 193
 Ilnicki, R.D. 294
 Jackson, G.D. 89, 90, 239
 Jacobs, S.B. 143
 Jacobsen, J.S. 293
 Janke, R.R. 9
 Jasa, P.J. 14, 35, 115
 Johnston, A.M. 217, 218
 Jones, C.S. Jr 176
 Jones, O.R. 281
 Joy, D.N. 76
 Kahn, B.A. 272
 Kanne, B.K. 275, 286, 311
 Kanwar, R.S. 185, 227, 270
 Karlen, D.L. 316
 Kaspar, T.C. 68
 Keeling, J.W. 231, 306
 Keisling, Terry C. 245
 Ker, Alan 11
 Khan, M. 337
 Kincer, D.R. 51
 King, L.D. 53, 273
 King, R.L. 34
 Kingery, R.C. 315
 Kitur, B.K. 309
 Klingaman, T.E. 159
 Koenig, L.G. 100
 Kohler, K.A. 201, 202
 Kottwitz, E.R. 17
 Krenzer, E.G. Jr 106, 151
 Kushnak, G.D. 89, 90, 213, 239
 Lafond, G.P. 105, 111
 Lake, J.E. 233
 Lal, R. 65, 173, 174
 Lamond, R.E. 205
 Landeck, J.K. 34
 Landis, D.A. 144
 Landivar, J.A. 57, 163
 Lanfranconi, L.E. 140, 141
 Langdale, G.W. 33, 264
 Larink, O. 92
 Laub, C.A. 72, 165, 336
 Lavergne, D.R. 78, 83
 Lawlor, D.J. 57
 Leath, K.T. 112
 Lemons, R. 326
 Lenter, M. 216
 Leonard, B.R. 43
 Leonards, W.J. Jr 42
 Levine, E. 96
 Liebig, Mark A. 50
 Liebl, R.A. 108
 Lindstrom, M. 334
 Lipps, P.E. 296
 Lizotte, D.A. 237, 238
 Locke, M.A. 187, 284
 Logan, T.J. 70
 Lueschen, W.E. 149, 275, 286, 311
 Luna, J.M. 72, 165, 336
 Lund, M.G. 303
 Lund, R.E. 239
 Lyle, W.M. 224
 MacLean, J.T. 39
 Madden, L.V. 296
 Maredia, K.M. 144
 Martin, M.A. 82
 Martin, R.A. 135
 Marzadori, C. 157
 Mask, P.L. 315
 McChesney, D.S. 300
 McGregor, K.C. 278
 McIntosh, M.S. 280
 McIsaac, G.F. 196
 McKenna, J.R. 216
 McNairn, H.E. 178
 Meek, B.D. 22
 Melgoza, A. 320
 Mends, Clarence 104
 Mengel, K. 85
 Mester, T.C. 97
 Michaels, T.E. 212
 Midwest Plan Service 44
 Miller, W.P. 264
 Mills, W.C. 33, 116
 Minton, N.A. 194
 Mitchell, B. 178
 Mitchell, J.K. 196
 Mobley, J.B. 119
 Mohanty, B.P. 270
 Mohler, C.L. 188
 Monks, C.D. 93
 Moody, K. 164
 Moomaw, R.S. 324
 Morgan, M.T. 282
 Morrison, J.E. Jr 5, 69, 71, 292
 Morton, H.L. 320
 Moseley, C.M. 67
 Mosley-Roberts, L. 252
 Moul, T.M. 172
 Moyer, J.R. 84
 Mueller, J.P. 15
 Mukhtar, S. 276
 Mulford, R. 250
 Mumma, R.O. 175
 Murphy, Timothy L. 266
 Musselman, A. 86
 Mustafee, T.P. 327
 Mutchler, C.K. 278
 Myers, J.L. 259
 Naderman, G.C. 208
 Nannipieri, P. 171
 National Cartographic Center (U.S.) 37, 190, 210, 267
 National Cartography and Geographic Information Systems Center (U.S.) 38, 191,
 211, 268
 Nazareno, N.R.X. de 296
 Nelson, L.A. 8
 Nelson, W.A. 272
 Norris, B.E. 256
 Norwood, C.A. 81
 Nus, A. 18
 O'Brien-Wray, K. 145
 O'Sullivan, P.A. 147
 Ogg, A.G. Jr 158
 Oldham, M.G. 94
 Oliver, L.R. 159
 Olson, K.R. 309
 Onnis, A. 171
 Oplinger, E.S. 285, 303
 Orf, J.H. 286, 311
 Otis, D.J. 130
 Owen, M.D.K. 325
 Pan, W.L. 200, 332
 Paoletti, M.G. 171
 Papendick, R.I. 253
 Parker, R.D. 163
 Patterson, M.G. 256
 Pavuk, D.M. 258
 Paxton, K.W. 78, 83
 Pedersen, W.L. 94
 Peeples, J.L. 3
 Pegarra, E. 224
 Peterson, G.A. 199, 277
 Pfender, W.F. 18
 Phatak, S.C. 290
 Philbrook, B.D. 285
 Phillips, S.R. 309
 Piekielek, W.P. 184
 Pierce, F.J. 34
 Plett, S. 8
 Potts, W.E. 263
 Prato, T. 99, 113, 251
 Proost, R.T. 156
 Pruyne, R. 25
 Raimbault, B.A. 52, 62
 Rajaram, G. 271
 Randall, G.W. 311
 Ranells, N.N. 206
 Raney, R.J. 204
 Rao, S.C. 133
 Raper, R.L. 41, 114
 Rasmussen, P.E. 160
 Raun, W.R. 182
 Rechel, E.R. 22
 Reeder, R.C. 282
 Reeves, D.W. 41, 114, 313, 315
 Regnier, E. 180
 Reinbott, D. 79
 Reynolds, K.R. 130
 Rhoton, F.E. 300
 Rice, H.B. 261
 Rice, M.E. 12
 Richards, W. 265
 Rickerl, D. 124, 126
 Rickerl, D.H. 59
 Riedell, W.E. 330
 Riepe, J.R. 82
 Ring, D.R. 163
 Ritten, T.J. 100
 Roberts, B.W. 272
 Roeth, F.W. 109
 Romero, G.R. 42
 Roseberg, R.J. 308
 Roy, R.C. 77
 Rubin, G. 318
 Ruf, M.E. 179, 304
 Sanders, B.J. 246
 Sandoval, D.M. 212
 Santos, H.P. dos 48
 Sarwar, G. 27
 Sasscer, C. 326
 Schaalje, G.B. 84
 Schneider, R.E. 318
 Schreiber, M.M. 82, 161
 Schumacher, T. 126, 334
 Schwarzer, M.J. 253
 Scriber, J.M. 144
 Segarra, E. 306
 Sequi, P. 157
 Servi-Tech, Inc 142
 Sharratt, B.S. 253
 Shaw, D.R. 75, 301
 Shaw, J. 80
 Shaw, J.E. 16, 55, 169
 Shea, P.J. 109
 Sheard, R.W. 152
 Shearer, W. 65, 173
 Shelton, D.P. 14, 35, 115
 Shelton, D.R. 138
 Sider, K.T. 231
 Siemens, J.C. 309
 Simmons, F.W. 108
 Sims, B.D. 148, 162
 Singh, P. 185
 Smiley, R.W. 158
 Smith, M.A. 215
 Smith, M.J. 322
 Smith, M.S. 198
 Smith, O.D. 170
 Smolik, J. 124, 125, 126, 223, 249
 Smolik, J.D. 64
 Snyder, D.P. 130
 Snyder, R. 331
 Snyder, W.M. 116
 Sochtig, W. 92
 Sollenberger, L.E. 176
 Sorensen, D. 177
 Sorensen, D.R. 291
 Sorenson, B.A. 109
 South Dakota State University, Economics Dept 104
 Spurr, D.T. 6
 St. Louis, D.G. 73
 Staricka, J.A. 286
 Steffey, K. 134
 Steinstra, W.C. 286
 Stinner, B.R. 107, 258
 Stirzaker, R.J. 279
 Stout, W.L. 112
 Stratman, Gail G. 168
 Stritzke, J.F. 319
 Strong, W.M. 299
 Stuart, C.A. 117, 288
 Sullivan, M.J. 289
 Sumner, D.R. 290
 Sutton, B.G. 279
 Sutton, J.C. 103
 Swanton, C. 55, 80
 Swanton, C.J. 16, 23, 77, 169, 212
 Swift Current, Saskatchewan 48
 Tanaka, D.L. 122
 Tanji, K.K. 192
 Taylor, M.J. 30
 Teasdale, J.R. 221, 263
 Thaut, R.E. 213
 Thill, D.C. 335
 Thom, W.O. 261
 Thomas, A.W. 33, 116, 264
 Thomas, J.S. 289
 Thompson, C.R. 335
 Thompson, M.L. 185
 Thurlow, D.L. 304
 Tillman, B.A. 200
 Timmons, D.R. 68, 132, 227, 254, 260
 Tindall, Timothy Todd, 242
 Tinline, R.D. 6
 Toler, J.E. 26
 Tollenaar, M. 52
 Tomei, P.E. 171
 Tompkins, D.K. 136, 155, 274
 Tompkins, F.D. 235
 Tonhasca, A. Jr 107
 Torbert, H.A. 41
 Touchton, J.T. 59, 313
 Traina, S.J. 70
 Treacy, M.F. 163
 Triplett, C.M. 224
 Tyler, D.D. 283
 Ullrich, S.E. 200
 United States, Soil Conservation Service 60, 61, 128
 United States. Soil Conservation Service 37, 38, 190, 191, 210, 211, 267, 268
 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Agricultural Experiment Station 245
 Uribe, E. 183
 Van der Grinten, M. 130
 Van Duyn, J.W. 88
 Van Es, H.M. 130
 Van Sickle, K.A. 230
 VanLieshout, Lawrence Anthony, 323
 Varco, J.J. 198
 Vasek, J. 57
 Vaughan, M. 255
 Vernon, P.R. 95
 Vyn, T.J. 52, 62
 Wagger, M.G. 206, 259
 Walker, D.M. 42
 Walker, M. 55, 80
 Wallace, R.W. 140, 141
 Walsh, J.D. 162
 Walz, A.W. 76
 Warnes, D.D. 286
 Warren, D.M. 271
 Warriner, G.K. 172
 Watts, D.W. 175
 Weersink, A. 27, 55, 77, 80
 Weinstein, L.H. 318
 Weinzierl, R. 134
 Wells, K.L. 261
 Wesley, R.A. 321
 West, D.R. 51
 West, L.T. 264
 Westerman, R.L. 293
 Westfall, D.G. 199, 277
 Weston, E.J. 299
 Whitley, S. 326
 Whitney, D.A. 204, 205
 Whitwell, T. 26
 Wiersma, J.V. 153
 Wilcox-Lee, D. 310
 Wilde, G.E. 12
 Willis, W.O. 199
 Wilson, B.J. 102
 Windels, C.E. 153
 Windham, T.E. 117, 288
 Winther, D. 291
 Witt, W.W. 150
 Wolf, D.D. 216
 Wood, C.W. 4, 179, 199, 277, 304, 305, 313
 Wood, R.K. 282
 Woodard, H. 124, 126
 Woodard, H.J. 291
 Worsham, A.D. 326
 Wrage, L. 126
 Wright, A.T. 136, 155, 274
 Wright, K.J. 102
 Wu, L. 192
 Wyss, E. 312
 Yenish, J.P. 110
 Yiridoe, E.K. 77
 York, A.C. 208
 Yusuf, R.I. 91
 Zarnstorff, M.E. 15
 Zebarth, B.J. 152
 Zeiss, M.R. 88
 Zentner, R.P. 98, 111
 Zhang, W. 18
 
 
 
                                   Subject Index
 
 2,4-d  84, 99, 113, 121, 146
 2,4-db  321
 Abutilon theophrasti  74, 149, 156, 275
 Acid soils  65
 Acidification  293, 298
 Acreage  81
 Adaptation  193
 Adsorption  182
 Adult education  135
 Adventitious roots  113, 121
 Aerial sowing  73
 Aeschynomene Americana  176
 Aggregates  62, 309
 Agitation  284
 Agricultural education  135
 Agricultural production  27
 Agricultural research  213, 215, 317
 Agricultural systems  104
 Agroclimatology  10
 Agroforestry  167, 174
 Agronomic characteristics  193, 208
 Agronomy  155
 Agropastoral systems  299
 Agropyron cristatum  199
 Agrotis ipsilon  107
 Air temperature  331
 Alabama  4, 21, 41, 59, 179, 256, 304, 305, 313, 315
 Alachlor  54, 148, 241, 284
 Alaska  253, 317
 Aldicarb  95
 Alfalfa  104
 Allelopathy  161
 Alley cropping  65, 174
 Allophane  182
 Alopecurus myosuroides  20
 Alpha-amylase  200
 Alternative agriculture  104
 Alternative farming  27, 80, 82, 127, 223, 249, 294, 298
 Amaranthus  180
 Amaranthus hybridus  54, 148, 329
 Amaranthus palmeri  231
 Amaranthus retroflexus  76, 141, 149, 241
 Ammonia  184
 Ammonium  198
 Ammonium nitrate  91, 105, 160, 217, 254, 262, 280
 Ammonium nitrogen  198
 Ammonium phosphates  105, 182
 Ammonium polyphosphates  160
 Ammonium sulfate  160
 Ammonium thiosulfate  160, 205
 Anhydrous ammonia  240
 Annual habit  241
 Annuals  110, 314
 Aphidoidea  144
 Aphyllophorales  18
 Apocynum cannabinum  146
 Aporrectodea  92
 Aporrectodea caliginosa  92
 Application date  52, 54, 75, 84, 91, 99, 109, 148, 149, 156, 158, 184, 204,
 215, 216, 217, 251, 254, 261, 262, 293, 313, 314
 Application methods  71, 74, 108, 109, 132, 184, 204, 291
 Application rates  16, 26, 36, 54, 67, 89, 90, 91, 93, 105, 109, 113, 132, 133,
 140, 146, 147, 156, 160, 162, 171, 175, 181, 183, 184, 200, 204, 205, 207, 216,
 217, 219, 239, 240, 254, 259, 261, 262, 269, 280, 293, 313, 316
 Arachis hypogaea  32, 170
 Araneae  12
 Arid regions  209
 Arion fasciatus  29
 Arizona  320
 Arkansas  117, 159, 288
 Ash  93
 Asparagus officinalis  310
 Aspect  253
 Assessment  116, 337
 Assimilation  133
 Atrazine  16, 54, 74, 175, 216, 241, 275, 329
 Atriplex patula  192
 Attitudes  178
 Autumn  289
 Availability  144
 Avena nuda  48
 Avena sativa  48, 112, 275, 324
 Baking quality  138
 Band placement  16, 182, 205, 217, 219, 240, 260, 262, 283, 333
 Barley  200
 Basidiomycotina  18
 Bassia hyssopifolia  192
 Beef cattle  73
 Beta vulgaris  157, 328
 Bibliographies  39
 Biodegradation  296
 Biological activity in soil  4, 65, 92, 312, 333
 Biological control  336
 Biological control agents  18, 107, 144, 186
 Biomass  92, 228, 273, 312
 Biomass production  16, 162, 169, 192, 199, 249, 294
 Blade plowing  101
 Blight  94, 170
 Botanical composition  176, 320
 Bothriochloa  319
 Bothriochloa caucasica  216
 Bouteloua curtipendula  199
 Bouteloua gracilis  199
 Brassica  10
 Brassica campestris  28
 Brassica napus  28, 84, 91
 Brassica oleracea  294
 Breadmaking  138
 British Columbia  152
 Broadcasting  16, 28, 205, 217, 219, 260, 262, 269, 283, 293
 Bromide  307
 Bromoxynil  99, 113, 121
 Bromus  49, 335
 Bromus inermis  98
 Bromus tectorum  122
 Brush control  320
 Buchloe dactyloides  199
 Buds  113, 121
 Bulk density  22, 304, 308, 309
 Bulldozers  174
 Buried seeds  97, 180
 Butylate  54
 Cabt  41, 81, 93, 140, 141, 146, 147, 162, 184, 204, 221, 287, 303, 324
 Cajanus cajan  247
 Calcareous soils  137
 Calcium  24, 171, 182, 316
 Calcium ions  174
 Calcium sulfate  182
 California  22, 192
 Canada  99, 147
 Canopy  155, 320
 Captan  286
 Carabidae  186
 Carbofuran  216
 Carbohydrates  310
 Carbon  4, 24, 187, 273, 277, 305, 316
 Carbon cycle  232
 Carbon dioxide  187
 Carbon-nitrogen ratio  316
 Cash crops  80
 Cassia obtusifolia  75, 301
 Catch cropping  312
 Cation exchange capacity  137
 Cations  137
 Cercospora zeae-maydis  296
 Cereals  169, 322
 Characterization  185
 Chemical control  7, 15, 26, 54, 67, 74, 75, 84, 95, 108, 113, 121, 140, 141,
 146, 148, 149, 156, 161, 164, 231, 241, 251, 290, 301, 314, 321, 327, 328, 329
 Chemical precipitation  182
 Chemical speciation  137
 Chemical treatment  198
 Chemicals  307
 Chenopodium album  110, 141, 149, 156, 180, 241, 263, 314
 Chiselling  22, 55, 74, 80, 82, 97, 101, 137, 153, 154, 240, 241, 286, 309,
 311, 316
 Chlorimuron  67, 75, 301, 314, 321
 Chloropicrin  333
 Chlorsulfuron  99, 113, 121, 251
 Chrysopa  12, 129
 Cirsium arvense  99, 113, 121, 329, 337
 Clay loam soils  55, 175, 180, 293, 298
 Clay soils  55, 69, 321
 Climatic factors  116, 198, 296
 Clomazone  108
 Cloproxydim  147
 Clopyralid  113
 Coal  318
 Coastal plain soils  59, 182, 313
 Coastal plains  207
 Coccinella septempunctata  12, 144
 Cochliobolus sativus  6, 48, 103, 153
 Coleomegilla maculata  12
 Coleoptera  186
 Colorado  199, 219, 277
 Communication  172
 Companion planting  242
 Comparisons  55, 64, 106, 137, 171, 215, 219, 235, 240, 271
 Competitive ability  329
 Conidia  296
 Conservation  112
 Conservation tillage  1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 12, 14, 17, 18, 21, 25, 26, 27, 31,
 32, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 48, 54, 55, 59, 61, 63,
 68, 69, 71, 74, 75, 80, 82, 84, 86, 87, 92, 94, 95, 97, 103, 110, 114, 115,
 116, 118, 125, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 134, 135, 137, 138, 139, 143, 145, 154,
 156, 163, 167, 172, 177, 178, 179, 181, 189, 193, 195, 201, 202, 204, 205, 222,
 224, 225, 226, 227, 229, 231, 233, 241, 243, 245, 256, 260, 264, 265, 269, 271,
 272, 278, 281, 285, 290, 292, 293, 297, 300, 301, 304, 306, 312, 313, 315, 317,
 322, 325, 328, 329, 330, 333, 334
 Continuous cropping  4, 54, 62, 82, 90, 94, 101, 132, 264, 275, 281, 293, 303,
 304, 306, 316
 Conyza canadensis  241
 Cooperative extension service  14, 35
 Copper  137
 Core samplers  300
 Core sampling  300
 Corn  323
 Correlation  94
 Corticium rolfsii  170
 Cost analysis  55, 288
 Cost benefit analysis  82, 83, 111, 113, 118, 127, 164, 249, 251, 256, 315
 Costs  326
 Coulters  52
 Cover crops  36, 52, 58, 77, 165, 169, 197, 207, 208, 221, 259, 263, 272, 294,
 304, 313, 336
 Coverage  116
 Crop damage  59, 84, 93, 108, 143, 146, 158, 330
 Crop density  13, 95, 100, 105, 130, 286, 290, 303, 311, 324, 337
 Crop establishment  15, 28, 95, 98, 105, 112, 169, 199, 259
 Crop growth stage  207, 217
 Crop losses  338
 Crop management  8, 33, 123, 205
 Crop plants as weeds  7
 Crop production  65, 78, 83, 167, 212, 214, 235, 286, 288
 Crop quality  138, 200, 262
 Crop residue management  60, 61, 128
 Crop residues  4, 17, 18, 48, 49, 52, 59, 60, 86, 101, 103, 116, 140, 145, 169,
 187, 198, 199, 204, 205, 228, 255, 264, 292, 296, 303, 311
 Crop rotation  242
 Crop weed competition  54, 147, 241, 306, 327, 329, 337
 Crop yield  5, 16, 28, 30, 32, 51, 52, 54, 57, 62, 64, 65, 68, 73, 75, 77, 80,
 81, 82, 84, 86, 90, 91, 94, 95, 98, 100, 105, 106, 109, 118, 123, 125, 126,
 127, 130, 132, 133, 138, 140, 141, 146, 151, 152, 154, 156, 158, 159, 160, 161,
 164, 169, 170, 171, 182, 183, 184, 197, 200, 204, 205, 207, 212, 216, 217, 219,
 221, 225, 239, 240, 241, 246, 248, 249, 250, 259, 261, 262, 264, 269, 276, 280,
 281, 285, 286, 287, 290, 291, 294, 303, 306, 310, 311, 313, 314, 315, 316, 321,
 324, 326, 329, 330, 332, 333, 334, 337, 338
 Cropping systems  9, 32, 65, 161, 163, 174, 246, 297, 328, 333
 Crops  27
 Crude protein  133
 Cucumis sativus  290
 Cucurbita pepo  294
 Cultivars  16, 42, 51, 91, 136, 153, 167, 169, 170, 194, 200, 286, 287, 303,
 315, 318, 338
 Cultivation  85, 102, 272, 279, 298, 326
 Cultural control  18, 20, 66, 96, 141
 Cultural weed control  97, 188, 263, 325, 327
 Cutting  198
 Cyanazine  54, 175, 241
 Dactylis glomerata  7, 143
 Deamination  187
 Decision making  172
 Decomposition  187, 228, 246, 333
 Deep placement  213, 333
 Deep tillage  290
 Deficiency payments  81
 Demonstration farms  87, 225, 226
 Depth  97, 180
 Deroceras laeve  29
 Deroceras reticulatum  29
 Desert plants  320
 Deserts  320
 Desorption  284
 Determination  157
 Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi  186
 Diabrotica virgifera  107, 330
 Dicalcium phosphate  182
 Dicamba  84, 99, 121, 146
 Diffusion of information  172, 233
 Digitaria sanguinalis  67, 148, 263
 Direct sowing  34, 158, 298
 Disc harrows  88
 Discing  101, 137, 154, 176, 196, 289, 311, 320, 330
 Disease prevalence  6, 158, 170, 290, 333
 Disease resistance  95
 Dispersion  232
 Dissolving  182
 Distribution  137
 Diurnal activity  72
 Diuron  231
 Diversity  180, 193
 Double cropping  67, 73, 148, 247, 264
 Drilling  290
 Drills  34
 Drought  324
 Dry beans  47
 Dry conditions  321
 Dry farming  10, 170, 199, 264, 298, 306
 Dry matter  53, 291
 Dry matter accumulation  52, 206, 217, 259, 261, 313
 Dry matter distribution  53
 Dry season  65, 182
 Duplex soils  123
 Earliness  221
 Earthworms  65, 92, 312
 Ecology  144
 Economic analysis  78, 79, 81, 98, 106, 215, 337
 Economic evaluation  64, 151
 Economic impact  27
 Economics  30
 Educational programs  14, 35, 115, 233
 Effects  33, 254
 Efficacy  141
 Efficiency  147
 Elaeis guineensis  65
 Eleusine indica  263
 Elymus repens  147
 Elymus smithii  199
 Emergence  59
 Energy conservation  35, 86, 87, 225, 226, 227
 Energy consumption  114
 Environmental factors  176
 Environmental protection  27, 178
 Epidemiology  101
 Eptc  54
 Equations  337
 Equipment  195
 Eragrostis cilianensis  263
 Eroded soils  264
 Erosion  3, 17, 19, 25, 27, 33, 35, 46, 63, 65, 86, 115, 116, 196, 302
 Erosion control  21, 25, 35, 178, 233, 302
 Estimation  117
 Ethics  178
 Etiology  333
 Etridiazole  95
 Europe  166
 Exchangeable cations  174, 183
 Experimental design  159
 Experimental equipment  213
 Experimental plots  213
 Externalities  27
 Extraction  70
 Fallow  59, 81, 103, 116, 122, 160, 199, 232, 244, 264, 275, 281
 Fallow systems  111
 Farm budgeting  117, 288
 Farm comparisons  80
 Farm income  64, 80, 82
 Farm inputs  8, 55, 82, 233, 306
 Farm machinery  36, 55, 69, 92
 Farm management  166, 172, 252
 Farm results  82
 Farm size  55, 80, 82
 Farm surveys  172
 Farm tests  189
 Farmers  178
 Farming systems  64, 209
 Farming systems research  125, 127, 166, 223, 249
 Feasibility studies  130
 Federal programs  81
 Feeding behavior  72
 Fenamiphos  295
 Fertilizer distributors  5, 213
 Fertilizer requirement determination  205, 207, 237, 239, 264, 283, 313, 316,
 333
 Fertilizer technology  131
 Fertilizers  64, 171, 201, 249, 316
 Festuca arundinacea  15
 Field crops  8, 64, 126, 134, 209
 Field tests  48, 70, 118, 326
 Fixation  182
 Fixed ammonium  157
 Fixed costs  8, 306
 Flood irrigation  22, 117, 288
 Florida  176
 Flow  185
 Fluazifop  147
 Flutolanil  290
 Fly ash  318
 Fodder crops  31, 134, 162, 216
 Foliar application  152
 Food preferences  143
 Food production  271
 Forage  176
 Fractionation  232
 Fruits  221
 Fuel consumption  35
 Fuelwood  167
 Fungal diseases  48, 59, 101, 333
 Fungicides  256
 Fungus control  123, 136
 Furrow irrigation  63, 204, 246, 306
 Furrows  22, 63, 283
 Fusarium  153
 Fusarium culmorum  6, 153
 Gaeumannomyces graminis  123, 333
 Galinsoga ciliata  140, 141
 Galium aparine  102
 Gels  290
 Genetic variation  153, 193
 Genotype environment interaction  138
 Genotypes  138, 170, 200
 Geological sedimentation  3
 Geometry  308
 Georgia  93, 116, 194, 264, 290, 295
 German federal republic  166
 Germany  92
 Gibberella acuminata  153
 Gibberella avenacea  153
 Gibberella zeae  48, 103, 153
 Glacial till soils  270
 Glufosinate  26
 Glycine max  4, 23, 24, 55, 67, 73, 75, 77, 80, 82, 88, 93, 108, 109, 116, 117,
 148, 149, 156, 159, 162, 177, 187, 189, 194, 196, 237, 238, 247, 285, 286, 287,
 288, 291, 294, 301, 303, 304, 305, 307, 309, 311, 314, 316, 321, 338
 Glyphosate  26, 54, 67, 75, 84, 98, 99, 158, 198, 251, 275, 301, 314, 321
 Glyptapanteles militaris  336
 Gossypium  21, 43, 59, 78, 114, 197, 224, 229, 243, 244
 Gossypium hirsutum  56, 57, 83, 93, 95, 118, 119, 208, 231, 235, 256, 306
 Grain  5, 54, 62, 89, 133, 146, 160, 164, 182, 183, 200, 204, 205, 217, 218,
 219, 240, 259, 260, 262, 264, 281, 313, 316, 329, 330
 Grain crops  8, 10, 64, 65
 Grass sward  198
 Grasses  320
 Grassland improvement  176
 Grassland soils  232
 Grasslands  31, 199, 277
 Grazing  73
 Grazing effects  176
 Green manures  223
 Greenhouse culture  48
 Growth  57, 254, 279, 295, 310, 332
 Growth analysis  112, 158
 Growth rate  62, 216
 Growth stages  206
 Gryllidae  143
 Guatemala  182
 Habitat selection  144
 Habitats  143, 144
 Haloxyfop  147
 Hapludults  304, 305
 Harrowing  137, 164, 290
 Harvesting  233
 Helianthus annuus  247
 Hemarthria altissima  176
 Herbage  216
 Herbicidal properties  99
 Herbicide mixtures  16, 54, 67, 113, 146, 148, 149, 156, 231, 241, 301, 314,
 327
 Herbicide residues  84, 109, 162, 187
 Herbicide resistance  2, 324
 Herbicides  2, 13, 20, 23, 45, 49, 55, 64, 76, 82, 102, 118, 125, 159, 161,
 162, 177, 189, 215, 226, 244, 249, 256, 272, 294, 298, 306, 319, 324, 325, 326,
 327, 328, 335
 Hilling  141
 Hippodamia convergens  12
 Hoeing  164
 Hordeum vulgare  48, 62, 84, 89, 90, 153, 158, 160, 200, 228, 239, 246
 Humid tropics  65, 183
 Hybridization  250
 Hybrids  94
 Hydraulic equipment  300
 Hydraulics  17
 Idaho  246, 332, 335
 Illinois  91, 94, 96, 108, 134, 196, 307, 309
 Imagery  185, 292
 Imazaquin  75, 93, 108, 301, 314
 Imazethapyr  93, 108, 149, 156
 Incidence  48, 95, 103, 158, 290
 Incorporation  219, 296
 Indexes  95
 India  167, 271, 327
 Indiana  82, 161
 Indigenous knowledge  271
 Infections  296, 333
 Infestation  59, 330
 Infiltration  22, 65, 154, 307
 Innovation adoption  172, 233
 Inoculum density  6, 48, 59
 Insect control  15, 66, 88, 96, 118, 144, 165, 289, 336
 Insect pests  15, 43, 112, 134, 163
 Insecticides  134, 256
 Integrated pest management  16, 82
 Integrated systems  166
 Intensive cropping  199, 277
 Interactions  136, 286
 Intercropping  62, 107, 169, 198
 Internodes  153
 Interrill erosion  264
 Interrow cultivation  16
 Iowa  68, 86, 87, 132, 145, 185, 201, 202, 225, 226, 227, 252, 254, 255, 269,
 270, 276, 316
 Ipomoea lacunosa  75, 301
 Iron  137
 Irrigated conditions  279, 321
 Irrigation  139, 192, 224, 264
 Isotope labeling  152, 187
 Italy  157
 Kansas  18, 81, 101, 204, 205
 Kentucky  198, 257
 Kernels  170, 318
 Kinship  172
 Kochia scoparia  76, 251
 Labor costs  55
 Labor requirements  55
 Land clearance  65, 174
 Land forming  69
 Land productivity  65
 Land use  298
 Landfills  318
 Larrea tridentata  320
 Larvae  330
 Lasius  186
 Leaching  175, 207, 236, 246, 280, 281
 Leaf sheaths  296
 Leaves  5, 101, 184, 205, 207, 240, 296, 318
 Legislation  31, 145
 Legumes  152, 273
 Leguminosae  299
 Lens  333
 Lens culinaris  84, 332
 Leptosphaeria nodorum  103
 Lesions  296
 Ley farming  299
 Linear programming  82
 Lint  306
 Linum usitatissimum  28, 105, 111
 Linuron  67, 140, 141, 148, 321
 Liquid fertilizer distributors  68
 Liquid fertilizers  217
 Literature reviews  27, 327
 Live mulches  294
 Livestock farming  249
 Livestock feeding  177
 Loam soils  117, 288, 306, 316
 Lodging  91, 94
 Lolium multiflorum  49
 Long term experiments  62, 181, 305
 Losses  175
 Losses from soil  278
 Losses from soil systems  33, 116, 236, 264, 281
 Louisiana  42, 43, 78, 83, 95, 118, 244
 Low input agriculture  221
 Lumbricidae  92
 Lycopersicon esculentum  221, 279, 294
 Lysimetry  236
 Macropores  185, 308
 Magnesium  24, 174, 316
 Maize  80
 Maize ears  240
 Maize silage  259
 Malt  200
 Malting quality  200
 Manganese  137
 Manihot esculenta  65
 Manual weed control  164, 188, 320, 327
 Manures  280
 Maryland  54, 146, 221, 250, 263, 280, 329
 Mathematical models  82, 188, 253
 Maturation  286
 Maturity  221
 Mayetiola destructor  88, 289
 Mcpa  99, 113, 121
 Measurement  185
 Medicago sativa  7, 13, 29, 62, 84, 98, 100, 112, 143, 144, 152, 198, 246, 275,
 308, 324
 Mediterranean climate  192, 298
 Melilotus indica  192
 Meloidogyne incognita  194
 Mesostigmata  186
 Metalaxyl  286, 290
 Methazole  231
 Methodology  185
 Metolachlor  16, 74, 140, 141, 156, 175, 241, 314
 Metribuzin  75, 109, 140, 141, 148, 149, 187, 301, 310, 314, 321
 Metsulfuron  251
 Mexico  320
 Michigan  34, 144
 Microbial activities  273
 Microbial degradation  187
 Microclimate  155
 Middle atlantic states of U.S.A.  207
 Mineral content  318
 Mineral nutrition  295
 Mineralization  4, 85, 198, 246
 Minimum tillage  12, 23, 39, 49, 57, 62, 64, 78, 79, 81, 83, 108, 111, 122,
 123, 124, 126, 127, 140, 141, 153, 157, 166, 169, 180, 182, 194, 212, 223, 237,
 238, 244, 249, 255, 294, 298, 327, 338
 Minnesota  129, 149, 230, 286, 311
 Mississippi  19, 31, 73, 75, 148, 197, 278, 301, 321
 Missouri  56, 79, 119, 162, 314
 Models  328
 Moldboards  240, 286, 303, 311
 Mollisols  158
 Mollugo verticillata  263
 Monoammonium phosphate  160, 239
 Monoculture  54, 116
 Montana  89, 90, 122, 239
 Mountain states of U.S.A.  10
 Movement in soil  17, 236, 307
 Mowing  290, 336
 Mulches  59, 171, 221, 279, 292, 294
 Multiple land use  299
 Musa  65
 Mythimna unipuncta  72, 107, 165, 336
 Nabis  12
 Napropamide  310
 Natural enemies  336
 Natural selection  193
 Nebraska  2, 8, 14, 35, 66, 109, 115, 324
 Nematode control  194, 295
 New Jersey  294
 New South Wales  247, 248, 279
 New York  130, 140, 141, 310
 Nicotiana tabacum  36, 326
 Nigeria  65, 173, 174
 Nitrapyrin  240
 Nitrate  198
 Nitrate nitrogen  133, 198, 246, 277, 280, 281, 316
 Nitrogen  4, 5, 36, 53, 58, 85, 89, 90, 133, 152, 155, 157, 160, 171, 181, 182,
 184, 196, 198, 201, 205, 206, 207, 222, 223, 246, 254, 260, 261, 269, 277, 281,
 283, 305, 313, 315, 316
 Nitrogen balance  199
 Nitrogen content  53, 91, 174, 184, 204, 206, 217, 240, 259, 260, 261, 299
 Nitrogen fertilizers  24, 68, 89, 90, 132, 133, 136, 197, 200, 202, 204, 218,
 227, 259, 313
 Nitrogen fixation  58, 247, 248, 299
 Nitrogen metabolism  133
 No-tillage  5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 13, 15, 16, 19, 20, 24, 28, 29, 39, 47, 51, 52, 53,
 55, 58, 65, 66, 67, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 76, 77, 80, 81, 82, 85, 88, 89, 90,
 93, 94, 100, 101, 102, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 116, 117,
 122, 130, 132, 133, 136, 137, 138, 144, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 154,
 155, 156, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 164, 165, 170, 171, 174, 175, 176, 180, 181,
 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 192, 193, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 205, 206, 207,
 208, 209, 210, 211, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 221, 226, 228, 232, 234,
 235, 236, 239, 240, 241, 246, 247, 248, 250, 251, 252, 255, 257, 258, 259, 261,
 262, 263, 264, 270, 273, 274, 275, 277, 279, 280, 281, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287,
 288, 289, 293, 294, 295, 296, 299, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310,
 311, 314, 316, 318, 319, 321, 323, 324, 325, 326, 328, 329, 331, 332, 333, 335,
 337
 Nodulation  247
 North America  27
 North Carolina  15, 36, 53, 88, 154, 186, 206, 208, 259, 273, 326
 North Dakota  138, 189, 234, 237, 238, 251, 337
 Northern plains states of U.S.A.  64
 Nutrient availability  4, 137, 171, 182, 183, 198, 246, 281, 304, 316
 Nutrient content  5, 8, 89, 90, 124, 152, 181, 205, 207, 316
 Nutrient deficiencies  160, 182
 Nutrient solutions  217
 Nutrient sources  261
 Nutrient uptake  5, 53, 89, 133, 184, 198, 217, 219, 254, 259, 260, 269, 313
 Nutrients  222, 223
 Ohio  24, 70, 107, 180, 282, 296
 Oils  146
 Oklahoma  106, 133, 151, 272, 293
 Oligochaeta  312
 Ontario  16, 23, 52, 55, 62, 77, 80, 169, 172, 178, 212, 338
 Oregon  10, 20, 49, 158, 160
 Organic amendments  206
 Organic farming  27, 64, 166
 Oryza sativa  42, 164, 183
 Ostrinia nubilalis  107, 129
 Ova  129
 Overland flow  17
 Oversowing  176
 Overwintering  91, 296
 Paleudults  59
 Panicum dichotomiflorum  54, 180
 Panicum miliaceum  199
 Panicum virgatum  216
 Papaipema nebris  96, 258
 Parana  48
 Paraquat  15, 26, 52, 54, 67, 75, 198, 301, 336
 Parasites of insect pests  129, 336
 Paratrichodorus minor  194
 Paspalum notatum  295
 Pasture plants  215
 Pastures  174, 299
 Pathogenicity  153
 Pendimethalin  164, 231
 Pennsylvania  25, 29, 112, 143, 175, 184
 Perennial weeds  113, 121, 329
 Perennials  215
 Performance  69, 286
 Performance testing  234
 Permeability  308
 Persistence  93, 108, 162, 236
 Pest control  15, 27, 43, 112
 Pest management  134, 150, 163, 208
 Pest resistance  134, 194
 Pesticides  71, 236
 Pests  297
 Ph  222
 Pharbitis hederacea  148
 Phaseolus vulgaris  77, 212, 294, 328
 Philippines  164
 Phosphorus  5, 24, 70, 160, 171, 174, 182, 196, 219, 222, 223, 237, 273, 283,
 291, 316
 Phosphorus fertilizers  133, 238, 332
 Phosphorus pentoxide  283
 Phytophthora  286
 Phytophthora megasperma  338
 Phytotoxicity  84, 108, 146, 216
 Phytotoxins  333
 Pisum sativum  84, 111, 332
 Pithomyces chartarum  18
 Placement  5, 89, 90, 133, 218, 239, 269
 Plan implementation and evaluation  14
 Planning  116
 Plant analysis  205, 206, 316
 Plant competition  198
 Plant composition  53, 133, 184, 204
 Plant density  102, 148, 169, 241, 320
 Plant development  28
 Plant disease control  95, 101, 167, 286
 Plant diseases  95, 125
 Plant height  105, 286, 303
 Plant morphology  193
 Plant nutrition  152
 Plant parasitic nematodes  295
 Plant pathogenic fungi  18, 48, 333, 338
 Plant pests  29
 Plant proteins  200
 Plant residues  152, 206, 230, 263
 Planters  52, 213
 Planting  295
 Planting date  91, 116, 151, 158, 177, 221, 251, 285, 311
 Plowing  20, 52, 55, 97, 100, 101, 108, 110, 130, 137, 154, 161, 164, 180, 188,
 240, 260, 263, 286, 289, 303, 309, 311, 316, 328, 337
 Plows  276
 Population change  122
 Population density  12, 59, 92, 97, 161, 180, 263, 312, 330
 Population distribution  312
 Population dynamics  110, 158, 161, 165, 241, 258, 328
 Populations  103, 193, 312
 Populus  144
 Pore size  185, 309
 Porosity  308
 Postharvest treatment  198
 Potassium  24, 171, 174, 183, 222, 223, 283, 316
 Potassium fertilizers  183, 283, 332
 Potatoes  242
 Prairie soils  19
 Prairies  19, 209
 Pratylenchus brachyurus  194
 Precipitation  64, 306
 Predation  129
 Predators of insect pests  12, 107, 186
 Preplanting treatment  52, 74, 156, 244, 314
 Prescribed burning  181
 Prey  144
 Probability  33, 116
 Probability analysis  116
 Production costs  58, 64, 77, 80, 81, 117, 151, 246, 256, 288, 300
 Productivity  299
 Profiles  293
 Profitability  27, 251, 306
 Profits  8, 64
 Program development  14, 135
 Program effectiveness  14
 Program evaluation  35, 135
 Prometryn  231
 Protein content  89, 138, 218, 262
 Prunus persica  295
 Pyrenophora avenae  48
 Pyrenophora tritici-repentis  18, 101
 Pythium  290, 333
 Quantitative analysis  153, 308
 Queensland  32, 181, 228, 299
 Quintozene  95
 Quizalofop  147
 Radiation balance  253
 Radioactive tracers  132, 260
 Rain  33, 65, 125, 184, 196, 233, 249
 Rainfall simulators  307
 Rainy season  182
 Raised beds  69
 Random sampling  283
 Ranking  80, 306
 Rapeseed oil  91
 Reclamation  265
 Recovery  254, 260
 Regression analysis  17
 Regrowth  198
 Regulations  166
 Release  206
 Reproductive performance  259
 Research  63
 Residual effects  84, 108, 156, 183, 260
 Resistance to penetration  22, 309
 Resource materials  10
 Resowing  259
 Responses  160, 239, 254, 286
 Retention  181
 Returns  8, 64, 77, 81, 113, 246, 251, 306
 Rhizoctonia  158
 Rhizoctonia solani  59, 290, 333
 Ridge-till  142, 267, 268
 Ridges  338
 Ridging  55, 56, 64, 79, 80, 119, 169, 196, 204, 240, 241, 253, 260, 269, 278,
 286, 311, 316
 Rill erosion  264
 Rio grande do sul  48, 103
 Risk  33, 80, 106, 116
 Root crops  65
 Root rots  6, 158, 286
 Root systems  121
 Root treatment  295
 Roots  53, 57, 310, 318, 330, 333
 Rotary cultivation  98, 188
 Rotation  23
 Rotations  4, 6, 8, 10, 24, 48, 59, 62, 64, 77, 81, 82, 84, 93, 101, 108, 109,
 111, 117, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 134, 139, 160, 161, 162, 178, 183, 194, 214,
 215, 246, 248, 249, 273, 275, 286, 298, 299, 303, 304, 305, 306, 311, 315, 316,
 324, 326
 Row spacing  105, 136, 155, 177, 213, 235, 274, 285, 287, 311, 314
 Row tillage  127, 249, 291, 334
 Rowcrops  8, 64, 71
 Rubus allegheniensis  146
 Runoff  3, 33, 65, 175, 196, 227, 264
 Salinity  192
 Salsola kali  192
 Sampling  72, 283
 Sandy loam soils  22, 59, 77, 93
 Sandy soils  55, 207
 Sap  247
 Saskatchewan  6, 28, 98, 105, 111, 136, 155, 217, 218, 262, 274
 Saturated hydraulic conductivity  270
 Saudi arabia  137
 Schizachyrium scoparium  199
 Schizaphis graminum  12, 66
 Screening  272
 Scymnus  12
 Seasonal fluctuations  116, 133, 296
 Seasonal variation  5, 33, 55, 59, 95, 116, 158, 215, 310, 316
 Secale cereale  24, 52, 77, 140, 141, 165, 194, 207, 263, 294, 336
 Sediment  196
 Seed banks  23, 110, 161, 176, 180, 188, 328
 Seed characteristics  200
 Seed dressings  290
 Seed germination  110, 259, 275, 286, 290
 Seed longevity  275
 Seed moisture  303
 Seed quality  286
 Seed treatment  100, 286
 Seedling emergence  97, 156, 188, 286, 290, 338
 Seedlings  95, 96, 112, 216, 286
 Seeds  95, 110, 112, 188, 259, 286, 290, 314, 321
 Selection pressure  193
 Selenium  192, 318
 Semiarid zones  32, 209
 Septoria  155
 Sequential cropping  62, 63, 103, 164, 281, 303
 Sesbania exaltata  75, 301
 Setaria faberi  74, 97, 149, 156, 161, 314, 329
 Setaria viridis  97, 241
 Sethoxydim  147, 148
 Setosphaeria turcica  94
 Shoots  53
 Shrubs  320
 Sidedressing  207, 240
 Silt loam soils  93, 109, 152, 180, 283, 284, 293, 300, 307, 309
 Silty soils  175
 Silvopastoral systems  167
 Simazine  54, 175
 Simulation  116, 196
 Sinapis arvensis  251
 Site preparation  15
 Slope  253
 Slugs  15, 29, 107, 112
 Snow cover  230
 Soil  116, 186, 250, 260
 Soil acidity  293
 Soil acidulants  293
 Soil air  308
 Soil analysis  157, 308
 Soil arthropods  171
 Soil biology  273
 Soil chemistry  24, 70, 157, 204, 237, 277
 Soil compaction  22, 41, 92, 154, 282, 334
 Soil conservation  31, 46, 60, 115, 116, 145, 178, 205, 222, 252, 255, 264,
 265, 298
 Soil degradation  299
 Soil density  22, 92
 Soil depth  4, 157, 188, 230, 270, 275, 277, 280, 283, 293, 316
 Soil fertility  4, 24, 65, 70, 85, 155, 171, 179, 199, 222, 264, 277, 279, 281,
 299, 304
 Soil flora  333
 Soil fumigation  333
 Soil fungi  59
 Soil injection  205, 240, 254, 269
 Soil invertebrates  171
 Soil management  171
 Soil micromorphology  300
 Soil organic matter  4, 85, 137, 174, 198, 228, 232, 264, 284, 304, 305, 316
 Soil ph  137, 174, 228, 293, 298, 304, 316
 Soil physical properties  24, 185, 276, 282, 307
 Soil pore system  309
 Soil properties  126, 228, 257
 Soil salinity  298
 Soil structure  62, 65, 298
 Soil temperature  59, 230, 253, 303
 Soil test values  239, 283
 Soil testing  89, 90, 222, 283
 Soil types  80, 226
 Soil types (cultural)  236
 Soil variability  264
 Soils  242
 Solanum carolinense  329
 Solanum tuberosum  140, 141
 Solubility  182
 Sorghum  247, 248, 278
 Sorghum bicolor  5, 30, 32, 81, 101, 199, 205, 264, 281, 306
 Sorption  70, 284
 South australia  298
 South Carolina  26, 289
 South Dakota  64, 124, 125, 126, 127, 139, 177, 209, 214, 223, 249, 291, 330,
 334
 Sowing date  15, 28, 84, 106, 216, 262
 Sowing methods  15, 28
 Sowing rates  28, 105, 136, 155, 274, 285
 Soybeans  80
 Spatial distribution  53, 72, 110
 Spatial variation  270, 283, 286
 Species  92, 312
 Species diversity  192, 312
 Split dressings  91, 149, 207, 313
 Spore germination  296
 Sporulation  296
 Sprayers  71
 Spring  84, 176, 289, 296
 Stability  62, 309
 Stand establishment  13, 100, 176, 216, 290
 Staphylinidae  186
 Statistical analysis  293
 Stems  318
 Stochastic processes  80, 306
 Stocking rate  73
 Stover  183
 Stratigraphy  293
 Straw  219
 Straw burning  93, 289, 333
 Straw mulches  333
 Structural design  69, 300
 Stubble  88, 112, 181
 Stubble cultivation  111, 298, 332
 Stubble mulching  122, 190, 191, 232, 281
 Subarctic soils  253
 Subsoilers  41
 Subsurface application  5, 260
 Subtropics  4, 299
 Sulfate  182
 Sulfonylurea herbicides  146
 Sulfur  160, 182
 Summer  176, 248
 Summer fallow  6, 8
 Suppression  198
 Surface layers  253, 270, 284, 293, 300
 Surface modification  5
 Surface treatment  5
 Surveys  35, 145, 178
 Survival  59, 91, 96, 103, 188, 295, 296, 330, 332
 Sustainability  10, 65, 82, 111, 123, 167, 271, 298, 299, 316
 Sustainable agriculture  297
 Sward renovation  176
 Switzerland  312
 Symptoms  101
 Tachinidae  336
 Teachers  317
 Tebuthiuron  320
 Technology  265, 271
 Temporal variation  65, 154, 182, 286, 306
 Tennessee  51, 203, 287, 302
 Terminology  40
 Texas  5, 30, 57, 66, 69, 163, 170, 231, 306
 Tillage  4, 6, 8, 9, 13, 19, 30, 51, 52, 53, 56, 57, 62, 64, 77, 80, 87, 88,
 91, 93, 95, 96, 104, 106, 109, 110, 114, 116, 130, 133, 137, 138, 140, 141,
 144, 147, 148, 153, 157, 158, 160, 162, 170, 171, 175, 181, 183, 185, 187, 189,
 190, 191, 192, 193, 196, 215, 228, 230, 236, 246, 254, 264, 275, 276, 280, 282,
 284, 285, 294, 295, 296, 304, 305, 306, 307, 308, 310, 311, 312, 320, 321
 Timing  52, 54, 74, 148, 149, 156, 158, 176, 217, 313, 314
 Toposequences  277
 Topsoil  25
 Total costs  55
 Total digestible nutrients  8
 Traditional farming  27, 65
 Traffic  92
 Trafficability  22, 282
 Transplanters  36
 Transport processes  185
 Trap crops  134
 Trapping  29
 Treatment  272
 Trichogramma  129
 Trickle irrigation  22
 Triclopyr  146
 Trifluralin  231
 Trifolium incarnatum  58, 59, 206, 259, 264, 313
 Trifolium pratense  62, 152, 315
 Trifolium repens  15
 Trifolium subterraneum  123, 171, 221, 279, 294
 Triple superphosphate  182
 Triticum  18, 49, 103, 123, 157, 214, 333, 335
 Triticum aestivum  4, 6, 10, 12, 26, 28, 48, 62, 76, 77, 81, 82, 84, 88, 89,
 90, 92, 99, 101, 102, 106, 109, 111, 113, 117, 121, 122, 133, 136, 138, 144,
 148, 151, 153, 155, 160, 193, 199, 217, 218, 219, 228, 239, 246, 251, 262, 274,
 281, 289, 293, 303, 304, 305, 306, 311, 327, 332, 337
 Triticum durum  234
 Tropical grasslands  299
 Tropical rain forests  65
 Tropical soils  182
 Tropics  32
 Tubers  140
 Tuscany  171
 Tyrophagus putrescentiae  186
 U.S.A.  145, 265, 271
 Uk  102
 Ultisols  65, 174, 183, 264
 Ultisols--particle size distribution--soil density--bulk
 density--soil
 compaction--horizontal infiltration--land
 clearance--bulldozers--cropping
 systems--alley cropping--pastures--no-tillage--agroforestry  173
 Ultrafiltration  85
 Uncertainty  116
 Undersowing  312
 Undisturbed sampling  300
 Universal soil loss equation  116
 Upland rice  164
 Uptake  318
 Urea  181, 182, 184, 217, 228, 261, 293
 Urea ammonium nitrate  160, 184, 205, 207, 217, 240, 260, 269, 283
 Urea fertilizers  152
 Urease inhibitors  184
 Ureides  247
 Use efficiency  5, 90, 132, 133, 160, 184, 204, 205, 207, 254, 269, 313, 316
 Valuation  27, 306
 Variable costs  8, 55, 306
 Varietal reactions  94, 138, 200
 Varietal susceptibility  286, 338
 Varieties  234
 Variety trials  138
 Vegetables  27, 272
 Vertisols  181, 228
 Vicia  197
 Vicia villosa  59, 159, 221, 263
 Vigna radiata  247
 Vigna unguiculata  164, 183, 247
 Vigor  95, 286
 Vineyards  171, 331
 Virginia  67, 72, 207, 216, 250, 336
 Virulence  59, 94, 101
 Vitis  171
 Volatilization  184
 Volcanic ash soils  182
 Volunteer plants  158, 259
 Washington  10, 20, 158, 193, 200, 333
 Watersheds  33, 178
 Weed biology  97, 110, 161, 180, 241, 328
 Weed competition  327
 Weed control  2, 7, 9, 16, 20, 23, 26, 32, 46, 49, 54, 67, 74, 75, 76, 82, 84,
 96, 99, 102, 108, 109, 113, 121, 123, 125, 140, 141, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150,
 156, 158, 159, 161, 169, 231, 241, 243, 244, 251, 275, 294, 301, 310, 314, 319,
 321, 322, 324, 326, 328, 329, 331, 335
 Weeding  164, 327
 Weeds  2, 16, 96, 110, 112, 143, 148, 180, 188, 208, 241, 258, 263, 294, 326,
 327
 Weight  286
 Western australia  123
 Wet season  65
 Wheat flour  138
 Wheat straw  133, 333
 Wheel tracks  334
 Wheels  308
 Width  285
 Wild plants  192
 Windrows  174
 Winter  15, 230, 296
 Winter hardiness  262, 332
 Winter kill  262
 Winter wheat  101, 122, 138, 217, 218, 219, 246, 262, 274, 293
 Wisconsin  74, 110, 156, 215, 236, 240, 241, 285, 303
 Work experience programs  317
 Xanthium strumarium  148, 314, 321
 Xylem  247
 Yield components  274
 Yield factors  207
 Yield increases  330
 Yield losses  337
 Yield response functions  218, 274
 Yield targets  333
 Yields  87, 189, 202, 227
 Zea mays  4, 7, 16, 23, 24, 32, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 58, 62, 70, 72, 74, 77, 80,
 82, 94, 96, 107, 108, 109, 129, 130, 132, 144, 146, 154, 157, 161, 164, 165,
 169, 175, 177, 180, 182, 184, 186, 196, 198, 199, 201, 202, 204, 207, 215, 227,
 240, 241, 246, 250, 254, 258, 259, 260, 261, 263, 269, 273, 275, 276, 280, 283,
 286, 291, 294, 296, 303, 304, 305, 307, 308, 309, 311, 312, 313, 315, 316, 318,
 324, 328, 329, 330, 336
 Zinc  137
 
 

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http://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/AFSIC_pubs/qb94-13.htm, March 1994

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