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Alternative Farming Systems Information Center of the National Agricultural Library
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture


Green Manures and Cover Crops
January 1991 - July 1993

 TITLE: Green Manures and Cover Crops
 AUTHOR:   Jane Potter Gates
           Alternative Farming Systems Information Center
           National Agricultural Library
 PUBLICATION DATE:  September 1993
 SERIES:  QB 93-68
 UPDATES: QB 92-11
 NAL Call no.:   aZ5071.N3 no.93-68 
 CONTACT:  Alternative Farming Systems Information Center
           National Agricultural Library
           Room 123, 10301 Baltimore Ave.
           Beltsville, MD  20705-2351
           Telephone:  (301) 504-6559
           http://afsic.nal.usda.gov
           
 
 ==============================================================
                                              ISSN:  1052-5378
 United States Department of Agriculture
 National Agricultural Library
 10301 Baltimore Blvd.
 Beltsville, Maryland  20705-2351
 

 
 Green Manures and Cover Crops
 January 1991 - July 1993
 
 
 Quick Bibliography Series:  QB 93-68
 Updates QB 92-11
 
 268 citations in English from AGRICOLA
 
 Jane Potter Gates
 Alternative Farming Systems Information Center
 
  September 1993
 
 
 National Agricultural Library cataloging Record:
 
 Gates, Jane Potter
   Green manures and cover crops.
   (Quick bibliography series ; 93-68)
   1. Green manure crops--Bibliography. 2. Cover crops--
 Bibliography. I. Title.
 aZ5071.N3 no.93-68
 

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Search AGRICOLA (http://agricola.nal.usda.gov) to update this Quick Bibliography. 
Use the search strategy and terms located below, plus the extensive AGRICOLA Help 
site to locate recent literature on your subject of interest.
 
 SAMPLE CITATIONS
 
 Citations in this bibliography are from the National
 Agricultural Library's AGRICOLA database.  An explanation of
 sample journal article, book, and audiovisual citations
 appears below.
 
 JOURNAL ARTICLE:
 
   Citation #                                     NAL Call No.
   Article title.
   Author.  Place of publication:  Publisher.  Journal Title.
   Date.  Volume (Issue).  Pages.  (NAL Call Number).
 
 Example:
   1                             NAL Call No.:  DNAL 389.8.SCH6
   Morrison, S.B.  Denver, Colo.:  American School Food Service
   Association.  School foodservice journal.  Sept 1987. v. 41
   (8). p.48-50. ill.
 
 BOOK:
 
   Citation #                                   NAL Call Number
   Title.
   Author.  Place of publication:  Publisher, date. Information
   on pagination, indices, or bibliographies.
 
 Example:
 
   1                        NAL Call No.:  DNAL RM218.K36 1987
   Exploring careers in dietetics and nutrition.
   Kane, June Kozak.  New York:  Rosen Pub. Group, 1987.
   Includes index.  xii, 133 p.: ill.; 22 cm.  Bibliography:
   p. 126.
 
 AUDIOVISUAL:
 
   Citation #                                  NAL Call Number
   Title.
   Author.  Place of publication:  Publisher, date.
   Supplemental information such as funding.  Media format
   (i.e., videocassette):  Description (sound, color, size).
 
 Example:
   1                    NAL Call No.: DNAL FNCTX364.A425 F&N AV
   All aboard the nutri-train.
   Mayo, Cynthia.  Richmond, Va.:  Richmond Public Schools,
   1981.  NET funded.  Activity packet prepared by Cynthia
   Mayo.  1 videocassette (30 min.): sd., col.; 3/4 in. +
   activity packet.
 
 
                  GREEN MANURES AND COVER CROPS
 
                         SEARCH STRATEGY
 
 Set  Items     Description
 
 S1   2767      COVER/TI,DE
 S2   65813     CROP?/TI,DE
 S3   629       COVER()CROP?/TI,DE
 S4   8327      GREEN/TI,DE
 S5   5465      MANUR?/TI,DE
 S6   616       GREEN()MANURE?/TI,DE
 S7   4364      LIVING
 S8   1770      MULCH?
 S9   38        LIVING(W)MULCH?
 S10  86        OVERSEED?
 S11  124       LIVING()MULCH? OR OVERSEED?
 S12  1325      S3 OR S6 OR S11
 S13  412       AZOLLA
 S14  40525     INDIA?
 S15  1219      S12 NOT (AZOLLA OR INDIA?)
 S16  1019      S15/ENG
 S17  413       PUTTING
 S18  22011     GREEN?
 S19  69        PUTTING(W)GREEN?
 S20  603       GOLF
 S21  22011     GREEN?
 S22  80        GOLF(W)GREEN?
 S23  1007      S16 NOT (PUTTING()GREEN? OR GOLF()GREEN?)
 S24  1007      S23/ENG
 S25  255527    UD=9101 : UD=9999
 S26  256       S24 AND UD=9101 : UD=9999
 
 
                  GREEN MANURES AND COVER CROPS
 
 1                                    NAL Call. No.: 381 J8223
 [14C]-gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane in a flooded soil with green
 manuring. Drego, J.; Murthy, N.B.K.; Raghu, K.
 Washington, D.C. : American Chemical Society; 1990 Jan.
 Journal of agricultural and food chemistry v. 38 (1): p.
 266-268; 1990 Jan. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Hch; Microbial degradation; Soil; Green manures
 
 Abstract:  The fate of [14C]-gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane
 (gamma-HCH) was studied in green manure amended and unamended
 flooded soils with a continuous-flow system permitting 14C
 mass balance. There was a greater loss of radioactivity in the
 form of organic volatiles and 14CO2 in green manure amended
 than unamended soil. The organic volatile compound formed was
 identified as benzene. Green manure amendment considerably
 decreased the levels of extractable residues from soil. Bound
 residue formation was also less in green manure amended than
 unamended soil.
 
 
 2                                      NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Activity of nitrification processes in the fall and winter
 months. Bartholomew, R.P.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1932 Jun.
 Journal of the American Society of Agronomy v. 24 (6): p.
 435-442; 1932 Jun.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arkansas; Secale cereale; Vicia; Cover crops;
 Nitrification; Soil biology; Nitrates; Nitrogenous compounds;
 Soil fertility; Nitrogen content; Autumn; Winter; Air
 temperature; Cultivation; Silt loam soils; Sandy loam soils
 
 Abstract:  Results of experiments to determine whether
 nitrification takes place in soils which are subjected to cold
 periods with intermittent warm periods are reported. Studies
 to determine the value and efficiency of cover crops are also
 reported. The results may be summarized as follows: (1)
 Nitrates were produced in soil during the fall and winter
 months; (2) relatively large amounts of nitrates disappeared
 from soils not planted to cover crops; and (3) cover crops are
 efficient means of preventing loss of soluble nitrogenous
 compounds from the soil.
 
 
 3                                  NAL Call. No.: SB950.A1I66
 Ageratum cover crops aids citrus biocontrol in China.
 Zhang, A.; Olkowski, W.
 Berkeley, Calif. : Bio-Integral Resource Center; 1989 Sep. The
 IPM practitioner v. 11 (9): p. 8-10; 1989 Sep.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: China; Ageratum conyzoides; Biological control;
 Citrus fruits; Mite control; Predatory mites
 
 
 4                                    NAL Call. No.: QH573.N37
 Allelopathic control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-
 lycopersici. Jarvis, W.R.
 Berlin, W. Ger. : Springer-Verlag; 1989.
 NATO ASI series : Series H : Cell biology v. 28: p. 479-486;
 1989.  In the series analytic: Vascular wilt diseases of
 plants: basic studies and control / edited by E.C. Tjamos and
 C.H. Beckman. Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research
 Workshop on the Interaction of Genetic and Environmental
 Factors in the Development of Vascular Wilt Diseases of
 Plants, May 22-27, 1988, Athens, Greece.  Literature review. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Lycopersicon esculentum; Fusarium oxysporum;
 Fungal diseases; Root rots; Fungus control; Plant disease
 control; Allelopathy; Fungal antagonists; Green manures;
 Allelochemicals; Literature reviews; Lactuca sativa; Taraxacum
 officinale
 
 
 5                                 NAL Call. No.: 79.9 SO8 (P)
 Allelopathic cover crops to reduce herbicide input.
 Worsham, A.D.
 Raleigh, N.C. : The Society :.; 1991.
 Proceedings - Southern Weed Science Society v. 44: p. 58-69;
 1991.  Paper presented at the meeting on "Perception: Fact or
 Fiction", held January 14-16, 1991, San Antonio, Texas. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Carolina; Cover crops; Allelopathy;
 Herbicides; Application rates; Weed control
 
 
 6                                 NAL Call. No.: S494.5.S86S8
 Alternative soil and pest management practices for sustainable
 production of fresh-market cabbage.
 Roberts, B.W.; Cartwright, B.
 Binghamton, N.Y. : Food Products Press; 1991.
 Journal of sustainable agriculture v. 1 (3): p. 21-35; 1991. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oklahoma; Brassica oleracea; Secale cereale;
 Vicia villosa; Cover crops; Soil; Sustainability; Soil
 management; Pest management
 
 
 7                                     NAL Call. No.: 100 L939
 Alternative tillage systems and cover crops for cotton
 production on the Macon Ridge.
 Hutchinson, R.L.; Shelton, W.L.
 Baton Rouge, La. : The Station; 1990.
 Louisiana agriculture - Louisiana Agricultural Experiment
 Station v. 33 (4): p. 6-8; 1990.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Louisiana; Gossypium; Crop production; Tillage;
 Systems; Cover crops
 
 
 8                                      NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 The availability of hydrated lime, limestone, and dolomite of
 two degrees of fineness, with supplements of red clover hay,
 as measured by lysimeter leachings.
 MacIntire, W.H.; Sanders, K.B.; Shaw, W.M.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1933 Apr.
 Journal of the American Society of Agronomy v. 25 (4): p.
 285-297; 1933 Apr. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Trifolium pratense; Liming materials; Fineness;
 Lysimetry; Green manures; Carbonates; Bicarbonates; Nitrates;
 Sulfates; Potassium; Nitrate nitrogen
 
 Abstract:  In applying the foregoing results obtained in a 4-
 year study with 18 pairs of lysimeters several points are to
 be considered. Commercial limestone and the home-ground
 products differ. The former is often a product consisting
 solely of finely ground material. The latter is generally a
 mixture of different finenesses, limited by the character of
 rock as it affects tonnage per diem in grinding, wear on
 machinery, and ultimate cost. Since the commercial products
 are usually finer than the coarser separates used in the
 present experiment, the results may be interpreted as applying
 directly for such products and for types of soil similar to
 the one used and under comparable climatic conditions. For a
 soil of good fixing capacity, even without marked acidity, the
 100- to 200-mesh fineness of either limestone or dolomite is
 comparable to an equivalence of hydrated lime, when evaluated
 by enhanced nitrification and sulfate generation, soluble Ca
 plus Mg, and repressive effects upon potassium solubility for
 the 4-year period. The same holds for the 40- to 50-mesh
 limestone. The 40- to 50-mesh dolomite is not so readily
 available during the first year, but the disparity is not
 great. Since the heavier types of soils of greater acidity
 would effect a disintegration more rapid and intensive than
 that found for the well-buffered, near-neutral soil used, it
 would follow that the fineness of 40- to 50-mesh is ample for
 such soils, especially if an appreciable period elapse between
 the incorporation and the seeding. For sandy soils, however,
 it would be expected that the differences attributable to
 fineness would be greater than those found for the heavier
 type of soil. This would be especially true in case of the
 less soluble dolomite, which should be exceedingly fine when
 used in sandy soils. Although the total amounts of soluble Ca
 plus Mg derived from the several dolomite additions were
 generally comparable to, though slightly in excess of, those
 found for the corresponding li
 
 
 9                                 NAL Call. No.: S79.E8 no.17
 Bacteriological effects of green manure study no. III.
 Briscoe, Chas. F.; Harned, Horace Hammerton, 1886-
 Agricultural College, Miss. : Mississippi Agricultural
 Experiment Station,; 1929.
 11 p. : ill. ; 23 cm. s. (Technical bulletin (Mississippi
 Agricultural Experiment Station) ; no. 17.).  Cover title. 
 Pts. 1 and 2 published in Mississippi Agricultural Experiment
 Station Bulletin 168 and 185.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Green manuring
 
 
 10                                      NAL Call. No.: S1.N32
 Bank on buckwheat: it's one of the best weed-smothering crops
 money can buy. Hofstetter, B.
 Emmaus, Pa. : Rodale Institute; 1992 Feb.
 The New farm v. 14 (2): p. 52-53; 1992 Feb.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Buckwheat; Cover crops; Weed control
 
 
 11                                NAL Call. No.: S544.3.M9M65
 Berseem clover: a potential hay and green manure crop for
 Montana. Baldridge, D.; Dunn, R.; Ditterline, R.; Sims, J.;
 Welty, L.; Wichman, D.; Westcott, M.; Stalknecht, G.
 Bozeman, Mont. : The Service; 1992 Jan.
 Montguide MT : Agriculture - Montana State University,
 Cooperative Extension Service (9201): 3 p.; 1992 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Montana; Trifolium alexandrinum; Bloat; Hay; Crop
 yield; Field tests; Nutrient content; Green manures
 
 
 12                                   NAL Call. No.: TD930.A32
 Bioresource potential of Sesbania bispinosa (Jacq.) W. F.
 Wight. Prasad, M.N.V.
 Essex : Elsevier Science Publishers; 1993.
 Bioresource technology v. 44 (3): p. 251-254; 1993.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sesbania bispinosa; Green manures; Salt tolerance
 
 
 13                                   NAL Call. No.: 280.8 SY8
 Bugs, weeds, and fine wine.
 Hamilton, J.
 New York, N.Y. : McGraw-Hill :.; 1992 Aug10.
 Business week (3278): p. 30; 1992 Aug10.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Cover crops; Organic farming;
 Viticulture; Sustainability
 
 
 14                                 NAL Call. No.: QK898.N6N52
 Cajanus cajan accession evaluation for green leaf manure
 production and coppicing ability.
 Rosecrance, R.; Dominick, W.; Macklin, B.
 Bangkok, Thailand : Thailand Institute of Scientific and
 Technological Research; 1989 Aug.
 Nitrogen fixing tree research reports v. 7: p. 81-82; 1989
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Hawaii; Cajanus cajan; Biomass production; Green
 manures; Coppicing; Variety trials; Crop yield; Cultivars
 
 
 15                                  NAL Call. No.: QH84.8.B46
 Carbon dioxide evolution from wheat and lentil residues as
 affected by grinding, added nitrogen, and the absence of soil.
 Bremer, E.; Houtum, W. van; Van Kessel, C.
 Berlin : Springer International; 1991.
 Biology and fertility of soils .v 11 (3): p. 221-227; 1991. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Saskatchewan; Plant residues; Lentils; Wheat;
 Green manures; Soil air; Soil biology; Carbon-nitrogen ratio;
 Carbon dioxide; Decomposition; Nitrogen; Particle size
 
 
 16                                     NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Chemical and microbiological principles underlying the
 decomposition of green manures in the soil.
 Waksman, S.A.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1929 Jan.
 Journal of the American Society of Agronomy v. 21 (1): p.
 1-18; 1929 Jan. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Green manures; Decomposition; Microbial
 degradation; Chemical degradation; Soil bacteria; Soil
 chemistry
 
 
 17                                     NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Chemical and microbiological principles underlying the
 transformation of organic matter in the preparation of
 artificial manures.
 Waksman, S.A.; Tenney, F.G.; Diehm, R.A.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1929 May.
 Journal of the American Society of Agronomy v. 21 (5): p.
 533-546; 1929 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Green manures; Animal manures; Decomposition;
 Chemical degradation; Microbial degradation; Soil organic
 matter
 
 
 18                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Chemical attributes of soils subjected to no-till cropping
 with rye cover crops.
 Eckert, D.J.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1991 Mar.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 55 (2): p. 405-409;
 1991 Mar. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ohio; Secale cereale; Zea mays; Glycine max; Soil
 chemistry; Calcium; Carbon; Magnesium; Nitrogen fertilizers;
 Phosphorus; Potassium; No-tillage; Rotations; Soil fertility;
 Soil physical properties
 
 Abstract:  Rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crops are often
 promoted to supply additional residue in no-till production
 situations; however, the effect of inclusion of rye on soil
 chemical properties is largely unknown. Soils were sampled, 20
 cm deep, from four 4-yr studies in which no-till corn (Zea
 mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) were grown
 continuously or in rotation on a Canfield silt loam (fine-
 loamy, mixed, mesic Aquic Fragiudalf) or in rotation only on a
 Hoytville silty clay (fine, illitic, mesic Mollic Ochraqualf),
 with and without a winter rye cover crop. Corn had been
 fertilized each spring with 224 kg N ha(-1) as either injected
 anhydrous ammonia or surface-broadcast urea-ammonium nitrate
 (UAN) solution. All plots sampled showed greater
 concentrations of organic C, exchangeable K, and Bray-1
 extractable P in the surface 5-cm increment of soil than
 deeper in the sampled profile. Exchangeable Ca and Mg
 concentrations were often less at this depth than deeper in
 the profile, particularly when N was applied as surface-
 broadcast UAN solution. Soil pH was generally lowest in the
 zone of N application. Addition of the rye cover crop had
 little effect on the distribution of chemical attributes,
 other than increasing concentrations of exchangeable K near
 the soil surface in several comparisons.
 
 
 19                                    NAL Call. No.: 80 AM371
 A clean choice.
 Bremer, A.H.
 Chicago, Ill. : American Nurseryman Publishing Company; 1993
 Jun01. American nurseryman v. 177 (11): p. 38-41; 1993 Jun01.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ornamental woody plants; Plantations; Cover
 crops; Trifolium pratense; Grasses; Crop mixtures
 
 
 20                                      NAL Call. No.: SB1.H6
 Cold protection of leatherleaf fern using crop covers and
 overhead irrigation in shadehouses.
 Stamps, R.H.
 Alexandria, Va. : American Society for Horticultural Science;
 1991 Jul. HortScience v. 26 (7): p. 862-865; 1991 Jul. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Arachniodes adiantiformis; Cold;
 Protection; Cover crops; Overhead irrigation; Cold injury;
 Shading; Greenhouses; Vase life; Responses
 
 Abstract:  Four spunbonded crop covers were evaluated for use
 with and without irrigation for cold protection of leatherleaf
 fern [Rumohra adiantiformis (Forst.) Ching]. Heavier and less
 porous covers provided the most protection when used without
 over-the-crop irrigation. However, differences in cover weight
 and porosity did not affect temperatures under covers when
 over-the-crop irrigation was applied. Damage to immature
 fronds was decreased by 75% to 99% when the covers were used
 alone and by 98% to 99% when the covers were used with over-
 the-crop irrigation. Covers had no effect on frond vase life.
 
 
 21                                  NAL Call. No.: S605.5.A43
 Coming full circle--the new emphasis on soil quality.
 Haberern, J.
 Greenbelt, Md. : Institute for Alternative Agriculture; 1992.
 American journal of alternative agriculture v. 7 (1/2): p.
 3-4; 1992.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Soil fertility; Nutrient content; Crops;
 Food quality; Soil management; Sustainability; Cover crops;
 Rotations
 
 
 22                             NAL Call. No.: 100 M36S no.199
 Comparison of commercial fertilizers and stable manure.
 College Park : Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station,;
 1916. p. [95]-106 ; 23 cm. (Bulletin (Maryland Agricultural
 Experiment Station) ; no. 199.).  Caption title.  December,
 1916.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Fertilizers; Farm manure; Green manuring
 
 
 23                                     NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 A comparison of legume intercycle crops for pineapples.
 Magistad, O.C.; King, N.; Allen, O.N.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1934 May.
 Journal of the American Society of Agronomy v. 26 (5): p.
 372-380; 1934 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Hawaii; Ananas comosus; Cajanus cajan;
 Crotalaria; Cassia tora; Crop yield; Soil physical properties;
 Flowering; Seed germination; Seed production; Nitrogen
 content; Experimental plots; Moisture content; Weight; Acid
 soils; Nitrogen fixation; Cover crops
 
 Abstract:  These experiments were conducted at the Wahiawa
 Sub-station, Island of Oahu, T.H., with the purpose of testing
 the value of six leguminous plants, namely, Cajanus cajan,
 Crotalaria juncea, C. spectabilis, C. anagyroides, Stizolobium
 utile, and Cassia tora under ordinary growth conditions. 1.
 The Latin square method of plat arrangement was followed. The
 soil of the plats was acid, pH value 4.9, and very low in
 available phosphorus. Both of these conditions were
 unfavorable to the good growth of the tested crops. 2.
 Relative germination of the respective lots of seed, tonnage
 of the crops on a wet and dry basis, and amount of nitrogen
 fixed were considered as indices of the suitability of the
 crops. The data were mathematically interpreted. 3. Cassia
 tora did not prove acceptable as a cover crop under any
 conditions provided in this test. 4. The plants tested may be
 divided into two general groups with respect to growth period.
 Crotalaria juncea and Stizolobium utile excelled in wet weight
 and nitrogen content at the end of the 91-day period.
 Crotalaria juncea had produced at this period 7,006 pounds of
 wet material of which 68.83 +/- 0.96% was moisture and 2.34
 +/- 0.025% nitrogen, while Stizolobium utile produced 8,511
 pounds of wet material containing 77.58 +/-0.25% moisture and
 2.21 +/- 0.156% nitrogen. The remaining plants, together with
 S. utile, proved most acceptable after 197 days of growth. 5.
 In brief, the legumes may be arranged in descending order with
 respect to the following: A. Wet weight at the end of the 91-
 day period: Stizolobium utile, Crotalaria juncea, C.
 anagyroides, C. spectabilis, Cajanus cajan, Cassia tora. B.
 Wet weight at the end of 157 days: Stizolobium utile,
 Crotalaria spectabilis, C. anagyroides, Cajanus cajan,
 Crotalaria juncea, Cassia tora. C. Dry weights at the end of
 91 days: Crotalaria juncea, Stizolobium utile, Crotalaria
 anagyroides, Cajanus cajan, Crotalaria spectabilis, Cassia
 tora. D. Dry weights at the end of 157 days: Sti
 
 
 24                              NAL Call. No.: 100 V81S no.19
 A comparison of methods for determining soil acidity and a
 study of the effects of green manures on soil acidity.
 Hill, H. H.
 Blacksburg, Va. : Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station,;
 1919. 25 p. ; 24 cm. (Technical bulletin (Virginia
 Agricultural Experiment Station) ; 19.).  Cover title. 
 Includes bibliographical references.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Soil acidity; Green manuring
 
 
 25                                    NAL Call. No.: SB249.N6
 A comparison of tillage systems and cover crops for cotton
 production on a loessial soil in northeast Louisiana.
 Hutchinson, R.L.; Sharpe, T.R.
 Memphis, Tenn. : National Cotton Council of America; 1989.
 Proceedings - Beltwide Cotton Conferences (Book 2): p.
 517-519; 1989.  Meeting held January 2-7, 1989, Nashville,
 Tennessee.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Louisiana; Gossypium hirsutum; Tillage; Cover
 crops; Loess soils; Silt loam soils
 
 
 26                                   NAL Call. No.: S605.5.B5
 Comparison of weed biomass and flora in four cover crops and a
 subsequent lettuce crop on three New England organic farms.
 Schonbeck, M.; Browne, J.; Deziel, G.; DeGregorio, R.
 Oxon : A B Academic Publishers; 1991.
 Biological agriculture and horticulture : an international
 journal v. 8 (2): p. 123-143; 1991.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Fagopyrum esculentum; Fagopyrum tataricum; Secale
 cereale; Avena sativa; Sorghum bicolor; Trifolium pratense;
 Lolium multiflorum; Echinochloa crus-galli; Cover crops;
 Lactuca sativa; Cultural weed control; Weeds; Biomass;
 Botanical composition; Dry matter accumulation; Coverage; Crop
 residues; Crop weed competition; Environmental factors;
 Climatic factors; Soil fertility; Crop yield; Establishment;
 Regrowth; Suppression; Tillage
 
 
 27                                     NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 A comparison of winter legume green manure and nitrate of soda
 for fertilizing cotton.
 Hale, G.A.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1936 Feb.
 Journal of the American Society of Agronomy v. 28 (2): p.
 156-159; 1936 Feb.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Georgia; Gossypium hirsutum; Green manures; Vicia
 villosa; Sodium nitrate; Application rates; Crop yield; Crop
 density; Sandy loam soils
 
 Abstract:  An 8-year field experiment was conducted on Cecil
 sandy loam soil at the Georgia Experiment Station in which
 winter legume green manure, nitrate of soda, and a combination
 of green manure and nitrate of soda were compared for
 fertilizing cotton. Hairy vetch and Austrian pea green manure
 turned under 2 weeks before planting cotton produced slightly
 larger cotton yields than 100 pounds per acre of nitrate of
 soda applied when the cotton was planted. Treatments comparing
 200 pounds per acre of nitrate of soda and a winter legume
 green manure crop for fertilizing cotton showed an 8-year
 average difference of 110 pounds seed cotton per acre in favor
 of the commercial nitrate. Supplementing the green manure with
 100 and 200 pounds of nitrate of soda per acre increased
 yields over green manure alone as cotton fertilizer. Stands,
 as shown by both the total number of plants and hills per acre
 at picking, were slightly better on the green manure and
 nitrate of soda alone treatments than on the other treatments
 where both fertilizers were used.
 
 
 28                                     NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 The composition of the spring growth of sweet clover as
 influenced by previous fall treatment.
 Badger, C.J.; Snider, H.J.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1933 Feb.
 Journal of the American Society of Agronomy v. 25 (2): p.
 105-108; 1933 Feb. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Melilotus alba; Seasonal growth; Mineral content;
 Plant analysis; Roots; Shoots; Hay; Removal; Green manures;
 Winter hardiness; Plant composition; Harvesting date
 
 Abstract:  This study was carried out in order to determine
 the influence of the practice of removing a fall hay crop upon
 the composition of the sweet clover the following spring at
 about the stage of growth that it is usually plowed under as a
 green manure. The effect of cutting on September 18 as well as
 on October 18 was compared to that where no hay was removed.
 Analysis of the sweet clover tops and roots show that removal
 of the fall growth reduced the total dry matter, total
 nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in the following spring
 growth. The results show also that cutting for fall hay
 reduces the vitality or winter resistance of the sweet clover
 plants. This was reflected in a thinner stand and a less
 vigorous spring growth where fall cutting was practiced.
 
 
 29                                NAL Call. No.: S544.3.N6N62
 Conservation tillage for burley tobacco: nitrogen management.
 Hoyt, G.D.
 Raleigh, N.C. : The Service; 1989 Jan.
 AG - North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service, North
 Carolina State University v.): p. 26-29; 1989 Jan.  In the
 series analytic: 1989 burley tobacco information.  Includes
 statistical data.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Carolina; Nicotiana tabacum; Conservation
 tillage; Nitrogen; Nitrogen fertilizers; Cover crops;
 Statistics
 
 
 30                                     NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Conserving residual corn fertilizer nitrogen with winter cover
 crops. Shipley, P.R.; Meisinger, J.J.; Decker, A.M.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Sep.
 Journal of the American Society of Agronomy v. 84 (5): p.
 869-876; 1992 Sep. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Maryland; Zea mays; Nitrogen fertilizers;
 Nitrogen; Uptake; Winter; Cover crops; Vicia villosa;
 Trifolium incarnatum; Secale cereale; Lolium multiflorum;
 Fallow; Weed control; Stellaria media; Nutrients;
 Conservation; Recovery; Dry matter accumulation; Silt loam
 soils
 
 Abstract:  Autumn residual fertilizer nitrogen (FN) can be
 easily leached into groundwater in humid climates. Winter
 cover crops were evaluated for their ability to assimilate
 residual corn FN and thereby reduce N losses. Labelled FN (15N
 depleted) was applied to corn in Maryland in 1986 and 1987 at
 rates of 0, 168, and 336 kg FN ha-1 on a Mattapex silt loam
 (fine-loamy, mixed, typic Hapludult). Cover crop treatments
 following corn harvest were hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth),
 crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.), cereal rye (Secale
 cereale L.), or annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), and
 a weed/fallow control of chickweed (Stellaria media L.). The
 covers were harvested three times the following spring and dry
 matter yields (DM), %N, and atom % 15N were determined to
 assess FN uptake. Fall labelled N in the soil (to 80 cm)
 averaged 17 and 114 kg FN ha-1 over both years for the 168 and
 336 kg FN ha-1 rates, respectively. However, the quantity of
 total residual mineral N (soil N plus FN) after the 168 kg
 ha-1 rate was 87 kg N ha-1, which was comparable to the
 quantity of labelled N at the high fertilizer rate. The
 average cover crop FN uptake (kg FN ha-1) in mid-April after
 the 336 kg N ha-1 treatment was 48 for cereal rye, 29 for
 annual ryegrass, 9 for hairy vetch, 8 for crimson clover, and
 6 kg FN ha-1 for the native weed cover (LSD P = 0.05 of 7 kg
 FN ha-1). Corresponding percent recoveries of the fall N in
 the aboveground DM were 45% for cereal rye, 27% for annual
 ryegrass, 10% for hairy vetch, 8% for crimson clover, and 8%
 for native weed cover. These results show that grass cover
 crops conserved the most FN. Cereal rye recovered wore FN
 through mid-April because of its growth in cool weather,
 although annual ryegrass was equally effective if grown to
 mid-May. Renewed efforts should be made to utilize grass cover
 crops to conserve N in humid climates.
 
 
 31                                    NAL Call. No.: SB249.N6
 Control of weeds in cotton with winter covercrops.
 Keeley, P.; Thullen, R.; Carter, L.; Chesson, J.
 Memphis, Tenn. : National Cotton Council of America; 1992.
 Proceedings - Beltwide Cotton Conferences v. 3: p. 1304-1307;
 1992.  Paper presented at the Cotton Weed Science Research
 Conference, 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Gossypium; Cover crops; Weeds; Pest control
 
 
 32                                    NAL Call. No.: SB925.B5
 Cool-season cover crops in the pecan orchard understory:
 effects on Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) and pecan aphids
 (Homoptera: Aphididae). Bugg, R.L.; Dutcher, J.D.; McNeill,
 P.J.
 Orlando, Fla. : Academic Press; 1991 Jun.
 Biological control v. 1 (1): p. 8-15; 1991 Jun.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Georgia; Carya illinoensis; Orchards; Cover
 crops; Vicia villosa; Secale cereale; Population density;
 Biological control agents; Natural enemies; Hippodamia
 convergens; Coccinellidae; Coccinella septempunctata;
 Biological control; Rhopalosiphum padi; Frankliniella;
 Acyrthosiphon pisum; Acyrthosiphon kondoi
 
 
 33                                    NAL Call. No.: 421 J822
 Cool-season cover crops relay intercropped with cantaloupe:
 influence on a generalist predator, Geocoris punctipes
 (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). Bugg, R.L.; Wackers, F.L.; Brunson,
 K.E.; Dutcher, J.D.; Phatak, S.C. Lanham, Md. : Entomological
 Society of America; 1991 Apr. Journal of economic entomology
 v. 84 (2): p. 408-416; 1991 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Georgia; Cucumis melo; Cover crops; Insect
 control; Intercropping; Predators of insect pests; Beneficial
 insects; Density; Geocoris punctipes
 
 Abstract:  Cool-season cover crops were used in efforts to
 enhance densities of entomophagous insects on relay-
 intercropped spring plantings of cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.
 var. reticulatus Seringe). Eight cover-cropping regimes,
 including a weedy fallow control, were tested in a replicated
 trial. Cover crop significantly affected densities of the
 predominant predator, a bigeyed bug, Geocoris punctipes (Say),
 amid cover crops, on or near cantaloupe plants, and on or near
 sentinel egg masses of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda
 (J. E. Smith) pinned to cantaloupe leaves. No significant
 difference was found for proportions of egg masses occupied or
 damaged by predators. For all indices of predator abundance
 and efficiency, absolute responses were highest for the plots
 of subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L., 'Mt.
 Barker'). Numbers of G. punctipes per sentinel egg mass were
 significantly greater for the subterranean clover regime than
 for rye, crimson clover, and a polyculture of six cover crops,
 but were not significantly greater than for 'Vantage' vetch or
 the weedy fallow control plots. Rye showed particularly low
 densities of G. punctipes. Cover crops had no apparent effect
 on densities of aphids or whiteflies (Homoptera: Aphididae,
 Aleyrodidae) on cantaloupe leaves.
 
 
 34                                  NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Corn growth and yield in an alfalfa living mulch system.
 Eberlein, C.V.; Sheaffer, C.C.; Oliveira, V.F.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Jul.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 5 (3): p. 332-339; 1992
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Minnesota; Zea mays; Medicago sativa; Mulches;
 Plant competition; Soil water content; No-tillage; Plowing;
 Atrazine; Glyphosate; Suppression; Available water; Irrigated
 conditions; Crop yield; Grain; Meteorological factors;
 Seasonal variation; Growth analysis; Soil conservation
 
 
 35                                 NAL Call. No.: QK898.N6N52
 Corn growth as affected by nitrogen fixing tree and grass
 plant materials supplemented by P and K fertilizers.
 Tiraa, A.N.; Asghar, M.
 Bangkok, Thailand : Thailand Institute of Scientific and
 Technological Research; 1990 Aug.
 Nitrogen fixing tree research reports v. 8: p. 83-84; 1990
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Zea mays; Leguminosae; Nitrogen fixing trees;
 Gramineae; Green manures; Phosphorus; Fertilizers; Potassium
 fertilizers; Crop yield; Crop residues
 
 
 36                                     NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Corn response to rye cover crop management and spring tillage
 systems. Rainbault, B.A.; Vyn, T.J.; Tollenaar, M.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1990 Nov.
 Agronomy journal v. 82 (6): p. 1088-1093; 1990 Nov.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ontario; Zea mays; Secale cereale; Winter; Cover
 crops; Double cropping; Crop residues; No-tillage; Discing;
 Plowing; Crop yield; Grain; Dry matter accumulation; Leaf area
 index; Flowering date; Erosion; Soil water content; Soil
 management
 
 Abstract:  The use of a winter rye (Secale cereale L.) corn
 (Zea mays L.) double cropping sequence in combination with
 appropriate tillage practices could increase biomass
 production and reduce soil erosion potential in southern
 Ontario. A 3-yr study (1982-1984) was conducted at two
 locations to determine the potential of this sequence for
 double cropping, and to evaluate spring tillage systems and
 management of the rye residue on subsequent productivity of
 corn. Winter rye was planted in early October after corn
 silage harvest and either chemically killed or harvested as
 silage in the spring before corn planting. Rye treatments
 consisted of no rye, rye harvested in the spring and rye
 residue left on the plots. Spring cultivation treatments were
 no-till, tandem discing, and moldboard plowing followed by
 secondary tillage. The use of a winter rye cover crop delayed
 corn development and reduced corn biomass yield by 11% at the
 Elora location and by 17% at the Woodstock location. The
 adverse effect of the rye crop was more pronounced under no-
 till than where the soil was tilled. Removal or retention of
 the rye residue had no consistent effect on the subsequent
 corn crop. An allelopathic effect resulting from the rye crop
 may be one plausible explanation for the reduction in corn
 yield. Total biomass yield (rye + corn) was increased relative
 to corn alone, if the soil was cultivated. Therefore, a winter
 rye-corn sequence may still be of interest, despite a
 reduction in corn yield, especially if advantages such as
 total biomass production and the potential for decreased soil
 erosion during fall and winter are considered.
 
 
 37                                     NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Corn response to rye cover crop, tillage methods, and planter
 options. Raimbault, B.A.; Vyn, T.J.; Tollenaar, M.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Mar.
 Agronomy journal v. 83 (2): p. 287-290; 1991 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ontario; Zea mays; Cover crops; Secale cereale;
 No-tillage; Plowing; Tillage; Planters; Coulters; Crop
 residues; Preplanting treatment; Application date; Timing;
 Paraquat; Crop yield; Dry matter accumulation
 
 Abstract:  Studies in Ontario have shown that corn (Zea mays
 L.) yields are reduced when corn is seeded immediately after
 rye (Secale cereale L.) harvest or chemical kill of winter
 rye. A study was conducted in 1983 and 1984 on a Maryhill
 (Typic Hapludalf) loam soil to determine the effect of spring
 tillage systems and timing of rye chemical kill on the
 subsequent corn crop. The rye was seeded in early October
 after corn silage harvest. The tillage treatments consisted of
 (i) moldboard plow plus secondary tillage, (ii) strip tillage,
 (iii) no-tillage with ripple coulters (iv) no-tillage with
 disc furrowers plus plow coulters, and (v) no-tillage with
 ripple coulters plus plow coulters. The rye kill treatments
 were early (2 wk before planting) or late (just prior to corn
 planting). Corn whole-plant yields averaged 13.6 and 12.4 Mg
 ha-1 for early and late rye kill, respectively. Corn yield in
 the moldboard plow treatment was higher thin in strip tillage
 and the average of no-till treatments; however, using disc
 furrowers produced yields equal to those with the moldboard
 plow treatment. Moving the residue out of the row with disc
 furrowers resulted in corn yields that were significantly
 higher than those in no-till treatments with ripple coulters.
 The improvement in plant growth due to an early rye kill (as
 opposed to a late rye kill) was often greater with the
 conservation tillage systems relative to the moldboard plow
 treatment. A crop production system is proposed involving
 chemical control of a winter rye cover crop 2 wk before corn
 planting and planting the corn with a modified no-till system
 that removes rye residue from the row area.
 
 
 38                                  NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Cotton genotype response to green-manured annual legumes.
 Bauer, P.J.; Roach, S.H.; Green, C.C.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Oct.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 4 (4): p. 626-628; 1991
 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South Carolina; Gossypium hirsutum; Cultivars;
 Genotypes; Varietal reactions; Trifolium incarnatum; Vicia
 villosa; Winter; Cover crops; Fallow; Incorporation; Crop
 density; Crop yield; Seeds; Maturation; Temporal variation;
 Biomass production; Desiccation; Paraquat
 
 
 39                                    NAL Call. No.: SB249.N6
 Cotton lay-by herbicides on wheat, vetch, and winter weeds as
 cover crops. Hurst, H.R.
 Memphis, Tenn. : National Cotton Council of America; 1992.
 Proceedings - Beltwide Cotton Conferences v. 3: p. 1308-1312;
 1992.  Paper presented at the Cotton Weed Science Research
 Conference, 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Triticum aestivum; Vetch; Gossypium; Cover crops;
 Herbicides; Application methods; Weeds
 
 
 40                        NAL Call. No.: KyUThesis 1991 Prima
 Cover crop and tillage effects on soil carbon, nitrogen and
 infiltration rate. Prima, Sandra,
 1991; 1991.
 viii, 74 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.  Includes vita and abstract. 
 Includes bibliographic references (l. 73).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Soils; Cover crops; Tillage
 
 
 41                                    NAL Call. No.: SB249.N6
 Cover crop management and cotton production on highly erodible
 soils. Banks, J.C.
 Memphis, Tenn. : National Cotton Council of America; 1992.
 Proceedings - Beltwide Cotton Conferences v. 3: p. 1173-1174;
 1992.  Paper presented at the Cotton Soil Management and Plant
 Nutrition Conference, 1992. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Gossypium; Crop management; Crop production;
 Erosion
 
 
 42                                  NAL Call. No.: S605.5.A43
 Cover crop management effects on soybean and corn growth and
 nitrogen dynamics in an on-farm study.
 Karlen, D.L.; Doran, J.W.
 Greenbelt, Md. : Institute for Alternative Agriculture; 1991.
 American journal of alternative agriculture v. 6 (2): p.
 71-82; 1991. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Iowa; Zea mays; Glycine max; Rotations; Vicia
 villosa; Secale cereale; Avena sativa; Cover crops; Loam
 soils; Conservation tillage; Ridging; Discing; Crop
 management; Sustainability; Farming systems research; Crop
 residues; Ammonium nitrate; Nitrate nitrogen; Use efficiency;
 Nutrient availability; Nutrient uptake; Seasonal growth; Dry
 matter accumulation; Nitrogen; Nutrient content; Air
 temperature; Rain; Seasonal variation; Soil water content;
 Water erosion; Erosion control
 
 Abstract:  Combining cover crops and conservation tillage may
 result in more sustainable agricultural production practices.
 Objectives of this on-farm study were 10 quantify effects of
 cover crops on growth and nitrogen accumulation by soybean
 [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and corn (Zea mays L.) on a Nicollet
 loam (fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Aquic Hapludoll) near Boone,
 Iowa. Our farmer-cooperator planted soybean in 1988 using
 ridge tillage into an undisturbed strip with a hairy vetch
 (Vicia villosa L. Roth) cover crop and into a strip where
 previous crop residue and a negligible amount of cover crop
 had been incorporated by autumn and spring disking. In each
 strip, we established four plots for soil and plant
 measurements. Our cooperator planted corn on the same strips
 in 1989 into a cover crop that consisted of both hairy vetch
 and winter rye (Secale cereale L.). We determined the source
 of N accumulated by the corn by applying 67 kg N/ha of 15N
 depleted NH4NO3 fertilizer. In the absence of cover crops,
 early season soil NO3-N levels in the top 30 cm were higher,
 and corn growth and N accumulation were more rapid. At
 harvest, the corn grain, stover, and cob together accounted
 for 36 and 39 percent of the 15N fertilizer for the ridge
 tillage and disked treatments, respectively. We suggest that
 lower net mineralization of organic matter or greater
 denitrification losses before planting reduced the
 availability of soil N. This created an early season N stress
 in corn grown with cover crops that was not overcome by
 broadcast fertilizer N applied three weeks after planting. Our
 on-farm research study has helped focus continuing efforts to
 determine if non-recovered fertilizer N is being immobilized
 in microbial biomass, lost by denitrification, or leached
 below the plant root zone.
 
 
 43                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Cover crop management of polysaccharide-mediated aggregation
 in an orchard soil.
 Roberson, E.B.; Sarig, S.; Firestone, M.K.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1991 May.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 55 (3): p. 734-738;
 1991 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Orchard soils; Prunus domestica;
 Carbohydrates; Cover crops; Hordeum vulgare; Lolium perenne;
 Triticum aestivum; Microbiology; Polysaccharides; Soil
 biology; Soil structure
 
 Abstract:  Soil carbohydrates, including microbial
 extracellular polysaccharides, stabilize soil aggregates and
 improve soil structure. This study examined whether short-term
 management of C inputs by cover crops and tillage affected
 polysaccharide-mediated macroaggregation. Soil was sampled
 from a California prune (Prunus domestica L.) orchard where an
 experiment comparing four management techniques, permanent
 grass cover crop, mowed cover crop, no-till herbicide, and
 conventional tillage, had been in place for two seasons. Cover
 crops significantly increased saturated hydraulic
 conductivity, acid-extractable heavy-fraction carbohydrates
 (those in soil denser than 1.7 g/mL), and macroaggregate
 slaking resistance over clean-cultivated or herbicide
 treatments. Heavy-fraction carbohydrates are probably mainly
 composed of microbial extracellular polysaccharides produced
 in response to cover-crop C inputs. Heavy-fraction
 carbohydrates were significantly correlated with aggregate
 stability and saturated hydraulic conductivity, while total
 organic C and light-fraction carbohydrates were not. There
 were no differences between soil under herbicide and clean-
 cultivation treatments, showing that tillage alone did not
 measurably affect carbohydrate or soil structure. Heavy-
 fraction carbohydrates were shown to be important in the
 initial improvement of soil structure by cover crops.
 
 
 44                                 NAL Call. No.: S541.5.M8S7
 Cover cropping and N fertilization for no-tillage corn
 production in Mississippi.
 Varco, J.J.; Marshall, L.K.
 Mississippi State : Mississippi Agricultural & Forestry
 Experiment Station; 1988 Aug.
 Special bulletin (88-1): p. 47-48; 1988 Aug.  In series
 analytic: Conservation farming: Focus on a better future
 /edited by K.H. Remy. Proceedings of the Southern Conservation
 Tillage Conference, August 10-12, 1988, Tupelo, Mississippi. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mississippi; Zea mays; Yield response functions;
 No-tillage; Cover crops; Vicia villosa; Lolium perenne;
 Ammonium nitrate; Application; Sandy loam soils
 
 
 45                                  NAL Call. No.: SB379.A9A9
 Cover crops.
 McMullin, E.
 Carpinteria, Calif. : Rincon Information Management
 Corporation; 1992 Apr. California grower v. 16 (9): p. 43-44;
 1992 Apr.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Citrus oblonga; Cover crops;
 Biological control; Cold injury; Transpiration; Soil texture;
 Nitrogen; Weed control; Cost benefit analysis; Water
 requirements; Erosion control; Irrigation systems
 
 
 46                       NAL Call. No.: Videocassette no.1447
 Cover crops a Blue Moon production.
 Blue Moon Productions, Sustainable Farming Association of
 Minnesota Lewiston, MN : Sustainable Farming Association of
 Minnesota,; 1991. 1 videocassette (18 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2
 in. (Farming for the future: A farmer-to-farmer series.).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cover crops; Catch crops
 
 Abstract:  This video demonstrates the dangers of exposing the
 soil to climate and aims to teach farmers the methods for
 preserving the soil in order to prevent soil erosion.
 
 
 47                              NAL Call. No.: SB284.D58 1991
 Cover crops and green manures., 3rd revision 7/91..
 Diver, Steve; Sullivan, Preston
 Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Area (Organization)
 Fayetteville, Ark. : Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural
 Areas ;; 1991. 1 v. (various pagings) ; 28 cm.  Caption title. 
 "Prepared by Steve Diver and Preston Sullivan"--P. 13. 
 Includes bibliographical references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cover crops; Green manure crops
 
 
 48                           NAL Call. No.: NBUSB284 C68 1991
 Cover crops for clean water.
 Hargrove, W. L.
 Soil and Water Conservation Society (U.S.)
 Ankeny, Iowa : Soil and Water Conservation Society,; 1991. xi,
 198 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.  Includes bibliographical references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cover crops; Water-supply; Water quality
 management
 
 
 49                                   NAL Call. No.: 79.9 W52R
 Cover crops for weed suppression in red raspberries.
 Kaufman, D.; Karow, R.; Sheets, A.; Williams, R.
 S.l. : The Society; 1992.
 Research progress report - Western Society of Weed Science. p.
 VII/2-VII/3; 1992.  Meeting held on March 9-12, 1992, Salt
 Lake City, Utah.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oregon; Rubus idaeus; Weed control; Cover crops
 
 
 50                                  NAL Call. No.: 100 C12CAG
 Cover crops lower soil surface strength, may improve soil
 permeability. Folorunso, O.A.; Rolston, D.E.; Prichard, T.;
 Louie, D.T. Oakland, Calif. : Division of Agriculture and
 Natural Resources, University of California; 1992 Nov.
 California agriculture v. 46 (6): p. 26-27; 1992 Nov.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Cover crops; Water intake;
 Agricultural land; Resistance to penetration; Infiltration;
 Permeability; Soil strength
 
 
 51                                   NAL Call. No.: SB321.G85
 Cover crops: the key to nitrogen management.
 Ashley, R.A.
 Storrs, Conn. : Coop. Ext. Serv., USDA, College of Agriculture
 & Natural Resources, Univ. of Conn; 1992 Sep.
 The Grower : vegetable and small fruit newsletter v. 92 (9):
 p. 1-3; 1992 Sep.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cover crops; Groundwater pollution; Nitrogen
 fertilizers; Water conservation
 
 
 52                                      NAL Call. No.: S1.M57
 Cover crops: valuable tools for protecting your soil.
 Wooley, D.
 Columbia, Mo. : Missouri Farm Publishing Inc; 1992 Oct.
 Small Farm Today v. 9 (5): p. 18-19; 1992 Oct.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cover crops; Soil management; Green manures
 
 
 53                                 NAL Call. No.: S544.3.C2C3
 Covercrops for California agriculture.
 Miller, P.R.; Graves, W.L.; Williams, W.A.
 Berkeley, Calif. : The Service; 1989 Oct.
 Leaflet - University of California, Cooperative Extension
 Service (21471): 27 p.; 1989 Oct.  B. A. Madson was author of
 original 1951 edition entitled "Winter covercrops.".  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Cover crops; Legumes; Nitrogen; Soil
 management; Humus; Tilth; Water intake
 
 
 54                               NAL Call. No.: HD1476.U52C27
 Covercrops for the central coast region.
 Davis, Calif. : U.C.D. Small Farm Center; 1991 Sep.
 Small farm news. p. 4; 1991 Sep.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Cover crops; Soil; Diseases
 
 
 55                                   NAL Call. No.: 100 M69MI
 Crimson clover benefits soil, crops, and producers.
 Broadway, R.
 Mississippi State, Miss. : The Station; 1991 Dec.
 MAFES research highlights - Mississippi Agricultural and
 Forestry Experiment Station v. 54 (12): p. 7; 1991 Dec.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Trifolium incarnatum; Nitrogen; Nitrogen
 fixation; Cover crops; Zea mays; Production costs; No-tillage
 
 
 56                                     NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Crimson clover management to enhance reseeding and no-till
 corn grain production.
 Ranells, N.N.; Wagger, M.G.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1993 Jan.
 Agronomy journal v. 85 (1): p. 62-67; 1993 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Zea mays; Cover crops; Trifolium incarnatum; No-
 tillage; Resowing; Strip cropping; Row orientation; Crop
 yield; Grain; Growth rate; Soil water content
 
 Abstract:  Economic savings and increased legume-N use
 efficiency may result from natural reseeding of winter annual
 legume cover crops. A 3-yr experiment was conducted on a Cecil
 fine sandy loam (clayey, kaolinitic, thermic Typic
 Kanhapludult) to examine the effects of crimson clover
 (Trifolium incarnatum L.) strip desiccation width (25, 50, and
 75% of row area) and orientation (parallel or perpendicular to
 plant row) on soil water depletion, corn (Zea mays L.) growth
 and grain yield, and clover reseeding. Additional treatments
 included early desiccation (25% parallel strip 2 wk before
 corn planting), annual seeding (complete desiccation at corn
 planting), and mechanical disruption of clover growth by the
 no-tillage planter. Early-season soil water was lower in
 annual seeded plots compared to the 25% strip treatments each
 year, however, soil water was limiting in only one of 3 yr.
 Crimson clover successfully reseeded in all strip treatments
 each year, with dry matter production ranging from 3.0 to 5.2
 Mg ha-1 in 1990 and from 3.9 to 5.2 Mg ha-1 in 1991. Nitrogen
 content of reseeded crimson clover biomass ranged from 86 to
 134 kg ha-1 in 1990 and 93 to 111 kg ha-1 in 1991. Corn grain
 yield was only marginally affected by clover strip management
 in two out of 3 yr. Results suggest that under adequate
 moisture conditions a 50% desiccated strip has the potential
 to maximize clover N contribution. However, a 75% strip-width
 can minimize potential competition with corn for water and
 reduce physical impedance of the clover cover crop on corn
 growth.
 
 
 57                                  NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Crimson clover reseeding potential as affected by s-triazine
 herbicides. Ranells, N.N.; Wagger, M.G.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1993 Jan.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 6 (1): p. 90-93; 1993
 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Trifolium incarnatum; Cover crops; Resowing;
 Atrazine; Cyanazine; Simazine; Residual effects; Application
 date; Crop growth stage
 
 
 58                                     NAL Call. No.: QK1.C83
 Crop rotation.
 Bullock, D.G.
 Boca Raton, Fla. : CRC Press; 1992.
 Critical reviews in plant sciences v. 11 (4): p. 309-326;
 1992.  Literature review.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rotations; Soil fertility; Cover crops;
 Sustainability; Soil organic matter; Soil structure; Erosion;
 Soil flora; Soil fauna; Insect pests; Allelopathy; Literature
 reviews
 
 
 59                         NAL Call. No.: 100 N48C (1) no.406
 Decomposition of green manures at different stages of growth.
 Martin, Thomas Lysons,
 Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell University Agricultural Experiment
 Station,; 1921. p. 137-169 ; 23 cm. (Bulletin (Cornell
 University. Agricultural Experiment Station) ; 406.). 
 Bibliography: p. 157.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Green manuring
 
 
 60                         NAL Call. No.: 100 N48C (1) no.394
 The decomposition of sweet clover (Melilotus alba Desr.) as a
 green manure under greenhouse conditions.
 Maynard, Leonard A.
 Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell University,; 1917.
 p. 119-149 : ill. ; 23 cm. (Bulletin (Cornell University.
 Agricultural Experiment Station) ; 394.).  Bibliography: p.
 148-149.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sweet clover
 
 
 61                                    NAL Call. No.: 100 AL1H
 Deep tillage ahead of cover crop planting reduces soil
 compaction for following crop.
 Reeves, D.W.; Touchton, J.T.
 Auburn University, Ala. : The Station; 1991.
 Highlights of agricultural research - Alabama Agricultural
 Experiment Station v. 38 (2): p. 4; 1991.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alabama; Soil compaction; Deep tillage; Cover
 crops
 
 
 62                             NAL Call. No.: S605.5.I45 1989
 Development of organic faming practices for sugarcane based
 farms. Mendosa, T.C.
 Witzenhausen? : Ekopan; 1990.
 Agricultural alternatives and nutritional self-sufficiency :
 for a sustainable agricultural system that respects man and
 his environment : proc of the IFOAM Seventh Int Scientific
 Conference, Ouagadougou, January 2-5, 1989. p. 189-202; 1990. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Saccharum officinarum; Glycine max; Vigna
 radiata; Rhizobium; Organic farming; Farming systems;
 Intercropping; Green manures; Crop residues; Biodegradation;
 Row spacing; Row orientation; Planting; Harvesting; Crop
 yield; Soil degradation; Land productivity
 
 
 63                                     NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 The differential influence of certain vegetative covers on
 deep subsoil moisture.
 Myers, H.E.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1936 Feb.
 Journal of the American Society of Agronomy v. 28 (2): p.
 106-114; 1936 Feb.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kansas; Medicago sativa; Melilotus alba; Glycine
 max; Gramineae; Grasses; Depletion; Water deficit; Soil water;
 Subsoil; Cover crops; Rain; Moisture equivalent; Soil depth;
 Rotations; Continuous cropping
 
 Abstract:  Sweet clover grown continuously on soil for two
 seasons under the condition of this experiment has reduced the
 subsoil moisture in certain instances to a maximum depth of 14
 feet. The data indicate that a reduction approaching the
 minimum point of exhaustion has extended into the thirteenth
 foot section. One year's growth of sweet clover in certain
 cases has reduced the moisture to near the minimum point of
 exhaustion to a maximum depth of 9 feet. Soybeans growing for
 one season have not resulted in the development of a dry layer
 below the sixth foot in any plat included in this study. The
 depth of the moisture reduction by alfalfa and sweet clover
 has been governed largely by the rainfall during the period
 when the legume occupied the soil. The growth of sweet clover
 for either 1 or 2 years under limited rainfall conditions may
 result in the development of a dry layer of depth sufficient
 to prevent the utilization of moisture at a lower level by
 subsequent alfalfa crops.
 
 
 64                                      NAL Call. No.: S1.N32
 Drill your cover crops.
 Cramer, C.
 Emmaus, Pa. : Rodale Institute; 1992 Mar.
 The New farm v. 14 (3): p. 19-21; 1992 Mar.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cover crops; Drilling; Rye; Cost benefit analysis
 
 
 65                                   NAL Call. No.: 56.8 J822
 Dry matter growth performance of red clover and Italian
 ryegrass as cover crops spring-seeded into fall-seeded winter
 rye in relation to soil physical characteristics.
 Edwards, L.M.
 Ankeny, Iowa : Soil and Water Conservation Society of America;
 1989 May. Journal of soil and water conservation v. 44 (3): p.
 243-247; 1989 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dry matter accumulation; Trifolium pratense;
 Lolium multiflorum; Cover crops; Planting date; Spring;
 Autumn; Secale cereale; Soil physics; Rotation
 
 
 66                                    NAL Call. No.: 1.9 P69P
 The effect of cover crops and fertilization with ammonium
 nitrate on corky root of lettuce.
 Van Bruggen, A.H.C.; Brown, P.R.; Shennan, C.; Greathead, A.S.
 St. Paul, Minn. : American Phytopathological Society; 1990
 Aug. Plant disease v. 74 (8): p. 584-588; 1990 Aug.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Lactuca sativa; Cover crops; Ammonium
 nitrate; Corking; Roots; Secale cereale; Winter; Crop yield;
 Soil water; Soil structure; Inoculum; Seasonal variation;
 Vicia faba; Dry matter; Bacterial diseases; Gram negative
 bacteria; Disease control; Cultural control; Nitrogen content
 
 
 67                                    NAL Call. No.: SD13.C35
 Effect of cover crops on Cylindrocladium sp. in an Ontario
 bare-root nursery. Juzwik, J.; Testa, F.
 Ottawa, Ont. : National Research Council of Canada; 1991 May.
 Canadian journal of forest research; Journal canadien de
 recherche forestiere v. 21 (5): p. 724-728; 1991 May. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ontario; Conifers; Cylindrocladium scoparium;
 Cylindrocladium; Cover crops; Medicago sativa; Sorghum
 bicolor; Triticum aestivum; Linum usitatissimum; Root rots;
 Forest nurseries
 
 Abstract:  Four species were grown as cover crops and
 incorporated into soil of field plots at Midhurst Nursery,
 Midhurst, Ontario, two times per growing season for 2
 successive years. After two seasons, microsclerotial
 populations of Cylindrocladium sp. were higher in soils
 planted with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., cv. Vernal) (p =
 0.03) and Sudan grass (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, cv. Green
 Leaf) (p = 0.10), and not different in soils with spring wheat
 (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Glen Lea), than populations in
 noncropped, fallow plots. Lower populations of the fungus were
 detected in soils planted with flax (Linum usitatissimum L.)
 (p < 0.08) than in the fallow ones. Highest disease incidence
 in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) transplants
 occurred when grown in plots treated with alfalfa, Sudan
 grass, and wheat. Disease incidence was lower in transplants
 grown in the flax plots than in those grown in the other plots
 (p < 0.001), including the fallow ones (p = 0.055). Spruce
 mortality was also less in the flax plots compared with all
 other treatment plots (p < 0.001).
 
 
 68                                     NAL Call. No.: SB1.J66
 Effect of cover crops on soil erosion in nursery aisles.
 Cripps, R.W.; Bates, H.K.
 Washington, D.C. : Horticultural Research Institute; 1993 Mar.
 Journal of environmental horticulture v. 11 (1): p. 5-8; 1993
 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Malus; Acer saccharinum; Live mulches; Lespedeza
 cuneata; Lolium perenne; Trifolium incarnatum; Tillage;
 Erosion; Runoff; Sediment; Runoff water; Rain; Losses from
 soil; Soil conservation; Forest nurseries
 
 
 69                                   NAL Call. No.: 56.8 C162
 Effect of crop rotations and cultural practices on soil
 organic matter, microbial biomass and respiration in a thin
 Black Chernozem. Campbell, C.A.; Biederbeck, V.O.; Zentner,
 R.P.; Lafond, G.P. Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada;
 1991 Aug.
 Canadian journal of soil science v. 71 (3): p. 363-376; 1991
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Saskatchewan; Triticum aestivum; Melilotus
 officinalis; Bromus inermis; Medicago sativa; Chernozems; Soil
 organic matter; Crop management; Fertilizers; Rotation;
 Continuous cropping; Fallow; Biomass; Respiration;
 Mineralization; Carbon; Nitrogen; Carbon dioxide; Carbon-
 nitrogen ratio; Plant analysis; Crop residues; Nutrient
 content; Green manures; Straw disposal; Crop yield; Grain;
 Soil depth; A horizons; Long term experiments
 
 
 70                                   NAL Call. No.: 56.8 C162
 Effect of crop rotations and fertilization on soil organic
 matter and some biochemical properties of a thick Black
 Chernozem.
 Campbell, C.A.; Canada; Bowren, K.E.; Schnitzer, M.; Zentner,
 R.P.; Townley-Smith, L.
 Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada; 1991 Aug.
 Canadian journal of soil science v. 71 (3): p. 377-387; 1991
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Saskatchewan; Triticum aestivum; Melilotus
 officinalis; Bromus inermis; Medicago sativa; Chernozems; Soil
 organic matter; Crop management; Fertilizers; Continuous
 cropping; Rotations; Fallow; Carbon; Nitrogen; Mineralization;
 Amino acids; Spatial distribution; Amino sugars; Carbon-
 nitrogen ratio; A horizons; Surface layers; Green manures;
 Crop residues; Nutrient content; Soil depth; Biological
 activity in soil; Long term experiments
 
 
 71                                   NAL Call. No.: 56.8 C162
 Effect of cropping practices on the initial potential rate of
 N mineralization in a thin Black Chernozem.
 Campbell, C.A.; LaFond, G.P.; Leyshon, A.J.; Zentner, R.P.;
 Janzen, H.H. Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada; 1991
 Feb.
 Canadian journal of soil science v. 71 (1): p. 43-53; 1991
 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Saskatchewan; Triticum aestivum; Bromus inermis;
 Medicago sativa; Chernozems; Agricultural soils; Nitrogen;
 Mineralization; Soil organic matter; Rotations; Continuous
 cropping; Green manures; Fertilizers; Soil fertility;
 Sustainability
 
 
 72                                     NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 The effect of different plant materials, lime, and fertilizers
 on the accumulation of soil organic matter.
 Turk, L.M.; Millar, C.E.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1936 Apr.
 Journal of the American Society of Agronomy v. 28 (4): p.
 310-324; 1936 Apr.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Soil organic matter; Sandy loam soils; Green
 manures; Lime; Straw; Carbon; Nitrogen content; Nitrates;
 Ammonium sulfate; Calcium; Soil water retention; Moisture
 equivalent; Carbon-nitrogen ratio
 
 Abstract:  The results of the investigations here reported
 show that materials with a wide carbon-nitrogen ratio lost a
 larger percentage of their carbon than those with a narrower
 ratio. A loss of 69% or more of the added organic matter
 occurred in 2 years in every soil except that to which muck
 was added. Most of this loss occurred during the first 4
 months of the study. Since the experiment was set up in the
 greenhouse, decomposition proceeded faster than it does under
 most field conditions due to the higher temperature, but the
 same relative differences in the variously treated soils would
 probably be obtained in the field. Only 25% of the carbon and
 18% of the organic matter added in the form of straw applied
 at the rate of 20 tons of dry material per acre remained in
 the soil at the end of 2 years. Had the soil been growing a
 crop which would have utilized some of the nitrogen the
 results doubtless would have been lower. This shows the
 futility of attempting to build up soil organic matter by
 turning under straw or other low-nitrogen materials.
 
 
 73                                   NAL Call. No.: 79.9 W52R
 Effect of green manure on weed biomass.
 Bell, C.E.; Mayberry, K.S.
 S.l. : The Society; 1992.
 Research progress report - Western Society of Weed Science. p.
 VII/4; 1992. Meeting held on March 9-12, 1992, Salt Lake City,
 Utah.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Weed control; Biomass; Green manures
 
 
 74                               NAL Call. No.: 100 V81S no.6
 The effect of green manuring on soil nitrates under greenhouse
 conditions. Hill, Harry H.
 Blacksburg, Va. : Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station,;
 1915. p. 121-153 ; 24 cm. (Technical bulletin (Virginia
 Agricultural Experiment Station) ; 6.).  Cover title. 
 Bibliography: p. 152-153.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Green manuring; Soils
 
 
 75                              NAL Call. No.: 100 V81S no.73
 The effect of green-manure crops on certain properties of
 Berks silt loam.. Effect of green manure crops on certain
 properties of Berks silt loam Obenshain, S. S.; Gish, P. T.
 Blacksburg, Va. : Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station,;
 1941. 12 p. ; 24 cm. (Technical bulletin (Virginia
 Agricultural Experiment Station) ; 73.).  Cover title. 
 Bibliography: p. 11-12.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Silt loam; Green manuring
 
 
 76                                 NAL Call. No.: S541.5.M8S7
 Effect of hairy vetch, crimson clover, and rye cover crops on
 yield and quality of no-till flue-cured tobacco in North
 Carolina.
 Wiepke, T.; Worsham, A.D.; Lemons, R.W.
 Mississippi State : Mississippi Agricultural & Forestry
 Experiment Station; 1988 Aug.
 Special bulletin (88-1): p. 86-88; 1988 Aug.  In series
 analytic: Conservation farming: Focus on a better future
 /edited by K.H. Remy. Proceedings of the Southern Conservation
 Tillage Conference, August 10-12, 1988, Tupelo, Mississippi. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Carolina; Nicotiana tabacum; Flue curing;
 No-tillage; Crop yield; Crop quality; Cover crops; Vicia
 villosa; Trifolium incarnatum; Secale cereale
 
 
 77                                   NAL Call. No.: S451.M9M9
 Effect of harvest management and nurse crop on production of
 five small-seeded legumes.
 Welty, L.E.; Westcott, M.P.; Prestbye, L.S.; Knox, M.L.
 Bozeman, Mont. : The Station; 1991.
 Montana agresearch - Montana Agricultural Experiment Station,
 Montana University v. 8 (1): p. 11-17; 1991.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Montana; Green manures; Trifolium alexandrinum;
 Medicago sativa; Trifolium resupinatum; Companion crops; Avena
 sativa; Harvesting; Management
 
 
 78                                   NAL Call. No.: S596.7.D4
 Effect of incorporated green manure crops on subsequent oat
 production in an acid, infertile silt loam.
 Warman, P.R.
 Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1991.
 Developments in plant and soil sciences v. 45: p. 431-435;
 1991.  In the series analytic: Plant-Soil Interactions at Low
 pH / edited by R.J. Wright, V.C. Baligar and R.P. Murrmann.
 Proceedings of the Second International Symposium, June 24-29,
 1990, Beckley, West Virginia.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Acid soils; Silt loam soils; Green manures; Oryza
 sativa; Crop yield
 
 Abstract:  A field-size experiment was initiated in 1982 on an
 acid, low fertility Springhill silt loam to determine the
 effect of five unfertilized green manure crops (alsike clover,
 sweet clover, single- and double-cut red clover, and
 buckwheat) on subsequent oat production and soil fertility.
 The field was limed in 1982 and green manures were seeded
 (without fertilizer) in spring, 1983 in 1400 m2 strips
 randomly assigned within three treatment blocks. Plant tissue
 samples were taken from different locations in each plot in
 the fall of 1983 and all crops were incorporated. In 1984 the
 field was separated into an upper and lower section and each
 section received three rates of NPK fertilizer (0; 30-36-36;
 60-72-72 kg per ha-1) spread across the previous strips. Gary
 oats were seeded and at harvest were divided into grain and
 straw. The results indicated significant effects of field
 sample location, green manure type and fertilizer level on oat
 yields. Buckwheat significantly reduced oat production
 compared to the four clovers, while the highest fertilizer
 rate improved oat yields compared with the other levels of
 fertilizers. Elemental analysis of the green manure crops and
 soil fertility was compared with data of the same crops grown
 in more fertile, neutral soils.
 
 
 79                                 NAL Call. No.: QK898.N6N52
 Effect of incorporating plant materials on corn growth.
 Kaufusi, P.; Asghar, M.
 Bangkok, Thailand : Thailand Institute of Scientific and
 Technological Research; 1990 Aug.
 Nitrogen fixing tree research reports v. 8: p. 81-82; 1990
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Zea mays; Leguminosae; Green manures; Soil
 fertility; Growth; Indicator plants; Plant nutrition
 
 
 80                                     NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 The effect of other crops on tobacco.
 Jones, J.P.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1929 Feb.
 Journal of the American Society of Agronomy v. 21 (2): p.
 118-129; 1929 Feb. Paper presented at the "Symposium on
 Tobacco Research", Nov. 23, 1928, Washington, D.C.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Maryland; Connecticut; Massachusetts; Ohio;
 Nicotiana tabacum; Crop yield; Crop quality; Rotations; Cover
 crops; Root rots
 
 
 81                                  NAL Call. No.: S539.5.A77
 Effect of tillage on soil water and alfalfa establishment in
 corn stubble. Stout, W.L.; Byers, R.A.; Bahler, C.C.; Hoffman,
 L.D.
 New York, N.Y. : Springer; 1990.
 Applied agricultural research v. 5 (3): p. 176-180; 1990. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pennsylvania; Medicago sativa; Tillage; Soil
 water; Establishment; Maize stover; Soil water content; Secale
 cereale; No-tillage; Sowing date; Crop yield; Cover crops;
 Sowing depth
 
 Abstract:  The effect of soil water on alfalfa (Medicago
 sativa L.) seedling growth during no-till establishment into
 corn stubble has not been documented. Our objective was to
 determine the effects of differences in soil water levels
 resulting from different tillage methods and seeding dates on
 alfalfa emergence and seedling growth. The experiment was
 located at the Rock Spring Agricultural Research Center in
 Centre County, PA (40 degrees 42'N Lat., 77 degrees 57'W
 Long., elev. 365 m (1200 ft)), on a Hublersburg silt loam soil
 (clayey, mixed, mesic typic Hapludult) in 1986 and 1987 and a
 Hagerstown silt loam soil (fine, mixed, mesic Typic Hapludalf)
 in 1988. Alfalfa (cv. 'WL316') was drilled no-till into
 stubbles from corn harvested for grain (NT-G), silage (NT-S),
 or silage plus a rye (Secale cereale L. cv. common) cover crop
 (NT-SR), and seeded into a conventionally prepared seedbed
 resulting from corn harvested for grain (CT). Seeding dates
 were early April (EA), late April (LA), and mid-May (MM). Soil
 water content was not adversely affected by the inclusion of
 the rye cover crop in the NT-SR treatment. Good stands of over
 70% seedling frequency were obtained with all treatments, but
 the NT-S treatment had significantly higher seedling yields,
 yields at one-tenth bloom, and total seedling year yields than
 the others. Seedling yields were significantly lower in the
 NT-SR treatment, however rye silage yields made this treatment
 one of the most productive in the seedling year. In addition
 the rye cover crop of the NT-SR treatment provides a
 conservation cover during the winter and a means of capturing
 nitrate left over from the corn crop or mineralized during the
 early spring. In the first production year, there was no
 significant effect of tillage or seeding date on first harvest
 yields.
 
 
 82                                   NAL Call. No.: 56.8 J822
 Effectiveness of winter rye for accumulating residual
 fertilizer N following corn.
 Ditsch, D.C.; Alley, M.M.; Kelley, K.R.; Lei, Y.Z.
 Ankeny, Iowa : Soil and Water Conservation Society of America;
 1993 Mar. Journal of soil and water conservation v. 48 (2): p.
 125-132; 1993 Mar. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Virginia; Secale cereale; Zea mays; Rotations;
 Ammonium sulfate; Application rates; Residual effects;
 Recovery; Nitrogen; Nutrient uptake; Cover crops; Losses from
 soil; Nitrate; Leaching; Dry matter accumulation; Nitrogen
 content
 
 
 83                                     NAL Call. No.: 80 AC82
 Effects of Bahia grass as a cover crop on the growth of mango
 trees, and soil fertility.
 Chang, M.T.
 Wageningen : International Society for Horticultural Science;
 1992 Jun. Acta horticulturae (292): p. 113-120; 1992 Jun.  In
 the series analytic: Recent advances in horticultural science
 in the tropics / edited by W.M.W. Othman, R. Mohamad, S.H.
 Ahmad, K.K. Chong. Meeting held on August 7-9, 1990,
 Universiti Pertanian Malaysia.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Taiwan; Mangifera indica; Orchards; Paspalum
 notatum; Cover crops; Erosion control; Sloping land; Grass
 clippings; Glomerella cingulata; Susceptibility
 
 
 84                             NAL Call. No.: 100 P381 no.493
 Effects of certain cultural treatments on orchard soil and
 water losses and on apple tree growth.
 Anthony, R. D.; Farris, N. F._1906-; Clarke, W. S.
 State College : Pennsylvania State College, School of
 Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment Station,; 1948.
 16 p. : ill. ; 22 cm. (Bulletin (Pennsylvania State College.
 Agricultural Experiment Station) ; 493.).  Cover title. 
 Bibliography: p. 16.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Apple; Apple; Cover crops
 
 
 85                                 NAL Call. No.: SB950.A2B74
 The effects of different green manure crops and tillage
 practices on pea root rots.
 Tu, J.C.; Findlay, W.I.
 Surrey : British Crop Protection Council; 1986.
 Brighton Crop Protection Conference-Pests and Diseases v. 1:
 p. 229-236; 1986.  Paper presented at the British Crop
 Protection Conference-- Pests and Diseases, November 17-20,
 1986, Brighton, England.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pisum sativum; Fungal diseases; Root rots; Green
 manures; Tillage
 
 
 86                                      NAL Call. No.: S79.E3
 The effects of lay-by herbicides on wheat, vetch, and winter
 weeds as cover crops for cotton.
 Hurst, H.R.
 Mississippi State, Miss. : The Station; 1992 Jun.
 Bulletin - Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment
 Station (982): 6 p.; 1992 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mississippi; Gossypium hirsutum; Triticum
 aestivum; Vicia sativa; Weeds; Herbicide residues; Cover
 crops; Adverse effects; Plant density
 
 
 87                              NAL Call. No.: 100 V81S no.53
 The effects of mulched and turned rye in the green and mature
 stages on the liberation of plant nutrients from a silt loam
 soil.
 Hill, H. H.
 Blacksburg, Va. : Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station,;
 1934. 18 p. ; 24 cm. (Technical bulletin (Virginia
 Agricultural Experiment Station) ; 53.).  Cover title. 
 Bibliography: p. 17-18.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Green manuring; Rye
 
 
 88                                     NAL Call. No.: 80 AC82
 Effects of permanent cover crop competition on sour cherry
 tree evaporation, growth and productivity.
 Anderson, J.L.; Bingham, G.E.; Hill, R.W.
 Wageningen : International Society for Horticultural Science;
 1992 Oct. Acta horticulturae (313): p. 135-142; 1992 Oct. 
 Paper presented at the Third International Symposium on
 Computer Modelling in Fruit Research and Orchard Management,
 February 11-14, 1992, Palmerston North, New Zealand.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Utah; Prunus cerasus; Orchards; Soil management;
 Cover crops; Plant competition; Growth rate; Crop yield;
 Transpiration; Rootstocks; Models
 
 
 89                                 NAL Call. No.: QL391.N4J62
 Effects of rapeseed and vetch as green manure crops and fallow
 on nematodes and soil-borne pathogens.
 Johnson, A.W.; Goldern, A.M.; Auld, D.L.; Sumner, D.R.
 Lake Alfred, Fla. : Society of Nematologists; 1992 Mar.
 Journal of nematology v. 24 (1): p. 117-126; 1992 Mar. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Brassica napus; Vicia villosa; Cucurbita pepo;
 Meloidogyne incognita; Meloidogyne javanica; Pythium;
 Rhizoctonia solani; Cropping systems
 
 Abstract:  In a rapeseed-squash cropping system, Meloidogyne
 incognita race 1 and M. javanica did not enter, feed, or
 reproduce in roots of seven rapeseed cultivars. Both nematode
 species reproduced at low levels on roots of the third crop of
 rapeseed. Reproduction of M. incognita and M. javanica was
 high on squash following rapeseed, hairy vetch, and fallow.
 The application of fenamiphos suppressed (P = 0.05) root-gall
 indices on squash following rapeseed, hairy vetch, and fallow;
 and on Dwarf Essex and Cascade rapeseed, but not Bridger and
 Humus rapeseed in 1987. The incorporation of 30-61 mt/ha green
 biomass of rapeseed into the soil 6 months after planting did
 not affect the population densities of Criconemella ornata, M.
 incognita, M. javanica, Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia solani AG-4;
 nor did it consistently increase yield of squash. Hairy vetch
 supported larger numbers of M. incognita and M. javanica than
 rapeseed cultivars or fallow. Meloidogyne incognita and M.
 javanica survived in fallow plots in the absence of a host
 from October to May each year at a level sufficient to warrant
 the use of a nematicide to manage nematodes on the following
 susceptible crop.
 
 
 90                              NAL Call. No.: 100 V81S no.83
 The effects of rye, lespedeza, and cowpeas when used as cover
 crops and incorporated with the soil on the leachings from
 Dunmore silt loam soil. Hill, H. H.
 Blacksburg, Va. : Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station,;
 1943. 16 p. ; 24 cm. (Technical bulletin (Virginia
 Agricultural Experiment Station) ; 83.).  Cover title. 
 Bibliography: p. 16.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Silt loam; Cover crops
 
 
 91                             NAL Call. No.: 100 T25S no.100
 Effects of several winter cover crops on the yield of cotton.
 Hazlewood, Ben P.; Chapman, E. J.
 Knoxville : University of Tennessee, Agricultural Experiment
 Station,; 1948. [4] p. : ill. ; 23 cm. (Circular (University
 of Tennessee (Knoxville campus). Agricultural Experiment
 Station) ; no. 100.).  Cover title.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Cotton; Cover crops
 
 
 92                                    NAL Call. No.: 421 J822
 Effects of summer cover crop management on wireworm
 (Coleoptera: Elateridae) abundance and damage to potato.
 Jansson, R.K.; Lecrone, S.H.
 Lanham, Md. : Entomological Society of America; 1991 Apr.
 Journal of economic entomology v. 84 (2): p. 581-586; 1991
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Solanum tuberosum; Cover crops; Crop
 damage; Conoderus; Conoderus falli; Melanotus communis;
 Incidence; Cultural control; Insect control; Tubers; Crop
 losses; Crop yield
 
 Abstract:  The effects of planting date and mowing interval of
 the summer cover crop consisting of a sorghum-sudangrass
 hybrid on the abundance of wireworms, Melanotus communis
 (Gyllenhal), Conoderus rudis (Brown), C. amplicollis
 (Gyllenhal), and C. falli Lane, and subsequent damage to
 tubers in the following potato crop were investigated during
 two consecutive growing seasons in southern Florida. Eight
 summer cover crop management programs were evaluated: cover
 crop planted early (within 38 d after potato harvest) and late
 (75-89 d after harvest) and mowed at 3-, 6-, or 9-wk
 intervals; cover crop planted early and not mowed (standard
 summer management program); and mechanical fallow. In both
 years, planting date affected wireworm abundance and damage to
 potato. In the 1st yr, wireworm larvae were 14.2-33.7 and
 19-45 times more abundant in plots planted with early cover
 crop than in those planted with late cover crop and in those
 fallowed, respectively. Wireworms were 1.3-2.0 times more
 abundant in plots planted with late cover crop than in plots
 mechanically fallowed. Similar results were found during the
 2nd yr. Mowing interval did not consistently affect wireworm
 abundance. Wireworm damage to potato tubers was affected by
 planting date. Percentages of wireworm injury and damage to
 tubers were 6.6-9.6 and 1.8-6.7 times greater in potatoes that
 followed early-planted cover crops than in those that followed
 late-planted cover crops or mechanical fallow in the first and
 second year, respectively. Crop loss due to wireworms was
 $1,808-$2,084 and $1,298-$3,386 per hectare higher in plots
 planted with early cover crop than in those planted with late
 cover crop in the first and second year, respectively. Thus,
 delaying the planting date of the summer cover crop resulted
 in a reduction in wireworm abundance and associated crop loss
 in the following potato crop.
 
 
 93                                   NAL Call. No.: 79.9 C122
 Effects of weeds and cover crops on vertebrate pest damage.
 Timm, R.M.
 Fremont, Calif. : California Weed Conference; 1990.
 Proceedings - California Weed Conference (42): p. 190-195;
 1990.  Meeting held January 15-17, 1990, San Jose, California. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Crop damage; Vertebrate pests; Cover crops;
 Weeds; Environmental factors
 
 
 94                                    NAL Call. No.: SB249.N6
 Effects of winter cover crops on cotton yield and selected
 soil properties. Keisling, T.C.; Scott, H.D.; Waddle, B.A.;
 Williams, W.; Frans, R.E. Memphis, Tenn. : National Cotton
 Council of America; 1990. Proceedings - Beltwide Cotton
 Production Research Conferences. p. 492-496; 1990.  Meeting
 held January 9-14, 1990, Las Vegas, Nevada.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Gossypium hirsutum; Cover crops; Secale cereale;
 Vicia villosa; Lupinus albus; Trifolium incarnatum; Crop
 yield; Soil physical properties
 
 
 95                                 NAL Call. No.: QK898.N6N52
 Enhanced grass growth below canopy of Albizia lebbeck.
 Lowry, J.B.; Lowry, J.B.C.; Jones, R.
 Bangkok, Thailand : Thailand Institute of Scientific and
 Technological Research; 1988 May.
 Nitrogen fixing tree research reports v. 6: p. 45-46; 1988
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Australia; Albizia lebbek; Panicum maximum;
 Heteropogon contortus; Canopy; Cover crops; Growth; Crop
 production; Grazing effects; Plant ecology
 
 
 96                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32P
 Establishing fall rye as a cover crop after potatoes.
 Edwards, L.M.; Hergert, G.B.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1989.
 Paper - American Society of Agricultural Engineers (89-1094):
 18 p.; 1989. Paper presented at the 1989 International Summer
 Meeting held June 25-28, 1989, Quebec, Canada.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Solanum tuberosum; Ergotism; Cover crops;
 Pregermination; Seeding; Seed treatment; Potato diggers;
 Potato harvesters; Seed dispersal
 
 
 97                                NAL Call. No.: S544.3.N7N45
 Establishing legume cover crops in a small grain/corn
 rotation. DeGolyer, B.
 Belmont, N.Y. : Cooperative Extension Association of Allegany
 County; 1989 Oct.
 News and views v. 74 (10): p. 3-4; 1989 Oct.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Leguminosae; Cover crops; Zea mays; Grain crops;
 Rotations
 
 
 98                                  NAL Call. No.: QH84.8.B46
 Estimating N2 fixation by Sesbania rostrata and S. cannabina
 (syn. S. aculeata) in lowland rice soil by the 15N dilution
 method. Pareek, R.P.; Ladha, J.K.; Watanbe, I.
 Berlin : Springer International; 1990.
 Biology and fertility of soils v. 10 (2): p. 77-88; 1990. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Philippines; Sesbania; Sesbania cannabina; Green
 manures; Isotope labeling; Nitrogen; Nitrogen fixation; Paddy
 soils; Soil fertility; Tropics; Mathematical models; Field
 tests
 
 
 99                                  NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Ethephon use on soybean cultivars to enhance establishment of
 underseeded cover crops.
 Moomaw, R.S.; Echtenkamp, G.W.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Apr.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 4 (2): p. 250-255; 1991
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nebraska; Ethephon; Application rates; Glycine
 max; Cultivars; Crop growth stage; Crop yield; Plant height;
 Maturity; Canopy; Light transmission; Crop establishment;
 Cover crops; Undersowing; Interplanting; Zea mays; Rotations
 
 
 100                                    NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Evaluation of the nitrogen submodel of CERES-maize following
 legume green manure incorporation.
 Bowen, W.T.; Jones, J.W.; Carsky, R.J.; Quintana, J.O.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1993 Jan.
 Agronomy journal v. 85 (1): p. 153-159; 1993 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Simulation models; Prediction; Nutrient uptake;
 Nitrogen; Green manures; Nutrient availability;
 Mineralization; Leaching; Nitrate; Losses from soil; Nitrogen
 balance
 
 Abstract:  Crop simulation models that accurately predict the
 availability of N from decomposing plant residues would
 provide a powerful tool for evaluating legume green manures as
 potential N sources for nonlegume crops. Using measured data
 from a series of field experiments conducted on an Oxisol in
 central Brazil, we conducted this study to test the N submodel
 of CERES-Maize for its ability to simulate N mineralization,
 nitrate leaching, and N uptake by maize (Zea Mays L.)
 following the incorporation of 10 different legume green
 manures. Legume or weed residue N at the time of incorporation
 varied from 25 to 300 kg ha-1 with C/N ratios varying from 13
 to 37. Comparison of predicted and measured accumulation of
 inorganic N in uncropped soil showed that the model usually
 provided a realistic simulation of legume N release, although
 N release was overpredicted for some legumes. For all legumes,
 both simulated and measured data showed that about 60% of the
 organic N applied was recovered as inorganic N within 120 to
 150 d after incorporation. To realistically simulate N
 availability when rainfall was excessive, we modified the
 model to account for delayed leaching due to nitrate retention
 in the subsoil. Nitrogen uptake by maize was generally
 overpredicted at high levels of available N. The N submodel
 was shown to realistically simulate legume N release, but
 further work is needed to determine the importance of subsoil
 nitrate retention in other soils and how best such retention
 might be described in the model.
 
 
 101                         NAL Call. No.: 100 N48 (2) no.691
 Experiments in orchard soil management fertilizers, mulches,
 and cover crops. Collison, R. C.
 Geneva, N.Y. : New York State Agricultural Experiment
 Station,; 1940. 37 p. ; 23 cm. (Bulletin (New York State
 Agricultural Experiment Station) ; no. 691.).  Cover title.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Apple
 
 
 102                        NAL Call. No.: 100 N48C (1) no.677
 Experiments with cover crops on Long Island.
 Wessels, P. H.; Hartman, John Daniel,
 Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell University Agricultural Experiment
 Station,; 1937. 27 p. : ill. ; 23 cm. (Bulletin (Cornell
 University. Agricultural Experiment Station) ; 677.). 
 Bibliography: p. 27.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Cover crops
 
 
 103                                 NAL Call. No.: S605.5.A43
 Farm program impacts on incentives for greenmanure rotations.
 Young, D.L.; Painter, K.M.
 Greenbelt, Md. : Institute for Alternative Agriculture; 1990.
 American journal of alternative agriculture v. 5 (3): p.
 99-105; 1990. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alternative farming; Sustainability; Rotations;
 Green manures; Agricultural policy; Legislation; Economic
 analysis; Profitability; Costs; Returns; Seasonal variation;
 Incentives
 
 Abstract:  Farm programs influence the profitability of a crop
 rotation through five effects: (1) a deficiency payment (DP)
 effect, (2) an acreage reduction (ARP) effect, (3) a base
 effect, (4) a crop price effect, and (5) a risk reduction
 effect. This study initially examines ARP and DP effects of
 the 1985 Farm Bill on the relative profitability Of a low-
 input rotation and a grain-intensive conventional rotation in
 Washington state over 1986-1990. In years of low deficiency
 payments or high foregone returns from ARP land, the low-input
 green manure rotation was competitive with the conventional
 rotation but lost its advantage in years of low ARP costs or
 high deficiency payments. Long-run incentives to maintain
 wheat base introduced a consistent bias against the low-input
 green manure rotation. Planting flexibility options proposed
 during the 1990 Farm Bill debate could reduce farm program
 barriers to green manure and other low-input rotations. The
 Bush Administration's Normal Crop Acreage (NCA) proposal,
 which was not accepted in the 1990 legislation, would have
 largely eliminated base erosion for the green manure rotation
 in this study. More importantly, non-ARP green manure acreage
 would have qualified for deficiency payments under the NCA,
 thereby sharply increasing the low-input rotation's relative
 profitability. Proposals like the NCA might receive further
 attention in the future due to environmental concerns, fiscal
 pressures, or possible trade agreements requiring multilateral
 phaseout of agricultural subsidies coupled to commodities.
 
 
 104                             NAL Call. No.: 100 G29S no.27
 Fertilizer, culture and variety experiments on corn ;
 Fertilizer and variety tests on cotton ; Green manuring with
 cow peas..  Fertilizer and variety tests on cotton Green
 manuring with cow peas
 Redding, R. J.
 Experiment, Ga. : Georgia Experiment Station, 1894; 1894. p.
 [187]-216 ; 23 cm. (Bulletin (Georgia Experiment Station) ;
 no. 27.). Cover title.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Corn; Cotton; Cowpea
 
 
 105                        NAL Call. No.: 100 C125 (2) no.354
 Fertilizers and covercrops for California deciduous orchards.. 
 Fertilizers and cover crops for California deciduous orchards
 Proebsting, Edward Louis,
 Berkeley, Calif. : University of California, College of
 Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment Station,; 1943.
 15 p. ; 22 cm. (Circular (California Agricultural Experiment
 Station) ; 354.).  Caption title.  At head of title:
 University of California. College of Agriculture. Agricultural
 Experiment Station, Berkeley, California.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Cover crops; Fruit
 
 
 106                        NAL Call. No.: 100 C125 (2) no.466
 Fertilizers and covercrops for California orchards.
 Proebsting, Edward Louis,
 Berkeley, Calif. : Division of Agricultural Sciences,
 University of California,; 1958.
 19 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 23 cm. (Circular (California
 Agricultural Experiment Station) ; 466.).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Fruit; Cover crops
 
 
 107                                    NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 The fertilizing value of green manures rotted under different
 conditions. Daji, J.A.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1934 Jun.
 Journal of the American Society of Agronomy v. 26 (6): p.
 466-474; 1934 Jun. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: England; Hordeum vulgare; Vicia; Brassica; Beta
 vulgaris; Green manures; Chemical composition; Organic matter;
 Iron oxides; Aluminum oxide; Lime; Calcium oxide; Magnesium
 oxide; Potassium; Phosphoric acid; Nitrogen; Composting;
 Nitrogen content; Seed germination; Crop yield; Nutrient
 availability; Plant height; Shoots; Tillering; Fertilizers
 
 Abstract:  1. Young tares, young mustard, and sugar beet tops
 had a beneficial effect on the barley crop when used as green
 manures. They accelerated germination, increased the tillering
 capacity, and gave bigger yields of grain and straw than the
 control. This was true of all three manures in whatever way
 they were applied. The same applies to the artificial
 fertilizers. 2. The yield of grain and straw was correlated
 with the tillering capacity, but was not affected by the
 height. The increased tillering and yield were primarily due
 to the fertilizing elements contained in the green manures,
 chiefly the nitrogen. 3. The green manures when buried at once
 gave higher yields of grain and straw than when they were
 applied to the surface or when they were rotted separately. 4.
 The fertilizing value of the different methods of applying the
 green manures depends on the abundance of available nitrogen
 returned the treated manure for the use of the crop. The
 extent to which the abundance of nitrogen will be maintained
 in the treated manure depends on the nature of the green
 manure, the amount and nature of nitrogen originally present
 in the green manure, and the conditions under which the
 material is decomposed.
 
 
 108                                 NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Forage legume-small grain intercrops: nitrogen production and
 response of subsequent corn.
 Hesterman, O.B.; Griffin, T.S.; Williams, P.T.; Harris, G.H.;
 Christenson, D.R.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Jul.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 5 (3): p. 340-348; 1992
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Michigan; Triticum aestivum; Winter wheat; Avena
 sativa; Zea mays; Medicago sativa; Trifolium pratense; Cover
 crops; Intercropping; Crop yield; Sowing; Nitrogen; Soil
 fertility; Available water; Spatial variation; Geographical
 distribution; Precipitation; Seasonal variation
 
 
 109                                   NAL Call. No.: 421 J822
 Foraging preference of red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera:
 Formicidae) among three species of summer cover crops and
 their extracts.
 Kaakeh, W.; Dutcher, J.D.
 Lanham, Md. : Entomological Society of America; 1992 Apr.
 Journal of economic entomology v. 85 (2): p. 389-394; 1992
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Indigofera hirsuta; Sesbania exaltata; Vigna
 unguiculata; Insect repellents; Plant extracts; Solenopsis
 invicta; Feeding preferences; Foraging
 
 Abstract:  Foraging preference of red imported fire ant,
 Solenopsis invicta Buren, among three species of summer cover
 crops, sesbania, Sesbania exaltata (Rafinesque-Schmaltz) Cory;
 hairy indigo, Indigofera hirsuta L.; and cowpea, Vigna
 unguiculata (L.) Walpers, was evaluated in the greenhouse
 using choice and no-choice tests. Ants derived a large part of
 their nutrients from aphid honeydew, and ant workers differed
 in their response to plant species in the presence or absence
 of cowpea aphid. Ants preferred cowpea > indigo > sesbania
 when these plants were infested with cowpea aphids, whereas
 ants showed no preference between cowpea and indigo when
 plants were kept free of cowpea aphids. Sesbania showed almost
 100% repellency, to ants for 8 d, whether these plants were
 infested or kept free of aphids. In a pickup bioassay for
 detecting any discrimination among plants by ants, leaf disks
 from noninfested leaves of cowpea and hairy indigo were picked
 up more readily than those from sesbania. Response of ants to
 extracts differed significantly among plants. Sesbania extract
 repelled and caused mortality in the red imported fire ant.
 Ethanol extract of sesbania caused higher ant mortality than
 the water extract.
 
 
 110                                    NAL Call. No.: 26 T754
 Grain yield responses in rice to eight tropical green manures.
 Meelu, O.P.; Morris, R.A.; Furoc, R.E.; Dizon, M.A.
 London : Butterworth-Heinemann; 1992 Apr.
 Tropical agriculture v. 69 (2): p. 133-136; 1992 Apr. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Philippines; Oryza sativa; Sesbania cannabina;
 Crotalaria juncea; Green manures; Legumes; Nitrogen
 fertilizers; Biomass production; Crop yield
 
 
 111                                  NAL Call. No.: SB193.F59
 Grazing management of overseeded ryegrass.
 Alison, M.W.
 Georgetown, Tx. : American Forage and Grassland Council; 1992.
 Proceedings of the Forage and Grassland Conference v. 1: p.
 55-59; 1992. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Louisiana; Lolium multiflorum; Oversowing;
 Grazing systems
 
 
 112                                 NAL Call. No.: S540.A2F62
 Green manure cropping systems and benefits.
 Gallaher, R.N.; Eylands, V.J.
 Gainesville, Fla. : The Stations; 1985.
 Agronomy research report AY - Agricultural Experiment
 Stations, University of Florida (85-11): 14 p.; 1985. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Green manures; Cropping systems
 
 
 113                                 NAL Call. No.: S667.R5G73
 Green manure in rice farming proceedings of a symposium on
 sustainable agriculture : the role of green manure crops in
 rice farming systems, 25-29 May 1987..  Role of green manure
 crops in rice farming systems Sustainable agriculture, green
 manure in rice farming
 International Rice Research Institute, International Council
 of Scientific Unions, Commission on the Application of Science
 to Agriculture, Forestry, and Aquaculture
 S.l. : International Rice Research Institute, in collaboration
 with the Commission on the Application of Science to
 Agriculture, Forestry, and Aquaculture,; 1988.
 379 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.  Cover title: Sustainable agriculture,
 green manure in rice farming.  Includes bibliographical
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Green manure crops; Rice
 
 
 114                                  NAL Call. No.: aZ5071.N3
 Green manures and cover crops--January 1987-September 1991.
 Gates, J.P.
 Beltsville, Md. : The Library; 1991 Dec.
 Quick bibliography series - U.S. Department of Agriculture,
 National Agricultural Library (U.S.). (92-11): 60 p.; 1991
 Dec.  Updates QB 89-58. Bibliography.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Green manures; Cover crops; Bibliographies
 
 
 115                            NAL Call. No.: S605.5.I45 1989
 Green manures in irrigated crop systems.
 Razongles, C.
 Witzenhausen? : Ekopan; 1990.
 Agricultural alternatives and nutritional self-sufficiency :
 for a sustainable agricultural system that respects man and
 his environment : proc of the IFOAM Seventh Int Scientific
 Conference, Ouagadougou, January 2-5, 1989. p. 255-262; 1990.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Organic farming; Cropping systems; Green manures;
 Irrigation; Environmental impact; Temporal variation; Seasonal
 growth; Seasons; Residual effects; Nitrates; Crop yield
 
 
 116                                    NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Green manuring and its application to agricultural practices.
 Pieters, A.J.; McKee, R.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1929 Oct.
 Journal of the American Society of Agronomy v. 21 (10): p.
 985-993; 1929 Oct. Paper presented at the "Symposium on Soil
 Organic Matter and Green Manuring," November 22, 1928,
 Washington, D.C.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Crop production; Green manures; Crop yield
 
 
 117                              NAL Call. No.: 100 Io9 no.10
 Green manuring and soil fertility.
 Brown, P. E.
 Ames, Iowa : Agricultural Experiment Station, Iowa State
 College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts,; 1913.
 15 p. : ill. ; 22 cm. (Circular (Iowa State College.
 Agricultural Experiment Station) ; no. 10.).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Green manuring
 
 
 118                        NAL Call. No.: 100 C125 (2) no.110
 Green manuring in California.
 Lipman, C. B.
 Berkeley, Calif. : University of California, College of
 Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment Station,; 1913.
 3 p. ; 22 cm. (Circular (California Agricultural Experiment
 Station) ; no. 110.).
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Green manuring
 
 
 119                              NAL Call. No.: S661.P53 1927
 Green manuring principles and practice.
 Pieters, Adrian John,
 New York : Wiley ; London : Chapman & Hall,; 1927.
 xiv, 356 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. (The Wiley agricultural series). 
 Includes bibliograpical references (p. 325-340).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Green manuring
 
 
 120                            NAL Call. No.: S661.S3413 1989
 Green manuring principles and practice of natural soil
 improvement.. Bedeutung, Praxis und Technik der Grundungung in
 Landwirtschaft und Gemusebau, Rev. 3rd ed..
 Schmid, Otto; Klay, Ruedi; Brinton, William F.
 Woods End Agricultural Institute
 Mt. Vernon, Me. : Woods End Agricultural Institute,; 1989. v,
 51 p. ; 28 cm.  "This document prepared by W.F. Brinton from
 original reports which appeared in part under the title
 'Bedeutung, Praxis und Technik der Grundungung in
 Landwirtschaft und Gemusebau,' 1979, 1980. von O. Schmid u. R.
 Klay"--T.p. verso.  Includes bibliographical references (p.
 47-51).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Green manuring
 
 
 121                            NAL Call. No.: 100 M36S no.268
 Green-manuring crops for soil improvement Branchville field.. 
 Green manuring crops for soil improvement
 McCall, A. G.
 College Park : University of Maryland, Agricultural Experiment
 Station,; 1924. 12 p. : ill. ; 23 cm. (Bulletin (Maryland
 Agricultural Experiment Station) ; no. 268.).  Caption title. 
 July, 1924.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Green manuring
 
 
 122                                NAL Call. No.: S592.7.A1S6
 Growth and N2-fixation of two stem-nodulating legumes and
 their effect as green manure on lowland rice.
 Becker, M.; Ladha, J.K; Ottow, J.C.G.
 Exeter : Pergamon Press; 1990.
 Soil biology and biochemistry v. 22 (8): p. 1109-1119; 1990. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sesbania; Aeschynomene; Growth rate; Nitrogen
 fixation; Stem nodules; Green manures; Lowland areas; Oryza
 sativa
 
 
 123                                  NAL Call. No.: QK867.J67
 Growth and selenium uptake of range plants propagated in
 uranium mine soils. Hossner, L.R.; Woodard, H.J.; Bush, J.
 New York, N.Y. : Marcel Dekker; 1992.
 Journal of plant nutrition v. 15 (12): p. 2743-2761; 1992. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Panicum coloratum; Cynodon dactylon;
 Gramineae; Selenium; Ion uptake; Mineral content; Uranium;
 Mine spoil; Shoots; Dry matter accumulation; Cover crops
 
 Abstract:  High soil selenium (Se) levels have been found in
 association with uranium deposits in Texas. A concern that
 high Se concentrations may be found in forages grown on
 reclaimed mine lands prompted this investigation. A native
 soil sampled near the mining area, and overburden materials
 sampled from two Se enriched uranium mine soil sites were
 compared in a plant growth study in the greenhouse. Shoot
 yields and shoot Se concentration in each of ten grasses
 common to the region were determined from plants harvested
 three weeks after germination and from shoot regrowth
 harvested four weeks after the first harvest. Shoot weights
 were reduced for 5 of the 10 species growing in soils with
 medium and high Se status. Total shoot weights of Cynodon
 dactylon and Panicum coloratum from two harvests were
 consistently highest in all soil materials and are highly
 recommended for use as a stabilizing cover crop for lands
 disturbed from uranium mining. Generally, no correlation was
 observed between shoot weight and plant Se concentration or
 uptake in the 10 species. However, plant tissue Se
 concentrations in all species for at least one of the two
 harvest dates were above the 5 mg kg-1 concentration
 considered potentially harmful to grazing livestock.
 Therefore, none of these species would be a suitable forage
 for livestock grazing on reclaimed Se-enriched uranium mining
 overburden.
 
 
 124                                   NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Growth characteristics of legume cover crops in a semiarid
 environment. Power, J.F.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1991 Nov.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 55 (6): p.
 1659-1663; 1991 Nov. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Dakota; Legumes; Cover crops; Green
 manures; Semiarid climate; Seasonal growth; Planting date;
 Temporal variation; Stand characteristics; Growth rate; Dry
 matter accumulation; Nitrogen fixation; Nitrogen; Nutrient
 uptake; Water use efficiency; Nitrogen content; Climatic
 factors; Precipitation; Dry farming
 
 Abstract:  To select the best legume cover crop to grow for a
 given cropping situation, the producer needs knowledge of
 relative growth rates, N2-fixation and N-uptake rates, and
 water use for various potential planting dates. Such an
 experiment was conducted for 2 yr at Mandan, ND, in which 10
 legume species were planted on or shortly after the first day
 of May, June, July, and August each year. Soil and plant
 samples were collected periodically after each planting date
 to evaluate rates of dry-matter production, N accumulation,
 and water use. Potential N2-fixation rate was measured in one
 season only. For the first 40 to 90 d after planting, large-
 seeded annuals such as faba bean (Vicia faba L.) field pea
 (Pisum sativum L.), and soybean (Glycine max [L] Merr.)
 generally exhibited most rapid growth, N accumulation, and
 water use (these three parameters were generally closely
 related for all samplings). With more than 90 d growth,
 species such as Korean lespedeza (Lespedeza stipulacea
 Maxim.), yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officianalis L.), and
 alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) also began to exhibit rapid
 growth. One surprising result was the outstanding growth of
 May-planted subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) in
 one (ample moisture) of the two seasons. For the shorter
 growth periods, faba bean exhibited good growth
 characteristics at all planting dates, and field pea was
 satisfactory at most. July and August planting of slower
 growing species generally resulted in relatively little growth
 by the end of the season. In most instances, water-use
 efficiency was greatest for the May planting, and highest
 values were often recorded for field pea, faba bean, and
 subterranean clover. These results identify those legume
 species best adapted for a given planting date and duration of
 growth under the climatic conditions of this experiment.
 
 
 125                                    NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Harvest management of a crimson clover cover for no-tillage
 corn production. Holderbaum, J.F.; Decker, A.M.; Meisinger,
 J.J.; Mulford, F.R.; Vough, L.R. Madison, Wis. : American
 Society of Agronomy; 1990 Sep.
 Agronomy journal v. 82 (5): p. 918-923; 1990 Sep.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Maryland; Zea mays; No-tillage; Trifolium
 incarnatum; Cover crops; Crop yield; Grain; Maize silage;
 Herbage; Nitrogen content; Dry matter accumulation; Nitrogen;
 Residual effects; Nutrient uptake; Forage; Cutting frequency;
 Crop quality; Sequential cropping
 
 Abstract:  Legume cover crops are valuable N sources for no-
 tillage corn (Zea mays L.). However, little research has been
 done in assessing the management options for legume cover
 crops. Field studies were conducted on a Coastal Plain
 Matapeake silt loam soil (fine-silty, mixed, mesic Typic
 Hapludult) from 1983 through 1986 to determine the effects of
 various harvest management schedules on total N contribution
 of legume cover crops, subsequent corn grain and silage
 yields, and total forage (combined cover crop and corn
 herbage) production. A crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum
 L.) cover crop was subjected to no harvest; spring silage
 harvest with clippings removed (spring silage); and simulated
 pasture harvests with clippings from multiple harvests removed
 (pasture removed) or returned (pasture returned). A no-cover
 control treatment was also included. No-tillage corn was grown
 in the cover crop residues and two fertilizer N (FN) rates (0
 and 90 kg ha-1) were applied in a split-block design to each
 harvest management treatment. Averaged over 3 yr, multiple
 harvests of the cover crop vs. a spring silage harvest
 resulted in lower cover crop herbage yields (3.0 vs. 4.7 Mg
 ha-1) and total N content (114 vs. 146 kg N ha-1) for the
 multiple harvests. Corn grain and silage yields and corn N
 uptake were consistently higher following crimson clover cover
 than for no cover, regardless of harvest management, and were
 generally higher when the cover was left in place than
 following removal of the cover. There were FN responses
 regardless of harvest management treatment. The reduction in
 corn silage yield when the cover crop was harvested and
 removed was less than the cover crop herbage dry matter yield,
 resulting in greater total forage production when the cover
 crop was harvested as forage. Results suggest that harvest
 management options of a crimson clover cover crop offer
 flexibility in either optimizing subsequent corn grain yields
 or total forage production for no-tillage croppin
 
 
 126                                  NAL Call. No.: 100 M69MI
 Horticulture's Garner honored.
 Kight, T.
 Mississippi State, Miss. : The Station; 1991 Apr.
 MAFES research highlights - Mississippi Agricultural and
 Forestry Experiment Station v. 54 (4): p. 3; 1991 Apr.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mississippi; Cover crops; Green manures
 
 
 127                                     NAL Call. No.: S1.N32
 How to choose a soil-building legume.
 Sarrantonio, M.
 Emmaus, Pa. : Rodale Institute; 1991 Jul.
 The New farm. p. 23-25; 1991 Jul.  Paper presented at a Rodale
 Institute "Take Charge" workshop, Winter, 1990, Kutztown,
 Pennsylvania.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Leguminosae; Cover crops
 
 
 128                                NAL Call. No.: 275.29 M58B
 How to control sheet and rill erosion.
 East Lansing, Mich. : The Service; 1991 Oct.
 Extension bulletin E - Cooperative Extension Service, Michigan
 State University (2315): 4 p.; 1991 Oct.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Erosion control; Erosion; Rill erosion; Contour
 cultivation; Contour ridging; Cover crops; Rotations; Terraces
 
 
 129                               NAL Call. No.: SB950.2.I3I4
 How will cover crops affect insect ecology?.
 Steffey, K.
 Urbana, Ill. : Cooperative Extension Service, Univ of Illinois
 at Urbana-Champaign; 1991.
 Illinois Agricultural Pesticides Conference summaries of
 presentations January 8, 9, 10, 1991, Urbana, Illinois / Univ
 of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Coop Ext Serv, in coop with
 the Illinois Natural History Survey. p. 108-111; 1991.
 "Proceedings of the 1991 Illinois Agricultural Pesticides
 Conference," January 8-10, 1991, Urbana, Illinois.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Illinois; Cover crops; Insects; Ecology
 
 
 130                                   NAL Call. No.: SB249.N6
 Impact of legume cover crops on soilborne plant pathogens of
 cotton. Rothrock, C.S.; Kirkpatrick, T.L.
 Memphis, Tenn. : National Cotton Council of America; 1990.
 Proceedings - Beltwide Cotton Production Research Conferences.
 p. 30-31; 1990.  Meeting held January 9-14, 1990, Las Vegas,
 Nevada.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Gossypium hirsutum; Cover crops; Fungus control;
 Rhizoctonia solani; Thielaviopsis basicola
 
 
 131                                  NAL Call. No.: 79.9 C122
 Impact of nematode species and various cover crops on growth
 of adjacent grapevines.
 McKenry, M.V.; Buzo, T.; Kaku, S.
 Fremont, Calif. : California Weed Conference; 1990.
 Proceedings - California Weed Conference (42): p. 187-189;
 1990.  Meeting held January 15-17, 1990, San Jose, California.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Vitis; Ground cover; Weeds; Cover crops; Plant
 parasitic nematodes
 
 
 132                                  NAL Call. No.: 99.9 SO82
 The impact of weeds and two legume crops on Eucalyptus hybrid
 clone establishment.
 Schumann, A.W.
 Pretoria : South African Forestry Association; 1992 Mar.
 South African forestry journal (160): p. 43-48; 1992 Mar. 
 Paper presented at the IUFRO Symposium on "Intensive Forestry:
 The Role of Eucalypts," held Sept 1991, Durban, South Africa. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Eucalyptus; Forest plantations; Crop weed
 competition; Weed control; Cultural methods; Mucuna pruriens;
 Vigna unguiculata; Herbicides; Cover crops
 
 
 133                                NAL Call. No.: S544.3.O5O5
 Improving native pecan groves.
 Taylor, G.C.
 Stillwater, Okla. : The Service; 1991 Jul.
 OSU extension facts - Cooperative Extension Service, Oklahoma
 State University v.): 4 p.; 1991 Jul.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oklahoma; Carya illinoensis; Tree gardens; Tree
 fruits; Thinning; Selective felling; Cover crops
 
 
 134                                 NAL Call. No.: QL461.E532
 Influence of winter cover crop suppression practices on
 seasonal abundance of armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), cover
 crop regrowth, and yield in no-till corn.
 Laub, C.A.; Luna, J.M.
 Lanham, Md. : Entomological Society of America; 1991 Apr.
 Environmental entomology v. 20 (2): p. 749-754; 1991 Apr. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Zea mays; Mythimna unipuncta; Secale cereale;
 Cover crops; No-tillage; Population dynamics; Insect control
 
 Abstract:  Rye (Secale cereale L.), used as a winter cover
 crop, was killed by paraquat or by mowing with a bushog. In
 the early stages of subsequent no-till corn, abundance of
 armyworm, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haworth), was lower in the
 mowed treatment compared with the sprayed treatment in three
 of five fields and did not differ in another field. Over the
 duration of the first armyworm generation, cumulative
 armyworm-days in the sprayed treatment were greater than in
 the mowed treatment in three of five fields and did not differ
 in another field. Mowing the cover crop was 40% less expensive
 than spraying. Competition from rye regrowth in the mowed
 treatment did not diminish yields. Corn silage yields were
 increased by mowing (P = 0.07), and the average increase in
 net benefit from mowing the cover crop compared with spraying
 was $91-113/ba. Cover crop mowing may be an economical and
 effective means of managing armyworm populations in no-till
 corn.
 
 
 135                                  NAL Call. No.: SB193.P72
 Initial development of early blooming annual cool season
 legumes for use in conservation tillage.
 Owsley, C.M.; Kirkland, M.S.; Surrency, E.D.
 Madison, Wis. : The Department; 1989.
 Progress report, clovers and special purpose legumes research -
  University of Wisconsin, Department of Agronomy v. 22: p.
 31-33; 1989.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Georgia; Leguminosae; Double cropping; No-
 tillage; Flowering date; Earliness; Cover crops; Selection
 criteria; Plant breeding
 
 
 136                                NAL Call. No.: S544.3.N7A4
 Interplanting cover crops reduces herbicide usage, controls
 erosion and fixes nitrogen.
 Sumner, K.
 Middletown, N.Y. : Cornell Cooperative Ext.--Orange County
 Agriculture Program, Education Center; 1991 Oct.
 Agfocus : publication of Cornell Cooperative Extension--Orange
 County. p. 9; 1991 Oct.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cover crops; Erosion control; Nitrogen fixation;
 Herbicides
 
 
 137                                 NAL Call. No.: HM206.A1H8
 Land use, soil loss, and sustainable agriculture in Rwanda.
 Clay, D.C.; Lewis, L.A.
 New York, N.Y. : Plenum Press; 1990 Jun.
 Human ecology v. 18 (2): p. 147-161; 1990 Jun.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rwanda; Farm management; Land use;
 Sustainability; Erosion control; Soil conservation; Cropping
 systems; Slope; Cover crops; Viability; Land productivity;
 Environmental degradation; Farm surveys
 
 
 138                    NAL Call. No.: S599.9.T783T76 no.90-01
 Legume green manures principles for management based on recent
 research. Lathwell, D. J.
 Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Program
 Raleigh, NC : Soil Management Collaborative Research Support
 Program, N.C. State University,; 1990.
 30 p. : ill. ; 28 cm. (TropSoils bulletin ; no. 90-01). 
 Includes bibliographical references (p. 29-30).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Legumes; Green manure crops; Organic fertilizers
 
 
 139                                   NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Legume mulch and nitrogen fertilizer effects on soil water and
 corn production.
 Corak, S.J.; Frye, W.W.; Smith, M.S.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1991 Sep.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 55 (5): p.
 1395-1400; 1991 Sep. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kentucky; Vicia villosa; Zea mays; No-tillage;
 Crop production; Silt loam soils; Cover crops; Live mulches;
 Crop residues; Preplanting treatment; Nitrogen fertilizers;
 Nitrogen; Nutrient content; Soil water content; Temporal
 variation; Spatial variation; Crop yield; Growth; Nutrient
 transport; Water use efficiency; Crop growth stage; Nutrient
 availability; Water conservation; Profiles; Maize stover;
 Grain; Precipitation; Transpiration
 
 Abstract:  Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) as a winter annual
 legume cover crop, can increase grain yield of no-till corn
 (Zea mays L.). Optimizing management of this system depends on
 understanding beneficial effects. This field study examined
 effects of hairy vetch (HV) and N fertilizer on soil water
 content, crop growth, N assimilation, and water-use
 efficiency. Cover-crop treatments, each with 0 and 255 kg ha-1
 of fertilizer N, were (i) winter fallow, (ii) aboveground HV
 removed at corn planting, (iii) HV left in place, and (iv) HV
 left in place and supplemented with that removed from (ii).
 Transpiration by HV before corn planting reduced soil water
 content, decreasing early growth of corn during years of low
 spring rainfall. By 2 to 4 wk after planting, however, soil
 water content under HV mulch was similar to winter fallow.
 Soil water content was higher with HV mulch only during the
 second 4-wk period following planting and only in the upper
 7.5 cm of the profile. Greater soil water use associated with
 N fertilizer occurred after about 8 wk in 2 of the 3 yr. Hairy
 vetch treatments sit the zero-N fertilizer level increased
 corn growth, N assimilation, grain yield, and water-use
 efficiency. The high-N treatment negated these benefits of HV.
 Because of this and the lack of mulch effects on soil water
 during inter stages of crop growth, we concluded that N
 supplied to no-till corn was the principal, immediate benefit
 of HV during this study.
 
 
 140                                     NAL Call. No.: SB1.H6
 Legumes alone and in combination with manure as fertilizers in
 an intensive muskmelon production system.
 Singogo, W.; Lamont, W.J. Jr; Marr, C.W.
 Alexandria, Va. : American Society for Horticultural Science;
 1991 Nov. HortScience v. 26 (11): p. 1431; 1991 Nov.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cucumis melo; Green manures; Medicago sativa;
 Vicia villosa; Pisum sativum; Cattle manure; Trickle
 irrigation; Plastic film; Intensive production; Crop yield;
 Fruits
 
 
 141                                    NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Legumes and grasses in crop rotation.
 Lyon, T.L.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1927 Jun.
 Journal of the American Society of Agronomy v. 19 (6): p.
 534-544; 1927 Jun. Paper presented at the symposium on
 "Potash", November 19, 1926, Washington, D.C.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Legumes; Grasses; Alfalfa hay; Clover hay;
 Rotations; Green manures; Cereals
 
 Abstract:  A partial review of recent experiment station
 literature concerning experiments to ascertain the effect of
 legumes, grasses, and green manures on the yields of
 succeeding crops shows the following. With a few exceptions
 experiments in the humid portions of the country have
 demonstrated the superiority of red clover and alfalfa over
 timothy in their effect on the yields of crops that follow.
 That the beneficial effect of clover is due to its property as
 a legume has been shown by a number of field experiments in
 which comparison was made of the yields of similar crops grown
 in the same years in two or more rotations in which clover is
 replaced by some non-legume crop grown in the same year as the
 clover. The same principle has been demonstrated by
 determining the nitrate nitrogen contained in drainage water
 from soil in which clover residues have been incorporated and
 also in which timothy residues have been incorporated. Tests
 conducted, at eight experiment stations in humid regions
 indicate on the soils used for the tests a greater
 effectiveness of legumes as compared with non-legume green
 manures on the yields of succeeding crops. The data indicate
 that a practical advantage is to be gained by the succeeding
 crop from replacing oats and possibly corn by soybeans,
 especially when clover is not included in the rotation. Some
 tests have resulted in a larger crop following a mixture of
 corn and soybeans and oats and field peas than after either
 cereal alone. The total number of trials has been few and
 results have not been uniform, consequently a definite
 conclusion cannot be drawn. The region of dry farming is the
 only part of this country in which legumes do not affect
 favorably the yield of the succeeding crop with a reasonable
 degree of certainty. That lack of soil moisture is the
 explanation would appear from the fact that irrigated soil in
 the same region gives a good response to legumes.
 
 
 142                        NAL Call. No.: 100 C125 (2) no.255
 Leguminous plants as organic fertilizers in California
 agriculture. Kennedy, P. Beveridge
 Berkeley, Calif. : University of California, College of
 Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment Station,; 1922.
 8 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. (Circular (California Agricultural
 Experiment Station) ; no. 255.).
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Legumes; Green manuring
 
 
 143                             NAL Call. No.: 100 V81S no.60
 The liberation of plant nutrients from the soil as affected by
 alfalfa. Hill, H. H.
 Blacksburg, Va. : Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station,;
 1937. 19 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. (Technical bulletin (Virginia
 Agricultural Experiment Station) ; 60.).  Cover title. 
 Bibliography: p. 18-19.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alfalfa; Green manuring
 
 
 144                                    NAL Call. No.: 80 AC82
 Living mulch ground covers for weed control between raspberry
 rows. Freyman, S.
 Wageningen : International Society for Horticultural Science;
 1989 Nov. Acta horticulturae (262): p. 349-356; 1989 Nov. 
 Paper presented at the "5th International Symposium on Rubus &
 Ribes," / edited by H.A. Daubeny, June 24-July 2, 1989,
 Vancouver, B.C., Canada.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: British Columbia; Rubus idaeus; Row spacing; Weed
 control; Live mulches; Lolium perenne; Festuca ovina;
 Trifolium repens; Hordeum vulgare; Yield response functions
 
 
 145                                NAL Call. No.: S544.3.N7A4
 Living mulches and cover crop benefit small-fruit plantings.
 Merwin, I.; Pritts, M.
 Middletown, N.Y. : Cornell Cooperative Ext.--Orange County
 Agriculture Program, Education Center; 1990 Apr.
 Agfocus : publication of Cornell Cooperative Extension--Orange
 County. p. 14; 1990 Apr.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Small fruits; Cover crops; Live mulches; Weed
 control; Herbicides
 
 
 146                         NAL Call. No.: 100 L93 (1) no.830
 The long-term effects of winter cover crops on cotton
 production in northwest Louisiana.
 Millhollon, E. P.
 Baton Rouge, La. : Louisiana State University Agricultural
 Center, Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station,; 1991.
 35 p. : ill. ; 23 cm. (Bulletin (Louisiana Agricultural
 Experiment Station : 1955) ; no. 830.).  Cover title. 
 December 1991.  Includes bibliographical references (p.
 33-35).
 
 Language:  English
 
 
 147                                     NAL Call. No.: 30 AD9
 Long-term impacts of tillage, fertilizer, and crop residue on
 soil organic matter in temperate semiarid regions.
 Rasmussen, P.E.; Collins, H.P.
 San Diego, Calif. : Academic Press; 1991.
 Advances in agronomy v. 45: p. 93-134; 1991.  Literature
 review.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Soil organic matter; Soil fertility; Animal
 manures; Biomass; Carbon cycle; Crop residues; Cycling;
 Erosion; Fertilizers; Green manures; Grasslands; Tillage;
 Literature reviews; Semiarid zones; Temperate zones
 
 
 148                                   NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Macroporosity of a well-drained soil under no-till and
 conventional tillage. Dunn, G.H.; Phillips, R.E.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1991 May.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 55 (3): p. 817-822;
 1991 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kentucky; Hydraulic conductivity; Macropores; No-
 tillage; Silt loam soils; Tillage; Cover crops; Secale
 cereale; Vicia villosa; Zea mays
 
 Abstract:  Conventional tillage and no-tillage have been shown
 to affect the hydraulic properties of soil. For this reason, a
 field experiment was conducted in 1987 and 1988 to determine
 the effect of tillage practice and cover crop on the
 macroporosity of a Maury silt loam (fine, mixed, mesic Typic
 Paleudalf). The field used for this study has been in
 continuous no-till and conventional-till corn (Zea mays L.)
 since 1970. Ponded steady-state infiltration measurements were
 made using double-ring infiltrometers; afterwards, a tension
 infiltrometer was used to measure water flux at -0.4, -0.9,
 and -1.4 kPa water pressure. These negative water pressures
 were used to calculate equivalent cylindrical pore diameters
 from the capillary-rise equation. Flux at a pressure of -0.06
 kPa was determined from regression equations for each plot.
 Equivalent pore diameters of 5.0, 0.75, 0.33, and 0.21 mm
 correspond to -0.06, -0.4, -0.9, and -1.4 kPa, respectively.
 In June 1987, conventional tillage had significantly higher
 water flux than no-till for the 5.0- to 0.75-mm equivalent-
 diameter pore size range. In 1987, rye (Secale cereale L.)
 cover crop plots had significantly higher water-flux values
 than hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) plots for the same
 range of equivalent pore sizes. In June 1988, no-till plots
 had significantly higher water-flux values for all equivalent
 pore size ranges. In 1987, 73 and 80% of the total water flux
 at -0.06 kPa water pressure was transmitted through pores >
 0.21-mm equivalent diameter in no-till and conventional-
 tillage plots, respectively. The corresponding values in 1988
 were 83 and 73%.
 
 
 149                                NAL Call. No.: QK898.N6N52
 Maize yields from an alley cropping experiment with nine tree
 species in Hawaii.
 Rosecrance, R.C.; Kuo, W.
 Bangkok, Thailand : Thailand Institute of Scientific and
 Technological Research; 1989 Aug.
 Nitrogen fixing tree research reports v. 7: p. 36-37; 1989
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Hawaii; Zea mays; Nitrogen fixing trees; Green
 manures; Crop yield; Alley cropping; Nitrogen fixation
 
 
 150                                   NAL Call. No.: 1.9 P69P
 Managing Meloidogyne chitwoodi on potato with rapeseed as
 green manure. Mojtahedi, H.; Santo, G.S.; Wilson, J.H.; Hang,
 A.N.
 St. Paul, Minn. : American Phytopathological Society; 1993
 Jan. Plant disease v. 77 (1): p. 42-46; 1993 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Solanum tuberosum; Meloidogyne chitwoodi; Plant
 parasitic nematodes; Biological control; Rape; Leaves; Stems;
 Roots; Green manures; Pest management; Efficacy;
 Glucosinolates; Ethoprophos
 
 
 151                       NAL Call. No.: A99.9 F7622Un no.119
 Manganese toxicity of legumes seeded in Kentucky strip-mine
 spoils. Berg, W. A.; Vogel, W. G.
 Upper Darby, Pa. : Northeastern Forest Experiment Station,
 Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture,; 1968; A
 13.78:Ne-119.
 12 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. (U.S. Forest Service research paper NE ;
 119).  Cover title.  Bibliography: p. 10.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Legumes; Plants, Effect of manganese on; Spoil
 banks; Cover crops
 
 
 152                             NAL Call. No.: 100 W27E no.32
 The manurial value of different legumes.
 Thatcher, Roscoe Wilfred,
 Pullman, Wash. : State Agricultural Experiment Station,; 1910.
 [4] p. ; 24 cm. (Popular bulletin (Washington Agricultural
 Experiment Station) ; no. 32.).
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Green manure crops; Legumes
 
 
 153                                NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Mass of crop residue and its relationship with soil cover for
 a corn, dry bean, and sugarbeet rotation.
 Smith, J.A.; Yonts, C.D.; Rath, M.D.; Bailie, J.E.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1990 Sep. Transactions of the ASAE v. 33 (5): p.
 1503-1508; 1990 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Beta vulgaris; Dry beans; Zea mays; Crop
 residues; Biomass production; Cover crops; Rotations; Tillage
 
 Abstract:  The mass and percent cover of crop residue on the
 soil surface were measured for three tillage systems in a crop
 rotation of corn, dry edible beans, and sugarbeets under
 furrow irrigation. The tillage systems included a moldboard
 plow-based system, a rotary strip till system, and a system
 which utilized minimum tillage prior to planting. A good
 relationship was found between mass and soil cover when corn
 residue predominated, but not when dry edible bean or
 sugarbeet residues were the dominate residues. The reduced
 tillage systems retained greater residue mass on the soil
 surface than the moldboard plow system for almost two years of
 the three year crop rotation. The mass of surface residue for
 all three tillage systems was less than 0.5 t/ha for a period
 of one year following sugarbeet harvest. The variability of
 the residue mass measurement was reduced when the residue was
 washed.
 
 
 154                        NAL Call. No.: 100 C125 (2) no.136
 Melilotus indica as a green manure crop in southern
 California. Mertz, W. M.
 Berkeley, Calif. : University of California, College of
 Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment Station,; 1915.
 4 p. ; 23 cm. (Circular (California Agricultural Experiment
 Station) ; no. 136.).
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Sweet clover; Green manure crops
 
 
 155                                   NAL Call. No.: SB249.N6
 MICROP: a microalagal green manure effects on Upper Delta
 cotton yields and soil compaction.
 Schaefer, J.
 Memphis, Tenn. : National Cotton Council of America; 1989.
 Proceedings - Beltwide Cotton Conferences (Book 2): p.
 504-505; 1989.  Meeting held January 2-7, 1989, Nashville,
 Tennessee.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Tennessee; Arkansas; Mississippi; Missouri;
 Gossypium hirsutum; Chlamydomonas; Chlorella; Cyanobacteria;
 Green manures; Crop yield
 
 
 156                                  NAL Call. No.: SB193.P72
 Multicut berseem clover as a double crop for Eastern Oregon.
 Saunders, L.; Shock, C.; Stieber, T.
 Madison, Wis. : The Department; 1990.
 Progress report, clovers and special purpose legumes research -
  University of Wisconsin, Department of Agronomy v. 23: p. 34;
 1990.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oregon; Trifolium alexandrinum; Double cropping;
 Clover hay; Green manures
 
 
 157                                 NAL Call. No.: QH84.8.B46
 N2 fixation in two Sesbania species and its transfer to rice
 (Oryza sativa L.) as revealed by 15N technology.
 Seneviratne, G.; Kulasooriya, S.A.; Weerakoon, W.L.; Rosswall,
 T. Berlin : Springer International; 1992.
 Biology and fertility of soils v. 14 (1): p. 37-42; 1992. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sri lanka; Sesbania; Nitrogen fixation; Nitrogen;
 Isotope labeling; Green manures; Oryza sativa; Soil fertility;
 Crop yield; Flooded rice
 
 
 158                            NAL Call. No.: aSB433.N37 1986
 National dormant Bermudagrass overseeding test, 1984 progress
 report 1985.. National dormant Bermuda grass overseeding test,
 1984
 United States, Agricultural Research Service, National
 Turfgrass Evaluation Program (U.S.)
 Beltsville, Md.? : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural
 Research Service ; Springfield, Va. : National Technical
 Information Service [distributor],; 1986.
 22 p. ; 28 cm.  Chiefly tables.  "January 1986"--Cover.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Turfgrasses; Bermuda grass
 
 
 159                                   NAL Call. No.: 100 AL1H
 New herbicide doesn't restrict overseeding of winter forages
 into bermudagrass hay fields.
 Richburg, J.S. III; Walker, R.H.
 Auburn University, Ala. : The Station; 1992.
 Highlights of agricultural research - Alabama Agricultural
 Experiment Station v. 39 (1): p. 16; 1992.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alabama; Herbicides; Cynodon dactylon;
 Oversowing; Winter; Fodder crops; Annuals; Phytotoxicity
 
 
 160                                     NAL Call. No.: S1.N32
 New ideas for profitable farming.
 Tjepkema, J.
 Emmaus, Pa. : Rodale Institute; 1990 May.
 The New farm v. 12 (4): p. 6-8. maps; 1990 May.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Farming; Profitability; Grazing; Cover
 crops; Soil fertility
 
 
 161                                    NAL Call. No.: S75.F87
 New regimes for farm fields.
 Erb, C.
 East Lansing, Mich. : The Station; 1989.
 Futures - Michigan State University, Agricultural Experiment
 Station v. 7 (1): p. 12-16. ill; 1989.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Michigan; Cropping systems; Cover crops; Minimum
 tillage systems; Manure spreading; Research projects
 
 
 162                                 NAL Call. No.: S605.5.O74
 Nine good reasons to cover crop your garden.
 Sarrantonio, M.
 Emmaus, Pa. : Rodale Press, Inc; 1993 Jan.
 Organic gardening v. 40 (1): p. 54-59; 1993 Jan.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cover crops; Soil management; Domestic gardens
 
 
 163                                  NAL Call. No.: 100 M69MI
 Nitrogen and vetch improve cotton yield.
 Broadway, R.
 Mississippi State, Miss. : The Station; 1992 Apr.
 MAFES research highlights - Mississippi Agricultural and
 Forestry Experiment Station v. 55 (4): p. 4; 1992 Apr.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mississippi; Gossypium; Crop yield; Vicia;
 Nitrogen fertilizers; Cover crops; No-tillage
 
 
 164                                     NAL Call. No.: 30 AD9
 Nitrogen dynamics and management in rice--legume cropping
 systems. Buresh, R.J.; Datta, S.K.De
 San Diego, Calif. : Academic Press; 1991.
 Advances in agronomy v. 45: p. 1-59; 1991.  Literature review. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Philippines; Asia; Oryza sativa; Legumes;
 Cropping systems; Green manures; Losses from soil systems;
 Mineralization; Nitrogen cycle; Nitrogen fertilizers; Nitrogen
 fixation; Residual effects; Soil fertility; Yield response
 functions; Agricultural research; Literature reviews
 
 
 165                                     NAL Call. No.: 30 AD9
 Nitrogen fixation by legumes in tropical and subtropical
 agriculture. Peoples, M.B.; Herridge, D.F.
 San Diego, Calif. : Academic Press; 1990.
 Advances in agronomy v. 44: p. 155-223. ill; 1990.  Literature
 review. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cover crops; Fodder crops; Shrubs; Trees;
 Legumes; Nitrogen fixation; Quantitative analysis; Subtropical
 crops; Tropical crops; Crop production; Crop residues;
 Decomposition; Green manures; Literature reviews;
 Rhizobiaceae; Soil inoculation; Plant breeding; Crop
 management; Soil management; Animal production
 
 
 166                                NAL Call. No.: S592.7.A1S6
 Nitrogen release from the leaves of some tropical legumes as
 affected by their lignin and polyphenolic contents.
 Palm, C.A.; Sanchez, P.A.
 Exeter : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Soil biology and biochemistry v. 23 (1): p. 83-88; 1991. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Leguminosae; Tropical crops; Leaves; Nitrogen;
 Lignin; Polyphenols; Plant composition; Decomposition;
 Mineralization; Acid soils; Tropical soils; Live mulches;
 Green manures; Cover crops
 
 Abstract:  Leguminous plant materials used as mulches, green
 manures and cover crops are generally assumed to provide a
 readily-available source of N to crops. However, little is
 known about the chemical composition and N release patterns of
 the variety of legumes being used in tropical agroecosystems.
 N release patterns from the leaflets of 10 tropical legumes
 and rice straw were determined in a laboratory experiment.
 Ground leaf material was allowed to decompose in an acid soil
 (pH 4.5) for 8 weeks and the soil was analyzed periodically
 for extractable NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N. N release in the soil
 plus plant material were compared to that of the soil without
 plant material added and related to the N, lignin and
 polyphenolic concentrations of the leaflets. Three patterns of
 net N mineralization emerged during the 8-weeks. One pattern
 exhibited by the control soil, rice straw and leaves of two of
 the leguminous plants was a low, positive net mineralization.
 Another pattern showed much higher rates of mineralization
 than the control soil and the third pattern showed initial net
 immobilization followed by low but positive net mineralization
 rates. The amount of N mineralized during the 8 weeks as
 compared to the control soil ranged from +46 to -20% of the N
 added in plant material. Net mineralization was not correlated
 to % N or % lignin in the leaf material but was found to be
 negatively correlated to the polyphenolic concentration, r =
 -0.63, or the polyphenolic-to-N ratio, r = -0.75.
 Mineralization in excess of the control soil was found only
 for materials with a polyphenolic-to-N ratio < 0.5. Mechanisms
 to explain the low mineralization by materials high in
 polyphenolics include the formation of stable polymers between
 polyphenolics and amino groups, and nitrosation, a chemical
 reaction of nitrite (NO2(-)) with polyphenolics. Our results
 show that leguminous plant material with a high polyphenolic
 content or polyphenolic-to-N ratio may not be a readily-
 available source of N.
 
 
 167                                    NAL Call. No.: 26 T754
 Nitrogen supplied to corn by legumes in a Central Amazon
 Oxisol. Smyth, T.J.; Cravo, M.S.; Melgar, R.J.
 London : Butterworth-Heinemann; 1991 Oct.
 Tropical agriculture v. 68 (4): p. 366-372; 1991 Oct. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Brazil; Indigofera tinctoria; Mucuna aterrima;
 Vigna unguiculata; Zea mays; Crop residues; Green manures;
 Legumes; Nitrogen fertilizers; Urea nitrates; Biomass
 production; Crop yield; Dry matter; Humid tropics; Oxisols;
 Soil chemistry
 
 
 168                                 NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 No-till corn response to nitrogen rate and timing in the
 middle Atlantic Coastal Plain.
 Evanylo, G.K.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Apr.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 4 (2): p. 180-185; 1991
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Virginia; Middle atlantic states of U.S.A.; Zea
 mays; No-tillage; Fertilizer requirement determination; Urea
 ammonium nitrate; Split dressings; Sidedressing; Application
 rates; Use efficiency; Crop growth stage; Crop yield; Yield
 factors; Leaves; Nitrogen; Nutrient content; Leaching; Secale
 cereale; Cover crops; Sandy soils; Coastal plains
 
 
 169                               NAL Call. No.: S544.3.N6N62
 No-till cotton production.
 York, A.C.; Edmisten, K.L.; Naderman, G.C.; Bacheler, J.S.
 Raleigh, N.C. : The Service; 1993 Jan.
 AG - North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service, North
 Carolina State University v.): p. 122-126; 1993 Jan.  In the
 series analytic: 1993 cotton information.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Carolina; Gossypium hirsutum; No-tillage;
 Cover crops; Weeds; Pest management; Agronomic characteristics
 
 
 170                                 NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 No-till vs. conventional tillage for late-planted corn
 following hay harvest. Smith, M.A.; Carter, P.R.; Imholte,
 A.A.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Apr.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 5 (2): p. 261-264; 1992
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Wisconsin; Zea mays; No-tillage; Tillage; Hay;
 Cover crops; Medicago sativa; Hybrids; Maturation period; Soil
 temperature; Soil water; Seedling emergence; Dry matter;
 Weight; Crop yield; Plant height; Returns; Costs; Planting
 date
 
 
 171                               NAL Call. No.: 275.29 K13LE
 Noxious weed control in conservation reserve program grass
 stands. Ohlenbusch, P.D.
 Manhattan, Kan. : The Service; 1990 Apr.
 L - Cooperative Extension Service, Kansas State University
 (816): 4 p.; 1990 Apr.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kansas; Weed control; Grasslands; Cover crops;
 Herbicides
 
 
 172                                  NAL Call. No.: 79.9 N814
 Oat and soybean yields in crownvetch and other cover crops.
 Hartwig, N.L.
 College Park, Md. : The Society; 1991.
 Proceedings of the annual meeting - Northeastern Weed Science
 Society v. 45: p. 122-125; 1991.  Meeting held January 8-10,
 1991, Baltimore, Maryland. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Avena sativa; Glycine max; Crop yield; Coronilla
 varia; Cover crops; Live mulches
 
 
 173                        NAL Call. No.: 100 N48C (1) no.198
 Orchard cover-crops..  Orchard cover crops
 Craig, John,
 Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell University,; 1902.
 p. 98-133 : ill. ; 23 cm. (Bulletin (Cornell University.
 Agricultural Experiment Station) ; 198.).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Fruit-culture; Cover crops
 
 
 174                         NAL Call. No.: 100 N48 (2) no.701
 Orchard covers and their relation to soil conservation.
 Collison, R. C.; Carleton, E. A.
 Geneva, N. Y. : New York State Agricultural Experiment
 Station,; 1942. 33 p. ; 23 cm. (Bulletin (New York State
 Agricultural Experiment Station) ; no. 701.).  Includes
 bibliographical references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cover crops; Fruit-culture; Soil conservation
 
 
 175                                 NAL Call. No.: SB379.A9A9
 Organic experiences in codling moth control.
 Caprile, J.
 Carpinteria, Calif. : Rincon Information Management
 Corporation; 1992 Apr. California grower v. 16 (9): p. 31-32;
 1992 Apr.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Malus pumila; Cydia pomonella;
 Organic farming; Pest control; Cover crops; Ryania speciosa;
 Bacillus thuringiensis; Granulosis viruses; Bagging; Thinning;
 Cost benefit analysis; Plant protection; Cultivars
 
 
 176                         NAL Call. No.: aS624.A115P52 1990
 Plant materials activities in the Northeast 1986-1990 report.
 Plant Materials Center (Big Flats, N.Y.)
 Corning, N.Y. : Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Dept. of
 Agriculture, Big Flats Plant Materials Center, [1990?]; 1990.
 vi, 139, [64] p. : ill. ; 28 cm.  Cover title.  Includes
 bibliographical references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Soil conservation; Cover crops; Forage plants;
 Agroforestry
 
 
 177                                  NAL Call. No.: 57.8 C734
 Plant nurseries cut costs with compost.
 Emmaus, Pa. : J.G. Press; 1991 May.
 BioCycle v. 32 (5): p. 72; 1991 May.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cover crops; Sewage sludge; Composts; Soil
 organic matter; Soil fertility; Nurseries; Soil management;
 Production costs
 
 
 178                                    NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Plant response to stocking rate in a subtropical grass-legume
 pasture. Aiken, G.E.; Pitman, W.D.; Chambliss, C.G.; Portier,
 K.M. Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Jan.
 Agronomy journal v. 83 (1): p. 124-129; 1991 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Steers; Desmodium; Aeschynomene
 Americana; Macroptilium lathyroides; Paspalum notatum; Mixed
 pastures; Crop mixtures; Botanical composition; Oversowing;
 Stand establishment; Herbage; Crop quality; Nutritive value;
 Grazing effects; Stocking rate; Grazing intensity; In vitro
 digestibility
 
 Abstract:  'Florida' carpon desmodium [Desmodium heterocarpon
 (L.) DC] is a persistent legume under grazing but is often
 difficult to establish. Aeschynomene (Aeschynomene americana
 L.) and, especially, phasey bean [Macroptilium lathyroides
 (L.) Urb.] establish more reliably. Overseeding a mixture of
 these legumes in bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge) pastures
 could provide the quality forage and N input of legumes
 initially from the rapidly establishing species and for
 extended periods from the persistent carpon desmodium. The
 objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of such
 mixtures. Effects of stocking rate and grazing season on
 botanical composition, herbage availability, and herbage
 nutritive value were evaluated on a Pomona fine sand (sandy,
 siliceous, hyperthermic Ultic Haplaquod). Following
 overseeding of legumes in March 1987, pastures were grazed at
 three stocking rates in summer 1987 and in spring and summer
 1988. Carpon desmodium increased from less than 1% at the
 start of grazing in 1987 to over 7% of the live herbage in
 1988. Combined percentage of aeschynomene plus phasey bean
 decreased during 1987 from more than 4 to 1.6%. Carpon
 desmodium percentage was highest (P < 0.10) at the
 intermediate stocking rate, while percentage of other legumes
 was not affected by stocking rate. Herbage mass decreased
 linearly with increases in stocking rate in both summer
 grazing seasons. Leaf/stem ratio and nutritive value of legume
 leaf and stem were not affected by stocking rate but decreased
 with time during each grazing season. The short-lived legumes,
 aeschynomene and phasey bean, provided high quality forage
 during the establishment period of carpon desmodium but
 contributed negligibly during the second year.
 
 
 179                                   NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Plant-available nitrogen from lentil and wheat residues during
 a subsequent growing season.
 Bremer, E.; Van Kessel, C.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1992 Jul.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 56 (4): p.
 1155-1160; 1992 Jul. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Saskatchewan; Triticum aestivum; Green manures;
 Lentils; Straw; Wheat straw; Ammonium sulfate; Comparisons;
 Nitrogen; Nutrient availability; Mineralization;
 Immobilization; Nutrient uptake; Losses from soil; Seasonal
 fluctuations
 
 Abstract:  Lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus) is being grown
 increasingly on the Canadian prairies as a pulse or green
 manure crop, and may increase N availability to a succeeding
 crop. This study was designed to compare the effects of lentil
 green manure, lentil straw, and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
 straw on plant-available N during the growing season after
 application. The fate of 15N from fall-applied (1988) lentil
 green manure, lentil straw, and wheat straw and spring-applied
 (1989) fertilizer (NH4)2SO4 was determined four times during
 the 1989 growing season at a field site located at Outlook,
 Saskatchewan, Canada, on a Bradwell sandy loam (Typic Boroll).
 Denitrification and leaching losses of 15N from added lentil
 and wheat straw were negligible, but 24 and 30% of the 15N in
 lentil green manure and fertilizer, respectively, were lost in
 the 6-wk period after planting (8 May 1989). By wheat harvest
 (8 Aug. 1989), 7% of the 15N in lentil and wheat straw and 37%
 of the 15N in lentil green manure were mineralized. Addition
 of green manure increased net mineralization of indigenous
 soil N at the time of planting by 0.4 g m-2, equivalent to 10%
 of added green manure N. Immobilization of soil and fertilizer
 N was similar for lentil and wheat straw. The smaller fraction
 of 15N assimilated from green manure (19%) than from
 fertilizer (34%) by wheat was due solely to less net
 mineralization of green-manure N rather than net
 immobilization of fertilization N. Of the 15N added in lentil
 and wheat straw, 5.5% was assimilated by wheat. Thus, lentil
 straw was not a significant source of N in this study, while
 approximately 40% of the N in lentil green manure was
 potentially available for plant uptake.
 
 
 180                                    NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Potato response to legume and fertilizer nitrogen sources.
 Griffin, T.S.; Hesterman, O.B.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Nov.
 Agronomy journal v. 83 (6): p. 1004-1012; 1991 Nov.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Michigan; Solanum tuberosum; Rotations; Lotus
 corniculatus; Trifolium pratense; Melilotus; Vicia villosa;
 Zea mays; Green manures; Hay; Nitrogen fertilizers;
 Application rates; Crop yield; Tubers; Nitrogen content; Plant
 composition; Nutrient uptake; Nitrogen
 
 Abstract:  Production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in
 rotation with an N2-fixing legume requires better information
 on the N contribution from the legume and on management of N
 fertilizer following a legume. Objectives of this research
 were to: (i) quantify N accumulation by legumes grown as
 either green manure or hay; and (ii) evaluate the vine and
 tuber yield response of a subsequent potato crop to legume and
 fertilizer N. We established rotations at two Michigan
 locations in 1987 on McBride sandy loam (coarse-loamy, mixed,
 frigid Alfic Fragiothods) and Oshtemo sandy loam (coarse-
 loamy, mixed, mesic Typic Hapludalfs). First-year crops
 included: alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), birdsfoot trefoil
 (Lotus corniculatus L.), and red clover (Trifolium pratense
 L.) grown as both green manure (0 harvests) and bay (two or
 three seeding-year harvests); non-dormant 'Nitro' alfalfa hay;
 sweetclover (Melilotus spp.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa
 Roth) green manures; corn (Zea mays L.); fallow; and potato.
 The second-year crop was potato, fertilized with 0, 75, 150,
 or 225 kg N ha-1. Plowdown N yield [PDN = fall(herbage +
 root)N + spring herbage N] of legumes ranged from 33 (fall-
 seeded hairy vetch) to 238 kg N ha-1 (sweetclover), with the
 PDN yield of alfalfa, red clover, sweetclover, and spring-
 seeded hairy vetch generally exceeding 150 kg ha-1. Seeding-
 year harvest of legumes tended to have little effect on PDN
 yield, compared to a green manure crop of the same species.
 Potato vine dry matter and N content late in the season were
 61 to 100 and 75 to 145% higher, respectively, following
 legumes than following non-legumes, but total and marketable
 tuber yields were not affected by rotation at either location.
 Fertilizer N rate increased total marketable, and cull tuber
 yield at MRF, with optimum N rates of about 120 and 170 kg
 ha-1 for marketable and total tuber yield, respectively.
 Nitrogen rate had no effect on tuber yield at KBS, suggesting
 that moisture, not available N, limited t
 
 
 181                             NAL Call. No.: SB950.3.A8P535
 The potential for cultural control of Tribulus, Cenchrus and
 Emex in Sunraysia vineyards.
 MacGregor, A.
 Victoria : R.G. Richardson; 1990.
 Plant protection quarterly v. 5 (3): p. 116-119; 1990.  Paper
 presented at the workshop on 'Control of Emex, Tribulus, and
 Cenchrus, in vineyards,' August 13-14, 1990, Mildura,
 Victoria, Australia.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Australia; Vitis; Vineyards; Cultural weed
 control; Emex australis; Tribulus terrestris; Cenchrus
 longispinus; Tillage; Interrow cultivation; Herbicides;
 Chemical control; Irrigation; Cover crops; Mulches; Staking
 
 
 182                                 NAL Call. No.: TL796.A1C3
 A potential landscape basis for the analysis of NOAA-AVHRR
 data. Izaurralde, J.A.; Crown, P.H.
 Ottawa, Ont. : Canadian Aeronautics and Space Institute; 1990
 Apr. Canadian journal of remote sensing v. 16 (1): p. 24-29;
 1990 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alberta; Ground cover; Crops; Landscape; Land
 use; Natural resources; Spectral data; Responses; Correlated
 traits; Objectives; Discriminant analysis; Infrared imagery;
 Remote sensing
 
 
 183                                  NAL Call. No.: S605.5.B5
 Potential of green manure species in recycling nitrogen,
 phosphorus and potassium.
 Atallah, T.; Lopez-Real, J.M.
 Oxon : A B Academic Publishers; 1991.
 Biological agriculture and horticulture : an international
 journal v. 8 (1): p. 53-65; 1991.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Green manures; Legumes; Plants; Nutrients;
 Recycling; Nitrogen; Phosphorus; Potassium; Carbon; Carbon-
 nitrogen ratio; Nutrient uptake; Nutrient content; Dry matter
 accumulation; Biomass production; Growth rate; Losses from
 soil systems; Cover crops; Nutrient availability
 
 
 184                                   NAL Call. No.: S622.L26
 Preliminary evaluation of pineapple mixed-cropping systems for
 protecting reclaimed gulleys in the tropics: an experiment in
 southeast Nigeria. Asoegwu, S.N.; Obiefuna, J.C.
 Chichester, West Sussex, England : John Wiley & Sons, Ltd;
 1990 Jul. Land degradation & rehabilitation v. 2 (3): p.
 237-241; 1990 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nigeria; Ananas comosus; Citrullus lanatus; Vigna
 unguiculata; Ultisols; Tropics; Mixed cropping; Intercropping;
 Erosion control; Crop density; Canopy; Coverage; Cover crops;
 Crop yield; Erosion; Measurement; Soil structure; Stability;
 Soil water retention; Rain; Erosivity; Soil conservation;
 Rehabilitation
 
 
 185                            NAL Call. No.: 100 G29S no.146
 A preliminary report on the value of hairy vetch and crimson
 clover for green manure.
 Bledsoe, R. P.
 Experiment, Ga. : Georgia Experiment Station,; 1927.
 p. 188-208 ; 23 cm. (Bulletin (Georgia Experiment Station) ;
 no. 146.).  Cover title.  January, 1927.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Green manure crops; Vetch; Crimson clover
 
 
 186                                   NAL Call. No.: 56.8 SO3
 Production and persistence of soil enzymes with repeated
 addition of organic residues.
 Martens, D.A.; Johanson, J.B.; Frankenberger, W.T. Jr
 Baltimore, Md. : Williams & Wilkins; 1992 Jan.
 Soil science v. 153 (1): p. 53-61; 1992 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Coarse textured soils; Loam soils; Soil enzymes;
 Enzyme activity; Temporal variation; Soil treatment; Poultry
 manure; Sewage sludge; Barley straw; Hordeum vulgare; Medicago
 sativa; Green manures; Soil flora; Humus; Soil structure; Soil
 physical properties; Physicochemical properties;
 Incorporation; Decomposition; Carbon cycle; Nitrogen cycle;
 Phosphorus; Sulfur; Cycling; Persistence
 
 
 187                                    NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 The production of artificial manure from oats straw under
 control conditions. Brown, P.E.; Smith, F.B.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1929 Mar.
 Journal of the American Society of Agronomy v. 21 (3): p.
 310-322; 1929 Mar. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Iowa; Green manures; Oat straw; Decomposition;
 Chemical analysis; Carbon dioxide; Nitrification
 
 Abstract:  The data secured in these experiments showed that:
 1. Composting oats straw with ammonium sulfate and lime, with
 sodium nitrate, or with urea under conditions in the
 greenhouse for five months led to rapid decomposition. 2. The
 application to the straw of 1% or less of nitrogen in the form
 of various nitrogenous materials permitted of the production
 of a good artificial manure after five to nine months'
 composting under optimum moisture and temperature conditions.
 With additions smaller than 1% the treatment with ammonium
 sulfate and lime seemed to be preferable. 3. The rate of
 decomposition of various mixtures of straw and chemicals in
 sand as measured by carbon dioxide production in the
 laboratory was very rapid when ammonium sulfate with calcium
 carbonate or urea were employed. The other nitrogenous
 materials were less effective and cyanamid gave a depression.
 4. The results of a field experiment indicate that
 decomposition was more rapid in various compost mixtures than
 with straw alone. The decomposition in the open, however, was
 not so rapid as in the greenhouse and there were no great
 differences among the different composts. 5. The artificial
 manures produced in the greenhouse with two exceptions showed
 as great or greater effect than farm manure on the nitrate
 content of a virgin Carrington loam. The nitrifying power of
 the soil was stimulated by practically all of the mixtures;
 but to a less extent than by manure in the early days
 following treatment, although later the effects were greater
 than those brought about by manure. In some cases the nitrate
 assimilating power of the soil was stimulated by the
 artificial manures but not to a large extent. The effects,
 however, were very similar to those brought about by farmyard
 manure. 6. The production of an artificial manure which will
 have similar beneficial effects to farm manure seems quite
 possible.
 
 
 188                                    NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Productivity and quality of annual and perennial clover-tall
 fescue mixtures. Pederson, G.A.; Brink, G.E.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Jul.
 Agronomy journal v. 83 (4): p. 694-699; 1991 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mississippi; Trifolium repens; Trifolium
 pratense; Trifolium vesiculosum; Trifolium incarnatum;
 Trifolium subterraneum; Festuca arundinacea; Crop mixtures;
 Crop yield; Crop quality
 
 Abstract:  Winter annual legumes seeded in perennial clover-
 tall fescue pastures could increase early spring herbage
 production without N fertilizer. This study determined the
 productivity and forage quality of 'Regal' white (Trifolium
 repens L.) and 'Kenland' red clover (T. pratense L.)/tall
 fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) mixtures grown with and
 without 'Yuchi' arrowleaf (T. vesiculosum Savi.), 'Tibbee'
 crimson (T. incarnatum L.), and 'Meteora' subterranean clover
 (T. subterraneum L. var. yanninicum [Katzn. & Morley] Zoh.).
 The experimental design was a split plot with four replicates.
 Whole plots were red, white, red + white, and no perennial
 clover. Subplots were arrowleaf, crimson, subterranean, and no
 annual clover. All species were broadcast seeded on a Catalpa
 silty clay (fine, montmorillonitic, Fluvaquentic Hapludoll) at
 Mississippi State, MS, in October 1984. The annual clovers
 were reseeded in September 1985 and 1986. Arrowleaf and
 crimson clover competition resulted in 11% less total dry
 matter and 16% less clover yield compared to no annual clover
 in perennial clover plots during the first 2 yr of the study.
 The only yield advantage for perennial clover/tall fescue
 mixtures with arrowleaf or crimson clovers was in the third
 year when perennial clover stands declined (mainly due to dry
 weather conditions) and annual clover overseeding give 114%
 greater clover yields. Subterranean clover had little effect
 on yield or forage quality when grown with perennial clovers.
 Crude protein and in vitro digestible dry matter
 concentrations were increased in early spring 1985 and 1987 by
 the addition of arrowleaf or crimson clovers to perennial
 clover plots.
 
 
 189                                  NAL Call. No.: 65.9 SO83
 Protection against flood damage.
 Platford, G.G.
 Mount Edgecombe : The Association; 1988.
 Proceedings of the annual congress - South African Sugar
 Technologists' Association (62nd): p. 227-231; 1988.  Meeting
 held on June 6-9, 1988, Durban and Mount Edgecombe, South
 Africa.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South  Africa; Flood control; Flooding; Floods;
 Storms; Rain; Watersheds; Drainage channels; Cover crops; Crop
 yield; Saccharum officinarum
 
 
 190                             NAL Call. No.: SB950.3.A8P535
 Purity study of imported leguminous cover crops.
 Tasrif, A.; Sahid, I.B.; Sastroutomo, S.S.; Latiff, A.
 Victoria : R.G. Richardson; 1991.
 Plant protection quarterly v. 6 (4): p. 190-193; 1991. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Malaysia; Oil palms; Plantations; Rubber plants;
 Cover crops; Pueraria; Calopogonium caeruleum; Calopogonium
 mucunoides; Centrosema pubescens; Mucuna cochinchinensis; Seed
 quality; Seed purity; Weeds; Seeds; Viability; Importation
 
 
 191                                     NAL Call. No.: S1.N32
 Put bean fields to bed for winter.
 Hofstetter, B.
 Emmaus, Pa. : Rodale Institute; 1991 Sep.
 The New farm v. 13 (6): p. 34; 1991 Sep.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Glycine max; Cover crops; Oversowing
 
 
 192                                  NAL Call. No.: 100 AR42F
 Reduction in black root rot of cotton and the blackroot rot
 pathogen Thielaviopsis basicola by hairy vetch.
 Kendig, S.M.; Rothrock, C.S.
 Fayetteville, Ark. : The Station; 1991 May.
 Arkansas farm research - Arkansas Agricultural Experiment
 Station v. 40 (3): p. 8-9; 1991 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arkansas; Gossypium; Thielaviopsis basicola;
 Vicia villosa; Cover crops
 
 
 193                                  NAL Call. No.: 64.8 C883
 Registration of 'Humus' rapeseed.
 Auld, D.L.; Mahler, K.A.; Erickson, D.A.; Raymer, P.L.
 Madison, Wis. : Crop Science Society of America; 1992 Jul.
 Crop science v. 32 (4): p. 1068; 1992 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Idaho; Brassica napus var. oleifera; Cultivars;
 Registration; Origin; Breeding methods; Selection criteria;
 Winter; Cover crops; Erosion control; Agronomic
 characteristics
 
 
 194                            NAL Call. No.: 100 P381 no.585
 Rejuvenation of an old apple orchard by means of fertilizers,
 mulches and cover crops.
 Hewetson, Frank N.
 State College : Pennsylvania State University, College of
 Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment Station,; 1954.
 33 p. : ill. ; 23 cm. (Bulletin (Pennsylvania State
 University. Agricultural Experiment Station) ; 585.).  Cover
 title.  Bibliography: p. 33.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Apple
 
 
 195                                    NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 The relation of soil acidity to the decomposition of organic
 residues. Thom, C.; Smith, N.R.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1933 Jun.
 Journal of the American Society of Agronomy v. 25 (6): p.
 392-396; 1933 Jun. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Vicia; Decay fungi; Soil bacteria; Soil acidity;
 Decomposition; Soil organic matter; Green manures; Root
 systems; Microbial degradation
 
 Abstract:  Experimental work designed to define the relation
 of soil acidity to the decomposition of organic remains is
 reviewed. Organic substances subjected to decomposition in
 connection with the soil include (a) material distributed over
 the surface and left to decay there; (b) masses plowed under;
 and (c) roots of green plants distributed through the soil by
 their method of growth. Intensive study of the microbic
 factors involved in these decomposition processes have brought
 out certain points of considerable interest, as follows: 1.
 Total plate counts of micro-organisms in acid and limed plats
 of the same soil without other treatment show the general
 level of microbic activity in the limed plats to be about 2 to
 3 times that of the acid plats. 2. Organic remains upon the
 surface break down by aerobic activities which involve
 enourmous numbers of bacteria, fungi, and other organisms,
 without correlated effects upon the micro-population of the
 underlying soil. 3. Green manures plowed into soils in good
 tillable condition are broken down principally by bacterial
 activity without affecting or being affected by the acidity of
 the surrounding soil. 4. Growing root systems surrounded by
 very narrow zones of microbic activity give pH tests at least
 partially independent of the adjacent soil, hence present
 biological conditions determined by their own acidity rather
 than that of the soil.
 
 
 196                         NAL Call. No.: 100 N48 (2) no.632
 Relations between orchard soils and cover crops.
 Collison, R. C.
 Geneva, N.Y. : New York State Agricultural Experiment
 Station,; 1933. 18 p. ; 23 cm. (Bulletin (New York State
 Agricultural Experiment Station) ; no. 632.).  Cover title.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cover crops; Orchards; Soil management
 
 
 197                                    NAL Call. No.: 450 C16
 Relationships between cover performance and date of fall-
 seeding where winter rye was broadcast into a standing potato
 crop.
 Edwards, L.M.; Sadler, J.M.
 Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada; 1992 Jan.
 Canadian journal of plant science; Revue canadienne de
 phytotechnie v. 72 (1): p. 269-274; 1992 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Prince edward Island; Solanum tuberosum; Secale
 cereale; Crop production; Intercropping; Sowing date; Autumn;
 Harvesting date; Winter; Companion crops; Cover crops; Sowing
 methods
 
 
 198                                    NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Relative nitrogen utilization by legume cover crop species at
 three soil temperatures.
 Power, J.F.; Zachariassen, J.A.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1993 Jan.
 Journal of the American Society of Agronomy v. 85 (1): p.
 134-140; 1993 Jan. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cover crops; Vicia faba; Vicia villosa; Melilotus
 alba; Trifolium repens; Trifolium incarnatum; Glycine max;
 Lespedeza stipulacea; Pisum sativum; Characterization;
 Nutrient uptake; Water use; Edaphic factors; Soil temperature
 
 Abstract:  When selecting a legume cover crop, one should know
 relative N-fixing and N uptake capabilities, as well as growth
 and water use characteristics, to identify the species best
 adapted to the growth period and soil temperatures (season)
 during which the cover crop is grown. We provide information
 on these characteristics for eight inoculated legume species
 at soil temperatures of 10, 20, and 30 degrees C. Plants were
 grown in constant-temperature water baths in a greenhouse for
 105 d after establishment in 1.1 kg of Alliance silt loam
 (fine silty, mixed, mesic, Aridic Argiustoll) per pot. Plant
 samples were taken every 21 d for determinations of dry
 weight, total N uptake, and N2 fixed (isotope dilution
 method). Water use was measured daily by weighing. Total N
 uptake and N2 fixation were usually greatest for large-seeded
 annual species during the first 42 to 63 d of the experiment.
 At 10 degrees C total N uptake and N2 fixation were greatest
 for hairy vetch (HV), Vicia villosa Roth and faba bean (FB),
 Vicia faba L. At later sampling dates, N uptake and fixation
 for white clover (WC), Trifolium repens L., was also
 relatively high. At 20 degrees C, soybean (SB), [Glycine max
 (L.) Merr.] exhibited outstanding growth and N uptake
 throughout the 105 d. For the first 42 d, FB performance also
 was superior to other species. At 30 degrees C, N uptake and
 fixation by SB was more than double that of any other species
 at all sampling dates. Quantity of N2 fixed per unit water
 used was greatest at 10 degrees C for WC, followed closely by
 HV and field pea (FP) Pisum sativum L.; at 20 degrees C, SB
 followed by WC and lespedeza (LD), Lespedeza stipulacea
 Maxim.; and at 30 degrees C, LD followed by SB. Our results
 suggest that under many situations (early spring) some grain
 legumes, such as SB and FB, may be a better cover crop than
 many species commonly used.
 
 
 199                                 NAL Call. No.: QH84.8.B46
 The release and plant uptake of nitrogen from some plant and
 animal manures. Rees, R.M.; Yan, L.; Ferguson, M.
 Berlin : Springer International; 1993.
 Biology and fertility of soils v. 15 (4): p. 285-293; 1993. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Scotland; Hordeum vulgare; Lolium perenne;
 Triticum aestivum; Animal manures; Green manures;
 Interactions; Mineralization; Nitrogen; Nutrient uptake; Pisum
 sativum
 
 
 200                                NAL Call. No.: QK898.N6N52
 Release of nitrogen during decomposition of legume tree
 leaves. Hussain, A.; Ranjha, A.M.; Sharar, M.S.; Ghaffar, A.
 Bangkok, Thailand : Thailand Institute of Scientific and
 Technological Research; 1990 Aug.
 Nitrogen fixing tree research reports v. 8: p. 51-53; 1990
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pakistan; Leguminosae; Nitrogen fixing trees;
 Leaves; Green manures; Soil amendments; Crop yield;
 Decomposition; Nitrogen; Nutrient availability
 
 
 201                                  NAL Call. No.: 56.8 J822
 Research needs for sustainable agriculture.
 Vorst, J.J.
 Ankeny, Iowa : Soil and Water Conservation Society of America;
 1990 Jan. Journal of soil and water conservation v. 45 (1): p.
 58-69. ill; 1990 Jan. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Research; Sustainability; Alternative farming;
 Soil fertility; Environmental impact; Pest control; Cover
 crops
 
 
 202                                    NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Reseeding, biomass, and nitrogen content of selected winter
 legumes in grain sorghum culture.
 Boquet, D.J.; Dabney, S.M.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Jan.
 Agronomy journal v. 83 (1): p. 144-148; 1991 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sorghum bicolor; Winter; Cover crops; Trifolium
 incarnatum; Trifolium alexandrinum; Trifolium vesiculosum;
 Trifolium subterraneum; Vicia; Cultivars; Seeds; Seed
 dispersal; Natural regeneration; Biomass; Growth rate;
 Nitrogen content
 
 Abstract:  Winter legumes as green manure crops in grain
 sorghum, Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, production on clay soils
 in the southern USA would be facilitated by increased
 knowledge of growth responses and reseeding capability of
 legume cultivars. This study evaluated 'Tibbee' crimson,
 Trifolium incarnatum L.; 'Bigbee' berseem, T. alexandrinum L.:
 'Yuchi' arrowleaf, T. vesiculosum Savi.; and 'Woogenellup'
 subterranean, T. subterraneum L. clovers and 'Woodford' big
 flower vetch, Vicia grandiflora Scop., for reseeding, biomass
 and N content at seven growth termination dates (GTD): 20 and
 31 March, 10 and 21 April and 1, 13, and 22 May 1986. The
 field experiment was initially planted on 15 Oct. 1985 on a
 Mhoon silty clay (fine-silty, mixed, nonacid, thermic, Typic
 Fluvaquents). No legume was able to reseed the first year when
 the GTD was on or before 10 April. Crimson and subterranean
 clover and big flower vetch successfully reseeded at a GTD of
 21 April. Berseem clover did not reseed unless the GTD was as
 late as 13 May, and arrowleaf clover did not reseed at any
 GTD. The legumes that reseeded the first year also reseeded a
 second year. Maximum biomass:N (kg ha-1) accumulation was
 5500:150 for crimson; 6550:190 for berseem; 6350:152 for
 subterranean; 6300:203 for arrowleaf clovers; and 2700:80 for
 big flower vetch. Maximum biomass and N accumulation occurred
 by the date of reseeding for all five legumes; thus, growth of
 these legumes need not extend beyond this date to realize all
 of the green manure benefits. Nitrogen content of all legumes,
 except big flower vetch, was theoretically sufficient to meet
 the requirements of a grain sorghum crop without additional N
 fertilizer.
 
 
 203                                    NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Reseeding potential of crimson clover as a cover crop for no-
 tillage corn. Myers, J.L.; Wagger, M.G.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Nov.
 Agronomy journal v. 83 (6): p. 985-991; 1991 Nov.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Carolina; Zea mays; Cover crops; No-
 tillage; Trifolium incarnatum; Reproductive performance;
 Seeds; Volunteer plants; Crop establishment; Resowing; Seed
 germination; Nitrogen fertilizers; Application rates; Crop
 yield; Grain; Maize silage; Nitrogen content; Nutrient uptake;
 Dry matter accumulation
 
 Abstract:  Leguminous cover crops can provide biologically
 fixed N to a subsequent corn (Zea mays L.) crop as well as
 erosion control and moisture conserving mulch, but
 establishment is costly and often unsuccessful. A field
 experiment was conducted for 3 yr to determine the self-
 reseeding potential of crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum
 L.) and its N contribution in a no-tillage corn production
 system. Four cover crop management treatments (fallow, annual-
 seeded, volunteer-reseeded, and volunteer strip-reseeded) were
 combined factorially with four fertilizer-N rates (0, 50, 100,
 or 150 kg ha-1) applied to the subsequent corn crop. The
 annual-seeded, volunteer-reseeded, and volunteer strip-
 reseeded clover treatments were desiccated at corn planting.
 Averaged over 3 yr, crimson clover dry matter was 2.6, 4.2,
 and 3.5 Mg ha-1 for the annual-seeded, volunteer-reseeded, and
 strip-reseeded treatments, respectively. In 1988 and 1989,
 cover crop treatments produced mean corn grain yields of 6.0
 and 6.1 Mg ha-1 compared to fallow treatment yields of 3.4 and
 4.0 Mg ha-1, respectively. This same pattern was reflected in
 the silage yields and total corn N uptake. Corn grain yields
 were unaffected by fertilizer-N rate in two out of 3 yr due to
 limited rainfall. Both self-reseeding treatments successfully
 reestablished each year and increased corn yields primarily by
 a mulching effect. Allowing crimson clover to mature before
 chemical desiccation or leaving strips between corn rows to
 produce seed appear to be effective methods of reseeding
 clover in a no-tillage corn silage production system.
 
 
 204                                NAL Call. No.: QK898.N6N52
 Response of different sources of nitrogen fixing green manures
 on yield of paddy-wheat at Tarhara during 1988-89.
 Chaudhary, S.L.
 Bangkok, Thailand : Thailand Institute of Scientific and
 Technological Research; 1990 Aug.
 Nitrogen fixing tree research reports v. 8: p. 48-50; 1990
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nepal; Oryza sativa; Triticum aestivum;
 Leguminosae; Nitrogen fixation; Green manures; Crop yield
 
 
 205                                    NAL Call. No.: 26 T754
 Response of rainfed lowland rice to green manuring with
 Sesbania rostrata. Manguiat, I.J.; Guinto, D.F.; Perez, A.S.;
 Pintor, R.M.
 London : Butterworth-Heinemann; 1992 Jan.
 Tropical agriculture v. 69 (1): p. 73-77; 1992 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Philippines; Oryza sativa; Green manures;
 Sesbania; Yield components
 
 
 206                                  NAL Call. No.: SB193.F59
 Response of sorghum-sudangrass to soil amended with alfalfa or
 red clover tissues.
 Sheldon, R.J.; Johnson, K.D.; Turco, R.F.; Volenec, J.J.
 Columbia, Mo. : American Forage and Grassland Council; 1991.
 Proceedings of the Forage and Grassland Conference. p. 83-86;
 1991.  Meeting held April 1-4, 1991, Columbia, Missouri. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sorghum; Hybrids; Green manures; Medicago sativa;
 Trifolium pratense; Crop yield; Nitrogen content; Nutrient
 uptake
 
 
 207                            NAL Call. No.: 100 P381 no.483
 Response of Stayman apple trees in metal cylinders to varying
 amounts of inorganic nitrogenous fertilizers and green
 manures.
 State College : Pennsylvania State College, School of
 Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment Station,; 1946.
 120 p. : ill., ; 22 cm. (Bulletin (Pennsylvania State College.
 Agricultural Experiment Station) ; 483.).  Cover title. 
 Bibliography: p. 118-120.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Apple
 
 
 208                                   NAL Call. No.: 79.8 W41
 Response of weed to tillage and cover crop residue.
 Teasdale, J.R.; Beste, C.E.; Potts, W.E.
 Champaign, Ill. : Weed Science Society of America; 1991 Apr.
 Weed science v. 39 (2): p. 195-199; 1991 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Maryland; Zea mays; Secale cereale; Vicia
 villosa; Cover crops; Plant residues; No-tillage; Plowing;
 Weeds; Population density; Mollugo verticillata; Chenopodium
 album; Eleusine indica; Digitaria sanguinalis; Eragrostis
 cilianensis; Cultural weed control
 
 Abstract:  Total weed density increased after 1 yr of no-
 tillage and after 2 yr of conventional tillage in a 4-yr
 experiment with repeated assignment of the same treatment to
 the same plots. Large crabgrass, goosegrass, and carpetweed
 densities were higher in the no-tillage compared with the
 conventional-tillage treatment in at least 1 yr whereas common
 lambsquarters density was greater in the conventional-tillage
 treatment the last year of the experiment. Within the no-
 tillage treatment, rye or hairy vetch residue reduced total
 weed density an average of 78% compared to the treatment
 without cover crop when cover crop biomass exceeded 300 g m-2
 and when residue covered more than 90% of the soil.
 Goosegrass, stinkgrass, and carpetweed densities were reduced
 by cover crop residue in at least 1 yr whereas large crabgrass
 was unaffected. Common lambsquarters density increased where
 rye was grown as a cover crop prior to conventional tillage.
 Despite differences in weed density among treatments, weed
 biomass was equivalent in all.
 
 
 209                                     NAL Call. No.: SB1.H6
 Screening cover crops for use in conservation tillage systems
 for vegetables following spring plowing.
 Nelson, W.A.; Kahn, B.A.; Roberts, B.W.
 Alexandria, Va. : American Society for Horticultural Science;
 1991 Jul. HortScience v. 26 (7): p. 860-862; 1991 Jul. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oklahoma; Cover crops; Screening; Conservation
 tillage; Vegetables; Cultivation; Herbicides; Treatment
 
 Abstract:  Several prospective cover crops were sown into 1-m2
 monoculture plots on 9 Mar. 1987 and 10 Mar. 1988 at Bixby,
 Okla., and on 14 Mar. 1988 at Lane, Okla., after sites were
 plowed and fitted. Densities and dry weights of cover crops
 and weeds were determined in late April or early May of both
 years. Plots also were evaluated for degree of kill by
 glyphosate in 1988. Fourteen cover crops were screened at
 Bixby in 1987. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) and three
 fescues Festuca rubra L., Festuca rubra L. var. commutata
 Gaud.-Beaup., and Festuca elatior L.) were eliminated from
 further consideration due to inadequate cover density and
 inability to suppress weeds. Screenings of the 10 remaining
 covers were conducted at both locations in 1988. Annual
 ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) and three small grains [rye
 (Secale cereale L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and wheat
 (Triticum aestivum L.)] were the most promising cover crops
 with respect to cover density, competitiveness against weeds,
 and degree of kill by glyphosate. Crimson clover (Trifolium
 incarnatum L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) were the
 most promising legumes, but they generally were less
 satisfactory than the grassy covers in all tested aspects. A
 single application of glyphosate was ineffective in killing
 hairy vetch at both locations. Chemical name used: N-
 (phosphonomethyl)glycine (glyphosate).
 
 
 210                                   NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Seasonal microbial biomass dynamics after addition of lentil
 and wheat residues.
 Bremer, E.; Van Kessel, C.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1992 Jul.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 56 (4): p.
 1141-1146; 1992 Jul. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Saskatchewan; Soil flora; Biomass; Biological
 activity in soil; Crop residues; Lentils; Green manures;
 Wheat; Straw; Straw incorporation; Carbon; Nitrogen;
 Assimilation; Seasonal fluctuations
 
 Abstract:  The dynamics of soil microbial biomass after the
 addition of plant residues have a considerable influence on
 nutrient availability for plants, and can be quantified using
 the chloroform-fumigation-extraction method. The dynamics of
 microbial C and N following addition of 14C- and 15N-labeled
 lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) green manure, lentil straw, and
 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw were investigated under
 field conditions at a site located at Outlook, Saskatchewan,
 on a Bradwell sandy loam (Typic Boroll). Plant residues were
 incorporated into microplots on 5 Oct. 1988, and the fraction
 of added 14C and 15-N in microbial biomass was determined on
 four dates during the 1989 growing season. Maximum levels of
 labeled and unlabeled microbial biomass were observed at the
 time of planting (8 May) in 1989. Of added 14C, 26 and 15% was
 in the microbial biomass in the green manure and straw
 treatments, respectively, on 8 May; greater microbial
 accumulation of green-manure 14C was due to a higher
 proportion of 14C being available rather than to a higher
 efficiency of 14C assimilation. Microbial 15N accounted for 65
 to 81% of added residue 15N on 8 May. Plant-residue 15N was
 readily available to decomposer microorganisms from all
 residue types, whereas 14C was more available from green
 manure than straw. During the 1989 growing season, microbial
 14C declined by 51 and 400/c in the green manure and straw
 treatments, respectively, while microbial 15N declined by 54%
 in all treatments. The decline in microbial 15N during the
 1989 growing season was approximately five times greater than
 the amount of 15N mineralized in all sampling periods except
 the first for the green-manure treatment. The highest levels
 of labeled and unlabeled microbial biomass observed at the
 time of planting indicates that microbial biomass may reduce
 losses of N and other nutrients during periods of low crop
 demand, and may act as a source of nutrients during crop
 growth.
 
 
 211                                    NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Seed production studies with legumes in Hawaii.
 Wilsie, C.P.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1935 Oct.
 Journal of the American Society of Agronomy v. 27 (10): p.
 784-790; 1935 Oct. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Hawaii; Legumes; Seed production; Green manures;
 Row spacing; Yields; Species trials; Forage
 
 Abstract:  Seed yields are reported for a number of green
 manuring and forage legumes grown at different spacings under
 Hawaiian conditions. The possibilities for seed production are
 very favorable for most of the legumes tested. A fairly close
 spacing of plants gave better results with most species than a
 wide spacing. A detailed spacing experiment with the blue
 lupine grown at 2,100 et elevation is reported. With the blue
 lupine the hill spacing of inches was better than any wider
 spacing. This held true regardless of the number of plants per
 hill. The use of three, four, or five plants per hill
 (considering each spacing series) gave slightly higher yields
 than one or two plants per hill. Increases in yield resulted
 from an increase in the number of plants per acre until about
 87,000 plants were used. Seed production with the pigeon pea
 was studied at low elevations in Honolulu. It was found that
 within rather wide limits a change in spacing had but little
 effect on yield. This species seems to possess the remarkable
 ability to utilize the space offered. If planted thickly the
 stems were slender and grew straight up with little branching,
 while if given adequate space the plants became very bushy
 with a great deal of branching. This adaptability resulted in
 yields that were approximately the same when the number of
 plants per acre was varied from 2,000 to 14,000. Differences
 in the fertility level, soil moisture, and seasonal conditions
 undoubtedly have a great influence on the yield of seed under
 different spacing treatments. It is not presumed that the data
 presented give precisely the best spacing to use with each of
 the legumes considered. It is believed, however, that the
 results do present a reasonably satisfactory basis for the
 adoption of spacing recommendations when grown under
 conditions similar to those found in Hawaii.
 
 
 212                                    NAL Call. No.: 420 K13
 Seedcorn maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) populations on Ohio
 soybean. Hammond, R.B.
 Lawrence, Kan. : The Society; 1991 Apr.
 Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society v. 64 (2): p.
 216-220; 1991 Apr. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ohio; Glycine max; Cover crops; Incorporation;
 Delia platura; Planting date; Oviposition; Population density;
 Insect traps; Surveys; Crop damage
 
 
 213                                 NAL Call. No.: S605.5.A43
 Soil and crop management effects on soil quality indicators.
 Karlen, D.L.; Eash, N.S.; Unger, P.W.
 Greenbelt, Md. : Institute for Alternative Agriculture; 1992.
 American journal of alternative agriculture v. 7 (1/2): p.
 48-55; 1992. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Soil fertility; Soil management; Soil analysis;
 Assessment; Crop management; Soil texture; Conservation
 tillage; Rotations; Cover crops; Strip cropping; Grass
 clippings
 
 Abstract:  People are becoming more aware that our soil
 resources are as vulnerable to degradation as air or water,
 but criteria are needed to learn how soil quality is changing.
 Our objectives in this review are: (1) to illustrate that
 interactions between human and natural factors determine soil
 quality; (2) to identify indicators that can be used to
 evaluate human-induced effects on soil quality; and (3) to
 suggest soil and crop management strategies that will sustain
 or improve soil quality. The physical, chemical, and
 biological processes and interactions within the soil are
 critical factors affecting all indicators of soil quality. The
 biological processes are especially important because they
 provide much of the resiliency or buffering capacity to
 ameliorate stress. Presumably, no single soil or crop
 management practice will guarantee improved soil quality, but
 conservation tillage, cover crops, and crop rotations are
 practices that may be effective. Alley or narrow-strip
 cropping may facilitate adoption of several of those agronomic
 practices and increase temporal and spatial diversity across
 the landscape. To maintain or possibly improve soil quality
 and simultaneously address a growing waste disposal problem,
 we suggest that urban lawn and newspaper waste be evaluated as
 carbon sources. We conclude that the most critical factor,
 regardless of the soil and crop management strategy, is to
 recognize that carbon is an essential element for improving
 soil quality in the U.S. and around the world.
 
 
 214                                  NAL Call. No.: 56.8 J822
 Soil erosion studies in Peru.
 Alegre, J.C.; Felipe-Morales, C.; La Torre, B.
 Ankeny, Iowa : Soil and Water Conservation Society of America;
 1990 May. Journal of soil and water conservation v. 45 (3): p.
 417-420; 1990 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Peru; Erosion; Wind erosion; Water; Erosion;
 Cover crops; Rain; Vegetation
 
 
 215                                  NAL Call. No.: aSD11.A42
 Soil fumigation, cover cropping, and organic soil amendments:
 their effect on soil-borne pathogens and the target seedling.
 Hamm, P.B.; Hansen, E.M.
 Fort Collins, Colo. : The Station; 1990 Dec.
 General technical report RM - Rocky Mountain Forest and Range
 Experiment Station, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest
 Service (200): p. 174-180; 1990 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pacific states of U.S.A.; Conifers; Forest
 nurseries; Seedlings; Soil fumigation; Cover crops; Soil
 amendments; Organic amendments; Pythium; Fusarium; Brassica
 
 
 216                             NAL Call. No.: SB950.3.A8P535
 Soil management in South Australian vineyards.
 Lang, D.I.
 Victoria : R.G. Richardson; 1990.
 Plant protection quarterly v. 5 (3): p. 114-115; 1990.  Paper
 presented at the workshop on 'Control of Emex, Tribulus, and
 Cenchrus, in vineyards,' August 13-14, 1990, Mildura,
 Victoria, Australia.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: South australia; Vitis; Weed control; Cenchrus
 longispinus; Emex australis; Tribulus terrestris; Chemical
 control; Vineyards; Vineyard soils; Soil management; Mulches;
 Cover crops; Tillage
 
 
 217                                NAL Call. No.: S544.3.N7A4
 Soil management is crucial for higher-density orchards.
 Stiles, W.C.
 Middletown, N.Y. : Cornell Cooperative Ext.--Orange County
 Agriculture Program, Education Center; 1989 Apr.
 Agfocus : publication of Cornell Cooperative Extension--Orange
 County. p. 7, 9; 1989 Apr.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Orchards; Soil management; Cover crops; Crop
 husbandry
 
 
 218                                 NAL Call. No.: QH84.8.B46
 Soil N dynamics and N yield of barley grown on Breton loam
 using N from biological fixation or fertilizer.
 Wani, S.P.; McGill, W.B.; Robertson, J.A.
 Berlin : Springer International; 1991.
 Biology and fertility of soils v. 12 (1): p. 10-18; 1991. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alberta; Hordeum vulgare; Continuous cropping;
 Rotations; Soil fertility; Avena sativa; Green manures;
 Mineralization; Nitrogen; Nitrogen fertilizers; Vicia faba;
 Site factors; Soil biology; Soil chemistry; Soil physical
 properties
 
 
 219                                 NAL Call. No.: 309.9 N216
 Soil solarization: effect on low-input fertilization and
 growth responses of strawberry.
 Stevens, C.; Khan, V.A.; Tang, A.Y.
 Peoria, Ill. : National Agricultural Plastics Association;
 1990. Proceedings of the ... National Agricultural Plastics
 Congress (22nd): p. 159-162; 1990.  Paper presented at the
 "22nd Congress of National Agricultural Plastics Association,"
 May 21-25, 1990, Montreal, Quebec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alabama; Green manures; Soil sterilization; Weeds
 
 
 220                        NAL Call. No.: 100 N48C (2) no.115
 Some relations of green manures to the nitrogen of a soil.
 Lyon, T. L.; Wilson, B. D.
 Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell University,; 1928.
 28 p. : ill. ; 23 cm. (Memoir (Cornell University.
 Agricultural Experiment Station) ; 115.).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Green manure crops; Soils
 
 
 221                                  NAL Call. No.: 56.8 J822
 Stale seedbed production of soybeans with a wheat cover crop.
 Elmore, C.D.; Wesley, R.A.; Heatherly, L.G.
 Ankeny, Iowa : Soil and Water Conservation Society of America;
 1992 Mar. Journal of soil and water conservation v. 47 (2): p.
 187-190; 1992 Mar. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mississippi; Glycine max; Triticum; Double
 cropping; Ground cover; Seedbeds; Clay soils
 
 
 222                                 NAL Call. No.: S540.A2F62
 Studies of chemical combinations and rates used to convert a
 living crimson clover cover crop to a mulch for no-tillage
 planting of summer crops. Gallaher, R.N.
 Gainesville, Fla. : The Stations; 1986.
 Agronomy research report AY - Agricultural Experiment
 Stations, University of Florida (86-07): 11 p.; 1986.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Trifolium incarnatum; Cover crops;
 Treatment; Herbicides; Mulches
 
 
 223                                    NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Studies of soybeans and other green manure crops for sugarcane
 plantations. Arceneaux, G.; McKaig, N. Jr; Stokes, I.E.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1932 May.
 Journal of the American Society of Agronomy v. 24 (5): p.
 354-363; 1932 May.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Louisiana; Saccharum officinarum; Glycine max;
 Crotalaria juncea; Crop yield; Plant water relations; Nitrogen
 content; Planting date; Harvesting date; Plantation crops;
 Green manures; Growth stages; Provenance
 
 Abstract:  Experiments were conducted at the U.S. Sugar Plant
 Field Station, in Terribonne Parish, near Houma, La., in 1930,
 to determine the fresh weight, dry weight, and nitrogen
 content of several legume crops when planted on different
 dates and at different rates of seeding and harvested at
 varying stages of maturity. The data indicate the following:
 In the sugarcane rotation, soybeans should be planted in the
 early spring for the best results. Soybeans yield the maximum
 green matter, dry matter, and nitrogen per acre when they are
 in the full bloom stage. With early-planted Biloxi this stage
 was attained between August 1 and 15. The Biloxi variety
 appears to be a better variety than Otootan for green manuring
 purposes. Crotalaria juncea reached its optimum stage for
 turning under about 110 days after planting, this period
 corresponding approximately to the full bloom stage. This
 plant makes a very rapid and satisfactory growth. The most
 satisfactory rate of planting Biloxi soybeans is from 25 to 35
 pounds and for Otootan about 20 pounds per acre. Among several
 legumes new to Louisiana, Cajanus indicus, Crotalaria
 usaramoensis, C. anagyroides, and Centrosema plumieri show
 promise as green manure crops.
 
 
 224                                 NAL Call. No.: 100 C12CAG
 Subclovers as living mulches for managing weeds in vegetables.
 Lanini, W.T.; Pittenger, D.R.; Graves, W.L.; Munoz, F.;
 Agamalian, H.S. Oakland, Calif. : Division of Agriculture and
 Natural Resources, University of California; 1989 Nov.
 California agriculture v. 43 (6): p. 25-27; 1989 Nov.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Trifolium subterraneum; Live mulches; Plant
 residues; Evaporation suppressants; Weed competition; Cultural
 weed control; Soil organic matter; Vegetable growing; Field
 experimentation
 
 
 225                                   NAL Call. No.: S601.A34
 Subterranean clover living mulch: an alternative method of
 weed control. Ilnicki, R.D.; Enache, A.J.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier; 1992 May.
 Agriculture, ecosystems and environment v. 40 (1/4): p.
 249-264; 1992 May.  In the Special Issue: Biotic Diversity in
 Agroecosystems / edited by M.G. Paoletti and D. Pimentel.
 Proceedings from a symposium on Agroecology and Conservation
 Issues in Tropical and a Temperate Regions, September 26-29,
 1990, Padova, Italy.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New Jersey; Weed control; Live mulches; Trifolium
 subterraneum; Mulches; Secale cereale; Cover crops; Zea mays;
 Glycine max; Cucurbita pepo; Brassica oleracea; Phaseolus
 vulgaris; Lycopersicon esculentum; Tillage; Minimum tillage;
 No-tillage; Herbicides; Weeds; Biomass production; Crop yield;
 Alternative farming
 
 
 226                                NAL Call. No.: QL391.N4J62
 Suppression of root-knot nematode populations with selected
 rapeseed cultivars as green manure.
 Mojtahedi, H.; Santo, G.S.; Hang, A.N.; Wilson, J.H.
 Lake Alfred, Fla. : Society of Nematologists; 1991 Apr.
 Journal of nematology v. 23 (2): p. 170-174; 1991 Apr. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Brassica napus; Brassica campestris; Meloidogyne
 chitwoodi; Meloidogyne hapla; Population density; Cultivars;
 Green manures; Nematode control
 
 Abstract:  Meloidogyne chitwoodi races 1 and 2 and M. hapla
 reproduced on 12 cultivars of Brassica napus and two cultivars
 of B. campestris. The mean reproductive factors (Rf), Rf = Pf
 at 55 days divided by 5,000, for the three nematodes were 8.3,
 2.2, and 14.3, respectively. All three nematodes reproduced
 more efficiently (P < 0.05) on B. campestris than on B. napus.
 Amending M. chitwoodi-infested soil in plastic bags with
 chopped shoots of Jupiter rapeseed reduced the nematode
 population more (P < 0.05) than amendment with wheat shoots.
 Incorporating Jupiter shoots to soil heavily infested with M.
 chitwoodi in microplots reduced the nematode population more
 (P < 0.05) than fallow or corn shoot treatments. The greatest
 reduction in nematode population density was attained by
 cropping rapeseed for 2 months and incorporating it into the
 soil as a green manure.
 
 
 227                                   NAL Call. No.: S601.A34
 Survival and growth of peach trees and pest populations in
 orchard plots managed with experimental ground covers.
 Meyer, J.R.; Zehr, E.I.; Meagher, R.L. Jr; Salvo, S.K.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier; 1992 Sep.
 Agriculture, ecosystems and environment v. 41 (3/4): p.
 353-363; 1992 Sep. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Prunus persica; Crop management; Ground cover
 plants; Species; Cover crops; Survival; Growth; Plant pests;
 Populations; Population density; Crop damage; Species
 differences; Integrated pest management; Weed control;
 Cultural control
 
 
 228                                    NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Sustaining soil nitrogen for corn using hairy vetch cover
 crop. Utomo, M.; Frye, W.W.; Blevins, R.L.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1990 Sep.
 Agronomy journal v. 82 (5): p. 979-983; 1990 Sep.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kentucky; Zea mays; Winter; Cover crops; Vicia
 villosa; Secale cereale; Stubble; No-tillage; Tillage;
 Nitrogen fertilizers; Application rates; Crop yield; Grain;
 Nitrates (inorganic salts); Residual effects; Nitrogen
 
 Abstract:  Nitrogen fertility management is often complicated
 by inadequate supply, low efficiency, high losses, and the
 potential of polluting water resources. This study was
 conducted in 1984 and 1985 on a Maury soil (fine, mixed, mesic
 Typic Paleudalfs) in Kentucky to determine the role of a hairy
 vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) cover crop in sustaining soil N for
 corn (Zea mays L.) under no-tillage and conventional tillage.
 Winter cover treatments of hairy vetch, rye (Secale cereale
 L.), and corn residue were combined factorially with N rates
 of 0, 85, and 170 kg ha-1 the two tillage systems. Total soil
 C and N in the 0- to 7.5-cm depth, averaged across treatments
 and sampling dates, were 21.8 and 2.07 g kg-1, respectively,
 in no-tillage and 16.6 and 1.70 g kg-1 in conventional
 tillage. Values were 19.8 and 1.99 g kg-1, respectively, with
 hairy vetch and 18.8 and 1.80 g kg-1 with rye. Conventional
 tillage caused rapid mineralization of soil N, as indicated by
 greater inorganic N approximately 6 wk after plowing. Nitrate
 apparently leached deeper into the soil under no-tillage than
 conventional tillage. Grain yield without N on the vetch
 treatment was essentially equal to yields with 170 kg N ha-1
 on the rye or corn residue treatments-6.75, 6.75, and 6.65 Mg
 ha-1, respectively. Grain yield with vetch and 170 kg N ha-1
 was 7.85 Mg ha-1. Although vetch provided a substantial amount
 of N, results suggested that to obtain optimum corn yields N
 fertilization should be reduced little, if any, with a vetch
 cover crop. Vetch appeared to add grain yield instead of
 reduce the need for N fertilizer.
 
 
 229                            NAL Call. No.: 100 N46S no.269
 Sweet clover as a soil improvement crop for orchards.
 Davidson, O. W.
 New Brunswick, N.J. : New Jersey Agricultural Experiment
 Station,; 1933. [4] p. ; 23 cm. (Circular (New Jersey
 Agricultural Experiment Station) ; 269.).  Caption title.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Sweet clover; Green manuring; Fruit
 
 
 230                                     NAL Call. No.: S1.S68
 Sweet clover fallow on solonetzes of Western Siberia.
 Yakovlev, V.Kh
 New York, N.Y. : Allerton Press; 1991.
 Soviet agricultural sciences (7): p. 26-28; 1991.  Translated
 from: Vsesoiuznaia akademiia sel'skokhoziaistvennykh nauk.
 Doklady, (7), p. 28-30. (20 AK1).  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English; Russian
 
 Descriptors: Siberia; Solonetzic soils; Fallow systems;
 Melilotus; Soil fertility; Green manures; Fodder crops; Soil
 physical properties; Soil biology; Hordeum vulgare; Crop
 yield; Rotations
 
 
 231                              NAL Call. No.: 100 Ok4 no.94
 Sweet clover for soil improvement.
 Harper, Horace James,
 Stillwater, Ok. : Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station,;
 1941. 31 p. : ill. ; 23 cm. (Circular (Oklahoma Agricultural
 Experiment Station) ; C-94.).  Cover title.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Sweet clover; Green manuring
 
 
 232                            NAL Call. No.: 100 M36S no.253
 Sweet clover for summer pasture and green manure.
 Metzger, J. E.
 College Park : University of Maryland, Agricultural Experiment
 Station,; 1923. p. [37]-46 : ill. ; 23 cm. (Bulletin (Maryland
 Agricultural Experiment Station) ; no. 253.).  Cover title. 
 March, 1923.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sweet clover
 
 
 233                        NAL Call. No.: 100 C125 (2) no.290
 The Tangier pea Lathyrus tingitanus.
 Kennedy, P. Beveridge
 Berkeley, Calif. : University of California, College of
 Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment Station,; 1925.
 15 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. (Circular (California Agricultural
 Experiment Station) ; 290.).  Includes bibliographical
 references.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Lathyrus; Green manure crops; Forage plants
 
 
 234                                  NAL Call. No.: 56.8 J822
 Tillage and clover cover crop effects on grain sorghum yield
 and nitrogen uptake.
 Lemon, R.G.; Hons, F.M.; Saladino, V.A.
 Ankeny, Iowa : Soil and Water Conservation Society of America;
 1990 Jan. Journal of soil and water conservation v. 45 (1): p.
 125-127; 1990 Jan. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Tillage; Clovers; Cover crops; Sorghum bicolor;
 Nitrogen; Uptake; Erosion control; No-tillage; Green manures;
 Crop yield
 
 
 235                                   NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Tillage and cover crop management effects on soil water and
 corn yield. Ewing, R.P.; Wagger, M.G.; Denton, H.P.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1991 Jul.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 55 (4): p.
 1081-1085; 1991 Jul. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Carolina; Zea mays; Coastal plain soils;
 Sandy soils; Crop management; Interactions; Fallow; Cover
 crops; Trifolium incarnatum; Subsoiling; Chiselling; Water
 availability; Soil water content; Crop yield; Growth; Grain;
 Dry matter; Dry conditions
 
 Abstract:  Subsoiling to alleviate compacted soil zones and
 planting cover crops to conserve soil water are accepted
 practices, but information regarding potential interactions
 between the two is limited. This study was designed to assess
 the effects of subsoiling and cover-crop management on soil
 water availability and corn (Zea mays L.) grain yield on
 Coastal Plain soils known to be responsive to in-row
 subsoiling. The experiment was conducted on a Norfolk loamy
 sand in 1985 and a Norfolk sand in 1986, both in the family of
 fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic Typic Kandiudults. Factors
 evaluated were subsoiling, cover crop (fallow or crimson
 clover [Trifolium incarnatum L.]), primary tillage (chisel
 plow or no-tillage) within fallow, and top-growth removal of
 crimson clover. Compared with fallow treatments, crimson
 clover depleted soil water in the surface 15 cm before corn
 planting by 28% in 1985 and 55% in 1986. Corn grain yield was
 reduced in the presence of crimson clover by 0.5 Mg ha-1 in
 1985 and 0.9 Mg ha-1 in 1986. In 1985 only, grain yield
 reduction in the presence of crimson clover was entirely
 overcome by subsoiling. Averaged across cover crop and primary
 tillage factors, subsoiling increased grain yields by 25% (1.3
 Mg ha-1) in 1985 and 86% (1.9 Mg ha-1) in 1986. Increased
 yields due to subsoiling were attributed to greater use of
 subsoil water by the corn crop. These results suggest that
 cover-crop desiccation should occur 7 to 10 d prior to corn
 planting to minimize the effects of soil water depletion under
 dry, early-spring conditions. Additionally, in-row subsoiling
 should be used on similar Coastal Plain soils responsive to
 deep tillage, irrespective of cover-crop use.
 
 
 236                                   NAL Call. No.: 100 L939
 Tillage and cover crop systems for cotton on clay soil.
 Boquet, D.J.; Coco, A.B.
 Baton Rouge, La. : The Station; 1991.
 Louisiana agriculture - Louisiana Agricultural Experiment
 Station v. 34 (4): p. 23-24; 1991.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Louisiana; Gossypium; Clay soils; Cover crops;
 Tillage; Crop production; Statistics
 
 
 237                                NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32P
 Tillage and fertilizer influences on corn and legume cover.
 Gilley, J.E.; Power, J.F.; Reznicek, P.J.; Finkner, S.C.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1990.
 Paper - American Society of Agricultural Engineers (90-2567):
 23 p.; 1990. Paper presented at the "1990 International Winter
 Meeting", December 18-21, 1990, Chicago, Illinois.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cover crops; Tillage; Fertilizers; Erosion; Soil
 conservation
 
 
 238                                 NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Tillage and winter cover management effects on fruiting and
 yield of cotton. Stevens, W.E.; Johnson, J.R.; Varco, J.J.;
 Parkman, J.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Oct.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 5 (4): p. 570-575; 1992
 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mississippi; Gossypium hirsutum; Cropping
 systems; Tillage; Cover crops; Crop management; Erosion; Crop
 establishment; Fruiting; Crop yield
 
 
 239                                   NAL Call. No.: 100 L936
 Tillage/cover crop system effects on shoot growth and
 development of cotton. Kennedy, C.W.; Hutchinson, R.L.
 Baton Rouge, La. : The Department; 1990.
 Report of projects - Louisiana Agricultural Experiment
 Station, Department of Agronomy. p. 25-27; 1990.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Gossypium; Tillage; Cover crops; Systems;
 Effects; Yield response functions; Growth rate; Shoots; Bolls;
 Leaf area
 
 
 240                                    NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Time of seeding and turning vetch for cotton and corn.
 Funchess, M.J.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1928 Mar.
 Journal of the American Society of Agronomy v. 20 (3): p.
 294-297; 1928 Mar.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cotton; Maize; Vetch; Green manures; Planting
 date; Turning
 
 Abstract:  Experiments with monantha vetch, hairy vetch and
 Austrian peas as green manuring crops have shown that they
 should be planted early in the fall. Best results were secured
 when planted the latter part of September. Later plantings
 gave considerably smaller yields in the spring. Vetch turned
 as early as March 15 produced large increases in yield of
 cotton or corn. The increase was approximately equivalent to
 that obtained from the use of 200 to 300 pounds of nitrate of
 soda. When turned April 1 or April 15 an additional increase
 was obtained with corn. On the other hand, delayed turning
 reduced the yield of cotton, although the amount of nitrogen
 turned under was more than double the nitrogen content of the
 early turned vetch.
 
 
 241                                    NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Timing nitrogen applications for corn in a winter legume
 conservation-tillage system.
 Reeves, D.W.; Wood, C.W.; Touchton, J.T.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1993 Jan.
 Agronomy journal v. 85 (1): p. 98-106; 1993 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alabama; Zea mays; Conservation tillage;
 Trifolium incarnatum; Cover crops; Coastal plain soils;
 Nitrogen fertilizers; Application rates; Fertilizer
 requirement determination; Application date; Timing; Nutrient
 uptake; Nitrogen; Use efficiency; Crop yield; Grain; Dry
 matter accumulation; Split dressings
 
 Abstract:  Fertilizer N efficiency of corn (Zea mays L.) in
 conservation-tillage systems with winter legumes such as
 crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.) can possible be
 improved by better synchronization of legume-N release,
 fertilizer-N application time, and crop demand for N. The
 objective of this 3-yr (1986-1988) field experiment was to
 determine the effect of N application time on dry matter
 accumulation, N uptake, and grain yield of corn grown in a
 winter legume conservation-tillage system. Corn was planted
 with unit planters into crimson clover residue following in-
 row subsoiling. The clover was killed at midbloom every year.
 Treatments were a factorial arrangement of fertilizer N rates
 and application time. Nitrogen as NH4NO3 was broadcast at
 rates of 34, 67, and 134 kg ha(-1). Zero-N checks were also
 included in both clover and rye (Secale cereal L.) plots.
 Application times were at planting, or 3, 6, or 9 wk later. In
 addition, split applications (1/3 at planting and the
 remainder 6 wk later) of the 67 and 134 kg N ha(-1) rates were
 included. In 2 of 3 yr, dry matter accumulation was not
 affected by N application time. In 1987, however, dry matter
 production was greater when N was applied at planting compared
 to split applications or applications later than 3 wk after
 planting. Application time affected N uptake patterns during
 the growing season, but generally did not affect total N
 uptake at the end of the season. With the exception of the
 first year, split N applications resulted in equivalent or
 reduced N uptake compared to application of all N at planting.
 Based on linear regression models, maximum yield was obtained
 with 134, 116, and 93 kg N ha(-1) in 1987, 1988, and 1989,
 respectively. After the first year, applying N later than 6 wk
 after planting reduced grain yield and split applications of N
 were not effective in increasing grain yield. These results
 suggest that the fertilizer N requirement of corn grown in
 winter legume conservation -tillage syste
 
 
 242                                  NAL Call. No.: SB610.W39
 Tolerance of Chinese milkvetch (Astragalus sinicus) to
 herbicides. Cai, Z.L.; Brauen, S.E.; Gealy, D.R.; Johnston,
 W.J.; Lumpkin, T.A. Champaign, Ill. : The Society; 1992 Jan.
 Weed technology : a journal of the Weed Science Society of
 America v. 6 (1): p. 104-107; 1992 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: China; Astragalus sinicus; Green manures;
 Screening; Weed control; Chemical control; Herbicides;
 Selectivity; Crop damage; Phytotoxicity
 
 
 243                                    NAL Call. No.: 26 T754
 Tropical lowland rice response to preceding crops, organic
 manures and nitrogen fertilizer.
 Meelu, O.P.; Morris, R.A.; Centeno, H.S.
 London : Butterworth-Heinemann; 1992 Jan.
 Tropical agriculture v. 69 (1): p. 96-100; 1992 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Philippines; Oryza sativa; Sequential cropping;
 Farmyard manure; Green manures; Sesbania; Vigna radiata; Zea
 mays; Crop yield; Residual effects; Urea fertilizers; Lowland
 areas
 
 
 244                                 NAL Call. No.: S605.5.A43
 Understory cover crops in pecan orchards: possible management
 systems. Bugg, R.L.; Sarrantonio, M.; Dutcher, J.D.; Phatak,
 S.C.
 Greenbelt, Md. : Institute for Alternative Agriculture; 1991.
 American journal of alternative agriculture v. 6 (2): p.
 50-62; 1991. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Georgia; Carya illinoensis; Orchards; Legumes;
 Grasses; Cover crops; Green manures; Alternative farming;
 Sustainability; Crop management; Cultivation; Soil organic
 matter; Nitrogen; Soil fertility; Biological control;
 Aphididae; Predators of insect pests; Habit; Seasonality
 
 Abstract:  Annual legumes and mixtures of annual legumes and
 grasses can perform several functions as understory cover
 crops in pecan orchards, such as providing nitrogen-rich
 organic matter to improve soil fertility, or by sustaining
 lady beetles and other arthropods that may aid the biological
 control of pecan pests. Remaining questions concern selection
 of appropriate plant materials; whether to use cover crops
 singly or in mixtures; how to ensure reseeding as well as a
 substantial N contribution; whether, when, and how to use
 mowing and tillage; and fertilization options. Different
 considerations apply when dealing with cool- vs. warm-season
 cover crops. With minor adjustments, growers could adapt
 present cultural practices to include cool-season cover crops.
 These could be used throughout the orchard, by establishing
 appropriate self-reseeding species and avoiding both excessive
 mowing and indiscriminate placement of N-rich fertilizers.
 Within alleys, alternating 2-m strips of cool-season cover
 crops could be tilled in mid to late April or allowed to
 mature. The tilled strips would supply N to pecan trees
 immediately, whereas the adjoining untilled (remnant) strips
 could be mowed after seed is mature, to ensure dispersal of
 seed and reestablishment of cover crops over the entire alley.
 Cool-season annual legumes that die or are killed in late
 spring will probably furnish N and other nutrients at a
 suitable time, particularly in orchards with sprinkler
 irrigation. Warm-season cover crops, if desired, should be
 restricted to alleys to reduce possible competition with
 pecan. Alleys provide better illumination than do tree rows
 during periods when pecan trees are in leaf and the tillage
 mentioned above will encourage emergence of warm-season cover
 crops. If these die or are killed in late summer or early
 fall, timing of N release may not be optimal, in the absence
 of adequate irrigation. Many options and tradeoffs need to be
 explored before choosing a cover-crop system. At
 
 
 245                         NAL Call. No.: 100 M69 (2) no.200
 Uniform winter cover crop tests, Stoneville, Miss.
 Johnson, Howard W.
 State College, Miss. : Mississippi State College, Agricultural
 Experiment Station,; 1955.
 7 p. ; 23 cm. (Circular (Mississippi Agricultural Experiment
 Station) ; 200.).
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Cover crops
 
 
 246                                NAL Call. No.: QL391.N4J62
 Use of green manure crops in control of Hirschmanniella
 mucronata and H. oryzae in irrigated rice.
 Prot, J.C.; Soriano, I.R.S.; Matias, D.M.; Savary, S.
 Lake Alfred, Fla. : Society of Nematologists; 1992 Mar.
 Journal of nematology v. 24 (1): p. 127-132; 1992 Mar. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oryza sativa; Hirschmanniella mucronata;
 Hirschmanniella oryzae; Sesbania; Aeschynomene; Green manures;
 Nematode control; Rotations
 
 Abstract:  Four field experiments were conducted to study the
 effect of Sesbania rostrata and Aeschynomene afraspera as
 rotational and green manure crops on the population dynamics
 of Hirschmanniella mucronata and H. oryzae, and subsequent
 rice yields. The sequential cropping of the legumes with rice
 controlled both nematode species. In two experiments, yield of
 rice was related to the nematode population densities at
 planting and harvesting of the second rice crop (R2 = 0.391, P
 less than 0.001, and R2 = 0.57, P less than 0.001), regardless
 of the treatments. Rice yield increases were attributed to
 nutritional effect of the green manure and the reduction of
 the nematode populations or the modification of a factor(s)
 linked to the nematode populations induced by their cropping.
 As the two leguminous crops do not generate direct return,
 using them to control the rice-root nematodes was not
 economical, despite the significant yield increase obtained.
 
 
 247                        NAL Call. No.: NBULD3656 1992 H367
 The use of legume cover crops in an ecofallow rotation in the
 central Great Plains..  University of Nebraska--Lincoln thesis
 : Agronomy Hanson, Gordon E.
 1992; 1992.
 v, 105 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.  Includes bibliographical
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 
 248                                NAL Call. No.: QK898.N6N52
 The use of the leaf of nitrogen fixing trees as a source of
 nitrogen for maize.
 Gutteridge, R.C.
 Bangkok, Thailand : Thailand Institute of Scientific and
 Technological Research; 1990 Aug.
 Nitrogen fixing tree research reports v. 8: p. 27-28; 1990
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Queensland; Acacia cunninghamii; Acacia;
 Calliandra calothyrsus; Gliricidia sepium; Leucaena
 leucocephala; Sesbania sesban; Zea mays; Nitrogen fixing
 trees; Leaves; Green manures; Nutrient requirements; Nitrogen
 
 
 249                                    NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Utilizing legume cropping systems to reduce nitrogen
 fertilizer requirements for conservation-tilled corn.
 Oyer, L.J.; Touchton, J.T.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1990 Nov.
 Agronomy journal v. 82 (6): p. 1123-1127; 1990 Nov.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alabama; Zea mays; Glycine max; Rotations;
 Winter; Cover crops; Trifolium incarnatum; Seasonal cropping;
 Continuous cropping; Sequential cropping; Nitrogen
 fertilizers; Nutrient requirements; Application rates; Crop
 yield; Grain; Conservation tillage
 
 Abstract:  The need to reduce production costs has promoted a
 renewed interest in using legumes as a source of N for non-
 leguminous summer crops. Development of legume cropping
 systems which will permit reseeding of winter cover-crop
 legumes is a promising approach to reducing legume
 establishment costs. Field studies were conducted in Alabama
 for 4 yr on Wynnville sandy loam and Dothan fine-sandy loam
 soils (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic, Glossic Fragiudults and
 Plinthic Paleudults, respectively) to determine the effects of
 both cash crop and winter cover-crop legumes in cropping
 systems on N fertilizer requirements of corn (Zea mays L.)
 grown in a conservation-tillage system. On the Wynnville soil,
 soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) was more effective in providing
 early season N, and clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.) in
 providing late-season N. The system with both soybean and
 clover resulted in an even more effective contribution of N to
 corn grain yield, and a higher yield level than that of
 continuous corn regardless of N fertilizer rate. On the Dothan
 soil, the benefits of cropping systems were not as pronounced,
 and the responses were eliminated by N fertilization,
 suggesting increased yields were due to N and not to a
 rotation effect. On both soils, in years of adequate and
 inadequate rainfall, the reseeding crimson clover system, in
 combination with a soybean-corn rotation, consistently
 produced the highest yields of the systems studied, and
 provided a 68 to 159 kg N ha-1 fertilizer equivalent for corn.
 
 
 250                             NAL Call. No.: 100 N46S no.85
 The value of cover crops.
 Dickey, J. B. R.
 New Brunswick, N.J. : New Jersey Agricultural Experiment
 Stations,; 1917. 4 p. ; 23 cm. (Circular (New Jersey
 Agricultural Experiment Station) ; 85.). Cover title.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cover crops
 
 
 251                                   NAL Call. No.: S590.C63
 Variability of several forms of soil nitrogen in two rice
 fields. Pettygrove, G.S.; Jiayou, D.; Williams, J.F.; Wick,
 C.; Hafez, A.A.B.; DeBoer, G.
 New York, N.Y. : Marcel Dekker; 1990.
 Communications in soil science and plant analysis v. 21
 (13/16): p. 1843-1855; 1990.  Paper presented at the
 "International Symposium on Soil Testing and Plant Analysis,"
 August 14-18, 1989, Fresno, California.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Vicia benghalensis; Soil chemistry; Nitrogen;
 Rice soils; Green manures
 
 
 252                                NAL Call. No.: S544.3.N7A4
 Vegetable fields need soil-building program.
 Becker, R.F.
 Middletown, N.Y. : Cornell Cooperative Ext.--Orange County
 Agriculture Program, Education Center; 1989 Apr.
 Agfocus : publication of Cornell Cooperative Extension--Orange
 County. p. 10; 1989 Apr.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Vegetables; Vegetable growing; Soil organic
 matter; Cover crops
 
 
 253                                 NAL Call. No.: 100 C12CAG
 Vegetation management systems in almond orchards.
 Elmore, C.L.
 Oakland, Calif. : Division of Agriculture and Natural
 Resources, University of California; 1989 Jul.
 California agriculture v. 43 (4): p. 16-17; 1989 Jul.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Orchards; Prunus dulcis; Vegetation;
 Field tests; Weeds; Cover crops; Chemical control; Mowing;
 Evaluation
 
 
 254                             NAL Call. No.: SB387.76.M3M37
 Vineyard floor management.
 Walsh, C.
 Germantown, Md. : Maryland Grape Growers Association; 1991.
 The Maryland grapevine v. 11 (3): p. 10-13; 1991.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Maryland; Vitis; Vineyards; Site preparation;
 Cover crops; Weed control; Herbicides; Applicators
 
 
 255                                NAL Call. No.: S592.7.A1S6
 Volatile loss of nitrogen during decomposition of legume green
 manure. Janzen, H.H.; McGinn, S.M.
 Exeter : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Soil biology and biochemistry v. 23 (3): p. 291-297; 1991. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Lens culinaris; Green manures; Decomposition;
 Ammonia; Volatilization; Losses from soil systems
 
 Abstract:  Significant amounts of volatile ammonia (NH3) may
 be lost from agricultural ecosystems. While NH3 volatilization
 from fertilizers has been well-documented, corresponding
 losses from crop residues, particularly legume green manures,
 have not been adequately quantified. Ammonia losses from
 decomposing lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) green manure were
 measured under controlled conditions by applying residue to
 soil inside sealed chambers, establishing air flow and
 periodically measuring accumulated NH3 loss using acid traps.
 Three consecutive experiments were conducted to determine the
 effect of residue placement, air flow rate and green manure
 composition, respectively. The first experiment, using a
 relatively slow flow rate (0.07 chamber displacements
 min(-1)), demonstrated significant volatilization of NH3 (5%
 of applied N after 56 days) from green manure placed on or
 suspended above the soil. Incorporating the green manure into
 soil almost eliminated NH3 losses. Drying and rewetting the
 residues after the initial 28 days had only a small
 stimulatory effect on subsequent volatile losses. A second
 experiment indicated that maximum volatilization could be
 achieved at air flow rates of 0.3 chamber displacements
 min(-1) or higher. A third experiment, using an optimum flow
 rate (0.5 displacements min(-1)), demonstrated significantly
 higher volatile N losses from field-grown lentil material (14%
 over 14 days) than from hydroponically cultured lentil
 material (8% over 14 days). This difference was attributed, in
 part, to higher soluble N concentrations in the former
 residue. Ammonia volatilization consistently demonstrated
 similar temporal patterns: a rapid initial flush, apparently
 from the ammonification of labile N, followed by an indefinite
 period of slow volatilization, probably from the
 mineralization of more recalcitrant N fractions. The volatile
 loss of labile N from decomposing green manure may appreciably
 diminish its fertility benefit and represent an important
 
 
 256                                 NAL Call. No.: QD415.A1J6
 Volatile seed germination inhibitors from plant residues.
 Bradow, J.M.; Connick, W.J. Jr
 New York, N.Y. : Plenum Press; 1990 Mar.
 Journal of chemical ecology v. 16 (3): p. 645-666; 1990 Mar. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Allium cepa; Daucus carota; Lycopersicon
 esculentum; Allelopathy; Volatile compounds; Germination
 inhibitors; Cover crops
 
 Abstract:  Volatile emissions from residues of the winter
 cover legumes, Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.).
 hairy vetch [Vicia hirsuta (L.) S.F. Gray], and crimson clover
 (Trifolium incarnatum L.), inhibited germination and seedling
 development of onion, carrot. and tomato. Using GC-MS, 31 C2-
 C10 hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters,
 furans, and monoterpenes were identified in these residue
 emission mixtures. Mixtures of similar compounds were found in
 the volatiles released by herbicide-treated aerial and root
 residues of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) and the
 late-season woody stems and roots of cotton (Gossypium
 hirsutum L.). Vapor-phase onion, carrot. and tomato seed
 germination bioassays were used to determine the time- and
 concentration-dependent inhibition potential of 33 compounds
 that were either identified in the plant residue emissions or
 were structurally similar to identified compounds. Cumulative
 results of the bioassays showed that (E)-2-hexenal was the
 most inhibitory volatile tested, followed by nonanal, 3-
 methylbutanal, and ethyl 2-methylbutyrate. All the volatile
 mixtures examined contained at least one compound that greatly
 inhibited seed germination.
 
 
 257                                  NAL Call. No.: 56.8 J822
 Water use evaluation of winter cover crops for no-till
 soybeans. Zhu, J.C.; Gantzer, C.J.; Anderson, S.H.;
 Beuselinck, P.R.; Alberts, E.E. Ankeny, Iowa : Soil and Water
 Conservation Society of America; 1991 Nov. Journal of soil and
 water conservation v. 46 (6): p. 446-449; 1991 Nov. Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Missouri; Glycine max; Poa compressa; Stellaria
 media; Bromus tectorum; Cover crops; Winter; No-tillage; Crop
 weed competition; Soil water content; Water use; Time
 
 
 258                                  NAL Call. No.: SB610.W39
 Weed control by subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum)
 used as a living mulch.
 Enache, A.J.; Ilnicki, R.D.
 Champaign, Ill. : The Society; 1990 Jul.
 Weed technology : a journal of the Weed Science Society of
 America v. 4 (3): p. 534-538; 1990 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New Jersey; Zea mays; Cultural weed control; Live
 mulches; Trifolium subterraneum; Tillage; No-tillage; Minimum
 tillage; Crop yield; Grain; Crop quality
 
 
 259                          NAL Call. No.: 100 So8 (2) no.37
 Winter cover crop experiments.
 Buie, T. S.
 Clemson College, S.C. : South Carolina Agricultural Experiment
 Station of Clemson Agricultural College,; 1929.
 14 p. ; 23 cm. (Circular (South Carolina Agricultural
 Experiment Station) ; no. 37.).  Cover title.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Cover crops
 
 
 260                          NAL Call. No.: 100 So8 (2) no.51
 Winter cover crop experiments at the Pee Dee Experiment
 Station. Hall, E.E.; Albert, W. B._1899-; Watson, S. J.
 Clemson College, S.C. : South Carolina Agricultural Experiment
 Station of Clemson Agricultural College,; 1933.
 13, [2] p. : ill. ; 23 cm. (Circular (South Carolina Agri
 cultural Experiment Station) ; no. 51.).  Cover title.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Cover crops
 
 
 261                          NAL Call. No.: 100 So8 (2) no.42
 Winter cover crop experiments at the Pee Dee Experiment
 Station. Hall, E.E.; Albert, W. B._1899-; Watson, S. J.
 Clemson College, S.C. : South Carolina Agricultural Experiment
 Station of Clemson Agricultural College,; 1930.
 14 p. : ill. ; 23 cm. (Circular (South Carolina Agricultural
 Experiment Station) ; no. 42.).  Cover title.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Cover crops
 
 
 262                                 NAL Call. No.: QL461.E532
 Winter cover crop suppression practices and natural enemies of
 armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in no-till corn.
 Laub, C.A.; Luna, J.M.
 Lanham, Md. : Entomological Society of America; 1992 Feb.
 Environmental entomology v. 21 (1): p. 41-49; 1992 Feb. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Virginia; Zea mays; Mythimna unipuncta;
 Biological control; Glyptapanteles militaris; Natural enemies;
 Parasites of insect pests; Tachinidae; Cover crops; Secale
 cereale; Mowing; Paraquat; Insect control
 
 Abstract:  Rye, Secale cereale L., used as a winter cover crop
 was killed by the herbicide paraquat or by mowing with a
 rotary mower. In subsequent no-till corn, Glyptapanteles
 militaris (Walsh) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Periscepsia
 laevigata (Wulp) (Diptera: Tachinidae) were the most abundant
 of twelve species of parasitoids that emerged from field-
 collected larvae of the armyworm, Pseudaletia unipuncta
 (Haworth). No effects of cover crop suppression practices were
 detected for parasitism rates for any individual species or
 for total armyworm parasitism. Seasonal parasitism rates
 ranged from 32 to 45%. Higher numbers of Pterostichus spp. and
 Scarites spp. (Coleoptera: Carabidae), and wolf spiders
 (Araneae: Lycosidae) occurred early in the corn season in the
 mowed cover crop treatment compared with the herbicide killed
 cover crop treatment. Subsequent reduction of larval densities
 of armyworm in mowed plots following higher predator densities
 suggests the role of these generalist predators in biological
 control of armyworm.
 
 
 263                              NAL Call. No.: SB320.7.M3V43
 Winter cover crops.
 Sharp, D.
 College Park, Md. : Cooperative Extension Service; 1990.
 Vegetable views newsletter v. 1 (2): p. 7-8; 1990.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Maryland; Cover crops; Erosion control; Legumes;
 Nitrogen fixation; Weed control
 
 
 264                          NAL Call. No.: 100 So8 (2) no.26
 Winter cover crops co-operative experimental work with bur
 clover, crimson clover, vetch and rye.
 Tarbox, F. G.
 Clemson College, S.C. : South Carolina Agricultural Experiment
 Station of Clemson Agricultural College,; 1914.
 23 p. : ill. ; 23 cm. (Circular (South Carolina Agricultural
 Experiment Station) ; no. 26.).  Cover title.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Cover crops
 
 
 265                         NAL Call. No.: 100 N81 (2) no.129
 Winter cover crops their effects on corn yields and soil
 properties. Kamprath, E. J.; Chandler, W. V.; Krantz, B. A.
 North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station
 Raleigh, N.C. : North Carolina Agricultural Experiment
 Station,; 1958; A55 11:129.
 47 p. : ill. ; 23 cm. (Technical bulletin (North Carolina
 Agricultural Experiment Station) ; no. 129.).  "A N.C. State
 College publication."--Cover. Chiefly tables.  Bibliography:
 p. 25-26.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Cover crops; Corn; Soil productivity
 
 
 266                                  NAL Call. No.: SB218.J67
 Winter wheat and winter rye cover crops for the establishment
 of sugarbeets. Wilson, R.G.; Smith, J.A.
 Denver, Colo. : American Society of Sugar Beet Technologists;
 1992 Jan. Journal of sugar beet research v. 29 (1/2): p.
 23-30; 1992 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nebraska; Beta vulgaris; Cover crops; Stand
 establishment; Triticum aestivum; Secale cereale; Crop
 density; Crop yield; Roots; Plant height; Weed control;
 Chemical control; Glyphosate; Sethoxydim; Fluazifop
 
 
 267                                    NAL Call. No.: S79.E37
 Yield and nitrogen content of legume cover crops grown in
 Mississippi. Varco, J.J.; Sanford, J.O.; Hairston, J.E.
 Mississippi State, Miss. : The Station; 1991 Aug.
 Research report - Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry
 Experiment Station v. 16 (10): 4 p.; 1991 Aug.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mississippi; Cover crops; Legumes; Crop yield;
 Nitrogen content
 
 
 268                                    NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Yield response of bermudagrass and bahiagrass to applied
 nitrogen an d overseeded clover.
 Overman, A.R.; Wilkinson, S.R.; Evers, G.W.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Nov.
 Journal of the American Society of Agronomy v. 84 (6): p.
 998-1001; 1992 Nov. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Georgia; Cynodon dactylon; Trifolium incarnatum;
 Oversowing; Paspalum notatum; Trifolium subterraneum;
 Trifolium vesiculosum; Nitrogen fertilizers; Dry matter
 accumulation; Crop yield; Mathematical models; Yield response
 functions
 
 Abstract:  Models can be used to describe yield response of
 grasses to applied N and other management factors. This
 analysis was performed to show interactions between applied N
 and overseeded clover on dry matter yield, and to estimate
 equivalent N supplied by clover. Data from three locations
 were used. At Watkinsville, GA both 'Coastal' and common
 bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] were overseeded
 with crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.). At Eagle Lake,
 TX, both Coastal bermudagrass and 'Pensacola' bahiagrass
 (Paspalum notatum Flugge) were overseeded with 'Yuchi'
 arrowleaf (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi) and 'Mt. Barker'
 subterranean (Trifolium subterranean L.) clovers. At Jay, FL
 both Coastal bermudagrass and Pensacola bahiagrass were
 overseeded with crimson clover. The logistic model described
 dry matter response to applied N and contained three
 parameters (A, b, c). It was shown that the presence of clover
 affected only the b coefficient, which related to yield at
 zero applied N. It was also shown that overseeded clover
 provided equivalent N of approximately 120 kg ha-1 for
 bermudagrass and 90 to 220 kg ha-1 for bahiagrass. Most of the
 increased yield of the bermudagrass-clover combination over
 bermudagrass without clover was due to the clover production;
 only about 25 kg ha-1 of equivalent N was carried over to the
 bermudagrass under conditions where top growth of clover was
 removed. The model allows quantitative estimates of equivalent
 N supplied by clover.
 
 
 
 
 
                          AUTHOR INDEX
 
 Agamalian, H.S.  224
 Aiken, G.E.  178
 Albert, W. B.  260, 261
 Alberts, E.E.  257
 Alegre, J.C.  214
 Alison, M.W.  111
 Allen, O.N.  23
 Alley, M.M.  82
 Anderson, J.L.  88
 Anderson, S.H.  257
 Anthony, R. D.  84
 Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Area (Organization) 
 47
 Arceneaux, G.  223
 Asghar, M.  35, 79
 Ashley, R.A.  51
 Asoegwu, S.N.  184
 Atallah, T.  183
 Auld, D.L.  89, 193
 Bacheler, J.S.  169
 Badger, C.J.  28
 Bahler, C.C.  81
 Bailie, J.E.  153
 Baldridge, D.  11
 Banks, J.C.  41
 Bartholomew, R.P.  2
 Bates, H.K.  68
 Bauer, P.J.  38
 Becker, M.  122
 Becker, R.F.  252
 Bell, C.E.  73
 Berg, W. A.  151
 Beste, C.E.  208
 Beuselinck, P.R.  257
 Biederbeck, V.O.  69
 Bingham, G.E.  88
 Bledsoe, R. P.  185
 Blevins, R.L.  228
 Blue Moon Productions, Sustainable Farming Association of
 Minnesota  46
 Boquet, D.J.  202, 236
 Bowen, W.T.  100
 Bowren, K.E.  70
 Bradow, J.M.  256
 Brauen, S.E.  242
 Bremer, A.H.  19
 Bremer, E.  15, 179, 210
 Brink, G.E.  188
 Brinton, William F.  120
 Briscoe, Chas. F.  9
 Broadway, R.  55, 163
 Brown, P. E.  117
 Brown, P.E.  187
 Brown, P.R.  66
 Browne, J.  26
 Brunson, K.E.  33
 Bugg, R.L.  32, 33, 244
 Buie, T. S.  259
 Bullock, D.G.  58
 Buresh, R.J.  164
 Bush, J.  123
 Buzo, T.  131
 Byers, R.A.  81
 Cai, Z.L.  242
 Campbell, C.A.  69, 70, 71
 Canada  70
 Caprile, J.  175
 Carleton, E. A.  174
 Carsky, R.J.  100
 Carter, L.  31
 Carter, P.R.  170
 Cartwright, B.  6
 Centeno, H.S.  243
 Chambliss, C.G.  178
 Chandler, W. V.  265
 Chang, M.T.  83
 Chapman, E. J.  91
 Chaudhary, S.L.  204
 Chesson, J.  31
 Christenson, D.R.  108
 Clarke, W. S.  84
 Clay, D.C.  137
 Coco, A.B.  236
 Collins, H.P.  147
 Collison, R. C.  101, 174, 196
 Connick, W.J. Jr  256
 Corak, S.J.  139
 Craig, John,  173
 Cramer, C.  64
 Cravo, M.S.  167
 Cripps, R.W.  68
 Crown, P.H.  182
 Dabney, S.M.  202
 Daji, J.A.  107
 Datta, S.K.De  164
 Davidson, O. W.  229
 DeBoer, G.  251
 Decker, A.M.  30, 125
 DeGolyer, B.  97
 DeGregorio, R.  26
 Denton, H.P.  235
 Deziel, G.  26
 Dickey, J. B. R.  250
 Diehm, R.A.  17
 Ditsch, D.C.  82
 Ditterline, R.  11
 Diver, Steve  47
 Dizon, M.A.  110
 Dominick, W.  14
 Doran, J.W.  42
 Drego, J.  1
 Dunn, G.H.  148
 Dunn, R.  11
 Dutcher, J.D.  32, 33, 109, 244
 Eash, N.S.  213
 Eberlein, C.V.  34
 Echtenkamp, G.W.  99
 Eckert, D.J.  18
 Edmisten, K.L.  169
 Edwards, L.M.  65, 96, 197
 Elmore, C.D.  221
 Elmore, C.L.  253
 Enache, A.J.  225, 258
 Erb, C.  161
 Erickson, D.A.  193
 Evanylo, G.K.  168
 Evers, G.W.  268
 Ewing, R.P.  235
 Eylands, V.J.  112
 Farris, N. F.  84
 Felipe-Morales, C.  214
 Ferguson, M.  199
 Findlay, W.I.  85
 Finkner, S.C.  237
 Firestone, M.K.  43
 Folorunso, O.A.  50
 Frankenberger, W.T. Jr  186
 Frans, R.E.  94
 Freyman, S.  144
 Frye, W.W.  139, 228
 Funchess, M.J.  240
 Furoc, R.E.  110
 Gallaher, R.N.  112, 222
 Gantzer, C.J.  257
 Gates, J.P.  114
 Gealy, D.R.  242
 Ghaffar, A.  200
 Gilley, J.E.  237
 Gish, P. T.  75
 Goldern, A.M.  89
 Graves, W.L.  53, 224
 Greathead, A.S.  66
 Green, C.C.  38
 Griffin, T.S.  108, 180
 Guinto, D.F.  205
 Gutteridge, R.C.  248
 Haberern, J.  21
 Hafez, A.A.B.  251
 Hairston, J.E.  267
 Hale, G.A.  27
 Hall, E.E.  260, 261
 Hamilton, J.  13
 Hamm, P.B.  215
 Hammond, R.B.  212
 Hang, A.N.  150, 226
 Hansen, E.M.  215
 Hanson, Gordon E.  247
 Hargrove, W. L.  48
 Harned, Horace Hammerton,  9
 Harper, Horace James,  231
 Harris, G.H.  108
 Hartman, John Daniel,  102
 Hartwig, N.L.  172
 Hazlewood, Ben P.  91
 Heatherly, L.G.  221
 Hergert, G.B.  96
 Herridge, D.F.  165
 Hesterman, O.B.  108, 180
 Hewetson, Frank N.  194
 Hill, H. H.  24, 87, 90, 143
 Hill, Harry H.  74
 Hill, R.W.  88
 Hoffman, L.D.  81
 Hofstetter, B.  10, 191
 Holderbaum, J.F.  125
 Hons, F.M.  234
 Hossner, L.R.  123
 Houtum, W. van  15
 Hoyt, G.D.  29
 Hurst, H.R.  39, 86
 Hussain, A.  200
 Hutchinson, R.L.  7, 25, 239
 Ilnicki, R.D.  225, 258
 Imholte, A.A.  170
 International Rice Research Institute, International Council
 of Scientific Unions, Commission on the Application of Science
 to Agriculture, Forestry, and Aquaculture  113
 Izaurralde, J.A.  182
 Jansson, R.K.  92
 Janzen, H.H.  71, 255
 Jarvis, W.R.  4
 Jiayou, D.  251
 Johanson, J.B.  186
 Johnson, A.W.  89
 Johnson, Howard W.  245
 Johnson, J.R.  238
 Johnson, K.D.  206
 Johnston, W.J.  242
 Jones, J.P.R 80
 Jones, J.W.  100
 Jones, R.  95
 Juzwik, J.  67
 Kaakeh, W.  109
 Kahn, B.A.  209
 Kaku, S.  131
 Kamprath, E. J.  265
 Karlen, D.L.  42, 213
 Karow, R.  49
 Kaufman, D.  49
 Kaufusi, P.  79
 Keeley, P.  31
 Keisling, T.C.  94
 Kelley, K.R.  82
 Kendig, S.M.  192
 Kennedy, C.W.  239
 Kennedy, P. Beveridge  142, 233
 Khan, V.A.  219
 Kight, T.  126
 King, N.  23
 Kirkland, M.S.  135
 Kirkpatrick, T.L.  130
 Klay, Ruedi  120
 Knox, M.L.  77
 Krantz, B. A.  265
 Kulasooriya, S.A.  157
 Kuo, W.  149
 La Torre, B.  214
 Ladha, J.K  122
 Ladha, J.K.  98
 Lafond, G.P.  69
 LaFond, G.P.  71
 Lamont, W.J. Jr  140
 Lang, D.I.  216
 Lanini, W.T.  224
 Lathwell, D. J.  138
 Latiff, A.  190
 Laub, C.A.  134, 262
 Lecrone, S.H.  92
 Lei, Y.Z.  82
 Lemon, R.G.  234
 Lemons, R.W.  76
 Lewis, L.A.  137
 Leyshon, A.J.  71
 Lipman, C. B.  118
 Lopez-Real, J.M.  183
 Louie, D.T.  50
 Lowry, J.B.  95
 Lowry, J.B.C.  95
 Lumpkin, T.A.  242
 Luna, J.M.  134, 262
 Lyon, T. L.  220
 Lyon, T.L.  141
 MacGregor, A.  181
 MacIntire, W.H.  8
 Macklin, B.  14
 Magistad, O.C.  23
 Mahler, K.A.  193
 Manguiat, I.J.  205
 Marr, C.W.  140
 Marshall, L.K.  44
 Martens, D.A.  186
 Martin, Thomas Lysons,  59
 Matias, D.M.  246
 Mayberry, K.S.  73
 Maynard, Leonard A.  60
 McCall, A. G.  121
 McGill, W.B.  218
 McGinn, S.M.  255
 McKaig, N. Jr  223
 McKee, R.  116
 McKenry, M.V.  131
 McMullin, E.  45
 McNeill, P.J.  32
 Meagher, R.L. Jr  227
 Meelu, O.P.  110, 243
 Meisinger, J.J.  30, 125
 Melgar, R.J.  167
 Mendosa, T.C.  62
 Mertz, W. M.  154
 Merwin, I.  145
 Metzger, J. E.  232
 Meyer, J.R.  227
 Millar, C.E.  72
 Miller, P.R.  53
 Millhollon, E. P.  146
 Mojtahedi, H.  150, 226
 Moomaw, R.S.  99
 Morris, R.A.  110, 243
 Mulford, F.R.  125
 Munoz, F.  224
 Murthy, N.B.K.  1
 Myers, H.E.  63
 Myers, J.L.R 203
 Naderman, G.C.  169
 Nelson, W.A.  209
 North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station  265
 Obenshain, S. S.  75
 Obiefuna, J.C.  184
 Ohlenbusch, P.D.  171
 Oliveira, V.F.  34
 Olkowski, W.  3
 Ottow, J.C.G.  122
 Overman, A.R.  268
 Owsley, C.M.  135
 Oyer, L.J.  249
 Painter, K.M.  103
 Palm, C.A.  166
 Pareek, R.P.  98
 Parkman, J.  238
 Pederson, G.A.  188
 Peoples, M.B.  165
 Perez, A.S.  205
 Pettygrove, G.S.  251
 Phatak, S.C.  33, 244
 Phillips, R.E.  148
 Pieters, A.J.  116
 Pieters, Adrian John,  119
 Pintor, R.M.  205
 Pitman, W.D.  178
 Pittenger, D.R.  224
 Plant Materials Center (Big Flats, N.Y.)  176
 Platford, G.G.  189
 Portier, K.M.  178
 Potts, W.E.  208
 Power, J.F.  124, 198, 237
 Prasad, M.N.V.  12
 Prestbye, L.S.  77
 Prichard, T.  50
 Prima, Sandra,  40
 Pritts, M.  145
 Proebsting, Edward Louis,  105, 106
 Prot, J.C.  246
 Quintana, J.O.  100
 Raghu, K.  1
 Raimbault, B.A.  37
 Rainbault, B.A.  36
 Ranells, N.N.  56, 57
 Ranjha, A.M.  200
 Rasmussen, P.E.  147
 Rath, M.D.  153
 Raymer, P.L.  193
 Razongles, C.  115
 Redding, R. J.  104
 Rees, R.M.  199
 Reeves, D.W.  61, 241
 Reznicek, P.J.  237
 Richburg, J.S. III  159
 Roach, S.H.  38
 Roberson, E.B.  43
 Roberts, B.W.  6, 209
 Robertson, J.A.  218
 Rolston, D.E.  50
 Rosecrance, R.  14
 Rosecrance, R.C.  149
 Rosswall, T.  157
 Rothrock, C.S.  130, 192
 Sadler, J.M.  197
 Sahid, I.B.  190
 Saladino, V.A.  234
 Salvo, S.K.  227
 Sanchez, P.A.  166
 Sanders, K.B.  8
 Sanford, J.O.  267
 Santo, G.S.  150, 226
 Sarig, S.  43
 Sarrantonio, M.  127, 162, 244
 Sastroutomo, S.S.  190
 Saunders, L.  156
 Savary, S.  246
 Schaefer, J.  155
 Schmid, Otto  120
 Schnitzer, M.  70
 Schonbeck, M.  26
 Schumann, A.W.  132
 Scott, H.D.  94
 Seneviratne, G.  157
 Sharar, M.S.  200
 Sharp, D.  263
 Sharpe, T.R.  25
 Shaw, W.M.  8
 Sheaffer, C.C.  34
 Sheets, A.  49
 Sheldon, R.J.  206
 Shelton, W.L.  7
 Shennan, C.  66
 Shipley, P.R.  30
 Shock, C.  156
 Sims, J.  11
 Singogo, W.  140
 Smith, F.B.  187
 Smith, J.A.  153, 266
 Smith, M.A.  170
 Smith, M.S.  139
 Smith, N.R.  195
 Smyth, T.J.  167
 Snider, H.J.  28
 Soil and Water Conservation Society (U.S.)  48
 Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Program  138
 Soriano, I.R.S.  246
 Stalknecht, G.  11
 Stamps, R.H.  20
 Steffey, K.  129
 Stevens, C.  219
 Stevens, W.E.  238
 Stieber, T.  156
 Stiles, W.C.  217
 Stokes, I.E.  223
 Stout, W.L.  81
 Sullivan, Preston  47
 Sumner, D.R.  89
 Sumner, K.  136
 Surrency, E.D.  135
 Tang, A.Y.  219
 Tarbox, F. G.  264
 Tasrif, A.  190
 Taylor, G.C.  133
 Teasdale, J.R.  208
 Tenney, F.G.  17
 Testa, F.  67
 Thatcher, Roscoe Wilfred,  152
 Thom, C.  195
 Thullen, R.  31
 Timm, R.M.  93
 Tiraa, A.N.  35
 Tjepkema, J.  160
 Tollenaar, M.  36, 37
 Touchton, J.T.  61, 241, 249
 Townley-Smith, L.  70
 Tu, J.C.  85
 Turco, R.F.  206
 Turk, L.M.  72
 Unger, P.W.  213
 United States, Agricultural Research Service, National
 Turfgrass Evaluation Program (U.S.)  158
 Utomo, M.  228
 Van Bruggen, A.H.C.  66
 Van Kessel, C.  15, 179, 210
 Varco, J.J.  44, 238, 267
 Vogel, W. G.  151
 Volenec, J.J.  206
 Vorst, J.J.  201
 Vough, L.R.  125
 Vyn, T.J., 36, 37
 Wackers, F.L.  33
 Waddle, B.A.  94
 Wagger, M.G.  56, 57, 203, 235
 Waksman, S.A.  16, 17
 Walker, R.H.  159
 Walsh, C.  254
 Wani, S.P.  218
 Warman, P.R.  78
 Watanbe, I.  98
 Watson, S. J.  260, 261
 Weerakoon, W.L.  157
 Welty, L.  11
 Welty, L.E.  77
 Wesley, R.A.  221
 Wessels, P. H.  102
 Westcott, M.  11
 Westcott, M.P.  77
 Wichman, D.  11
 Wick, C.  251
 Wiepke, T.  76
 Wilkinson, S.R.  268
 Williams, J.F.  251
 Williams, P.T.  108
 Williams, R.  49
 Williams, W.  94
 Williams, W.A.  53
 Wilsie, C.P.  211
 Wilson, B. D.  220
 Wilson, J.H.  150, 226
 Wilson, R.G.  266
 Wood, C.W.  241
 Woodard, H.J.  123
 Woods End Agricultural Institute  120
 Wooley, D.  52
 Worsham, A.D.  5, 76
 Yakovlev, V.Kh  230
 Yan, L.  199
 Yonts, C.D.  153
 York, A.C.  169
 Young, D.L.  103
 Zachariassen, J.A.  198
 Zehr, E.I.  227
 Zentner, R.P.  69, 70, 71
 Zhang, A.  3
 Zhu, J.C.  257
 
 
 
                          SUBJECT INDEX
 
 Acacia  248
 Acacia cunninghamii  248
 Acer saccharinum  68
 Acid soils  23, 78, 166
 Acyrthosiphon kondoi  32
 Acyrthosiphon pisum  32
 Adverse effects  86
 Aeschynomene  122, 246
 Aeschynomene Americana  178
 Ageratum conyzoides  3
 Agricultural land  50
 Agricultural policy  103
 Agricultural research  164
 Agricultural soils  71
 Agroforestry  176
 Agronomic characteristics  169, 193
 Air temperature  2, 42
 Alabama  61, 159, 219, 241, 249
 Alberta  182, 218
 Albizia lebbek  95
 Alfalfa  143
 Alfalfa hay  141
 Allelochemicals  4
 Allelopathy  4, 5, 58, 256
 Alley cropping  149
 Allium cepa  256
 Alternative farming  103, 201, 225, 244
 Aluminum oxide  107
 Amino acids  70
 Amino sugars  70
 Ammonia  255
 Ammonium nitrate  42, 44, 66
 Ammonium sulfate  72, 82, 179
 Ananas comosus  23, 184
 Animal manures  17, 147, 199
 Animal production  165
 Annuals  159
 Aphididae  244
 Apple  84, 84, 101, 194, 207
 Application  44
 Application date  37, 57, 241
 Application methods  39
 Application rates  5, 27, 82, 99, 168, 180, 203, 228, 241, 249
 Applicators  254
 Arachniodes adiantiformis  20
 Arkansas  2, 155, 192
 Asia  164
 Assessment  213
 Assimilation  210
 Astragalus sinicus  242
 Atrazine  34, 57
 Australia  95, 181
 Autumn  2, 65, 197
 Available water  34, 108
 Avena sativa  26, 42, 77, 108, 172, 218
 Bacillus thuringiensis  175
 Bacterial diseases  66
 Bagging  175
 Barley straw  186
 Beneficial insects  33
 Bermuda grass  158
 Beta vulgaris  107, 153, 266
 Bibliographies  114
 Bicarbonates  8
 Biodegradation  62
 Biological activity in soil  70, 210
 Biological control  3, 32, 45, 150, 244, 262
 Biological control agents  32
 Biomass  26, 69, 73, 147, 202, 210
 Biomass production  14, 38, 110, 153, 167, 183, 225
 Bloat  11
 Bolls  239
 Botanical composition  26, 178
 Brassica  107, 215
 Brassica campestris  226
 Brassica napus  89, 226
 Brassica napus var. oleifera  193
 Brassica oleracea  6, 225
 Brazil  167
 Breeding methods  193
 British Columbia  144
 Bromus inermis  69, 70, 71
 Bromus tectorum  257
 Buckwheat  10
 Cajanus cajan  14, 23
 Calcium  18, 72
 Calcium oxide  107
 California  13, 43, 45, 50, 53, 54, 66, 73, 175, 253
 Calliandra calothyrsus  248
 Calopogonium caeruleum  190
 Calopogonium mucunoides  190
 Canopy  95, 99, 184
 Carbohydrates  43
 Carbon  18, 69, 70, 72, 183, 210
 Carbon cycle  147, 186
 Carbon dioxide  15, 69, 187
 Carbon-nitrogen ratio  15, 69, 70, 72, 183
 Carbonates  8
 Carya illinoensis  32, 133, 244
 Cassia tora  23
 Catch crops  46
 Cattle manure  140
 Cenchrus longispinus  181, 216
 Centrosema pubescens  190
 Cereals  141
 Characterization  198
 Chemical analysis  187
 Chemical composition  107
 Chemical control  181, 216, 242, 253, 266
 Chemical degradation  16, 17
 Chenopodium album  208
 Chernozems  69, 70, 71
 China  3, 242
 Chiselling  235
 Chlamydomonas  155
 Chlorella  155
 Citrullus lanatus  184
 Citrus fruits  3
 Citrus oblonga  45
 Clay soils  221, 236
 Climatic factors  26, 124
 Clover hay  141, 156
 Clovers  234
 Coarse textured soils  186
 Coastal plain soils  235, 241
 Coastal plains  168
 Coccinella septempunctata  32
 Coccinellidae  32
 Cold  20
 Cold injury  20, 45
 Companion crops  77, 197
 Comparisons  179
 Composting  107
 Composts  177
 Conifers  67, 215
 Connecticut  80
 Conoderus  92
 Conoderus falli  92
 Conservation  30
 Conservation tillage  29, 42, 209, 213, 241, 249
 Continuous cropping  63, 69, 70, 71, 218, 249
 Contour cultivation  128
 Contour ridging  128
 Coppicing  14
 Corking  66
 Corn  104, 265
 Coronilla varia  172
 Correlated traits  182
 Cost benefit analysis  45, 64, 175
 Costs  103, 170
 Cotton  91, 104, 240
 Coulters  37
 Cover crops  2, 5, 6, 7, 10, 13, 19, 20, 21, 23, 25, 26, 29,
 30, 31, 32, 33, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47,
 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 61, 63, 64, 65,
 66, 67, 76, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 86, 88, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94,
 95, 96, 97, 99, 102, 105, 106, 108, 114, 123, 124, 125, 126,
 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 139,
 145, 148, 151, 153, 160, 161, 162, 163, 165, 166, 168, 169,
 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 181, 183, 184, 189,
 190, 191, 192, 193, 196, 197, 198, 201, 202, 203, 208, 209,
 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 222, 225, 227, 228, 234, 235,
 236, 237, 238, 239, 241, 244, 245, 249, 250, 252, 253, 254,
 256, 257, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267
 Coverage  26, 184
 Cowpea  104
 Crimson clover  185
 Crop damage  92, 93, 212, 227, 242
 Crop density  27, 38, 184, 266
 Crop establishment  99, 203, 238
 Crop growth stage  57, 99, 139, 168
 Crop husbandry  217
 Crop losses  92
 Crop management  41, 42, 69, 70, 165, 213, 227, 235, 238, 244
 Crop mixtures  19, 178, 188
 Crop production  7, 41, 95, 116, 139, 165, 197, 236
 Crop quality  76, 80, 125, 178, 188, 258
 Crop residues  26, 35, 36, 37, 42, 62, 69, 70, 139, 147, 153,
 165, 167, 210
 Crop weed competition  26, 132, 257
 Crop yield  11, 14, 23, 26, 27, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 56, 62,
 66, 69, 76, 78, 80, 81, 88, 92, 94, 99, 107, 108, 110, 115,
 116, 125, 139, 140, 149, 155, 157, 163, 167, 168, 170, 172,
 180, 184, 188, 189, 200, 203, 204, 206, 223, 225, 228, 230,
 234, 235, 238, 241, 243, 249, 258, 266, 267, 268
 Cropping systems  89, 112, 115, 137, 161, 164, 238
 Crops  21, 182
 Crotalaria  23
 Crotalaria juncea  110, 223
 Cucumis melo  33, 140
 Cucurbita pepo  89, 225
 Cultivars  14, 38, 99, 175, 193, 202, 226
 Cultivation  2, 209, 244
 Cultural control  66, 92, 227
 Cultural methods  132
 Cultural weed control  26, 181, 208, 224, 258
 Cutting frequency  125
 Cyanazine  57
 Cyanobacteria  155
 Cycling  147, 186
 Cydia pomonella  175
 Cylindrocladium  67
 Cylindrocladium scoparium  67
 Cynodon dactylon  123, 159, 268
 Daucus carota  256
 Decay fungi 195
 Decomposition  15, 16, 17, 165, 166, 186, 187, 195, 200, 255 
 Deep tillage  61
 Delia platura  212
 Density  33
 Depletion  63
 Desiccation  38
 Desmodium  178
 Digitaria sanguinalis  208
 Discing  36, 42
 Discriminant analysis  182
 Disease control  66
 Diseases  54
 Domestic gardens  162
 Double cropping  36, 135, 156, 221
 Drainage channels  189
 Drilling  64
 Dry beans  153
 Dry conditions  235
 Dry farming  124
 Dry matter  66, 167, 170, 235
 Dry matter accumulation  26, 30, 36, 37, 42, 65, 82, 123, 124,
 125, 183, 203, 241, 268
 Earliness  135
 Echinochloa crus-galli  26
 Ecology  129
 Economic analysis  103
 Edaphic factors  198
 Effects  239
 Efficacy  150
 Eleusine indica  208
 Emex australis  181, 216
 England  107
 Environmental degradation  137
 Environmental factors  26, 93
 Environmental impact  115, 201
 Enzyme activity  186
 Eragrostis cilianensis  208
 Ergotism  96
 Erosion  36, 41, 58, 68, 128, 147, 184, 214, 214, 237, 238
 Erosion control  42, 45, 83, 128, 136, 137, 184, 193, 234, 263
 Erosivity  184
 Establishment  26, 81
 Ethephon  99
 Ethoprophos  150
 Eucalyptus  132
 Evaluation  253
 Evaporation suppressants  224
 Experimental plots  23
 Fagopyrum esculentum  26
 Fagopyrum tataricum  26
 Fallow  30, 38, 69, 70, 235
 Fallow systems  230
 Farm management  137
 Farm manure  22
 Farm surveys  137
 Farming 160
 Farming systems  62
 Farming systems research  42
 Farmyard manure  243
 Feeding preferences  109
 Fertilizer requirement determination  168, 241
 Fertilizers  22, 35, 69, 70, 71, 107, 147, 237
 Festuca arundinacea  188
 Festuca ovina  144
 Field experimentation  224
 Field tests  11, 98, 253
 Fineness  8
 Flood control  189
 Flooded rice  157
 Flooding  189
 Floods  189
 Florida  20, 92, 112, 178, 222
 Flowering  23
 Flowering date  36, 135
 Fluazifop  266
 Flue curing  76
 Fodder crops  159, 165, 230
 Food quality  21
 Forage  125, 211
 Forage plants  176, 233
 Foraging  109
 Forest nurseries  67, 68, 215
 Forest plantations  132
 Frankliniella  32
 Fruit  105, 106, 229
 Fruit-culture  173, 174
 Fruiting  238
 Fruits  140
 Fungal antagonistsp 4
 Fungal diseases  4, 85
 Fungus control  4, 130
 Fusarium  215
 Fusarium oxysporum  4
 Genotypes  38
 Geocoris punctipes  33
 Geographical distribution  108
 Georgia  27, 32, 33, 135, 244, 268
 Germination inhibitors  256
 Gliricidia sepium  248
 Glomerella cingulata  83
 Glucosinolates  150
 Glycine max  18, 42, 62, 63, 99, 172, 191, 198, 212, 221, 223,
 225, 249, 257
 Glyphosate  34, 266
 Glyptapanteles militaris  262
 Gossypium  7, 31, 39, 41, 163, 192, 236, 239
 Gossypium hirsutum  25, 27, 38, 86, 94, 130, 155, 169, 238
 Grain  34, 36, 56, 69, 125, 139, 203, 228, 235, 241, 249, 258
 Grain crops  97
 Gram negative bacteria  66
 Gramineae  35, 63, 123
 Granulosis viruses  175
 Grass clippings  83, 213
 Grasses  19, 63, 141, 244
 Grasslands  147, 171
 Grazing  160
 Grazing effects  95, 178
 Grazing intensity  178
 Grazing systems  111
 Green manure crops  47, 113, 138, 152, 154, 185, 220, 233
 Green manures  1, 4, 8, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 27, 28, 35,
 52, 62, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 77, 78, 79, 85, 98, 100, 103, 107,
 110, 112, 114, 115, 116, 122, 124, 126, 140, 141, 147, 149,
 150, 155, 156, 157, 164, 165, 166, 167, 179, 180, 183, 186,
 187, 195, 199, 200, 204, 205, 206, 210, 211, 218, 219, 223,
 226, 230, 234, 240, 242, 243, 244, 246, 248, 251, 255
 Green manuring  9, 22, 24, 59, 74, 75, 87, 117, 118, 119, 120,
 121, 142, 143, 229, 231
 Greenhouses  20
 Ground cover  131, 182, 221
 Ground cover plants  227
 Groundwater pollution  51
 Growth  79, 95, 139, 227, 235
 Growth analysis  34
 Growth rate  56, 88, 122, 124, 183, 202, 239
 Growth stages  223
 Habit  244
 Harvesting  62, 77
 Harvesting date  28, 197, 223
 Hawaii  14, 23, 149, 211
 Hay  11, 28, 170, 180
 Hch  1
 Herbage  125, 178
 Herbicide residues  86
 Herbicides  5, 39, 132, 136, 145, 159, 171, 181, 209, 222,
 225, 242, 254
 Heteropogon contortus  95
 Hippodamia convergens  32
 Hirschmanniella mucronata  246
 Hirschmanniella oryzae  246
 Hordeum vulgare  43, 107, 144, 186, 199, 218, 230
 A horizons  69, 70
 Humid tropics  167
 Humus  53, 186
 Hybrids  170, 206
 Hydraulic conductivity  148
 Idaho  193
 Illinois  129
 Immobilization  179
 Importation  190
 In vitro digestibility  178
 Incentives  103
 Incidence  92
 Incorporation  38, 186, 212
 Indicator plants  79
 Indigofera hirsuta  109
 Indigofera tinctoria  167
 Infiltration  50
 Infrared imagery  182
 Inoculum  66
 Insect control  33, 92, 134, 262
 Insect pests  58
 Insect repellents  109
 Insect traps  212
 Insects  129
 Integrated pest management  227
 Intensive production  140
 Interactions  199, 235
 Intercropping  33, 62, 108, 184, 197
 Interplanting  99
 Interrow cultivation  181
 Ion uptake  123
 Iowa  42, 187
 Iron oxides  107
 Irrigated conditions  34
 Irrigation  115, 181
 Irrigation systems  45
 Isotope labeling  98, 157
 Kansas  63, 171
 Kentucky  139, 148, 228
 Lactuca sativa  4, 26, 66
 Land productivity  62, 137
 Land use  137, 182
 Landscape  182
 Lathyrus  233
 Leaching  82, 100, 168
 Leaf area  239
 Leaf area index  36
 Leaves  150, 166, 168, 200, 248
 Legislation  103
 Legumes  53, 110, 124, 138, 141, 142, 151, 152, 164, 165, 167,
 183, 211, 244, 263, 267
 Leguminosae  35, 79, 97, 127, 135, 166, 200, 204
 Lens culinaris  255
 Lentils  15, 179, 210
 Lespedeza cuneata  68
 Lespedeza stipulacea  198
 Leucaena leucocephala  248
 Light transmission  99
 Lignin  166
 Lime  72, 107
 Liming materials  8
 Linum usitatissimum  67
 Literature reviews  4, 58, 147, 164, 165
 Live mulches  68, 139, 144, 145, 166, 172, 224, 225, 258
 Loam soils  42, 186
 Loess soils  25
 Lolium multiflorum  26, 30, 65, 111
 Lolium perenne  43, 44, 68, 144, 199
 Long term experiments  69, 70
 Losses from soil  68, 82, 100, 179
 Losses from soil systems  164, 183, 255
 Lotus corniculatus  180
 Louisiana  7, 25, 111, 223, 236
 Lowland areas  122, 243
 Lupinus albus  94
 Lycopersicon esculentum  4, 225, 256
 Lysimetry  8
 Macropores  148
 Macroptilium lathyroides  178
 Magnesium  18
 Magnesium oxide  107
 Maize  240
 Maize silage  125, 203
 Maize stover  81, 139
 Malaysia  190
 Malus  68
 Malus pumila  175
 Management  77
 Mangifera indica  83
 Manure spreading  161
 Maryland  30, 80, 125, 208, 254, 263
 Massachusetts  80
 Mathematical models  98, 268
 Maturation  38
 Maturation period  170
 Maturity  99
 Measurement  184
 Medicago sativa  34, 63, 67, 69, 70, 71, 77, 81, 108, 140,
 170, 186, 206
 Melanotus communis  92
 Melilotus  180, 230
 Melilotus alba  28, 63, 198
 Melilotus officinalis  69, 70
 Meloidogyne chitwoodi  150, 226
 Meloidogyne hapla  226
 Meloidogyne incognita  89
 Meloidogyne javanica  89
 Meteorological factors  34
 Michigan  108, 161, 180
 Microbial degradation  1, 16, 17, 195
 Microbiology  43
 Middle atlantic states of U.S.A.  168
 Mine spoil  123
 Mineral content  28, 123
 Mineralization  69, 70, 71, 100, 164, 166, 179, 199, 218
 Minimum tillage  225, 258
 Minimum tillage systems  161
 Minnesota  34
 Mississippi  44, 86, 126, 155, 163, 188, 221, 238, 267
 Missouri  155, 257
 Mite control  3
 Mixed cropping  184
 Mixed pastures  178
 Models  88
 Moisture content  23
 Moisture equivalent  63, 72
 Mollugo verticillata  208
 Montana  11, 77
 Mowing  253, 262
 Mucuna aterrima  167
 Mucuna cochinchinensis  190
 Mucuna pruriens  132
 Mulches  34, 181, 216, 222, 225
 Mythimna unipuncta  134, 262
 Natural enemies  32, 262
 Natural regeneration  202
 Natural resources  182
 Nebraska  99, 266
 Nematode control  226, 246
 Nepal  204
 New Jersey  225, 258
 Nicotiana tabacum  29, 76, 80
 Nigeria  184
 Nitrate  82, 100
 Nitrate nitrogen  8, 42
 Nitrates  2, 8, 72, 115
 Nitrates (inorganic salts)  228
 Nitrification  2, 187
 Nitrogen  15, 29, 30, 42, 45, 53, 55, 69, 70, 71, 82, 98, 100,
 107, 108, 124, 125, 139, 157, 166, 168, 179, 180, 183, 199,
 200, 210, 218, 228, 234, 241, 244, 248, 251
 Nitrogen balance  100
 Nitrogen content  2, 23, 66, 72, 82, 107, 124, 125, 180, 202,
 203, 206, 223, 267
 Nitrogen cycle  164, 186
 Nitrogen fertilizers  18, 29, 30, 51, 110, 139, 163, 164, 167,
 180, 203, 218, 228, 241, 249, 268
 Nitrogen fixation  23, 55, 98, 122, 124, 136, 149, 157, 164,
 165, 204, 263
 Nitrogen fixing trees  35, 149, 200, 248
 Nitrogenous compounds  2
 No-tillage  18, 34, 36, 37, 44, 55, 56, 76, 81, 125, 134, 135,
 139, 148, 163, 168, 169, 170, 203, 208, 225, 228, 234, 257,
 258
 North Carolina  5, 29, 76, 169, 203, 235
 North Dakota  124
 Nurseries  177
 Nutrient availability  42, 100, 107, 139, 179, 183, 200
 Nutrient content  11, 21, 42, 69, 70, 139, 168, 183
 Nutrient requirements  248, 249
 Nutrient transport  139
 Nutrient uptake  42, 82, 100, 124, 125, 179, 180, 183, 198,
 199, 203, 206, 241
 Nutrients  30, 183
 Nutritive value  178
 Oat straw  187
 Objectives  182
 Ohio  18, 80, 212
 Oil palms  190
 Oklahoma  6, 133, 209
 Ontario  36, 37, 67
 Orchard soils  43
 Orchards  32, 83, 88, 196, 217, 244, 253
 Oregon  49, 156
 Organic amendments  215
 Organic farming  13, 62, 115, 175
 Organic fertilizers  138
 Organic matter  107
 Origin  193
 Ornamental woody plants  19
 Oryza sativa  78, 110, 122, 157, 164, 204, 205, 243, 246
 Overhead irrigation  20
 Oversowing  111, 159, 178, 191, 268
 Oviposition  212
 Oxisols  167
 Pacific states of U.S.A.  215
 Paddy soils  98
 Pakistan  200
 Panicum coloratum  123
 Panicum maximum  95
 Paraquat  37, 38, 262
 Parasites of insect pests  262
 Particle size  15
 Paspalum notatum  83, 178, 268
 Pennsylvania  81
 Permeability  50
 Persistence  186
 Peru  214
 Pest control  31, 175, 201
 Pest management  6, 150, 169
 Phaseolus vulgaris  225
 Philippines  98, 110, 164, 205, 243
 Phosphoric acid  107
 Phosphorus  18, 35, 183, 186
 Physicochemical properties  186
 Phytotoxicity  159, 242
 Pisum sativum  85, 140, 198, 199
 Plant analysis  28, 69
 Plant breeding  135, 165
 Plant competition  34, 88
 Plant composition  28, 166, 180
 Plant density  86
 Plant disease control  4
 Plant ecology  95
 Plant extracts  109
 Plant height  99, 107, 170, 266
 Plant nutrition  79
 Plant parasitic nematodes  131, 150
 Plant pests  227
 Plant protection  175
 Plant residues  15, 208, 224
 Plant water relations  223
 Plantation crops  223
 Plantations  19, 190
 Planters  37
 Planting  62
 Planting date  65, 124, 170, 212, 223, 240
 Plants  183
 Plants, Effect of manganese on  151
 Plastic film  140
 Plowing  34, 36, 37, 208
 Poa compressa  257
 Polyphenols  166
 Polysaccharides  43
 Population density  32, 208, 212, 226, 227
 Population dynamics  134
 Populations  227
 Potassium  8, 18, 107, 183
 Potassium fertilizers  35
 Potato diggers  96
 Potato harvesters  96
 Poultry manure  186
 Precipitation  108, 124, 139
 Predators of insect pests  33, 244
 Predatory mites  3
 Prediction  100
 Pregermination  96
 Preplanting treatment  37, 139
 Prince edward Island  197
 Production costs  55, 177
 Profiles  139
 Profitability  103, 160
 Protection  20
 Provenance  223
 Prunus cerasus  88
 Prunus domestica  43
 Prunus dulcis  253
 Prunus persica  227
 Pueraria  190
 Pythium  89, 215
 Quantitative analysis  165
 Queensland  248
 Rain  42, 63, 68, 184, 189, 214
 Rape  150
 Recovery  30, 82
 Recycling  183
 Registration  193
 Regrowth  26
 Rehabilitation  184
 Remote sensing  182
 Removal  28
 Reproductive performance  203
 Research  201
 Research projects  161
 Residual effects  57, 82, 115, 125, 164, 228, 243
 Resistance to penetration  50
 Resowing  56, 57, 203
 Respiration  69
 Responses  20, 182
 Returns  103, 170
 Rhizobiaceae  165
 Rhizobium  62
 Rhizoctonia solani  89, 130
 Rhopalosiphum padi  32
 Rice  113
 Rice soils  251
 Ridging  42
 Rill erosion  128
 Root rots  4, 67, 80, 85
 Root systems  195
 Roots  28, 66, 150, 266
 Rootstocks  88
 Rotation  65, 69
 Rotations  18, 21, 42, 58, 63, 70, 71, 80, 82, 97, 99, 103,
 128, 141, 153, 180, 213, 218, 230, 246, 249
 Row orientation  56, 62
 Row spacing  62, 144, 211
 Rubber plants  190
 Rubus idaeus  49, 144
 Runoff  68
 Runoff water  68
 Rwanda  137
 Ryania speciosa  175
 Rye  64, 87
 Saccharum officinarum  62, 189, 223
 Salt tolerance  12
 Sandy loam soils  2, 27, 44, 72
 Sandy soils  168, 235
 Saskatchewan  15, 69, 70, 71, 179, 210
 Scotland  199
 Screening  209, 242
 Seasonal croppingo 249
 Seasonal fluctuations  179, 210
 Seasonal growth  28, 42, 115, 124
 Seasonal variation  34, 42, 66, 103, 108
 Seasonality  244
 Seasons  115
 Secale cereale  2, 6, 18, 26, 30, 32, 36, 37, 42, 65, 66, 76,
 81, 82, 94, 134, 148, 168, 197, 208, 225, 228, 262, 266
 Sediment  68
 Seed dispersal  96, 202
 Seed germination  23, 107, 203
 Seed production  23, 211
 Seed purity  190
 Seed quality  190
 Seed treatment  96
 Seedbeds  221
 Seeding  96
 Seedling emergence  170
 Seedlings  215
 Seeds  38, 190, 202, 203
 Selection criteria  135, 193
 Selective felling  133
 Selectivity  242
 Selenium  123
 Semiarid climate  124
 Semiarid zones  147
 Sequential cropping  125, 243, 249
 Sesbania  98, 122, 157, 205, 243, 246
 Sesbania bispinosa  12
 Sesbania cannabina  98, 110
 Sesbania exaltata  109
 Sesbania sesban  248
 Sethoxydim  266
 Sewage sludge  177, 186
 Shading  20
 Shoots  28, 107, 123, 239
 Shrubs  165
 Siberia  230
 Sidedressing  168
 Silt loam  75, 90
 Silt loam soils  2, 25, 30, 78, 139, 148
 Simazine  57
 Simulation models  100
 Site factors  218
 Site preparation  254
 Slope  137
 Sloping land  83
 Small fruits  145
 Sodium nitrate  27O
 Soil  1, 6, 54
 Soil acidity  24, 195
 Soil air  15
 Soil amendments  200, 215
 Soil analysis  213
 Soil bacteria  16, 195
 Soil biology  2, 15, 43, 218, 230
 Soil chemistry  16, 18, 167, 218, 251
 Soil compaction  61
 Soil conservation  34, 68, 137, 174, 176, 184, 237
 Soil degradation  62
 Soil depth  63, 69, 70
 Soil enzymes  186
 Soil fauna  58
 Soil fertility  2, 18, 21, 26, 58, 71, 79, 98, 108, 147, 157,
 160, 164, 177, 201, 213, 218, 230, 244
 Soil flora  58, 186, 210
 Soil fumigation  215
 Soil inoculation  165
 Soil management  6, 21, 36, 52, 53, 88, 162, 165, 177, 196,
 213, 216, 217
 Soil organic matter  17, 58, 69, 70, 71, 72, 147, 177, 195,
 224, 244, 252
 Soil physical properties  18, 23, 94, 186, 218, 230
 Soil physics  65
 Soil productivity  265
 Soil sterilization  219
 Soil strength  50
 Soil structure  43, 58, 66, 184, 186
 Soil temperature  170, 198
 Soil texture  45, 213
 Soil treatment  186
 Soil water  63, 66, 81, 170
 Soil water content  34, 36, 42, 56, 81, 139, 235, 257
 Soil water retention  72, 184
 Soils  40, 74, 220
 Solanum tuberosum  92, 96, 150, 180, 197
 Solenopsis invicta  109
 Solonetzic soils  230
 Sorghum  206
 Sorghum bicolor  26, 67, 202, 234
 South  Africa  189
 South australia  216
 South Carolina  38
 Sowing  108
 Sowing date  81, 197
 Sowing depth  81
 Sowing methods  197
 Spatial distribution  70
 Spatial variation  108, 139
 Species  227
 Species differences  227
 Species trials  211
 Spectral data  182
 Split dressings  168, 241
 Spoil banks  151
 Spring  65
 Sri lanka  157
 Stability  184
 Staking  181
 Stand characteristics  124
 Stand establishment  178, 266
 Statistics  29, 236
 Steers  178
 Stellaria media  30, 257
 Stem nodules  122
 Stems  150
 Stocking rate  178
 Storms  189
 Straw  72, 179, 210
 Straw disposal  69
 Straw incorporation  210
 Strip cropping  56, 213
 Stubble  228
 Subsoil  63
 Subsoiling  235
 Subtropical crops  165
 Sulfates  8
 Sulfur  186
 Suppression  26, 34
 Surface layers  70
 Surveys  212
 Survival  227
 Susceptibility  83
 Sustainability  6, 13, 21, 42, 58, 71, 103, 137, 201, 244
 Sweet clover  60, 154, 229, 231, 232
 Systems  7, 239
 Tachinidae  262
 Taiwan  83
 Taraxacum officinale  4
 Temperate zones  147
 Temporal variation  38, 115, 124, 139, 186
 Tennessee  155
 Terraces  128
 Texas  123
 Thielaviopsis basicola  130, 192
 Thinning  133, 175
 Tillage  7, 25, 26, 37, 40, 68, 81, 85, 147, 148, 153, 170,
 181, 216, 225, 228, 234, 236, 237, 238, 239, 258
 Tillering  107
 Tilth  53
 Time  257
 Timing  37, 241
 Transpiration  45, 88, 139
 Treatment  209, 222
 Tree fruits  133
 Tree gardens  133
 Trees  165
 Tribulus terrestris  181, 216
 Trickle irrigation  140
 Trifolium alexandrinum  11, 77, 156, 202
 Trifolium incarnatum  30, 38, 55, 56, 57, 68, 76, 94, 125,
 188, 198, 202, 203, 222, 235, 241, 249, 268
 Trifolium pratense  8, 19, 26, 65, 108, 180, 188, 206
 Trifolium repens  144, 188, 198
 Trifolium resupinatum  77
 Trifolium subterraneum  188, 202, 224, 225, 258, 268
 Trifolium vesiculosum  188, 202, 268
 Triticum  221
 Triticum aestivum  39, 43, 67, 69, 70, 71, 86, 108, 179, 199,
 204, 266
 Tropical crops  165, 166
 Tropical soils  166
 Tropics  98, 184
 Tubers  92, 180
 Turfgrasses  158
 Turning  240
 U.S.A.  21, 160
 Ultisols  184
 Undersowing  99
 Uptake  30, 234
 Uranium  123
 Urea ammonium nitratep 168
 Urea fertilizers  243
 Urea nitrates  167
 Use efficiency  42, 168, 241
 Utah  88
 Varietal reactions  38
 Variety trials  14
 Vase life  20
 Vegetable growing  224, 252
 Vegetables  209, 252
 Vegetation  214, 253
 Vertebrate pests  93
 Vetch  39, 185, 240
 Viability  137, 190
 Vicia  2, 107, 163, 195, 202
 Vicia benghalensis  251
 Vicia faba  66, 198, 218
 Vicia sativa  86
 Vicia villosa  6, 27, 30, 32, 38, 42, 44, 76, 89, 94, 139,
 140, 148, 180, 192, 198, 208, 228
 Vigna radiata  62, 243
 Vigna unguiculata  109, 132, 167, 184
 Vineyard soils  216
 Vineyards  181, 216, 254
 Virginia  82, 168, 262
 Viticulture  13
 Vitis  131, 181, 216, 254
 Volatile compounds  256
 Volatilization  255
 Volunteer plants  203
 Water  214
 Water availability  235
 Water conservation  51, 139
 Water deficit  63
 Water erosion  42
 Water intake  50, 53
 Water quality management  48
 Water requirements  45
 Water use  198, 257
 Water use efficiency  124, 139
 Water-supply  48
 Watersheds  189
 Weed competition  224
 Weed control  5, 10, 30, 45, 49, 73, 132, 144, 145, 171, 216,
 225, 227, 242, 254, 263, 266
 Weeds  26, 31, 39, 86, 93, 131, 169, 190, 208, 219, 225, 253
 Weight  23, 170
 Wheat  15, 210
 Wheat straw  179
 Wind erosion  214
 Winter  2, 30, 36, 38, 66, 159, 193, 197, 202, 228, 249, 257
 Winter hardiness  28
 Winter wheat  108
 Wisconsin  170
 Yield components  205
 Yield factors  168
 Yield response functions  44, 144, 164, 239, 268
 Yields  211
 Zea mays  18, 30, 34, 35, 36, 37, 42, 44, 55, 56, 79, 82, 97,
 99, 108, 125, 134, 139, 148, 149, 153, 167, 168, 170, 180,
 203, 208, 225, 228, 235, 241, 243, 248, 249, 258, 262
 
  

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The Alternative Farming Systems Information Center, afsic@nal.usda.gov
http://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/AFSIC_pubs/qb93-68, September 1993

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